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CEIPRODUCTS

CEIs mission is to provide creative tools that empower our clients to excel in the welding and
pressure vessel industry. Our expert knowledge bridges the gap between what budgets require and
what safety demands. From pressure vessel design to welder continuity tracking to form submittal,
our goal is to provide tools that make your job easier. Smart software, serious service its what we
do.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CEIProducts

Default Settings

General

Global

Vessel

Company Information

Cover Page

Head/Nozzle

Head

Nozzle

Report

Print

Shell/Head

Cover Page

Materials

Materials - Misc.

10

Wind/Seismic

10

Data Browsers

13

Material Search

13

Material Selection

14

Pipe Search

16

Pipe Selection Grid

17

Tube Search

17

Tube Selection Grid

18

Bolt Search

19

Bolt Selection Grid

20

Gasket Search

20

Gasket Selection Grid

21

Custom Data

22

Custom Material

22

Custom Pipe

23

Custom Tube

24

Custom Bolt

25

ii

Custom Gasket

26

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


General Info

28
28

Shell/Tube Material

29

Internal Pressure

31

External Pressure

33

MDMT/Misc.

34

Other Calculations

34

MDMT Reductions

34

MDMT

34

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


General Info

36
36

Vessel Info

36

Head/Reducer Material

37

Internal Pressure

39

Head/Reducer Design

40

Head/Reducer Dimensions

40

External Pressure

43

MDMT/Misc

44

Other Calculations

44

MDMT Reductions

44

MDMT

44

Designing an Eccentric Cone

45

Allowable Stress for Ellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads

45

Nozzle

46

General Info

46

Configuration

46

Nozzle Location

47

Design Info

49

Pressures

49

Opening Information

49

Nozzle Material

50

Nozzle Dimensions

51

Flange/MDMT

53

Other Calculations

53

MDMT Reductions

53

iii

MDMT

54

Flange 1-7(b) Info

54

Area Info

55

Nozzle

55

Reinforcing Pad

55

Determining if UG-16 Applies to a Nozzle

58

Nozzle Troubleshooting

58

The value of E is incorrect in the nozzle thickness calculations

58

The value of E1 is incorrect in the nozzle thickness calculations

58

The Area of Reinforcement from the nozzle host is zero

58

Nozzle Planes of Reinforcement Methodology

59

Selected Pipe is Larger than Necessary

60

Studded Outlet

61

General Info

61

Outlet

62

Studded Outlet Material

62

Flange

64

Flange Dimensions

64

Bolting

65

Load and Bolt Calculations

65

MDMT

66

Other Calculations

66

MDMT Reductions

66

MDMT

66

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)

68

Rated Flange

68

Rated Flange Default Creation Settings Tips

70

Material Data

70

Default Settings

70

Flange Size

71

Flange Class

71

Rated Flange Information

71

Reference Notes

71

Flange Type

72

Material Group

73

ASMEClass

73

Rated Flange Methodology

73

iv

Determine Reference

74

Assign Material Group

74

Place Reference Notes

74

Determine M.A.P.

74

Determine Total Pressure

75

Compare Total Pressure and M.A.P.

75

Reference Check

75

Appendix 2 Flange

76

General Info

76

Pressure

77

Internal Pressure

77

External Pressure

78

Loads

78

Host/Flange

79

Flange Material

79

Host Information at Flange Location

81

Other Calculations

83

MDMT Reductions

83

MDMT

83

Gasket

84

Flange Neck Dimensions

84

Gasket and Facing Details

85

Load/Bolt Calcs

86

Bolting Material

86

Load and Bolt Calculations

87

Determining the Value of the Lever Arm on a Spherically Dished Cover

89

Reducing Number of Bolts Results in Flange Thickness Reduction

89

Stiffening Ring

90

General Info

90

Ring Stiffener Information

90

Design

92

Stiffener Information

92

Clamp

93

General Info

93

Hub

94

Hub Information

94

Hub Material

95

Clamp

96

Clamp Information

96

Clamp Material

96

Gasket

97

Bolting

98

Clamp Lug

98

Bolting Material

99

Stress Ratios

100

Component Order Troubleshooting

101

Component is in the wrong location

101

Component is unavailable

102

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

105

General

106

Shell

106

Shell Information

106

Shell Material

108

Shell Band

109

Shell Band Information

109

Shell Band Material

109

Channel

110

Channel Information

110

Channel Material

111

Tube

112

Tube Information

112

Span

114

Expansion Ratio

114

Tube Material

115

Lanes

116

Untubed Lanes

116

Tubesheet

116

Tubesheet Information

116

Tubesheet Material

118

Floating

119

Floating Side Information

119

Floating Channel Material

121

Conditions

122

vi

Grid Navigation

122

Tube/TS Joints

126

MDMT

127

Perform MDMT Calculations

127

Efficient Tubesheet Creation Tips

127

Tubesheet Troubleshooting

128

Incomplete Tubesheet

128

Failed Tubesheet

128

Thin Wall Expansion Joint

132

General Info

132

Bellows

133

Bellows Information

133

Bellows Material

134

Convolution/Collar

136

Convolution Information

136

Collar Information

137

Collar Material

137

Shell

139

Shell Information

139

Shell Material

139

Displacement/MDMT

140

Displacement Information

140

Perform MDMT Calculations

141

MDMT

141

Conditions

142

Grid Navigation

142

Thick Wall Expansion Joint

143

General Info

143

Design Info

144

Design Info

144

Expansion Joint Material

145

Operating Info

147

Expansion Joint Material

147

Shell/Tube Info

149

Shell Information

149

Shell Band Information

150

Tube Information

151

vii

MDMT/Other

152

Perform MDMT Calculations

152

MDMT

152

Requirements

153

Fatigue

153

Thick Walled Expansion Joint Methodology

153

Jacket Closure

155

General Info

155

Closure

155

Inner Vessel

155

Jacket

155

Closure

156

Material

157

Lifting Lug

159

General Information

159

Lug Location

160

Host Information

160

Lug Information

162

Lug Material

164

Repad Information

166

Repad Design Information

166

Repad Material

166

Saddle

169

General Information

169

Wear Plate/Top Flange

170

Wear Plate

170

Top Flange

172

Saddle Design

174

Saddle Material

175

Base Plate/Anchor Bolt

176

Base Plate

176

Anchor Bolt

178

Zick Stiffener

181

Stiffener Material

181

Leg

184

General Information

184

viii

Leg Material

185

Leg Information

187

Leg Information

187

Base Plate/Bolt Information

188

Base Plate Design Information

188

Bolt Design Information

190

Repad Information

192

Repad Design Information

192

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring

194

General Information

194

Lug Information

195

Lug Material

196

Bolt/Repad Information

198

Bolt Design Information

198

Repad Design Information

199

Skirt / Intermediate Support

202

Skirt/Intermediate Support Material

203

Base Ring

206

General Information

206

Configuration

206

Base Ring

207

Base Ring Material

208

Anchor Bolt

209

Anchor Bolt Material

210

Gusset/Compression

211

Gusset Information

211

Compression Plate Information

212

Designing a Base Ring Without a Skirt

212

Attaching Structural Elements

214

Base Ring

214

Intermediate Support

214

Leg

214

Lug - Lifting

214

Lug - Support

215

Saddle

215

Skirt

215

ix

Support Ring

215

Designing a Structural Support for a Jacketed Vessel

216

Reports

217

Showing the Code Edition in the Report Footer

217

Reports Tutorial

217

Report Defaults

218

Cover Page

218

Footer Options

218

Company Information

218

Bill of Materials

219

Summary Report

219

Printing Reports

219

Report Troubleshooting: Report Fonts are Crowded

220

Windows 7/Vista

221

Windows XP

223

WRC-107 Analysis

225

General Info

225

Design Information

225

Vessel/Attachment

226

Vessel Information

226

Attachment Information

228

Loads

231

Loads

231

Repad

232

Stress Concentration Factors

232

WRC-107 Analysis Tips

233

Understanding the Pressure Stress Calculations in the DesignCalcs WRC-107 Implementation

236

General

236

Pressure Stress Calculation:Elliptical Host

236

Elliptical Host Pressure Stress vs. Elliptical Head Actual Stress

236

Cone to Cylinder Analysis

238

General Info

238

Design Information

238

Shell Information

238

Pressure/Load

239

For Internal Pressure

239

For External Pressure

239

Stiffening Ring

240

Ring Information

240

Stiffener Material

240

Specifying Loading Cases

242

UG-22 Loadings

245

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

246

Attachments Tab

246

Vertical Vessel

247

Horizontal Vessel

248

Wind Tab

249

Vertical Vessel

250

Horizontal Vessel

250

Insulation Tab

251

Liquid Tab

252

Vertical Vessel

253

Horizontal Vessel

253

Packing Tab

254

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward

255

Inputs:

255

ASCE 7-98

255

IBC 2000

255

ASCE 7-02 and IBC 2003

256

ASCE 7-05 and IBC 2006 and IBC 2009 and CBC 2010

257

ASCE 7-10 and IBC 2012 and CBC 2013

258

Math

259

References

268

Tower Analysis Methodology

276

Tower Analysis Basics

276

Definitions

276

Methodology

277

Review

278

Setting the Code Year for a Vessel

279

Changing the Support Data Path

280

Backing up DCData

281

xi

The CEIPortal

283

License Troubleshooting

285

Software is running in Demo mode

285

Only part of the software is available/working

285

Software was working when launched but is now in Demo mode/not working

285

License key is plugged in locally but no licenses are visible

286

License key is plugged in locally but a "404" error appears when accessing the HASPAdmin Control
Center
286
Advanced Troubleshooting - HASP ACC configuration &Firewalls

CEI Sales Model

286

288

The License Key

288

Key Placement

289

Key Contents

290

File Extension Tips

292

DesignCalcs

292

DesignDocs

292

WeldDocs

292

WeldToolbox

293

Temporary Folder

293

Basic Grid Screen

294

Cells

294

Rows

295

Columns

295

Add Columns

295

Move Columns

296

xii

DEFAULT SETTINGS

(return to Contents)

General

Global

Cover Page

Head/Nozzle

Report

Materials

Materials - Misc.

10

Wind/Seismic

10

General
Skip Factor A Input:Factor A, for external pressure calculations, is automatically calculated for

cylinders, cones, and heads as appropriate. Clear this box to be able to override this calculated value
for cylinders and cones. Once this value has been manually overridden, it will no longer automatically
update. This only affects the calculation based on nominal dimensions and not the calculation based
on required thickness.

Skip Factor B Input: Factor B, for external pressure calculations, is automatically calculated for

cylinders, cones, and heads as appropriate. Clear this box to be able to override this calculated value
for cylinders and cones. Once this value has been manually overridden, it will no longer automatically
update. This only affects the calculation based on nominal dimensions and not the calculation based
on required thickness.

1 |Page

Default Settings
Show Country: Select this box to add the Country field to the Company tab in the Vessel screen and

print the country on the cover page of the report. The company information on the Company tab of
the Vessel screen is what prints on the cover page of the report.

Auto enter a description: Select this box to enable automatically created generic descriptions of new

vessel components. These descriptions will include the component type and number (e.g., Nozzle
5). If the box is not checked, the default descriptions for new components will be blank.

Consider Flange Rigidity Index: Select the box to perform the flange rigidity code check per

Appendix 2-14. Though this code check is now required per Section VIII, Division 1, it was optional in
the past and this field allows the user to decide whether or not to consider the requirement.

Lock Wm Value to Minimum: Select this box to force the bolt load values, Wm1 and Wm2, to the

minimum required in Appendix 2. Clear this box to increase the bolt load values. For cases where
flange pairs are used, these values must be manually matched across the two flanges and this box
should be cleared.

Job No: prompt: This is a global setting that affects the Job No: label that appears in the upper

left corner of the component reports and the vessel screen General tab. It also appears near the top
of the cover page of the report.The text entered here will display in those locations.

Ring Stiffener Type: Select the shape of the stiffening ring (e.g., W-shape, Angle, etc.).

ASME Flange Type: This drop-down contains the rated flanges from B16.5 with the exception of

blind. When creating a 24" or smaller rated flange that has cylinder, reducer, nozzle, or head as its
host, the ASME flange type will default to this selection. When creating a rated flange that has
another flange as the host, it will always default to blind when the size is 24 or less.

ASME Flange Series: B16.47 only includes weld neck series A and B and blind series A and B

flanges. When creating a 26" or larger rated flange that has cylinder, reducer, nozzle, or head as its
host, the ASME flange type will default to Weld Neck Series plus this selection. When creating a
rated flange that has another flange as the host, it will always default to Blind Series plus this
selection when the size is 26 or more.

2 |Page

Default Settings

Global
These settings affect the values for new vessels in the vessel screen. In most cases, the value can
be manually changed during vessel creation.

Vessel
Orientation:Select vertical, horizontal, or spherical. This selection determines the available support

options.

Support:Horizontal vessels have the options of saddle and N/A. Skirt, lug, ring, unbraced leg, flat

bottom and N/A are the Vertical vessel support options; spherical options are similar, with the
exception of flat bottom.

System of Units:Select customary or metric to determine the default units of measurement for new

vessels.

Use Diameter: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to input

dimensions as the inside dimensions or the outside dimensions where this option is available. For
some components (such as shell), the use of outside dimensions for internal pressure calculations
may result in a slightly higher required thickness.

Solve For: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to solve for

thickness or for pressure where this option is available. The Solve for Thickness option is more
favorable when doing nozzle calculations for nozzles that use the current component as host.

Radiography: Requirements for radiography are specified in Section VIII, Div. I, paragraphs UW-

11 and UW-51. This selection will set the efficiency factor to the most common value for type 1 butt
Joints (see Table UW-12). Be sure to check UW-11 and UW-51 for exceptions.The definitions from
Section VIII, Div. I, paragraph UG-116 have been paraphrased below:

RT1 applies when all pressure-retaining butt welds (with exceptions) have been radiographically

examined for their full length according to UW-51. This will default all joints to 100% efficiency.
l

RT2 applies when the complete vessel satisfies the requirements of UW-11(a)(5) and when the spot
radiography requirements of UW-11(a)(5)(b) have been applied. The program defaults to 100% on
heads and shell circumferential (girth) joints and 85% on shell longitudinal joints.

3 |Page

Default Settings
l

RT3 applies when the complete vessel satisfies the spot radiography requirements of UW-11(b). The

program defaults to 85% on all joints.


l

RT4 applies when only part of the complete vessel satisfies the radiography requirements of UW-11(a),

or where RT1, RT2, and RT3 do not apply. The program defaults to 70% efficiency on all joints when
either RT4 or None is selected.

Design Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case

as defined in UG-20(a).

Minimum Thickness per UG-16: The service type minimum thickness per UG-16 in Section VIII,

Division 1. This thickness must be met after undertolerances, forming allowances, and corrosion
allowances are removed. For low pressure, low loading designs, this may govern the thickness of
the design.

Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT): Enter the default MDMT.

External Pressure: The external design pressure (pressure on the convex side). This value is gauge

pressure. If the user wishes to consider the effect of static head for the external pressure case, this
input must be altered to consider the effect.

Design External Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the external

pressure case as defined in UG-20(a).

Company Information
The company name and address will appear on the cover page of the reports. The company name
will also appear in the header at the top of the other report pages.

Cover Page
Cover page information can be changed on a case-by-case basis. Select "Customize Cover Page"
from the Reports menu on the Component pane.

4 |Page

Default Settings
Title of Signature: The title will print to the left of the signature line on the cover page.

Name of Signature: The name will print under the signature line on the cover page.

Notes: These five lines print on the cover page in the note block.

Use Full Vacuum Description: In designs where external pressure is specified, the MAWP field on

the More Information tab of the Cover Page Information screen will show this description (FV or Full
Vacuum) for new vessels.

Signature Line: The selection here is a global setting. Every cover page will be affected by the

options picked here and cannot be overwritten at the design level. The designer can, however,
change what these signature lines are for each vessel in the Cover Page Information section.

Head/Nozzle
Head
Interpolate Factor K for Ellipsoidal Head: When this box is cleared, the D/2h ratio is determined and

rounded to 0.X precision before it is plugged into the K equation from Appendix 1-4(c) in Section VIII,
Division 1.

Interpolate Factor K0 for Ellipsoidal Head: When this box is cleared, the D/2h ratio is determined and

rounded to 0.X precision before it is plugged into the Ko determination using Table UG-33.1 in
Section VIII, Division 1.

Conical Angle: The half-apex angle (half of the included angle) of the cone. This field is algebraically

connected to the Diameter, Small End Diameter, and Cone Height fields. Entering the Cone
Angle will solve for the Cone Height; entering the Cone Height will solve for the Cone Angle.

Minimum Thickness label: This is the label that will appear in the head/reducer form thickness

preview sections on the internal and external pressure tabs. The label represents the smallest
acceptable nominal thickness (input thickness), that will meet the loading, allowance, and tolerance
requirements on the head/reducer.

5 |Page

Default Settings
Thin Out: The use table option will vary the default head thin out based on the head type and some

other factors. This comes from some manufacturer data. When this option is not used, all head thin
out values will default based on either the customary or metric inputs here.

Straight Flange: The length of the cylindrical straight flange of the head. Straight flange calculations

are not performed automatically; a shell must be created to run calculations on the straight flange.

Torispherical Information: The options here only affect the Torispherical head type and do not

affect the ASME F&D head type. When designing a torispherical head, entering the diameter
value, will automatically update the crown radius and knuckle radius fields based on these settings.
The crown radius and knuckle radius fields may be altered after this update, but entering a new
diameter value will update these fields again.

Nozzle
Nozzle Configuration: Select the basic nozzle attachment configuration from the drop-down menu.

Weld Detail Requirements: Because the wording in the code allows multiple interpretations, this

allows the user to choose whether the weld detail requirements per UW-16 should be met in the
corroded condition, the new condition, or both.

Calculate Reinforcement for nozzles meeting UG-36(c)(3)(a): Select this box to force nozzle

reinforcement calculations. Calculations will be performed even for cases that are exempt as small
openings per UG-36(c)(3)(a).

Allow Nozzle Design to Limit Vessel MAWP Rating: When this box is cleared and a new nozzle is

created, the design pressure for the nozzle will be set to the MAWP of the vessel that is calculated
thus far for the vessel, based on the other components.

Use Excess Wall Thickness for nozzle reinforcement calculations: When this box is selected, the

design is in line with the code. When this box is cleared, the design will be more conservative than
the code in terms of the determination of A1 (nozzle reinforcement from the host wall) for nozzle
reinforcement calculations. When this box is cleared, the A1 value will be set to zero in the
calculations.

6 |Page

Default Settings
Assume Use of Repad: Checking this box will start all new nozzles off with a repad. This can be

changed in the nozzle form once the nozzle is created.

Show nozzle image on the report: The selection here is a global setting. Every nozzle report will be

affected by the option picked here and cannot be overwritten at the design level. If the box is
selected, the nozzle detail in the nozzle form (Nozzle Configuration) will appear on the nozzle report.

External Projection: The distance that the nozzle axis projects past the outside surface of the vessel

wall.

Report
Print
External Load Warnings: When this is selected, several of the component reports will print External

loads do not govern design in their calculations.

Default preview to full screen: Select this box to expand the print preview on launch. Otherwise the

preview will start as a small window.

Company name in Bold letters: When this box is selected, the company name will appear in bold at

the top of all reports except the cover page.

Use CAST efficiency on Reports: When a material selected is a cast product form while this box is

selected, joint efficiency will be replaced with Cast Efficiency on the head and shell reports. The
material cannot be Unlisted.

Customer Name in Bold letters: When this box is selected, the customer name will appear in bold

font in the upper left corner of the reports. This does not apply to the cover page.

Boxes in Reports: Select this option to place borders around appropriate sections in the reports to try

to improve readability.

7 |Page

Default Settings
Page numbers on the Reports:This option places page numbers on calculations in the format of

"Page X of Y." Page numbers never appear on the cover page; this setting has no effect on the page
numbers in the Table of Contents report.

Print Nozzle Strength Calcs: These are the options for printing the nozzle strength path calculations

and the weld detail checks. This can be overwritten at report time. If When Required is selected,
code logic is used to determine if the calculations should be in the report.

Print Extreme Fiber: Extreme fiber elongation calculations will be shown in the head/shell/reducer

reports per these settings. This is a global setting and affects all design files, though not all
components include these calculations.

Fonts: Use care when adjusting the font and size; CEIhas thoroughly tested the reports with the

following settings:

Title Font: Arial, 10

Head Font: Arial, 9

Body Font: Arial, 9

Margins: Use care when adjusting the margins; CEIhas thoroughly tested the reports with the

following settings:

Top: 0.35"

Bottom:0.35"

Right: 0.35,

Left: 0.35"

Gutter Width: 0.1"

Shell/Head
Include MAWP with Shell/Head Section: When this box is selected, shells, heads and reducers will

have their individual component MAWP printed on their reports. This only applies for components
set to Solve for Thickness.

Print ASME F and D Head on Toripherical Heads: Select this option to display ASME F and D

Head Design Information instead of Torispherical Head Design Information near the top of the
first page of the torispherical head report.

8 |Page

Default Settings
Show Minimum Thickness after Forming on the report: When this box is selected, both the

nominal thickness and Minimum Thickness after Forming will be printed at the bottom of the head
report. The minimum thickness after forming is simply the nominal thickness minus the thin out
(thinning allowance).

Cover Page
Print the National Board Number on the report: To print the National Board number on the cover

page, select this box and enter a National Board number on the Name Plate tab of the Customize
Cover Page window. This can be accessed via the Reports menu on the Component pane.

Print the ASME info on the cover page: When this box is selected, the cover page will show Vessel

designed per ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1 plus the code
edition/addenda.

Print ASME code stamped on the report: When this box is selected, the cover page will show

Vessel is ASME Code Stamped.

Print Customer Location: Select this option to print the vessel location the cover page. The vessel

location information is accessed in the Vessel Screen on the Customer/Location tab.

Print Project Description: When this box is selected, the project description will print on the last page

of the cover page report. The project description is accessed in the Vessel Screen on the General
tab.

Materials
Individual defaults can be set for each unique location in the software where the material search can
be accessed. Separate default materials can be selected for customary and metric.

9 |Page

Default Settings

Click this button to open the material search and edit the selected material
default. Double-clicking on the material default works in the same way.
Click this button to reset the selected default to the DesignCalcs shipping
specification.
Click this button to reset all material defaults to the DesignCalcs shipping
specification.
Click this button to reset all material defaults to the DesignCalcs shipping
specification and clear all the Most Recently Used materials.

Materials - Misc.
Description Field: The options checked here will populate the material description fields in the

applicable screen when a material is picked. They will populate in the order selected and may be
truncated on the end based on size of the combined text.

Condition Field: The options checked here will populate the material conditions fields in the

applicable screen when a material is picked. They will populate in the order selected and may be
truncated on the end based on size of the combined text.

Gasket Defaults: This is the default gasket selection for both sets of units. The default value can be

changed using the gasket search.

Wind/Seismic
Several of these settings are global and will affect all designs.

Concrete Strength: The theoretical concrete strength after at least 28 days of setup. The concrete

factor multiplies the strength value.

K Value for Leg Supports: This value can range from 0.50 to greater than 2.0, however some

references recommend that values less than 1.5 be avoided. Lower values are more likely to result in
a passing design and thus are considered less conservative. K=0.5 represents both ends of the leg
as being fixed with no lateral or rotational movement. K=1.0 represents both ends of the leg as being
pinned (rotational movement with no lateral movement). K=2.0 represents one end of the leg as
being fixed and the other end as able to move laterally.

10 |Page

Default Settings
Increase Base Support Allowable: The options here apply only to the structural components (e.g.,

saddles, support lugs, unbraced legs, skirts) and do not apply to the pressure envelope. The option
selected here will be the increase to the allowable stress for the structural support for Occasional
loading cases. This has no effect on the Sustained loading cases.

Apply Seismic Force at: This selection affects skirt supported vessels for seismic loading cases.

Seismic loadings are typically considered to be triangular in nature, so the equivalent point load
would be at 2/3 the segment height. Some argue that the use of the k factor in the newer seismic
code calculations handles this already would set this to the Middle of Segment.

Calculate Skirt Stress: For the skirt design for skirt and base ring supported vessels, the calculation

will appear in the base ring report. This will only affect base ring designs that include chairs or a top
ring. It represents the effect on the skirt from bolting reactions, but it is considered to be increasingly
conservative as the number of gusset plates increase and become closer together. The calculation
does not consider the mitigating effect of the gusset plates.

Use corroded section thickness when calculating weight: When this is selected, the vessel weight is

based on the corroded wall thickness. This is typically not a good option: the corrosion allowances
are using conservatively high values and would artificially reduce the weight, and the vessel is
heavier in the new condition.

For vertical vessels use higher allowable stresses when doing wind/seismic designs: Selecting this

box will allow an increase in allowable stress of 20% for the pressure envelope for Occasional
loading cases for vertical vessels. This has no effect on the Sustained loading cases or the structural
supports. Building codes typically reduce the load that is applied (wind, seismic, dead load) for the
load case combinations and some would consider also increasing the allowable stress to be notconservative if the load is reduced.

For horizontal vessels use higher allowable stresses when doing wind/seismic designs: Select this

box to allow an increase in allowable stress of 20% for the pressure envelope for Occasional loading
cases for horizontal vessels. This has no effect on the Sustained loading cases or the structural
supports. Building codes typically reduce the load that is applied (wind, seismic, dead load) for the
load case combinations and some would consider also increasing the allowable stress to be notconservative if the load is reduced.

11 |Page

Default Settings
Use Zicks effective shell width for S3 and S5 calculations: Leonard Zicks original paper used a

different stress attenuation range for these calculations than later adopted references. Based on the
literature, leaving this box cleared is advised. This only affects the Zick analysis report/calculations.

User higher allowable stress (1.5 S) for S3 calculations: Leonard Zicks original paper used a higher

allowable stress (1.5 S) for this calculation than later adopted references (1.25 S). Based on the
literature, leaving this box cleared is advised.

Increase buckling allowable stress when doing wind & seismic designs: Some references do not

suggest increasing the buckling allowable stress, even for Occasional loading cases. This option
only affects buckling allowable stresses when other options have been selected to allow for an
increase in allowable stress. This will have no effect on Sustained loading cases.

Use minimum C/Rw for UBC seismic design of Nonbuilding Structures: Section 2338(d) of the

1991 UBC and Section 1632.5 of the 1994 UBC specify a minimum limit on the ratio of C/Rw for
nonbuilding structures. This limit is 0.5 for the 1991 UBC and 0.4 for the 1994 UBC. When this box
is selected, the C/Rw value will not be allowed to go below that minimum limit.

Does sliding saddle support loads: When this box is selected, the sliding saddle and the stationary

saddle will both be considered to handle the longitudinal loading. If this is cleared, only the stationary
saddle will be considered to handle the longitudinal loading.

Hide no liquid/no attachment warning: A warning message appears when a structural support is run

(unbraced legs, Tower Analysis, etc.) when there are no attachments or liquid information in the
Attachments/Loadings screens. Selecting this box will suppress that message and is not advised.

12 |Page

DA T A BR O WS E R S

(return to Contents)

Material Search

13

Pipe Search

16

Tube Search

17

Bolt Search

19

Gasket Search

20

Material Search
Materials may be manually entered in DesignCalcs, however using the Material Search keeps the
data consistent and correct. Custom materials may be added to the Material Database and then
used within vessels and components.

When in a material field, click the Material Search button to load the material selection
dialog. The material selection dialog displays the most recent materials used in the
component as well as the materials most recently used in general. The selected material
data and any custom materials are also available.

A material may be used by highlighting it on the material selection dialog and clicking the OK button.
Other options for viewing and selecting materials are also available.

Opens a detailed view of the material information.


Launches the material selection window.

13 |Page

Data Browsers

Material Selection
DesignCalcs has pre-matched the allowable stresses to yields and ultimate stresses. If a match for
yield cannot be found, the software then tries to calculate the yield strength from the external
pressure charts per UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. If a match for ultimate cannot be found, the software then
tries to calculate the ultimate strength using reverse logic based on the minimum tensile strength, the
material table, the allowable stress and the safety factor explanations from the appendices in SC II,
D.

Material Browser
Begin typing in any of the available fields and the data will be filtered to match the entered criteria.
The grid displays all data that matches the characters that have been entered. Spelling and
punctuation errors will result in incorrect results. The incremental search is not case sensitive.

14 |Page

Data Browsers

In the example above, the grid is showing all materials that have a Spec Number that begins "SA18", a Type Grade that begins with "F3", and an Alloy/Desig./UNS Number that begins with "S31".
Typing "sa-18" into the Spec Number field would show the same results, however entering "sa 18"
would not.

Grid Manipulation
Another way to quickly find a specific material, or a material with certain properties, is to group, sort,
and filter the grid data. Data can be grouped by any characteristic by dragging the column header
into the area above the columns. Click on a column header to sort the data by that column in either
ascending or descending order. Click the arrow on the right side of a column header to select data
filtering criteria. Grouping, sorting, and filtering can be used in any combination.

The grid will retain any filters and the adjustments to column order and size. To reset the grid to the
original default appearance, right click and select "Reset Default Layout."

15 |Page

Data Browsers

You may view the material information by right-clicking the material and selecting "View
Material"from the context menu. One the desired material has been selected, click Ok.

Pipe Search
Pipes may be manually entered in DesignCalcs, however using the Pipe Search keeps the data
consistent and correct. Custom pipes may be added to the Pipe Database and then used within
vessels and components.

When on the internal pressure tab, click the Pipe Search button to load the pipe selection
dialog. Pipe entries from the ASMEB36.10M reference will be available. User-created
custom pipes are also available on the "Custom"tab of the pipe selection grid.

16 |Page

Data Browsers

Pipe Selection Grid


To quickly find a specific pipe - or a pipe with certain properties - group, sort, and filter the grid data.
Data can be grouped by any characteristic by dragging the column header into the area above the
columns. Click on a column header to sort the data by that column in either ascending or descending
order. Click the arrow on the right side of a column header to select data filtering criteria. Grouping,
sorting, and filtering can be used in any combination.

The grid will retain any filters and the adjustments to column order and size. To reset the grid to the
original default appearance, right click and select "Reset Default Layout."

Tube Search
Tubes may be manually entered in DesignCalcs, however using the Tube Search keeps the data
consistent and correct. Custom tubes may be added to the Tube Database and then used within
vessels and components.

17 |Page

Data Browsers

When creating a tube for a heat exchanger, click the Tube Search button on the internal
pressure tab to load the tube selection dialog. Both standard and user-created custom
tubes are available.

Tube Selection Grid


To quickly find a specific tube - or a tube with certain properties - group, sort, and filter the grid data.
Data can be grouped by any characteristic by dragging the column header into the area above the
columns. Click on a column header to sort the data by that column in either ascending or descending
order. Click the arrow on the right side of a column header to select data filtering criteria. Grouping,
sorting, and filtering can be used in any combination.

The grid will retain any filters and the adjustments to column order and size. To reset the grid to the
original default appearance, right click and select "Reset Default Layout."

18 |Page

Data Browsers

Bolt Search
Bolts may be manually entered in DesignCalcs, however using the Bolt Search keeps the data
consistent and correct. Custom bolts may be added to the Bolt Database and then used within
vessels and components.

When on the bolting or load/bolt calcs tab, click the Bolt Search button to load the bolt
selection dialog. Commonly available bolts are listed on the "Standard" tab. User-created
custom bolts are also available on the "Custom"tab of the bolt selection grid.

19 |Page

Data Browsers

Bolt Selection Grid


To quickly find a specific bolt - or a bolt with certain properties - group, sort, and filter the grid data.
Data can be grouped by any characteristic by dragging the column header into the area above the
columns. Click on a column header to sort the data by that column in either ascending or descending
order. Click the arrow on the right side of a column header to select data filtering criteria. Grouping,
sorting, and filtering can be used in any combination.

The grid will retain any filters and the adjustments to column order and size. To reset the grid to the
original default appearance, right click and select "Reset Default Layout."

Gasket Search
Gaskets may be manually entered in DesignCalcs, however using the Gasket Search keeps the
data consistent and correct. Custom gaskets may be added to the Gasket Database and then used
within vessels and components.

20 |Page

Data Browsers

When on the gasket tab, click the Gasket Search button to load the gasket selection
dialog. Commonly available gaskets and gasket entries from Appendix 2 are listed on the
Standard Gaskets tab. User-created custom gaskets are also available on the
"Custom"tab of the gasket selection grid.

Gasket Selection Grid


To quickly find a specific gasket - or a gasket with certain properties - group, sort, and filter the grid
data. Data can be grouped by any characteristic by dragging the column header into the area above
the columns. Click on a column header to sort the data by that column in either ascending or
descending order. Click the arrow on the right side of a column header to select data filtering criteria.
Grouping, sorting, and filtering can be used in any combination.

The grid will retain any filters and the adjustments to column order and size. To reset the grid to the
original default appearance, right click and select "Reset Default Layout."

21 |Page

CUSTOM DATA

(return to Contents)

Custom Material

22

Custom Pipe

23

Custom Tube

24

Custom Bolt

25

Custom Gasket

26

Custom Material
DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. To add a custom material to the database,
click the Custom Data button on the main toolbar and select "Add/Edit Custom Material" from the
menu. Custom material options can be accessed via the Custom tab on the material selection grid.

22 |Page

Custom Data

The custom data grid presents the same grouping, sorting, and filtering options as the material
selection grid. The custom data grid also presents the option to add a new material, edit an existing
material, copy an existing material, or to delete an existing material.

Each custom material may contain as much or as little data as the user prefers. Editing a custom
material will not change the data in vessels that already use the material.

Custom Pipe
DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. To add a custom pipe to the database,
click the Custom Data button on the main toolbar and select "Add/Edit Custom Pipe" from the menu.
Custom pipe options can be accessed via the Custom tab on the pipe selection grid.

23 |Page

Custom Data

The custom data grid presents the same grouping, sorting, and filtering options as the pipe
selection grid. The custom data grid also presents the option to add a new pipe, edit an existing
pipe, copy an existing pipe, or to delete an existing pipe.

Each custom pipe may contain as much or as little data as the user prefers. Editing a custom pipe will
not change the data in vessels that already use the pipe.

Custom Tube
DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. To add a custom tube to the database,
click the Custom Data button on the main toolbar and select "Add/Edit Custom Tube" from the
menu. Custom tube options can be accessed via the Custom tab on the tube selection grid.

24 |Page

Custom Data

The custom data grid presents the same grouping, sorting, and filtering options as the tube
selection grid. The custom data grid also presents the option to add a new tube, edit an existing
tube, copy an existing tube, or to delete an existing tube.

Each custom tube may contain as much or as little data as the user prefers. Editing a custom tube
will not change the data in vessels that already use the tube.

Custom Bolt
DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. To add a custom bolt to the database, click
the Custom Data button on the main toolbar and select "Add/Edit Custom Bolt" from the menu.
Custom bolt options can be accessed via the Custom tab on the bolt selection grid.

25 |Page

Custom Data

The custom data grid presents the same grouping, sorting, and filtering options as the bolt
selection grid. The custom data grid also presents the option to add a new bolt, edit an existing
bolt, copy an existing bolt, or to delete an existing bolt.

Each custom bolt may contain as much or as little data as the user prefers. Editing a custom bolt will
not change the data in vessels that already use the bolt.

Custom Gasket
DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. To add a custom gasket to the database,
click the Custom Data button on the main toolbar and select "Add/Edit Custom Gasket" from the
menu. Custom gasket options can be accessed via the Custom tab on the gasket selection grid.

26 |Page

Custom Data

The custom data grid presents the same grouping, sorting, and filtering options as the gasket
selection grid. The custom data grid also presents the option to add a new gasket, edit an existing
gasket, copy an existing gasket, or to delete an existing gasket.

Each custom gasket may contain as much or as little data as the user prefers. Editing a custom
gasket will not change the data in vessels that already use the gasket.

27 |Page

SHELL / TUBE
(INCLUDES JACKET AND HEAT
E X C H A N G E R CO MP O N E N T S )

(return to Contents)

General Info

28

Internal Pressure

31

External Pressure

33

MDMT/Misc.

34

General Info
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Drawing Number:The drawing number associated with the component. This does not refer to any

drawings that are generated in the software and it is listed here for the user's reference. It will default
to the drawing number input on the vessel screen.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Dist. from Ref. Line: Currently this field is not used in the software except for determining where to

draw heads with a location of internal or other.

28 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)

Shell/Tube Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

29 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the temperature
listed for the internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials
yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these
tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will
calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)
(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software
cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform
the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and
the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted
Material caption.

30 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Long. Factor A: This is the Factor A that is determined in Step 1 of UG-23(b)(2). Factor A is

determined using the corroded dimensions. For pipe, this is based on nominal thickness as opposed
to minimum thickness.

Long. Factor B: The allowable longitudinal compressive stress determined in Step 2 of UG-23(b)(2)

as B. Factor B is determined at the temperature listed for the internal pressure condition. Note that
this is not the same Factor B that is determined for external pressure strength; the modulus value
that is sometimes used in these calculations is from the external pressure chart, not from the TM
tables.

Internal Pressure
Use Diameter: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to input

dimensions as the inside dimensions or the outside dimensions where this option is available. For
some components (such as shell), the use of outside dimensions for internal pressure calculations
may result in a slightly higher required thickness.

Solve For: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to solve for

thickness or for pressure where this option is available. The Solve for Thickness option is more
favorable when doing nozzle calculations for nozzles that use the current component as host.

Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

31 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Length: The length of the shell component. If this component represents multiple shell courses,

make sure that this length is the total length of the shell courses that are attached end to end.

Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition. The selection in the Use Diameter area

determines whether this is the inside or outside diameter of the component. In the context of curved
heads, this value is specifically the skirt diameter. For circular flat heads, this is the diameter as
defined in per the configuration in UG-34.

Inside CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Circ. Joint Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the circumferential joints (girth seams) in the shell

component. This is determined from Table UW-12 for welded joints. This may also represent
circumferential ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints exist, the
lowest efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

Long. Joint Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the longitudinal joints (long seams) in the shell

component. This is determined from Table UW-12 for welded joints. This may also represent
longitudinal ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints exist, the lowest
efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

Joint Efficiency Calculator: Click the button next to the field to calculate. If the inputs return a

logical value per UW-12, the joint efficiency will be displayed in the calculator. To apply this
value to the field, select Ok. The value in the field can be manually entered even after using
this calculator.
Quantity: The number of tubes that this component represents. This field is only available for the tube

component.

External CA: Corrosion allowance on the outside of the component (convex side). This field is

available for internal heads and for the inner components of a jacketed vessel.

32 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)

The following fields are not used by this software; they are listed here for the convenience of
filling out the data forms in DesignDocs and FormPro.

Radiography (Circ.): This field represents the degree of radiography performed on the

circumferential joints (girth seams). See UW-11 for more information.


Joint type (Circ.): This field represents the joint type for the circumferential joints (girth seams) in

the shell. See Table UW-12 for more information.


Radiography (Long.): This field represents the degree of radiography performed on the

longitudinal joints (long seams). See UW-11 for more information.


Joint Type (Long.): This field represents the joint type for the circumferential joints (girth seams) in

the shell. See Table UW-12 for more information.


Heat Treatment Temperature: Review Subsection C of Section VIII, Division 1 to better determine

the required heat treatment temperature for your component and material.
Heat Treatment Time: Review Subsection C of Section VIII, Division 1 to better determine the

required heat treatment time for your component and material.

Nominal t: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

External Pressure
Design Pa: The external design pressure (pressure on the convex side). This value is gauge

pressure. If the user wishes to consider the effect of static head for the external pressure case, this
input must be altered to consider the effect.

L: The un-stiffened length for the shell component. See UG-28(b) and Figure 28.1 for more

information. This value may be greater than the length of the shell itself.

33 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


External Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the external pressure case

as defined in UG-20(a).

MDMT/Misc.
Other Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT Reductions
Take UCS-66(b) Reduction: Selecting this check box will take advantage of the reduction in allowed

MDMT per UCS-66(b). This paragraph includes a calculation for the component which
compensates for any excess material thickness in the component.

Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

MDMT
MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

34 |Page

Shell / Tube (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

35 |Page

HEAD / CONICAL REDUCER


(INCLUDES JACKET AND HEAT
E X C H A N G E R CO MP O N E N T S )

(return to Contents)

General Info

36

Internal Pressure

39

External Pressure

43

MDMT/Misc

44

Designing an Eccentric Cone

45

Allowable Stress for Ellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads

45

General Info
Vessel Info
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Drawing Number:The drawing number associated with the component. This does not refer to any

drawings that are generated in the software and it is listed here for the user's reference. It will default
to the drawing number input on the vessel screen.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

36 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Dist. from Ref. Line: Currently this field is not used in the software except for determining where to

draw heads with a location of internal or other.

Type: There are several head types in the software (e.g., Hemispherical, Ellipsoidal, Toriconical).

Once the component has been saved, the head type can no longer be changed.

Location: Defines where the head is placed in the vessel. Horizontal vessels have the option of Left,

Right, Internal, and Other. Vertical vessels have the option of Bottom, Top, Internal, and Other. Only
one head may be the Left, Right, Top, or Bottom head (e.g., there may be one left head and one
right head but not two left heads).

Curve Direction: This field is only available to heads with a curvature. Curve out means that the

concave side of the head is on the inside of the vessel; Curve in means that the convex side of the
head is on the inside of the vessel. The internal pressure input for the head is always considered to
be on the concave side of the head and the external pressure input for the head is intended for the
convex side of the head.

Configuration: This field is only available for Flat head types and it affects the design equations.

Review UG-34 for more information.

Head/Reducer Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

37 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

38 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the temperature
listed for the internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials
yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these
tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will
calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)
(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software
cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform
the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and
the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted
Material caption.

Long. Factor A: This is the Factor A that is determined in Step 1 of UG-23(b)(2). Factor A is

determined using the corroded dimensions. For pipe, this is based on nominal thickness as opposed
to minimum thickness.

Long. Factor B: The allowable longitudinal compressive stress determined in Step 2 of UG-23(b)(2)

as B. Factor B is determined at the temperature listed for the internal pressure condition. Note that
this is not the same Factor B that is determined for external pressure strength; the modulus value
that is sometimes used in these calculations is from the external pressure chart, not from the TM
tables.

Internal Pressure
Use Diameter: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to input

dimensions as the inside dimensions or the outside dimensions where this option is available. For
some components (such as shell), the use of outside dimensions for internal pressure calculations
may result in a slightly higher required thickness.

39 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Solve For: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to solve for

thickness or for pressure where this option is available. The Solve for Thickness option is more
favorable when doing nozzle calculations for nozzles that use the current component as host.

Head/Reducer Design
Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

The following fields are not used by this software; they are listed here for the convenience of
filling out the data forms in DesignDocs and FormPro.

Radiography: This field represents the degree of radiography performed on the joints. See UW-

11 for more information.


Joint type: This field represents the joint type for the joints. See Table UW-12 for more

information.
Is an inner head: Select the check box to indicate the entire head (both the concave and convex

sides) is in the interior of the vessel.

Head/Reducer Dimensions
Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition. The selection in the Use Diameter area

determines whether this is the inside or outside diameter of the component. In the context of curved
heads, this value is specifically the skirt diameter. For circular flat heads, this is the diameter as
defined in per the configuration in UG-34.

40 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Long Span: This field is only available for the Non-circular Flat head type. These head types are

more specifically considered rectangular and this represents the long side of that head.

Inside CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

External CA: Corrosion allowance on the outside of the component (convex side). This field is

available for internal heads and for the inner components of a jacketed vessel.

Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the component, which is determined from Table UW-12 for welded

joints and may also represent ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints
exist, the lowest efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

Crown Radius: The component crown radius in the new condition. The selection in the Use

Diameter area determines whether this is the inside or outside crown radius. This field is only
available for heads that have a crown or spherical portion ASME F & D, Torispherical,
Hemispherical, and Dish Cover. If the head type is ASME F & D, the value will be locked to the
Diameter field to meet the dimension requirements of UG-32. If the head type is Torispherical, the
value will default based on the settings under Tools > Defaults.

Dimension h/ho: The dished head depth in the new condition of an elliptical head. The selection in

the Use Diameter area determines whether this is the inside or outside head depth. This field is
only available for elliptical heads. The head depth will default based on the Diameter field so that
the inside dimensions have a ratio of D/2h = 2.0. This ratio is based on the new inside dimensions.

Cone Height: The axial length of a cone. This field is algebraically connected to the Diameter,

Small End Diameter, and Cone Angle fields. Entering the Cone Angle will solve for the Cone
Height; entering the Cone Height will solve for the Cone Angle.

Cone Angle: The half-apex angle (half of the included angle) of the cone. This field is algebraically

connected to the Diameter, Small End Diameter, and Cone Height fields. Entering the Cone
Angle will solve for the Cone Height; entering the Cone Height will solve for the Cone Angle.

Knuckle Radius: The component inside knuckle radius in the new condition. This field is only

available for heads that have a knuckle region: ASME F & D, Torispherical, and Toriconical.

41 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


Large End Diameter: The large end inside diameter of the conical section of a toriconical head in the

new condition. See dimension Di in Figure 1-4 (sketch e) for more information.

Small End Diameter: The diameter of the cones small end in the new condition. The selection in the

Use Diameter area determines whether this is the inside or outside diameter at the small end.

Dimension L: This value is only for toriconical heads and is a displayed value that is not available for

input. This value is what the inside crown radius (new condition) would be if a crown existed in place
of a conical section at the end of the knuckle.

Short Span: This field is only available for the Non-circular Flat head type. These head types are

more specifically considered rectangular and this represents the short side of that head.

Maximum Pitch: This field is only available for the Braced, Stayed head type. The pitch is the

distance between any two adjacent stays. The maximum pitch is the largest value from the collection
of pitches.

Factor C: This field is only available for Flat; Non-circular Flat; and Braced, Stayed head types. The

default value is based on the head type and configuration selected, however the user may be able to
change it to better advantage. Review the sketches in UG-34 for more information.

Factor M: This is a displayed value that is not available for input. This value is used in the head design

calculations for heads that have a knuckle (ASME F & D, Torispherical, and Toriconical). See
Appendix 1-4 for more information.

Factor K: This is a displayed value that is not available for input. This value is used in the head design

calculations for elliptical heads. See Appendix 1-4 for more information.

Thin Out: The material thickness lost to the forming process. To determine the minimum thickness

after forming, the un-corroded nominal thickness is reduced by this amount. When an ellipsoidal
head is used to make a pipe cap, this field is replaced with a 12-1/2% undertolerance field.

42 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)


12 % Pipe: The thickness that represents the 12-1/2% undertolerance of a pipe cap. For this field to

be visible, the user must create a pipe cap by selecting an Elliptical head type and using the Pipe
Search. This is a calculated value and is not available for input. When a pipe cap is not being made,
this field is replaced with the "Thin Out" field.

Straight Flange: The length of the cylindrical straight flange of the head. Straight flange calculations

are not performed automatically; a shell must be created to run calculations on the straight flange.

Include thinout in 1-4(e): This option is only available for toriconical heads. Toriconical heads have

two design equations for thickness (for internal pressure): 1-4(d) for the knuckle and 1-4(e) for the
conical section. Thin Out is automatically considered in the former equation; this box must be
selected for it to be considered in the latter equation as well.

Nominal t: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

External Pressure
Design Pa: The external design pressure (pressure on the convex side). This value is gauge

pressure. If the user wishes to consider the effect of static head for the external pressure case, this
input must be altered to consider the effect.

External Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the external pressure case

as defined in UG-20(a).

43 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)

MDMT/Misc
Other Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT Reductions
Take UCS-66(b) Reduction: Selecting this check box will take advantage of the reduction in allowed

MDMT per UCS-66(b). This paragraph includes a calculation for the component which
compensates for any excess material thickness in the component.

Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

MDMT
MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

44 |Page

Head / Conical Reducer (includes Jacket and Heat Exchanger Components)

Designing an Eccentric Cone


DesignCalcs does not directly cover eccentric cones. If you want to perform calculations for an
eccentric cone (flat on a side with the slope on the other side), per Code this cone can use an angle
up to 30 . With no angle on one side and a 30 angle on the other, the cone and cone-to-cylinder
junction need to be designed with a 30 angle.

However, if you are performing a vacuum design, do not treat the junction as a line of support. The
sharper angle will make passing the calculations easier, though it also makes passing basic
thickness calculations more difficult.

Allowable Stress for Ellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads


When you are designing torispherical heads (and certain ellipsoidal heads) using a high tensile
strength material, DesignCalcs will flag the design, noting "Appendix 1-4 Footnote Applies" on the
report.

When this occurs, the allowable stress from SC II, D is replaced with an S value that is determined
20, 000

as

Sd
Sa

138

for customary units and

Sd
Sa

for metric units, where Sd is the material SC II,

D allowable stress at design temperature and Sa is the SCII, D allowable stress at room
temperature.

The S value will be replaced in the thickness calculations.

The code penalizes the allowable stress due to the high stress concentrations in the knuckle region.
20,000 psi is the correct allowable stress to use in this situation per the code paragraph listed.

45 |Page

NOZZLE

(return to Contents)

General Info

46

Design Info

49

Flange/MDMT

53

Area Info

55

Determining if UG-16 Applies to a Nozzle

58

Nozzle Troubleshooting

58

Nozzle Planes of Reinforcement Methodology

59

Selected Pipe is Larger than Necessary

60

General Info
Configuration
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Nozzle Purpose: Select a nozzle type from the drop-down menu or type one into the field. This is

included for the user's reference and does not affect the calculations in the software.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

46 |Page

Nozzle
Nozzle ID Number: This field is for user reference when inside the nozzle form; it will not appear

anywhere else. The default value is the component number (e.g., if this is the fourth nozzle, the value
will be four).

Host: Select the host type for the nozzle.

Detail Requirements: Because the wording in the code allows multiple interpretations, this allows the

user to choose whether the weld detail requirements per UW-16 should be met in the corroded
condition, the new condition, or both.

Nozzle Configuration: Select the basic nozzle attachment configuration from the drop-down menu.

Nozzle Location
The following fields only affect the 3D drawing; they do not have an effect on the calculations or
the output.

Distance from Reference Line: For nozzles in cylindrical shells, this indicates the distance from the

reference line datum measured along the axis of the vessel. For nozzles in nozzles, this is the
axial distance of the second nozzle from the first nozzle's intersection with its host. For example, if
a cylindrical nozzle is attached to a cylindrical shell and a second nozzle is attached to the
cylindrical nozzle, the distance from reference line will be the distance from the axis of the second
nozzle to the location where the cylindrical nozzle intersects the shell.
Distance from Center of Head/Flange: This indicates the distance from the center of the head or

flange to where the nozzle axis pierces the inside surface; the distance is measured parallel to the
axis of the head or flange and does not indicate direction.
Nozzle Orientation: Determines the position of the nozzle around the component. Vertical vessels

in the standard view will show a nozzle at 0 on the front of the vessel, 90 on the right side of the
vessel, and so on. Horizontal vessels in the standard view will show a nozzle at 0 on the top of the
vessel, 90 on the back of the vessel, and so on. The angle is determined based on where the
nozzle axis penetrates the inside surface of the host.
Longitudinal Angle of Orientation: For nozzles in shells, this describes the angle between the nozzle

axis and the axis of the shell. A 90 angle indicates that the nozzle is not tilted; an angle less than 90
tilts toward the left end or top of the shell while an angle greater than 90 indicates a tilt toward the
right end or bottom of the shell. When the nozzle is tangential, this field will be locked to 90.

47 |Page

Nozzle

For nozzles attached to flat heads and blind flanges, this describes the angle the nozzle makes with
the head axis; 0 is parallel to the head axis. If the nozzle is tangential, this value will be locked to
zero.

Meridian Angle of Orientation: For nozzles in flat heads, dished heads, and blind flanges, the

meridian angle rotates the nozzle axis around a line that goes from the center of the head to the edge
of the head and passes through the nozzle axis. With a view starting at the center of the head and
looking toward the direction of nozzle orientation, 0 is radial, a negative angle rotates the nozzle to
the right, and a positive angle rotates the nozzle to the left.

For nozzles in elliptical heads, this value will be locked to zero if the nozzle is a tangential
configuration.

Latitudinal Angle of Orientation:For nozzles in dished heads, this rotates the nozzle axis around a

line that is concentric with the head and passes through the nozzle axis; 0 is radial, a positive angle
rotates the nozzle towards the edge of the head, and a negative angle rotates the nozzle towards the
center of the head.

For nozzles in elliptical heads, this value will be locked to zero unless the nozzle is a tangential
configuration.

Circumferential Angle of Orientation:Represents the angle of rotation created between the

tangential nozzle axis and a radial equivalent nozzle axis. A positive value will tilt the nozzle to the
right for a vertical vessel in standard view and to the back for a horizontal vessel in standard view.
This field is tied to "Dimension L" on the Design Info tab (See page 51).

Show with Repad:Select this box to add a repad to the nozzle.

Groove Location: Determines the groove well depth label on the report.

48 |Page

Nozzle

Design Info
Pressures
Override: When this box is checked, the Pressure field can be changed to a pressure other than that

of the host. If the box is cleared, the Pressure field is locked to the host pressure.

Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Opening Information
Nozzle Path:If the opening is in a Category A joint, select Cat. A. If the nozzle is in ERW or

autogenously welded pipe and it is not clear where the welds are or it is clear that the opening is in
one of the joints, select ERW/Auto. For all other cases, select None. This setting affects the value of
E1 used to determine the value of A1 in the reinforcement calculations; see the definition of E1 in
UG-37 for more information.

Access Opening:If the nozzle is to be used only for access or inspection purposes, select an option

(other than "None") from the drop-down menu. This will give relief from the UG-45(b) nozzle neck
thickness calculations. Selecting "Elliptical Manway" will not change the calculations to reflect an
elliptical neck.

49 |Page

Nozzle
Nozzle or reinf. Outside spherical portion: For nozzles in torispherical or ASME F & D heads, select

the box when any of the reinforcement of the nozzle neck crosses into the knuckle region. If the
nozzle and its reinforcement (including any reinforcement from the head) are completely within the
dish of the head, the box may be left clear. This will affect the value of tr used to determine the values
of A and A1 in the reinforcement calculations. See the definition of tr in UG-37 for more information.

Nozzle or reinf. Outside 80% of Center: For nozzles in elliptical heads, select the box when any of the

reinforcement of the nozzle neck crosses outside the 80% region, which is defined as a circle
centered on the head axis that includes 80% of the head skirt inside diameter. If the nozzle and its
reinforcement (including any reinforcement from the head) are completely within the 80% region, the
box may be left clear. This will affect the value of tr used to determine the values of A and A1 in the
reinforcement calculations. See the definition of tr in UG-37 for more information.

Nozzle Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

50 |Page

Nozzle
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Nozzle Dimensions
Inside Diameter: The component inside diameter in the new condition.

Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the component, which is determined from Table UW-12 for welded

joints and may also represent ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints
exist, the lowest efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency. This
efficiency is for the long seam in the nozzle neck and does not represent the joint efficiency for the
joint attaching the nozzle to its host or for any joints in the host that the nozzle penetrates.

51 |Page

Nozzle
Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Groove Depth: This field represents the depth of the groove weld in the nozzle neck for abutting

nozzle details and for details inserting the nozzle neck. The default is full penetration value. This field
will only be available for details that include groove welds.

Penetration: Only available for the UW-16(k) or Partial Penetration nozzle configurations, this field

represents the partial depth that the nozzle neck is inserted into the host wall.

Inside CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Dimension L: The radial offset of the nozzle, defined as the axis to axis distance between the nozzle

and a hypothetical nozzle that is radial. This field is only available for tangential nozzles and is used in
the calculation of the developed opening for nozzles in cylindrical shells, hemispherical heads, and
elliptical heads. In dished heads, this is the same as the distance from the center of the head when
the nozzle axis is parallel to the head axis.

External CA: Corrosion allowance on the outside of the component (convex side). This field is

available for internal heads and for the inner components of a jacketed vessel.

Developed Opening:The chord length (in the new condition) of the opening as defined in Figure UG-

40 for the nozzle type being used. Chord length is most commonly determined from the ID of the
nozzle neck, however certain details, such as UW-16(k), are based on the hole made in the host to
accommodate the nozzle. The corroded version of this value is used as d in the various nozzle
calculations, including the reinforcement exemption criteria in UG-36(c)(3)(a).

52 |Page

Nozzle
Custom Developed Opening:Select this box to manually enter values for all nozzle angles (See page
46) . Doing so will also require manual completion of the "Developed Opening"and "Corroded

Developed Opening" fields.

tb1 and tb2 CA: Determines the corrosion allowance used in the UG-45 calculations to determine

tb1 and tb2; this field defaults to Nozzle CA for new vessels and patched vessels.If Nozzle CA is
selected, the nozzle corrosion allowance will be used. If Host CA is selected, the calculations will use
the corrosion allowance of the host.

UG-45 Comparison: Select the number of digits from the nozzle thickness to compare to the UG-45

thickness requirement. The default value is four decimal places for customary units and two decimal
places for metric units. The number of decimal places used is examined after any pipe tolerances
have been considered.

Flange/MDMT
Other Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT Reductions
Take UCS-66(b) Reduction: Selecting this check box will take advantage of the reduction in allowed

MDMT per UCS-66(b). This paragraph includes a calculation for the component which
compensates for any excess material thickness in the component.

Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

53 |Page

Nozzle

MDMT
MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

Flange 1-7(b) Info


The following fields are only available when the Appendix 1-7(b) calculations are required.

Flange OD: The outside diameter of the nozzle flange.


Flange Thickness: The thickness of the nozzle flange, not including the thickness of any raised

face.
Flange Bolt Hole Diameter: The diameter of a single bolt hole in the nozzle flange (e.g., 1/2" or

12mm). This is not the bolt circle diameter (e.g., 24" or 610mm).
Shell to flange offset distance: The distance from the outside of the shell wall to the side of the

flange nearest the shell. This is measured in the plane that has the shell axis running left/right and
the nozzle axis running up/down (assuming the nozzle flange is at the top of the cross-section).
Flange Hot Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal

pressure condition. This value is not determined by the software. Use the following description as
guidance in determining the input that should be used. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in
the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value
is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the
value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed
cases.
Flange Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at the 70 F (20 C).This value is not

determined by the software. Use the following description as guidance in determining the input
that should be used. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes
from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and
Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate
strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in
the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.

54 |Page

Nozzle

Area Info
Nozzle
External Projection: The distance that the nozzle axis projects past the outside surface of the vessel

wall.

Weld 41:The weld leg of the nozzle neck perimeter weld on the outside of the vessel.

Internal Projection: The distance that the nozzle axis projects past the inside surface of the vessel

wall.

Weld 43:The weld leg of the nozzle neck perimeter weld on the inside of the vessel. In the case of

Partial Penetration or UW-16(k) nozzle configuration, Weld 43 refers to the inner fillet weld between
the nozzle neck and the host thickness.

Factor F:This value represents a correction for the stress direction in cones and cylinders and is only

available for input when the nozzle is in a cone or a cylinder and the nozzle is integrally reinforced
(i.e., the nozzle is attached by full penetration groove welds and a repad is not used). Review the
definition for F in UsG-37 and Figure UG-37 before editing this value; a value of 1.0 is conservative.

Use Repad:Select this box to add a repad to the nozzle.

Reinforcing Pad
The following fields are only available if a repad is used.

55 |Page

Nozzle
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is

used, the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults. For example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516
Grade 70, this field will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will
show SA-516. The field may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the
relationship to the material database; while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take
care to enter correct information.
Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without
breaking the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take
care to enter correct information.
Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials

that did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by
the "Unlisted Material" caption.
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from
Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and
Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate
strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in
the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature
listed for the internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials
stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is
defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.
Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part
D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and
creep governed cases. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the
database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

56 |Page

Nozzle
Apply Split Repad Penalty: Select the box to apply a multiplier of 0.75 to the value of A5 used in

the nozzle reinforcement and weld strength calculations. This 25% penalty is applied per the
conditions listed in UG-37(h) and was introduced in the 2009 addenda to the 2007 edition of
Section VIII, Division 1.
Diameter:The outside diameter of the reinforcing pad. If the pad is not circular in shape, enter the

diameter of the reinforcing pad for the cross-section in question as though the repad were
circular. For example, when looking at the tangential cross-section of an off-set nozzle, the
diameter of the pad would be entered as the distance from one edge of the pad on one side of the
nozzle to the opposite edge of the pad on the other side of the nozzle measured along the chord
length of the opening.
te: The thickness of the reinforcing pad.
Groove Depth: The depth of the groove weld deposited in the repad at the perimeter of the nozzle

neck. The default value is full penetration.


Weld 42: The weld leg of the repad perimeter weld.

Custom Limit of Reinforcement:When the Enable box is selected, the value entered will be used to

limit the parallel limit of reinforcement determined per UG-40(b). Using this field may result in
reducing the available area of reinforcement values and make meeting the UG-37 or Appendix 1-7
(a) reinforcement requirements more difficult. For example, nozzles in close proximity may not have
overlapping limits of reinforcement, so the code would require a reduction in this value and would
thereby increase the difficulty of meeting UG-37 requirements. See UG-42 (UG-39 for nozzles in flat
heads) for more information. In addition, nozzles typically exempt from reinforcement calculations
will lose their exemption if this field is used.

Total Nozzle Weight: The weight of the nozzle can be specified by the user or calculated by the

software. This value will be dynamically calculated by the software unless the user manually enters a
value.Once input has been manually entered, the value becomes static and is no longer calculated.

Calc Reinf. For nozzles meeting UG-36(c)(3)(a): Select this box to force nozzle reinforcement

calculations. Calculations will be performed even for cases that are exempt as small openings per
UG-36(c)(3)(a).

57 |Page

Nozzle

Determining if UG-16 Applies to a Nozzle


The minimum thickness selection (Vessel Information > General Tab) can be applied to nozzle
calculations. Paragraph UG-45 covers the thickness of nozzle necks. If UG-45(b) applies to the
nozzle, the minimum thickness per UG-16 does affect the nozzle neck thickness. View the definitions
of tb1 and tb2 from paragraph UG-45 in SC VIII-I for more information.

Nozzle Troubleshooting
Nozzle design includes checking several different calculations and failure modes. Weld detail
requirements, weld strength, nozzle neck thickness, reinforcement, compact reinforcement, and
large opening rigidity must all be analyzed. This article will address varying issues that may come up
while designing a nozzle and will suggest solutions when applicable.

The value of E is incorrect in the nozzle thickness calculations


This value is equal to that entered in the "Efficiency" field on the Design Info tab and it drives the
nozzle neck thickness calculations in UG-45(a). If you are looking at the calculation for trn, remember
that UG-37(a) defines trn as for a seamless nozzle neck.

The value of E1 is incorrect in the nozzle thickness calculations


This value is set based on the "Nozzle Path" selection on the Design Info tab. If the nozzle host is
ER W/Auto pipe, you must select that to make the calculation set E1=0.85. View the Nozzle >
Design Info help file for more information.

The Area of Reinforcement from the nozzle host is zero


The A1 value is being forced to zero by a setting in the vessel screen. If the Use excess vessel wall
thickness for nozzle reinforcement calculations box is not selected, material from the host will not be
used for reinforcement, resulting in A1=0. This box should be selected unless your internal
requirements or those of a customer indicate that A1 should not be considered. To change this
setting, select Vessel Information from the Vessel menu on the Components pane and go to the
Design tab.

58 |Page

Nozzle

Nozzle Planes of Reinforcement Methodology


DesignCalcs determines tr as defined in UG-37(a) per circumferential stress (longitudinal plane).
For a situation in which a hillside nozzle is designed where the developed opening is bigger when
looking at the longitudinal plane and the code is allowing a value for F that is less than 1.0, design the
nozzle as two separate nozzles to reap the most benefit from code allowances. It is also possible to
check for the largest developed opening and keep F equal to 1.0 at the same time.

As defined in UG-37(a), F is the correction in the code for the fact that longitudinal stress
(circumferential plane) is of the circumferential stress (longitudinal plane). When in the longitudinal
plane, the value must be 1.0. In other planes, the value may fall between 0.5 and 1.0 (dependent
upon the plane) if the design meets certain requirements:the nozzle is attached to the vessel with full
penetration groove welds and the nozzle is integrally reinforced (i.e., no repad).

59 |Page

Nozzle

Selected Pipe is Larger than Necessary


Occasionally, DesignCalcs may appear to select a bigger pipe size than it should be when
determining the thickness from Table UG-45. The code requires that the pipe size selected for
determining the thickness be based on the outside diameter of the nozzle. If the nozzle diameter is
bigger than the outside diameter listed for a specific NPS in ASME B36.10M, the next size pipe is
chosen.

60 |Page

STUDDED OUTLET

(return to Contents)

General Info

61

Outlet

62

Flange

64

Bolting

65

MDMT

66

General Info
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Purpose: Select a type from the drop-down list or manually enter one into the field. This field is for the

users reference.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

No: This field is for user reference when inside the studded outlet form; it will not appear anywhere

else. The default value is the component number (e.g., if this is the fourth studded outlet, the value
will be four).

Detail Requirements: Because the wording in the code allows multiple interpretations, this allows the

user to choose whether the weld detail requirements per UW-16 should be met in the corroded
condition, the new condition, or both.

61 |Page

Studded Outlet

The following fields only affect the 3D drawing; they do not have an effect on the calculations or
the output.

Distance from Reference Line: For studded outlets in cylindrical shells, this indicates the distance

from the reference line datum measured along the axis of the vessel.
Orientation: Determines the position of the studded outlet around the component. Vertical vessels

in the standard view will show a studded outlet at 0 on the front of the vessel, 90 on the right
side of the vessel, and so on. Horizontal vessels in the standard view will show a studded outlet at
0 on the top of the vessel, 90 on the back of the vessel, and so on. The angle is determined
based on where the studded outlet axis penetrates the inside surface of the host.

Rotate bolt pattern: This field can be used to toggle between a two-hole and a one-hole bolt

pattern in the 3D render.

Nozzle Path:If the opening is in a Category A joint, select Cat. A. If the nozzle is in ERW or

autogenously welded pipe and it is not clear where the welds are or it is clear that the opening is in
one of the joints, select ERW/Auto. For all other cases, select None. This setting affects the value of
E1 used to determine the value of A1 in the reinforcement calculations; see the definition of E1 in
UG-37 for more information.

Outlet
Studded Outlet Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

62 |Page

Studded Outlet
Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Allowable Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Vacuum Allowable Stress: The material allowable stress at the host temperature listed for the

external pressure condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value
comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials,
and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the
ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values
listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the host
temperature listed for the external pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the
user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Design Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

63 |Page

Studded Outlet
Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Design Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case

as defined in UG-20(a).

Internal Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside surfaces of the component.

External Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the outside surfaces of the component.

Inside Diameter: The bore of the studded outlet.

Outside Diameter: The outside diameter of the studded outlet.

Finished Opening Diameter: The opening diameter in the host wall in the new condition. It is

assumed to be circular in shape.

Thickness: The studded outlet thickness at the thinnest cross-section in the new condition.

Flange
Flange Dimensions
Weld 42:The weld leg of the studded outlet perimeter weld.

Weld 44:The weld leg of the studded outlet weld at the finished opening of the host shell.

64 |Page

Studded Outlet
Diameter of Reinforcement:The limit of reinforcement measured parallel to the studded outlet axis.

This is a calculated value determined per UG-40(b). The result may be reduced by the user, but it
may not be increased beyond what is calculated per UG-40(b). Reducing the value results in a lower
available area in the reinforcement calculations and makes meeting UG-37 reinforcement
requirements more difficult. For example, openings in close proximity may not have overlapping
limits of reinforcement, so the code would require a reduction in this value and would thereby
increase the difficulty of meeting UG-37 requirements. See UG-42 for more information.

Bolting
Load and Bolt Calculations
Number of Bolts: The actual number of bolts, not the number of bolt holes.

Nominal Diameter: The nominal diameter of the bolt. This field will be completed automatically if the

Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Bolt Hole Diameter: The bolt hole diameter, not the bolt circle diameter. This field will fill in

automatically if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts; the value will be determined based on the
bolt nominal diameter.

Bolt Size / Threads Per Inch:These fields are completed automatically when a bolt size is selected

from the Bolt Search.

Depth of Hole: The depth of the bolt hole measured from the outside surface to the bottom of the bolt

hole. This value is assumed to not be greater than the pad thickness. See the image on the General
Info tab for more information.

Bolt Circle: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of each bolt.

65 |Page

Studded Outlet

MDMT
Other Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT Reductions
Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

MDMT
MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

Dry Weight/Flooded Weight: Currently these values are not calculated in the software. Any input in

these fields will be added to the summary page information. These values will also need to be added
as attachment weight to be considered in the structural calculations.

66 |Page

Studded Outlet
Surface Area/Volume: Currently these values are not calculated in the software. Any input in these

fields will be added to the summary page information.

67 |Page

RATED FLANGE
(ASME OFF THE SHELF
FLANGES)

(return to Contents)

Rated Flange

68

Rated Flange Default Creation Settings Tips

70

Rated Flange Information

71

Rated Flange Methodology

73

Rated Flange
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

68 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)


Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Reference Notes: These notes are provided for information only and are not currently used to restrict

the design. The reference is drawn from the selected Section VIII, Division 1 edition/addenda based
on the rated flange size. Table U-3 dictates the referenced standard and year.

Type: Select a flange type from those in the B16.5 and B16.47 standards. Weld Neck Series A and B

as well as Blind Series A and B are the large size flanges from B16.47.

Material Group:The B16.5 and B16.47 standards organize materials into material groups in order to

assign pressure temperature ratings. All materials in the same material group will have the same
pressure temperature ratings. The material group is selected automatically when a material is
chosen and the value cannot be edited.

Size: Select a flange size. B16.5 covers flange sizes up to 24 inches; B16.47 covers flanges up to 60

inches.

ASME Class: The ASME rating class from the B16.5 and B16.47 standards.

Orientation: This field is only present when the when the software needs to determine where to place

the rated flange on its host. When the host is a shell, select whether the face of the flange points
toward or away from the reference line. When the host is a reducer, select whether to place the
flange on the large or small end.

Rotate bolt pattern: This field can be used to toggle between a two-hole and a one-hole bolt pattern

in the 3D render.

69 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)

Rated Flange Default Creation Settings Tips


Material Data
The material data available to other components is now included in the Rated Flange window.

A new material default has been added for rated flange for both metric and customary units. Just as the
other material defaults, this is located on the Materials tab under Tools> Defaults. It works the same
way as the materials default for the other components. This default replaces both the material group
default and the original material default for rated flange.
SA-105 is the default when the software is shipped.
The materials default for rated flange only allows selection of materials that are included in one of the
following ASME references: B16.5 2003 edition, B16.5 2009 edition, B16.47 1996, B16.47 2006, and
B16.47 2011.
The material search in the rated flange form only allows selection of materials that are included in the
current active reference: B16.5 2003 edition, B16.5 2009 edition, B16.47 1996, B16.47 2006, or B16.47
2011.
Due to the material changes, designs patched from 2012.0 or an earlier version of DesignCalcs will not
have a material set; in most cases the math can still run as the Material Group will still be set.

Default Settings

70 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)


l

If the size is 24 or less and the host is a shell, head, reducer, or nozzle, the default type will be set to
the selection in the ASME Flange Type field on the General tab under Tools > Defaults.
If the size is 24 or less and the host is a flange, the default type will be set to Blind.
If the size is greater than 24 and the host is a shell, head, reducer, or nozzle, the default type will be
set to Weld Neck Series A or B based on the selection in the ASME Flange Series field on the General
tab under Tools > Defaults.
If the size is greater than 24 and the host is a flange, the default type will be set to Blind Series A or B
based on the selection in the ASME Flange Series field on the General tab under Tools > Defaults.

Flange Size
l

If the size of the host is less than or equal to , the size will be .

If the size of the host is over 58, the size will be 60.

If the size of the host falls on a rated flange size included in the B16 references, the flange will default
to that size.
If the size of the host falls between sizes included in the B16 references,the flange will default to the
larger of the two sizes.

Flange Class
Upon creation of a rated flange, DesignCalcs will attempt to find the optimal flange class. If an
optimal rated flange cannot be determined, the flange will start at class 150.

Rated Flange Information


Reference Notes
These notes are not currently used to restrict the design; they are provided for your information. The
reference is drawn from the selected Section VIII, Division 1 edition/addenda based on the rated
flange size. Table U-3 dictates the referenced standard and year.

Reference is B16.5 2003 - Size 24"; 2010 edition

Reference is B16.5 2009 - Size 24"; 2011 addenda or 2013 edition

Reference is B16.47 1996 - Size > 24"; 2010 edition

Reference is B16.47 2006 - Size > 24"; 2011 addenda

Reference is B16.47 2011 - Size > 24"; 2013 edition

71 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)

Flange Type
The selected flange type limits other aspects of the design. The software does not limit the choices in
the size and class fields based on that selected in the flange field, though, so if a combination is
selected that does not have a reference, the design will be given a status of failed.

Slip On
l

NPS 1/2" to 3-1/2" for Class 400 are dual rated for Class 600

NPS 1/2" to 2-1/2" for Class 900 are dual rated for Class 1500

Limited to NPS 2-1/2 for Class 1500

Do not have data for Class 2500

Socket Welding
l

Limited to the NPS range of to 3 for Class 150, 300

Do not have data for Class 400 flanges

Limited to the NPS range of to 3 for Class 600

Do not have data for Class 900 flanges

Limited to the NPS range of to 2-1/2 for Class 1500

Do not have data for Class 2500

Threaded
l

NPS 1/2" to 3-1/2" for Class 400 are dual rated for Class 600

NPS 1/2" to 2-1/2" for Class 900 are dual rated for Class 1500

Limited to NPS 2-1/2 for Class 1500 and 2500

Lapped
l

NPS 1/2" to 3-1/2" for Class 400 are dual rated for Class 600

NPS 1/2" to 2-1/2" for Class 900 are dual rated for Class 1500

Blind/Weld Neck
l

NPS 1/2" to 3-1/2" for Class 400 are dual rated for Class 600

NPS 1/2" to 2-1/2" for Class 900 are dual rated for Class 1500

Series A
l
Limited to Classes 150 to 900
l

Limited to 26 to 60 for classes 150, 300, 400, and 600

Limited to 26 to 48 for class 900

72 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)


l

Series B
l
Limited to Classes 75 to 900
l

Limited to 26 to 60 for classes 150 and 300

Limited to 26 to 36 for classes 400, 600, and 900

Material Group
Material Group assignment is not dependent on units of measure; it has been normalized across
B16.5 2003 and 2009 and B16.47 1996, 2006, and 2011. Material Group and ASMEClass are
taken together to determine the pressure/temperature ratings. The material group is assigned
automatically and cannot be changed.

B16.47 1996 only uses customary units.

B16.5 2003 and 2009 and B16.47 2006 have both customary and metric units.

B16.5 includes material groups for 3.X, but B16.47 does not.

ASMEClass
ASMEClass is taken together with Material Group to determine the pressure/temperature ratings.
The classes covered by the software have differences in coverage.

B16.5 includes flange classes 1500 and 2500 (B16.47 does not).

B16.47 includes flange class 75 (B16.5 does not).

Both B16.5 and B16.47 include flange classes 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900.

Class 75 is only for Series B Blind and Weldneck rated flanges.

Class 75 is only for NPS 24" to NPS 60".

Class 900 and up do not have data for NPS 3 -1/2.

Class 400 has data starting at NPS 4. Smaller NPSClass 400 flanges are dual rated with Class 600.

Class 900 has data starting at NPS 3. Smaller NPSClass 900 flanges are dual rated with Class 1500.

Class 1500 has data up NPS 24.

Class 2500 has data up to NPS 12.

Rated Flange Methodology


DesignCalcs supports ASME Off the Shelf flanges. In the software, these are referred to as rated
flanges. This article will surface flange details and explore the methodology behind how the software
handles the calculations for these flanges.

73 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)

The Rated Flange designer uses the default settings to automatically create a passing flange when it
is opened. The size is first determined and then the smallest passing class is selected.

Determine Reference
The reference is determined from the Section VIII, Division 1 selection (2010 edition or 2011
addenda) and the rated flange size. Table U-3 in Section VIII, Division 1, dictates the referenced
standard and the year to use.

a. Reference is B16.5 2003 if the size 24 and the Section VIII, Division 1 selection is 2010 edition.
b. Reference is B16.5 2009 if the size 24 and the Section VIII, Division 1 selection is 2011 addenda or
2013 edition.
c. Reference is B16.47 1996 if the size > 24 and the Section VIII, Division 1 selection is 2010 edition.
d. Reference is B16.47 2006 if the size > 24 and the Section VIII, Division 1 selection is 2011 addenda.
e. Reference is B16.47 2011 if the size > 24" and the Section VIII, Division 1 selection is 2013 edition.

Assign Material Group


The material group is assigned based on the material selected and the reference.

Place Reference Notes


Based on the material selected, notes are provided in the Rated Flange window for your reference.
These are currently not used to restrict the design; we strongly advise that you review them.

Determine M.A.P.
The Maximum Allowable Pressure (MAP) is determined from the units of measure, reference,
material group, rated flange class, and the temperature. The output is in PSI for customary units and
MPa for metric units.

a. Metric data is not included in the B16.47 1996 reference. If a metric design is used with this reference,
the temperature will be converted from Celsius to Fahrenheit for the determination. The result will then
be converted from PSI to MPa.
b. If the temperature is above 1500F (816C), the M.A.P. cannot be determined as the
pressure/temperature ratings only go up to 1500F (816C).
c. If the temperature is below 100F (38C), 100F (38C)will be used in the determination as this is the
lowest temperature in the pressure/temperature ratings.

74 |Page

Rated Flange (ASME Off the Shelf Flanges)


d. Linear interpolation is used between data points.
e. It is possible that the combination of the reference, material group, and rated flange class will not have
corresponding pressure/temperature ratings. If this is the case, the M.A.P. cannot be determined.

Determine Total Pressure


The total pressure is determined as the sum of the Design Pressure and the Static Head.

Compare Total Pressure and M.A.P.


Total Pressure must be less than or equal to the Maximum Allowable Pressure in order for the rated
flange design to pass. If the Total Pressure is greater than the M.A.P., the Total Pressure label at the
bottom of the window will be displayed in red.

Reference Check
The size, class, and type are checked to make sure that the combination is included in the
references. If the combination is not included, the Rated Flange will be placed in a failed status. In
that case, the labels for these fields will be displayed in red. There are several combinations that are
dual rated for two classes; these will be given a pass w/comment status assuming the M.A.P. check
passes.

75 |Page

APPENDIX 2 FLANGE

(return to Contents)

General Info

76

Pressure

77

Host/Flange

79

Gasket

84

Load/Bolt Calcs

86

Determining the Value of the Lever Arm on a Spherically Dished Cover

89

Reducing Number of Bolts Results in Flange Thickness Reduction

89

General Info
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Design Type: Select the basic flange configuration from the options.

Orientation: This field is only present when the when the software needs to determine where to place

the rated flange on its host. When the host is a shell, select whether the face of the flange points
toward or away from the reference line. When the host is a reducer, select whether to place the
flange on the large or small end.

76 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Rotate bolt pattern: This field can be used to toggle between a two-hole and a one-hole bolt pattern

in the 3D render.

Consider Flange Rigidity:Select the box to perform the flange rigidity code check per Appendix 2-

14. Though this code check is now required per Section VIII, Division 1, it was optional in the past
and this field allows the user to decide whether or not to consider the requirement.

Pressure
Internal Pressure
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the host component (convex side) for

loose type flanges, inside of the hub (convex side) for integral type flanges, and inside of the
thickness for reverse and blind flanges. This does not affect calculations for certain flange types
(such as loose flanges).

Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Include Pass Partition Rib Area: Select this box if the flange should account for the gasket reaction

from pass partition plates in shell and tube heat exchanger plates. This field is only available for
flanges added to heat exchanger designs.

77 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange

External Pressure
Ext. Pressure: The external design pressure (pressure on the convex side). This value is gauge

pressure. The software will adjust this input for static head.

Ext. Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the external pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Ext. Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head

of the fluid that is present during the external pressure case. The user must determine this value and
input it accordingly; it will be subtracted from the "Ext. Pressure" input.

Int. Pressure axial load: Fa is the axial load (if any) that is present on the flanged connection during

the internal pressure case. This is not due to internal pressure. This value is positive if the load is
pulling the connection apart and negative if it is pushing the connection together. For instance, in a
vertical vessel with the bottom head bolted on, the value of Fa might be the weight of the bottom
head and the weight of any fluid pushing down on the bottom head; in this case the load would be
positive because it is pushing the connection apart. For a horizontal vessel with a bolted on head, Fa
might be 0 in that case even though internal pressure exists.

Loads
Int. Pressure moment:M is the overturning moment (if any) that is present on the flanged connection

during the pressure case indicated. This is not due to internal pressure. This value is never negative.
For example, in a horizontal vessel with the right head bolted on, the value of Ma would be the force
of the material and content weight to the right of the bolted connection times the distance to the
center of gravity of that weight. For a vertical vessel with a bolted on head, M might be 0 even though
internal pressure exists.

Ext. Pressure axial load: Fa is the axial load (if any) that is present on the flanged connection during

the external pressure case. This is not due to external pressure. This is positive if the load is pulling
the connection apart and negative if it is pushing them together. For instance, in a vertical vessel with
the bottom head bolted on, the value of Fa might be the weight of the bottom head and the weight of
any fluid pushing down on the bottom head; in this case the load would be positive because it is
pushing the connection apart. For a horizontal vessel with a bolted on head, Fa might be 0 in that
case even though external pressure exists.

78 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Ext. Pressure moment:M is the overturning moment (if any) that is present on the flanged connection

during the pressure case indicated. This is not due to internal pressure. This value is never negative.
For example, in a horizontal vessel with the right head bolted on, the value of Ma would be the force
of the material and content weight to the right of the bolted connection times the distance to the
center of gravity of that weight. For a vertical vessel with a bolted on head, M might be 0 even though
external pressure exists.

Host/Flange
Flange Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

79 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

80 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Ext. P Mod. of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II,

Part D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed
for the external pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the external pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Cold Mod. of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II,

Part D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table at 70 F (20 C). There are
several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be
found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus of
elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the
value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Host Information at Flange Location


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

81 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Inside/Outside Diameter: The host component diameter in the new condition. The selection of inside

or outside in the "Use Diameter"field determines whether this field refers to the inside or outside
diameter of the host component.

Wall Thickness: The host thickness in the new condition.

Dish Thickness: The thickness of the dish attached to the flange. This field is only available when

Spherical Dished Cover is selected as the "Design Type" (See page 76).

Dish radius: The inside crown radius of the dish attached to the flange. This field is only available

when Spherical Dished Cover is selected as the "Design Type" (See page 76).

Flange Welded to Wall: Select the box to enable the "Weld leg size" field on the Gasket tab (See page
84) . This is only available when Loose Type or Loose Type with Hub is selected as the "Design Type"
(See page 76) .

82 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Does Flange have a Hub: Select the box to enable the "Thickness (g1)"and "Length (h)" fields on the

Gasket tab (See page 84). This is only available when Optional Integral Type is selected as the "Design
Type" (See page 76).

Other Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT Reductions
Take UCS-66(b) Reduction: Selecting this check box will take advantage of the reduction in allowed

MDMT per UCS-66(b). This paragraph includes a calculation for the component which
compensates for any excess material thickness in the component.

Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

MDMT
MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

83 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange

Gasket
Flange Neck Dimensions
Inside Diameter(B): For non-reverse integral flanges and reverse flanges, this is the ID of the flange

host. For non-reverse loose type flanges and spherically dished covers, this is the bore of the flange.

Inside Diameter(B): Only applicable for reverse flanges, this value represents the bore of the reverse

flange.

Mating Flange I.D.: The ID of the mating flange that is exposed to pressure in blind flanges.

Head Factor C: This value is only applicable for blind flanges and it used to determine the required

thickness for the blind flange. See UG-34 for more information.

Weld Efficiency: This value is only applicable for blind flanges and it used to determine the required

thickness for the blind flange. See UG-34 for more information.

Lever arm (hR):The lever arm for the radial component of the membrane load of the spherical

segment Hr. This field is only required for the design of a spherically dished cover for Figure 1-6(d).
The magnitude of the moment arm is most easily determined by reviewing the mentioned figure; it is
the axial distance from the centroid of the flange thickness to where the mid thickness of the dish
intersects the flange. If the mid-thickness of the dish is closer to the gasket face of the flange (in the
axial direction) than the centroid of the flange is to the gasket face, the sign of hR is positive;
otherwise, it is negative. It may be more or less conservative to determine this value in the corroded
condition.

Hub thickness (g0): The flange hub thickness at its thinnest point. This dimension will differ

depending on the flange type and attachment detail (e.g., if the flange is a certain type, g0 may be
the thickness of the host nozzle neck).

Weld leg size: The fillet weld between the back of the flange and the host. In several cases this value,

or the sum of this value and the host thickness, act as the g1 value.

84 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Flange face bevel size: This value is only available for lap joint flanges. It affects the calculation of the

moment arms because the bevel size removes area of the flange that is acting on the lap.

Hub Thickness (g1): The flange hub thickness at its thickest point at the back of the flange. This

dimension will differ depending on the flange type and attachment detail (e.g., if the flange is a
certain type, g1 may be the sum of the thickness of the host nozzle neck and the fillet weld on the
back of the flange).

Hub Length (h): The hub length is the distance from the back of the flange to the point where the hub

is thinnest. Some of the flange configurations have requirements on this length.

Gasket and Facing Details


Material: A description of the gasket that will appear on the report but will not directly affect the

results.

Type: A secondary description of the gasket. This will also appear on the report without directly

affecting the results.

Facing Sketch: Review Table 2-5.2 from Appendix 2 for more information. This is used to determine

the Effective Gasket Width, bo .

Seating Column: Review Table 2-5.2 from Appendix 2 for more information. This is used to

determine the Effective Gasket Width, bo .

Factor m: Suggested values for the gasket factor may be obtained from Table 2-5.1 in Appendix 2.

More accurate values should be available from the gasket manufacturer.

Seating Stress y: Suggested values for the gasket seating stress may be obtained from Table 2-5.1

in Appendix 2. More accurate values should be available from the gasket manufacturer.

85 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
O.D. contact face: The outside diameter of the gasket on the face of the flange. Depending on the

"Facing Sketch," this value may be the actual outside diameter of the gasket or it may only reflect the
diameter of actual contact with the flange (e.g., on a raised face flange where part of the gasket
extends outside the raised face).

Gasket width (N): The width of the gasket that is actually in contact with the flange. Depending on the

"Facing Sketch," this value may be the actual width of the gasket or it may only reflect the width of
actual contact with the flange (e.g., on a raised face flange where part of the gasket extends outside
the raised face).

Check seating conditions for self-energizing gaskets:Select this box to run the gasket seating

calculations for self energizing gaskets. Appendix 2 has a gasket seating bolt load W that can be
significantly higher than the operating bolt load. This bolt load is determined as 0.5*(Am + Ab) where
Ab is the actual total bolt cross-sectional area and Am is the higher of the area required for gasket
seating or operating. W is used in the gasket seating check for determining stresses. Running the
gasket seating case is optional because it may greatly increase the flange thickness due to the
apparent excessive conservatism for gaskets of this type.

Load/Bolt Calcs
Bolting Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

86 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Load and Bolt Calculations


Is the Bolt Circle > the Flange OD: Select this box for flanges that are designed with slots instead of

bolt holes. Per Appendix 2, for flanges such as these, the flange outside diameter is the diameter to
the inside of the slots; in this case, the effective outside diameter could be less than the bolt circle.

Lock Wm Values to Minimum: Select this box to force the bolt load values, Wm1 and Wm2, to the

minimum required in Appendix 2. Clear this box to increase the bolt load values. For cases where
flange pairs are used, these values must be manually matched across the two flanges and this box
should be cleared.

Number of Bolts: The actual number of bolts, not the number of bolt holes.

Nominal Diameter: The nominal diameter of the bolt. This field will be completed automatically if the

Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

87 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange
Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Bolt Hole Diameter: The bolt hole diameter, not the bolt circle diameter. This field will fill in

automatically if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts; the value will be determined based on the
bolt nominal diameter.

Bolt Size / Threads Per Inch:These fields are completed automatically when a bolt size is selected

from the Bolt Search.

Design operating Bolt Load Int. Pressure (Wm1): The internal pressure operating bolt load. This

value will calculate to the minimum required by code once all the inputs to do so are made. This value
may be increased beyond the minimum when the Lock Wm Values to Minimum box is cleared.

Design Seating Bolt Load (Wm2): The gasket seating bolt load. This value will calculate to the

minimum required by code once all the inputs to do so are made. This value may be increased
beyond the minimum when the Lock Wm Values to Minimum box is cleared.

Bolt Circle: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of each bolt.

Outside Diameter: The flange outside diameter. For cases where slots are used instead of bolt holes,

this value will be the diameter to the inside of the slot as referred to in the definition for Is the Bolt
Circle > the Flange OD.

Nominal Flange Thickness: The flange thickness in the new condition.

Apply Bolt Correction Factor: Select Appendix 2 to determine if a correction factor is applicable per

Appendix 2, Section VIII-I. This is ascertained by checking the chord length between the centers of
two adjacent bolt holes; if a correction factor is required, the moment on the flange will be multiplied
by the correction factor. When Appendix 2 is selected, there is a maximum chord length that cannot
be exceeded for the design to pass.

88 |Page

Appendix 2 Flange

Determining the Value of the Lever Arm on a Spherically Dished


Cover
hR represents the lever arm for the radial component of the membrane load of the spherical

segment Hr. This field is only required for the design of a spherically dished cover for Figure 1-6(d).
The magnitude of the moment arm is most easily determined by reviewing the mentioned figure: it is
the axial distance from the centroid of the flange thickness to where the mid thickness of the dish
intersects the flange.

If the mid-thickness of the dish is closer to the gasket face of the flange (in the axial direction) than
the centroid of the flange is to the gasket face, the sign of hR is positive; otherwise, it is negative. It
may be more or less conservative to determine this value in the corroded condition.

The sign of the moment arm is based on whether or not the moment (Hr*hR) causes rotation of the
flange around the bolt circle in the same direction as the gasket reaction. The gasket reaction will
cause the flange to want to rotate around the bolt circle in such a fashion that the flange will want to
open up into the vessel with the bolt circle acting as a hinge. Since Hr acts in an inward radial
direction, we know that if the mid-thickness of the flange is closer to the flange face (in the axial
direction) than the centroid of the flange thickness is to the gasket face, the resulting rotation will
want to open the flange face into to the vessel with the bolt circle acting as a hinge. As this is the
same direction of rotation as the gasket reaction, hR would be positive in this case.

Reducing Number of Bolts Results in Flange Thickness Reduction


Appendix 2 flanges consider two bolt areas: Ab is the actual bolt cross-sectional area; Am is the
required total bolt cross-sectional area. The code requires Ab to be greater than or equal to Am, but
it also penalizes excessive bolting.

The average of Ab and Am is used to determine the bolt load for gasket seating (W). As the actual
bolt area increases, the value of W increases; therefore, the bending moment on the flange
increases and drives up the flange thickness.

Decreasing your bolt area, Ab, to as close to Am as is practical will help you get a thinner required
flange thickness.

89 |Page

STIFFENING RING

(return to Contents)

General Info

90

Design

92

General Info
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Ring Stiffener Information


Design Temperature:The maximum mean metal design temperature for the external pressure case

as defined in UG-20(a).

Quantity:The number of stiffening rings. This is for information only and does not affect other fields.

Stiffener Outside:Select this box if the stiffener ring is outside the vessel wall. Clearing the box

indicates that the ring is inside the vessel and will be exposed to the "Corrosion Allowance."

Distance from Reference Line: The distance from the reference line datum measured along the axis

of the vessel. This field only affects the 3D drawing; it does not have an effect on the calculations or
the output.

Corrosion Allowance:The corrosion allowance on the stiffening ring. This field is only active when

the "Stiffener Outside"box is cleared.

90 |Page

Stiffening Ring
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Hot Stress The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the external pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in

the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

91 |Page

Stiffening Ring

Design
Stiffener Type:Select the shape of the stiffening ring.

Stiffener Information
Ls: The vessel length that the stiffener is designed to support. This is determined as half the length

from the center of the stiffener to the next line of support on one side plus half the length from the
center of the stiffener to the next line of support on the other side.

As: The cross-sectional area of the ring stiffener by itself. This value is calculated unless the

"Stiffener Type" is User Defined.

d1, d2, t1, t2: The dimensions for the cross-sectional area of the ring stiffener. These values are

represented in the picture in the input form and most are available for input except when the
"Stiffener Type" is User Defined.

Description: A description of the shape of the stiffener. This field will be automatically completed

when the Structural Shape Search is used to select a standard structural shape.

Available Moment of Inertia: The moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area of the ring stiffener by

itself around its neutral axis parallel to the shell axis. This value is calculated unless the "Stiffener
Type" is User Defined.

Distance Shell to Neutral Axis: The distance from the outside of the host shell wall to the neutral

axis of the ring stiffener cross-section. This value is calculated unless the "Stiffener Type" is User
Defined.

92 |Page

CL A MP

(return to Contents)

General Info

93

Hub

94

Clamp

96

Gasket

97

Bolting

98

Stress Ratios

100

General Info
Drawing Number:The drawing number associated with the component. This does not refer to any

drawings that are generated in the software and it is listed here for the user's reference. It will default
to the drawing number input on the vessel screen.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Clamp Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the

report dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the
component type and component number. For example, the second clamp for the vessel will start
with a description of Clamp 2.

Design Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

93 |Page

Clamp
Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Hub Configuration / Lug Configuration: Select a configuration option in each section. For more

information on the choices listed, refer to the figures in Appendix 24.

Hub
Hub Information
Though the values in this section are best defined in the figure provided, a few are listed below to
supply additional clarification.

Clamp Shoulder Angle: Indicated by Phi () in the figure. The code limits this value to a maximum of

40 degrees. See Appendix 24-3 for more information.

Friction Angle: According to Appendix 24-4, this value is set by the manufacturer and is based on

testing.

Hub Transition Angle: Indicated by alpha () in the figure. The code limits this value to a maximum of

45 degrees. See Appendix 24-3 for more information.

94 |Page

Clamp

Hub Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Hot Stress The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the external pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

95 |Page

Clamp
Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in

the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Clamp
Clamp Information
The values in this section are best defined in the figure provided.

Clamp Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

96 |Page

Clamp
Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Hot Stress The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the external pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in

the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Gasket
Configuration: The Ring Type configuration is based on Appendix 2 and assumes no metal to metal

contact outside the bolt circle. The Full Face configuration is based on Taylor Forge Bulletin #502
and is very similar to Appendix 2; the exception is that the gasket covers the whole face of contact.

97 |Page

Clamp
Material: A description of the gasket that will appear on the report but will not directly affect the

results.

Type: A secondary description of the gasket. This will also appear on the report without directly

affecting the results.

Facing Sketch: Review Table 2-5.2 from Appendix 2 for more information. This is used to determine

the Effective Gasket Width, bo .

Seating Column: Review Table 2-5.2 from Appendix 2 for more information. This is used to

determine the Effective Gasket Width, bo .

Factor m: Suggested values for the gasket factor may be obtained from Table 2-5.1 in Appendix 2.

More accurate values should be available from the gasket manufacturer.

Seating Stress y: Suggested values for the gasket seating stress may be obtained from Table 2-5.1

in Appendix 2. More accurate values should be available from the gasket manufacturer.

O.D. contact face: The outside diameter of the gasket on the face of the clamp. Depending on the

"Facing Sketch," this value may be the actual outside diameter of the gasket or it may only reflect the
diameter of actual contact with the clamp.

Gasket width (N): The width of the gasket that is actually in contact with the clamp. Depending on the

"Facing Sketch," this value may be the actual width of the gasket or it may only reflect the width of
actual contact with the clamp.

Check seating conditions for self-energizing gaskets:Select this box to run the gasket seating

calculations for self energizing gaskets. Sometimes this will govern the clamp design.

Bolting
Clamp Lug
The values in this section are best defined in the figure provided.

98 |Page

Clamp

Bolting Material
Number of Bolts: The actual number of bolts, not the number of bolt holes.

Nominal Diameter: The nominal diameter of the bolt. This field will be completed automatically if the

Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Bolt Size / Threads Per Inch:These fields are completed automatically when a bolt size is selected

from the Bolt Search.

Bolt Radius: The radial distance from the connection centerline to the center of the bolts.

Moment Arm:The radial distance from the effective clamp-hub reaction circle to the circle on which

the load HG acts. If Full Face is selected under "Gasket Type" (See page 97), this value is zero.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

99 |Page

Clamp
Hot Stress The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the external pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in

the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Stress Ratios
This tab displays the multiple calculated stress values divided by their corresponding allowable
stresses. Ratios of 1.0 or less are considered passing. When all of the stress ratios are passing, the
design is passing. These values are listed here for the user's convenience.

100 |Page

CO MP O N E N T OR D E R T R O U B L E S H O O T IN G
Successful component creation relies on correct component positioning. This article will cover the
reasons why components may be unavailable or may be appearing in incorrect locations.

Component is in the wrong location


If a component is appearing in an incorrect position in the 3D Render, the component is most likely in
the wrong location in the component tree.

For vertical vessels, components should appear in the tree in the order they should appear on the
vessel from top to bottom. For horizontal vessels, components should be in order from left to right.
To move a component in the component tree, select the desired component and click the up or down
arrow to the left of the tree.

101 |Page

Component Order Troubleshooting

If a head is still appearing in the wrong location after being moved in the component tree, open the
head by double-clicking the component on the tree or by right-clicking it and selecting "Edit." Make
sure the location specified on the General tab of the Head window matches the desired location.
More information about the Head window can be found here.

Component is unavailable
If a component is disabled, the most likely reason is that you are attempting to add the component to
an invalid location. Certain components must be added to a host while others can only be added to
the vessel itself. Each new component will be added to the location selected in the component tree
when it is created.

In the image below, a shell is selected; only components that can be added to that shell are available
in the component menu.

102 |Page

Component Order Troubleshooting

In the image below, the vessel is selected; only components that can be added to the vessel itself are
available in the component menu.

103 |Page

Component Order Troubleshooting

Certain components can only be added to specific types of vessels. For example, the entire
Exchanger menu is disabled if the vessel is not a Heat Exchanger. In the image below, only Saddle
is available in the Structural menu because the vessel was created as a horizontal vessel with a
saddle support.

104 |Page

TUBESHEET
(FIXED, FLOATING, AND U- TUBE)

(return to Contents)

General

106

Shell

106

Shell Band

109

Channel

110

Tube

112

Lanes

116

Tubesheet

116

Floating

119

Conditions

122

Tube/TS Joints

126

MDMT

127

Efficient Tubesheet Creation Tips

127

Tubesheet Troubleshooting

128

105 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

General
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Qty: Indicates that the mathematics assume two fixed tubesheets are present with one at each end

of the tube bundle. This field is only available to Fixed Tubesheet designs.

Exchanger Type: The selected option will limit the Floating configuration to those allowed in figure

UHX-14.1 and it will affect the calculation of Pe. This field is only available for Floating Tubesheet
designs.

Configuration: Select a configuration from the options presented. Floating Tubesheet designs will

have stationary and floating configurations.

Shell
Shell Information
Several of these fields will be automatically completed based on the host shell information when the
Shell Search is used. The content of those fields will be locked.

Description: The label given for the component.

Design Pressure (Ps):The shell side internal design pressure.

Design Pressure (Ps,vac.): The shell side external design pressure.

106 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the tubesheet design loading

cases.

Esw: Available for Fixed Tubesheet designs, this is the girth seam joint efficiency (longitudinal stress)

for the shell.

Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Inside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Liquid Density: Refers to the shell side liquid. This is for information only.

Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Consider Effect of Different shell material/thickness adjacent to tubesheet: For Fixed Tubesheet

designs, select this box if the shell has a different thickness or material adjacent to the tubesheet; this
is the same as using a shell band near the tubesheet (See page 109). This is only applicable for
configurations where the shell is integral with the tubesheet (Configurations a, b,and c) (See page 106).

107 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Shell Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

(Tsm): The mean shell temperature along the shell length as expected during operation. It is

generally not conservative to substitute the shell design temperature for Tsm.

(Ts'): The metal temperature of the shell at the tubesheet as expected during operation. It is usually

not conservative to substitute the shell design temperature for Ts'. This value is only required for
radial differential thermal expansion calculations.

108 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Shell Band
Several of these fields will be automatically completed when the Shell Search is used. The content of
those fields will be locked.

Shell Band Information


Description: The label given for the component.

Length of Differing Thickness (L1), (L'1): Length of shell bands adjacent to the tubesheets.

Thickness (ts,1): Shell thickness adjacent to the tubesheets. The calculations assume that this is the

same value for both shell bands.

Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Esw1: Available for Fixed Tubesheet designs, this is the girth seam joint efficiency (longitudinal

stress) for the shell band.

Shell Band Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

109 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

Channel
Channel Information
Several of these fields will be automatically completed based on the host channel shell/ channel
head information when the Channel Shell Search or Channel Head Search is used. The content of
those fields will be locked.

Description: The label given for the component.

Channel Type: Select Channel Shell or Channel Head. At this time, only Hemispherical Channel

Heads are available for use in tubesheets per ASME Section 8, Div 1, Part UHX.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

110 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Inside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Liquid Density: Refers to the shell side liquid. This is for information only.

Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Channel Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

111 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

(Tc'): The metal temperature of the channel at the tubesheet as expected during operation. It is

generally not conservative to substitute the channel design temperature for Tc'. This value is only
required for radial differential thermal expansion calculations.

Tube
Several of these fields will be automatically completed based on the host tube information when the
Custom Tube Browser is used. The content of those fields will be locked.

Tube Information
Design Pressure (Pt): The tube side internal design pressure.

Design Pressure (Pt,vac.): The tube side external design pressure. This is not the external design

pressure on the tubes themselves.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Liquid Density: Refers to the shell side liquid. This is for information only.

112 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Nominal Pitch:The center to center distance between adjacent tubes. The calculations assume that

this value is uniform.

Length:The tube length between outer tubesheet faces.

Number of Tube Holes: For fixed and floating tubesheet exchangers, this value matches the number

of tubes and is consistent for both tubesheets in the exchanger. For U-Tube tubesheet exchangers,
this value is the number of U-tubes multiplied by two.

Nominal Tube OD: The nominal outside diameter of the tube.

Wall Thickness: The new wall thickness of the tube.

Tube to Tubesheet Intersection: Select the location where the tube intersects the tubesheet.

Inside Corrosion:The corrosion allowance for the inside of the tubes.

External Corrosion: The corrosion allowance for the outside of the tubes.

Tube hole diameter:When the "Tube to Tubesheet Intersection" is Backside of tubesheet, this is the

diameter of the tube hole in the tubesheet.

Ap: Total area on the tubesheet that is enclosed by the step-wise perimeter, Cp .

Cp: Perimeter of the tube layout measured in stepwise increments from center-to-center of the

outer-most tubes. See figure UHX-12.2 for reference.

Pattern: Select whether the hole pattern is an equilateral triangle or a square.

113 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Span
Largest Unsupported Span: If there are no tube supports, enter the length of tubes between

tubesheets. If only one tube support exists, enter the greater of the lengths between the tubesheets
and the tube support. If there are multiple tube supports, compare the longest length of tube
between two tube supports to the longest length of tube between a tubesheet and a tube support
multiplied by 0.8. If the former is greater, enter that value; if the latter is greater, enter the actual
length between the tubesheet and tube support (do not multiply it by 0.8).

As an example, consider a design with three tube supports; the distances between the tube supports
are 5 inches and 10 inches and the spans between the tubesheets and adjacent tube supports are
15 inches and 11 inches. Compare 10 inches to 0.8*15 inches. As 12 is greater than 10, the span of
15 inches will be the value entered in this field. In addition, Tubesheet and Tube Support would be
chosen in the "Unsupported Span is Between" field for this example.

Unsupported Span is Between: Select the location of the largest unsupported span.This is for the

purpose of determining the constant k which has a value of 0.6 for unsupported spans between two
tubesheets, 0.8 for unsupported spans between a tubesheet and a tube support, and 1.0 for
unsupported spans between two tube supports.

Expansion Ratio
Tube Expansion Depth Ratio: The ratio of tube expansion length in the tubesheet to the tubesheet

thickness. This value is based on the new dimensions. If the tube is not expanded to the tubesheet,
enter 0.

Exp. Length of Tube in Tubesheet: Select the box to enable this field. Clear the box to enable the

"Tube Expansion Depth Ratio" field. When this box is selected, enter the length the tube is expanded
into the tubesheet in the new condition.

114 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Tube Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

(Ttm): The mean tube temperature along the tube length as expected during operation; this

considers the entire tube bundle. It is generally not conservative to substitute the tube design
temperature for Ttm.

115 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Lanes
Untubed Lanes
Untubed Lane Configurations: Select the number of untubed lanes.

Center-to-center Distance between adjacent rows of untubed lane: Enter the distance between tube

rows immediately adjacent to the untubed lane on opposite sides. This distance must not exceed 4p .
See Figure UHX-11.2 for more information.

Length of Untubed Lane: Enter the length of each untubed lane. This is measured along the center of

the lane and terminates at the diameter of the outer tube limit. See figure UHX-11.2 for more
information.

Tubesheet
Several of these fields will be automatically completed when the Flange Search or the Expansion
Joint Search is used. The content of those fields will be locked.

Tubesheet Information
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Outside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Bolt Load:The flange design bolt load. This applies to configurations b, c, d, e, f, B, C, and D. Ws

represents the shell side design bolt load and Wc represents the tube side design bolt load (See page
106) .

Bolt Circle: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of each bolt.

116 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Use an Expansion Joint: On Fixed Tubesheet designs, select this box to indicate the use of an

expansion joint. This will enable the Kj and Dj fields.

Axial Rigidity: The axial rigidity of the expansion joint, expressed as total force over elongation. This

field is only applicable when an expansion joint is used.

Operating Bolt Load: The internal pressure operating bolt load. This applies to configurations b, c, d,

e, f, B, C, and D. Wm1s represents the shell side operating bolt load and Wm1c represents the tube
side operating bolt load.

Radial Distance: The moment arm from the bolt circle to the diameter on which the gasket reaction

acts.

De: The maximum of the shell and channel gasket inside diameters, but not less than the maximum

of the shell and channel flange inside diameters. If tubesheet acts as LAP, this is the diameter where
the shear stress is acting. This field applies to configurations c, d, and f.

Shell side Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the shell-side face of the tubesheet.

Channel side Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the tube-side face of the tubesheet.

Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Pass Partition Groove Depth: The thickness removed on the tube-side face of the tubesheet to

accommodate pass-partitions.

Radius to Outermost Tube Hole Center:The distance measured from the center of the tubesheet

face to the center of the farthest tube-hole.

Midpoint of contact between flange and tubesheet: The diameter to the midpoint of contact between

the lap flange and the tubesheet. This field is only available for configurations c, f, and C.

117 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Expansion Joint Convolution ID: The inside diameter of the expansion joint at its convolution height.

This field is only applicable when an expansion joint is used.

Nominal Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be

at least the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Perform: Select which calculation procedure to perform. Elastic Plastic Calcs only apply to

configurations with an integral shell or channel (a, b, c, e, f and A) and to the design loading cases
(1,2, and 3) under specific circumstances. Simply Supported only apply to configurations in which
the tubesheet is integral with the shell or channel (a, b, c, e, f and A) and to the design loading cases
(1, 2, and 3) under specific circumstances; the simply supported calculations do not consider the
effect of the stiffness of the integral channel or shell in the determination of the tubesheet stresses.

Extended as Flange: Necessary for tubesheets that have holes for through bolting. This is selected

by default. This field is only used for configuration d.

Info Used for Extension Calculations: Options are Shell, Channel, and Shell/Channel. When

Shell/Channel is selected, it will use the greatest value between them. Shell/Channel is selected by
default.This field is only used for configuration d.

Tubesheet Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

118 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

(T'): The metal temperature of the tubesheet at the rim as expected during operation. It is usually not

conservative to substitute the tubesheet design temperature for T'.

Floating
Floating Side Information
Outside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Inside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Channel Type: Select Channel Shell or Channel Head. At this time, only Hemispherical Channel

Heads are available for use in tubesheets per ASME Section 8, Div 1, Part UHX.

119 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Operating Bolt Load: The internal pressure operating bolt load. This applies to configurations b, c, d,

e, f, B, C, and D. Wm1s represents the shell side operating bolt load and Wm1c represents the tube
side operating bolt load.

Radial Distance: The moment arm from the bolt circle to the diameter on which the gasket reaction

acts.

Bolt Circle: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of each bolt.

Channel Thin Out: The material thickness lost to the forming process. To determine the minimum

thickness after forming, the un-corroded nominal thickness is reduced by this amount.

(Defl): The floating channel gasket inside diameter, but not less than the floating channel flange

inside diameter. If tubesheet acts as LAP, this is the diameter where the shear stress is acting. This
applies to configuration C only.

Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Gasket Load Diameter: Diameter of the gasket load reaction.

Bolt Load:The flange design bolt load. This applies to configurations b, c, d, e, f, B, C, and D. Ws

represents the shell side design bolt load and Wc represents the tube side design bolt load (See page
106) .

120 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Midpoint of contact between flange and tubesheet: The diameter to the midpoint of contact between

the lap flange and the tubesheet. This field is only available for configurations c, f, and C.

Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Floating Channel Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

B-Table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

121 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Conditions
The conditions grid is a repository for tubesheet design cases. Values entered here will overrule
values entered on previous tabs. For example, if shell pressure on this tab is 15 PSI and shell
pressure on the shell tab is 50 PSI, 15 PSI will be used in the calculations; however, a value entered
on the conditions grid will not change the value on any other tab.

The values entered on this tab default based on settings from other tabs. If temperatures, pressures,
or materials are changed on the other tabs, the values on this tab will update even if they were
manually changed. If the values on this grid are manually changed, they will remain the same until a
change on another tab or a manual adjustment occurs.

Grid Navigation
Previous Record
Next Record
Insert a New Record
Edit the Current Record
Delete the Current Record

Thermal Case: This field is only available for the 2013 code year and later. If this box is selected,

thermal loads will be considered and the case treated as an operating case.

Loading Type: There are several options here including Design, Operating, Startup, and Shutdown.

All of these Loading Types should be considered and are ultimately defined by the designer. The
2010 and 2011 code year defines thermal expansion by the Loading Case (1-3 do not consider it and
4-7 do). The 2013 code year and later uses thermal expansion when the Thermal Case check box is
selected. U-tube Tubesheet designs do not consider thermal expansion; however, these other
Loading Types may still need to be considered. For thermal loadings plus pressure cases, the
operating temperatures may be used to determine the material properties.

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Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Loading Case: For the 2010 Code Edition and the 2011 Code Addenda, the loading case options are

1 7 (limited to 1 3 for U-Tube Tubesheet design).

The 2010 and 2011 code year defines the load cases as follows:

1. Tube Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; Shell Side Pressure set to 0; no thermal expansion
2. Tube Side Pressure set to 0; Shell Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; no thermal expansion
3. Tube Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; Shell Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; no thermal
expansion
4. Tube Side Pressure set to 0; Shell Side Pressure set to 0; thermal expansion
5. Tube Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; Shell Side Pressure set to 0; thermal expansion
6. Tube Side Pressure set to 0; Shell Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; thermal expansion
7. Tube Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; Shell Side internal pressure and/or Vacuum; thermal
expansion

For the 2013 Edition and later, the options are 1-4. The 2013 code year and later defines the load
cases as follows (thermal is defined by Thermal Case check box):

1. Tube Side highest pressure; Shell Side lowest pressure


2. Tube Side lowest pressure; Shell Side highest pressure
3. Tube Side highest pressure; Shell Side highest pressure
4. Tube Side lowest pressure; Shell Side lowest pressure

CA: This option allows you to consider corrosion allowance, to not consider corrosion allowance, or

to check both the corroded and uncorroded cases. UHX in Section VIII-I and 4.18 in Section VIII-II
both require that both the corroded and uncorroded conditions be considered. All new rows in the
conditions grid will default to Both. It may be valid to only consider certain cases as corroded or
uncorroded. For example, the hydrotest Loading Type may only require the uncorroded condition.

123 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Vacuum: If Yes is selected, then the number of permutations of calculations for this row in the grid

will double for code years 2010 and 2011. For example, if loading case 1 is specified for Code year
2010 or 2011, and Yes is picked for this value, the calculations will be run with the tube side
pressure set to the internal pressure and again with the tube side pressure set to the negative tube
vacuum pressure. This same logic applies for the 2013 and later years for the thermal cases only.
This is ignored for the non-thermal cases in years 2013 and later.

Radial Diff. Thermal Calcs.: This column is only available for Fixed and Floating tubesheet designs. It

only affects the thermal loading conditions/cases. If Yes is picked, it will consider the effect of
Radial Thermal Expansion in addition to the axial thermal expansion that is already considered in the
thermal loading conditions/cases.

Shell Pressure: The shell side internal design pressure for Design Cases. This may be an operating

pressure for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

Shell Vacuum: The shell side external design pressure for Design Cases. This may be an operating

external pressure for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

Shell Ts: The shell material maximum mean metal design temperature for Design Cases. This may

be an operating temperature for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

Shell Tsm: The mean shell temperature along the shell length as expected during the case under

consideration (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc). It is generally not conservative to substitute
the shell design temperature for Tsm.

Shell Ts': The metal temperature of the shell at the tubesheet as expected during the case under

consideration (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc). It is usually not conservative to substitute
the shell design temperature for Ts'. This value is only required for radial differential thermal
expansion calculations.

Tube Pressure: The tube side internal design pressure for Design Cases. This may be an operating

pressure for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

Tube Vacuum: The tube side external design pressure for Design Cases. This may be an operating

external pressure for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

124 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Tube Tt: The tube material maximum mean metal design temperature for Design Cases. This may

be an operating temperature for the other cases (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc).

Tube Ttm: The mean tube temperature along the tube length as expected during the case under

consideration (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc); this considers the entire tube bundle. It is
generally not conservative to substitute the tube design temperature for Ttm.

(Tc'): The metal temperature of the channel at the tubesheet as expected during the case under

consideration (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc). It is generally not conservative to substitute
the channel design temperature for Tc'. This value is only required for radial differential thermal
expansion calculations.

(T'): The metal temperature of the tubesheet at the rim as expected during the case under

consideration (e.g., Operating, Startup, Shutdown, etc). It is usually not conservative to substitute
the tubesheet design temperature for T'.

Stress:The material allowable stress. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this

value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous
Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on
the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values
listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the
temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the value will be
zero. Shell Stress and Shell Band Stress are based on Ts. Tube Stress is based on Tt. Tube Stress
@ Tts is based on Tts. Stationary Channel Stress and Floating Channel Stress are based on Tc.
Tubesheet Stress is based on Tts.

Yield: The material yield strength based on Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the

temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be
zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear
match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield
strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is
more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot perform the
described calculation, this value will be zero. Shell Yield and Shell Band Yield are based on Ts. Tube
Yield is based on Tt. Tube Yield @ Tts is based on Tts. Stationary Channel Yield and Floating
Channel Yield are based on Tc. Tubesheet Yield is based on Tts.

125 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Modulus: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part D. The

value shown here is based on the applicable TM table. In cases where the temperature exceeds the
highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several
materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the
softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the
external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero.
This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Shell Modulus and Shell Band Modulus are based
on Ts. Tube Modulus is based on Tt. Tube Modulus @ Tts is based on Tts. Stationary Channel
Modulus and Floating Channel Modulus are based on Tc. Tubesheet Modulus is based on Tts.

Alpha: The material mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on the TE tables from Section II,

Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials that do not have clear matches
in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, this value
will be zero. Shell Alpha s,m and Shell Band Alpha s,m1 are based on Tsm. Shell Alpha s is based
on Ts. Tube Alpha s,m is based on Ttm. Stationary Channel Alpha C and Floating Channel Alpha
C are based on Tc. Tubesheet Alpha is based on T.

Tube/TS Joints
Calculate Welds Using: Select the desired weld design equations. To consider the expanded tube

length in lending strength at the joint, select Appendix A.

Joint Type: Only applicable to Appendix A joints; see Appendix A for more information.

Weld Configuration: Select the weld configuration. For Appendix A calculations, the options in this

field are dependent upon the type of joint selected.

Weld Type: Select whether the weld is Full Strength, Partial Strength, or Seal. This only applies to

calculations per UW-20.

Fillet Leg: The length of the fillet weld leg.

Design Strength: Applies to UW-20 partial strength welds. This value will be compared with the axial

tube strength (Ft) and the lower value will be used in the calculations.

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Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)


Groove Leg: The length of the groove weld leg

Use qualification test efficiency: Select whether or not to use the qualification test efficiency. This

only applies to Appendix A joints.

Joint Efficiency Factor: Reduces the strength of the joint for the calculations. See Table A-2 for more

information.

MDMT
Perform MDMT Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

Efficient Tubesheet Creation Tips


If possible, design all heat exchanger components before adding the tubesheet. This will allow these
components to be brought in to the tubesheet during the design process. This will increase the
accuracy of the information and the speed of creation.

Make sure the values for Tsm and Ttm are as accurate as possible. Though inflating values is
considered more conservative for design temperatures, this is not the case with Tsm and Ttm. The
difference between the Tsm and Ttm values is important. The bigger the difference, the higher the
load, so it is more conservative to estimate a larger difference.

Enter the tubesheet thickness you believe is accurate. Click the status button and review the
information. If the tubesheet is failing, review the guide on Troubleshooting tubesheets.

127 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Tubesheet Troubleshooting
Tubesheets per Part UHX require many more inputs and calculations than most components in
ASMESection VIII-I. Because of this, it is very important that all of the dimensions, temperatures,
materials, thermal values, etc., are entered correctly. Once this has been done, it is still possible that
the design will be failing, incomplete, or passing with an unreasonable thickness. Due to the complex
nature of the tubesheet design, this is very likely to occur. In order to finalize the tubesheet design,
you can follow the suggestions below to aid in optimizing the tubesheet.

Incomplete Tubesheet
If the tubesheet is Incomplete, click the Check Status icon. This will give you a message telling you
why the design is incomplete. If the message indicates that one or more values is unacceptable,
check the tabs to make sure the appropriate values were entered for every field. A second possibility
is that the MDMT calculations are checked on the MDMT tab but an MDMT loading condition row is
not present on the Conditions tab.

Failed Tubesheet
If the tubesheet is Failed, click the Check Status icon. If the message indicates that the value of
"mu*" exceeds 0.6 or that it is less than 0.1, a more fundamental design change must occur to meet
UHX. Review the section in UHX on tubesheet effective properties for triangular or square tube
patterns (whichever pattern you selected)if this is the case.

If the value of "mu*" is not the issue, review the different failure modes present and make sure that a
value NAN does not appear in the message. This is a case that may occur in fixed and floating
tubesheet configuration "a" designs where certain thermal values are identical. To remedy this,
make sure that the thermal values entered are accurate for the operating conditions for each thermal
loading case. Another reason this may occur is if cumulative corrosion allowances are greater than
the plate thickness. This type of failure is typically very easy to resolve by altering the inputs.

If neither the "mu*" or NAN issue is present in the information window, view the different failure
modes to decide the best approach to resolve the failing status.

128 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Design failing due to sigma

tmax

or sigma

tmin

If the design if failing due to sigmatmax, the design is failing due to the tensile stress in the tubes.
This case is the most difficult to adjust.

1. Make sure that all of the tube information is entered correctly (especially the values for the thermal
loading cases).
2. Ensure that the corrosion values are accurate for the tubes if a corrosion allowance was selected.
3. Check that the vacuum design pressure for the tube side entered on the Tube tab is the vacuum
pressure in the channel and not the external pressure on the tubes.

If all of these items are correct and the tubes are still failing, a more aggressive change is needed,
such as adding an expansion joint, increasing the tube gauge, or changing the tube material. Before
performing these changes, address the other failure modes to limit the need to make further
changes to the tube bundle and to help optimize the expansion joint design if one is required.

If the design is failing due to sigmatmin, the design is failing due to the critical buckling stress in
the tubes.

1. Follow the steps listed above for tubes failing due to tensile stress.
2. If the design is still failing for any loading case, look at the length of the unsupported spans and see if
they can be reduced by adding tube supports. If tube supports are present, make sure the longest
unsupported span is between a tubesheet and a tube support, not between two tube supports.
3. If the tubes are failing in the thermal loading cases, you also have the option to use the material
properties for loading cases at operating conditions. These values can be adjusted by changing the
temperatures on the conditions grid or manually altering the properties on the grid.

If these items have all been addressed and the tubes are still failing, a more aggressive approach,
such as that described above for tubes failing due to tensile stress, will need to be taken.

129 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Design failing due to sigma S or sigma C


If the design is failing due to sigma S, the design is failing due to the stress in the shell integral
with the tubesheet. If it is failing in any of the loading cases, increasing the shell thickness is the most
effective way of reducing this stress. However, this solution may not be acceptable because of
geometric constraints with the tube bundle, the necessity for an unavailable plate size, or cost. If the
shell is failing in the design stress cases, the option to implement elastic plastic calculations (U-Tube
and Fixed only) is available. See the requirements for elastic plastic analysis in UHX to determine if
this is acceptable in your engineering judgment. It may be necessary for the shell to satisfy the
requirements of UG-23(e) in order to allow two times Yield for the SPS,s value to qualify for the
elastic plastic calculations.

If the shell is failing in the thermal cases, several options exist. If the requirements of UG-23(e) are
met, it may be beneficial to change the SPS,s value to two times Yield to increase the allowable
primary plus secondary stress beyond that of three times Stress. You also have the option to use the
material properties for loading cases at operating conditions. These values can be adjusted by
changing the temperatures on the conditions grid or manually altering the properties on the grid.

If the design is failing due to sigma C, the design is failing due to the stress in the channel
integral with the tubesheet. If it is failing in any of the loading cases, increasing the channel thickness
is the most effective way of reducing this stress. However, this solution may not be acceptable
because of geometric constraints with the tube hold pattern on the tubesheet bundle, the necessity
for an unavailable plate size, or cost. If the channel is failing in the design stress cases, the option to
implement elastic plastic calculations (U-Tube and Fixed only) is available. See the requirements for
elastic plastic analysis in UHX to determine if this is acceptable in your engineering judgment. It may
be necessary for the channel to satisfy the requirements of UG-23(e) in order to allow two times
Yield for the SPS,c value to qualify for the elastic plastic calculations.
If the channel is failing in the thermal cases, several options exist. If the requirements of UG-23(e)
are met, it may be beneficial to change the SPS,c value to two times Yield to increase the allowable
primary plus secondary stress beyond that of three times Stress. You also have the option to use the
material properties for loading cases at operating conditions. These values can be adjusted by
changing the temperatures on the conditions grid or manually altering the properties on the grid.

130 |Page

Tubesheet (Fixed, Floating, and U-Tube)

Design failing due to tube-to-tubesheet welds


There are several ways to make these welds pass, but most are not practical. Typically, the best way
to make the tube-to-tubesheet welds pass is to redesign them. If this is not an option or if the weld
seizes become unrealistic, the next step is to carefully review the thermal cases for the tubesheet
design. You also have the option to use the material properties for loading cases at operating
conditions. . These values can be adjusted by changing the temperatures on the conditions grid or
manually altering the properties on the grid.

131 |Page

THIN WALL EXPANSION JOINT

(return to Contents)

General Info

132

Bellows

133

Convolution/Collar

136

Shell

139

Displacement/MDMT

140

Conditions

142

General Info
Description: The label given for the component.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Prompt before updating fields on conditions tab: Select this box to be asked to confirm changes to

the grid on the Conditions tab (See page 142); each time a field that affects the grid data is adjusted, a
message will appear prompting the user to accept or cancel the changes. Declining the changes to
the grid data does not affect the changes made to the field. Clear this box to automatically update the
Conditions grid without confirming each change.

Configuration: Select the expansion joint configuration.\

The Expansion Joint has a Collar: Select the box if there is a collar. This will enable various fields on

the Convolution/Collar tab (See page 136).

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Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Reinforcing Ring has a Fastener:Select this box if the reinforcement for Reinforced U-Shaped

Bellows is assembled by fasteners. Clear the box if the reinforcement is continuous.

Shaping Method: Select whether the bellows are As Formed or Annealed, Formed to 100% (based

on Db) or Formed to 50% (based on Dm), and whether Expanding Mandrel, Roll Forming (top
option) or Hydraulic, Elastometric, or Pneumatic tube forming (bottom option) was used. The
second and third choice only apply to U-shaped bellows (unreinforced and reinforced) and code
years 2013 or later. These default based on common practice or what is conservative.

Bellows Attachment: This only applies to toroidal bellows, years 2013 and later. See Figure 26-1-2

for more information. It defaults to Externally Attached.

Bellows
Bellows Information
Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Inside Diameter: The inside diameter of bellows convolutions and end tangents.

End Tangent Length: This field is only available for U-Shaped and reinforced U-Shaped Bellows.

Design Life Cycles:The specified number of fatigue cycles.

Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor: This value can range from 1.0 to 4.0 where 1.0 is more favorable

for design. For more information, see the fatigue evaluation sections of Appendix 26 for the specified
expansion joint configuration.

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Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Ply Thickness: Nominal thickness of one ply.

Number of Plies: This value can range from 1 to 5.

Mean Radius: The mean radius of a U-shaped convolution.

Dis. Attach. Weld to 1st Convolution: The length from the attachment weld to the center of the first

convolution for externally attached bellows. This only applies to reinforced U-shaped and toroidal
bellows.

Dist. Between Bellows Attach. Welds: The distance between toroidal bellows attachment welds at

each end of the bellows.

Max Distance Across Inside Opening: See Figure 26-1-1 sketch (c) for more information. This

maximum distance should consider all movements. This input only applies to toroidal bellows.

Bellows Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

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Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Hot Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II,

Part D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed
for the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Allowable Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Hot Yield: The material yield strength at the temperature listed for the internal pressure condition.

This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the
value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When
a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the
yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3.
This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot
perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the
software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

135 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Cold Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity at 70 F (20 C) based on the TM

tables from Section II, Part D.There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these
tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will
instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If
this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

Material Type: There are three options here, Austenitic Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloy, and Other.

These affect the calculation of Ysm for U-shaped bellows (both Unreinforced and Reinforced) for
code years 2013 and later. This defaults to Nickel Alloy and needs to be updated manually despite
a material selection.

Convolution/Collar
Convolution Information
Number of Convolutions: Enter the number of convolutions in the expansion joint.

Convolution Height:This is measured in the neutral position from the valley of the convolution to the

peak on the same side of the bellows thickness.

Convolution Pitch: The center to center distance between adjacent convolutions. If the convolutions

show an off-set angle of the sidewalls in the neutral position, the convolution pitch is the length
between two consecutive convolutions when their sidewalls have been made parallel.

Convolution Root Radius: See Figure 26-2 for more information.

Convolution Crest Radius: See Figure 26-2 for more information.

136 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Mean Dia. of Bellows Convolutions: For toroidal bellows, this value is manually entered by the user;

for all other bellows types, this value is calculated. For toroidal bellows, see Figure 26-1(c) for more
information.

Collar Information
Length:Bellows collar length.

Long Weld Jt. Eff.:The longitudinal weld joint efficiency for the tangent collar. This is determined

from Table UW-12.

Thickness: Bellows collar thickness.

Cross Sect. area of all reinf. collars: The cross sectional metal area of all reinforcing collars for

toroidal bellows.

Expansion Joint has Reinforcing Collar: Check the box to add a reinforcing collar to a toroidal

bellows. Applies to years 2013 and later.

Reinforcing Collar Thickness: This applies to toroidal bellows, years 2013 and later. See Figure 26-

1-1 sketch (c) for more information.

Reinforcing Collar Diameter: This applies to toroidal bellows, years 2013 and later. See Figure 26-1-

1 sketch (c) for more information.

Reinforcing Collar Overall Length: This applies to toroidal bellows, years 2013 and later. See Figure

26-1-1 sketch (c) for more information.

Long. Weld Jt. Eff. Reinforcing: This is the longitudinal weld joint efficiency for a reinforcing collar on

a toroidal bellows.

Collar Material
The collar material and reinforcing collar material both appear in this section.

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Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Hot Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II,

Part D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed
for the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

138 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Allowable Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Shell
Shell Information
Thickness: This applies to Toroidal Bellows, years 2013 and later, that are attached inside the shell.

See Figure 26-1-1 sketch (c) for more information.

Shell Diameter: This applies to Toroidal Bellows, years 2013 and later, that are attached inside the

shell. See Figure 26-1-1 sketch (c) for more information. This is the inside diameter. If the shell is
subject to corrosion, please enter the dimensions in the corroded condition.

Long. Weld Jt. Eff. Shell: This applies to Toroidal Bellows, years 2013 and later, that are attached

inside the shell. See Figure 26-1-1 sketch (c) for more information.

Shell Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

139 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Allowable Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Displacement/MDMT
Displacement Information
Initial Position Axial Displacement:Enter the initial position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the initial position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value may be positive
or negative.

140 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


Final Position Axial Displacement: Enter the final position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the final position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value may be positive or
negative.

Initial Position Lateral Displacement:Enter the initial position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the initial position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value must be positive.

Final Position Lateral Displacement:Enter the final position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the final position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value must be positive

Initial Position Angular Rotation: Enter the initial position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the initial position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value is entered as
degrees but will be converted to radians in the mathematics to be consistent with Appendix 26
calculations.

Final Position Angular Rotation:Enter the final position as compared to the neutral position at

design conditions. If the final position is the neutral position, enter zero. This value is entered as
degrees but will be converted to radians in the mathematics to be consistent with Appendix 26
calculations.

Perform MDMT Calculations


Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT
Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

141 |Page

Thin Wall Expansion Joint


MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

Conditions
The conditions grid is a repository for thin walled expansion joint design cases. Values entered here
will overrule values entered on previous tabs. For example, if internal pressure on this tab is 200 PSI
but it is 50 PSI on the bellows tab, 200 PSI will be used in the calculations.

The data in the conditions grid will update with changes from the other tabs if the user selects Yes
when asked or if "Prompt before updating fields on conditions tab" is not selected (See page 132).
However, a value entered on the conditions grid will not change the value on any other tab.

Grid Navigation
Previous Record
Next Record
Insert a New Record
Edit the Current Record
Delete the Current Record

142 |Page

THICK WALL EXPANSION JOINT

(return to Contents)

General Info

143

Design Info

144

Operating Info

147

Shell/Tube Info

149

MDMT/Other

152

Thick Walled Expansion Joint Methodology

153

General Info
Description: The label given for the component.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Number of Joints:Enter the number of convolutions.

Configuration: Select the joint configuration.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint

Design Info
Design Info
Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Thin Out: The material thickness lost to the forming process. To determine the minimum thickness

after forming, the un-corroded nominal thickness is reduced by this amount.

Circ. Joint Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the circumferential joints (girth seams) in the expansion

joint. This is determined from Table UW-12 for welded joints. This may also represent
circumferential ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints exist, the
lowest efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

Long. Joint Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the longitudinal joints (long seams) in the expansion

joint. This is determined from Table UW-12 for welded joints. This may also represent longitudinal
ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints exist, the lowest efficiency is
used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Nominal Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be

at least the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Inner Torus:The inside radius of the inside straight flange or shell.

Inner Torus Knuckle Radius: The radius of the inner torus knuckle.

Outer Torus: The inside radius of the outside straight flange.

Outer Torus Knuckle Radius:The radius of the outer torus knuckle.

Inner Straight Flange Length: Enter the length of the inner straight flange.

Inside Width: The inside width of the expansion joint.

Use Operating temperature for calculations when allowed: Select this box to enable the Operating

Info tab (See page 147).

Expansion Joint Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

145 |Page

Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Hot Stress: The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Cold Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in

the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Yield: The material yield strength at the temperature listed for the internal pressure condition. This

value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the
value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When
a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the
yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3.
This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot
perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the
software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Poisson: Poisson's ratio for the selected material

Operating Info
Use Operating Temperature for Thermal Cases: Select this box to determine the expansion joint

material properties from the operating temperature for the thermal cases. Clear this box to use the
design temperature.

Use Operating Temperature for Fatigue Cases: Select this box to determine the expansion joint

material properties from the operating temperature for the fatigue cases. Clear this box to use the
design temperature.

Operating Temperature: The temperature expected during operation.

Expansion Joint Material


Material/Condition: The material is selected on the Design Info tab (See page 144).

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Operating Stress: The material allowable stress at the operating temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety

factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for
Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor
is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the operating temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Ambient Stress: The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Yield: The material yield strength at the operating temperature. This value comes from Section II,

Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the operating temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Shell/Tube Info
Shell Information
Description: The label given for the component.

Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Corrosion Allowance: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

(Tsm): The mean shell temperature along the shell length as expected during operation. It is

generally not conservative to substitute the shell design temperature for Tsm.

Ambient Temp.: The ambient temperature.

Alpha s,m: The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of the shell material at the mean shell

temperature along the shell length (Ts,m). The mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on the
TE tables from Section II, Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the
material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Consider Effect of Different shell material/thickness adjacent to tubesheet: Select this box if the shell

has a different thickness or material adjacent to the tubesheet; this is the same as using a shell band.
Selecting this box will enable the Shell Band fields.

Shell Band Information


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Alpha s,m,1: The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of the shell material at the mean shell

temperature along the shell length (Ts,m). The mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on the
TE tables from Section II, Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the
material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

L1, L1': Length of shell thickness adjacent to the tubesheets.

Tube Information
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Length:The total length of tubes. The user may substitute the length of tubes between tubesheets

which is consistent with part UHX. Using the total length of tubes will result in higher differential
movement.

Ttm: The mean tube temperature along the tube length as expected during operation; this considers

the entire tube bundle. It is generally not conservative to substitute the tube design temperature for
Ttm.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint


Alpha t,m: The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of the tube material at the mean temperature

along the tube length (Tt,m). The mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on the TE tables from
Section II, Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials that do not have
clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment
criteria, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in
the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

MDMT/Other
Perform MDMT Calculations
Perform UCS-66 calculations: Selecting this check box will cause the software to perform UCS-66

toughness calculations on the component. This option is only available to materials that are classified
as UCS materials per Table UCS-23.

Exemption Drop-down: When UCS-66 calculations will not be performed (the software will not allow

these calculations when a non-UCS material is used), an exemption must be entered. The
exemption may be typed in or selected from the drop-down options, but the user is responsible for
ensuring that the exemption selected is valid for the material, service, etc., in question.

MDMT
Apply UCS-68(c): Selecting this check box will give an additional flat reduction in the allowed MDMT

per UCS-68(c). Carefully review this paragraph as there are steep requirements for this exemption.

MDMT Curve: The notes in Figure UCS-66 provide the criteria to assign the MDMT curve to the

material and product form of the component. Curve A will give the least favorable allowed MDMT
and Curve D will give the most favorable allowed MDMT. When UCS materials do not have a clear
match using the criteria, they are assigned a conservative value of A. As the software cannot
currently obtain possible improvements in curve rating due to heat treatment and other factors, the
user may override the curve value.

MDMT Pressure: The net internal pressure (concave side) on the component coincident with the

minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). This includes static head.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint

Requirements
Per UG-23(e), calculate using: Select whether to calculate the allowable primary plus secondary

stress using 3xS or 2xSy. Caution : If 3xS is selected and the value of S is determined at 90% of Sy,
the allowable primary plus secondary stress will be 2.7xSy.

Use High alloy steel minimum thickness requirements: Select this box to use the minimum thickness

requirements for high alloy steel (0.125", 3mm).

Fatigue
Design Cycles: Specify the number of design cycles for operation.

Fatigue Reduction Factor: The fatigue strength reduction factor is affected by many variables,

including sharp corners, surface roughness, etc. Expansion joints that include these items should
reflect this with a higher value. Higher values will lower the allowable fatigue strength of the design.

Thick Walled Expansion Joint Methodology


This article provides methodology for designing a thick walled expansion joint. The calculations
developed here are based primarily on the paper Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers (also
discussed in Design of Process Equipment) and the rules introduced in ASME Section VIII, Division
I, 2001 Code, 2002 Addenda, Appendix 5.

Many of the symbols have been changed to more clearly represent values based on pressure or
thermal expansion. The calculation of the axial rigidity was not clearly provided by any of the
references; the equation used here was derived from the Kopp and Sayre method. The differential
expansion per annular plate and the resultant axial rigidity were altered to consider multiple
convolutions. The total differential thermal expansion was taken from part UHX.

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Thick Wall Expansion Joint

Appendix 5 from the 2002 Addenda gives us some basis for determining cycle life. In 2003, the cycle
life calculations were removed from the code book
because the code writers thought that enforcing the use
of the specific equations was unnecessary. The
allowable stress criteria from Section VIII, Division I
UG-23 is used, limiting membrane + primary bending
stress to 1.5S and membrane + secondary bending to
SPS. The current Appendix 5 also has a shell stress
requirement on the straight flange sections if they
exceed a certain length; this requirement is checked as
well as other requirements on dimensions from
Appendix 5. The stress calculations come from the
paper mentioned above.

Additional Notes:

1. The user may use an operating temperature as well as a design temperature for the expansion joint.
Expansion joint material properties and allowable stresses will be determined from the temperature
used for the loading case in question. The default for all calculations is to use design temperature.
Even if the designer chooses to use operating temperature, there are calculations that still require the
use of design temperature. See notes 3 and 6.
2. All calculations are performed for both the new and the corroded condition.
3. The calculation for the axial rigidity will be based on the design temperature only.
4. For the purpose of determining the axial rigidity, the designer shall have the option to neglect the effect
of the thinning allowance.
5. There are 6 loading cases; each loading case will have a new and a corroded condition for a total of 12
cases. The 6 loading cases are: Pressure, Thermal, Pressure + Thermal, Pressure + Fatigue, Thermal
+ Fatigue, and Pressure + Thermal + Fatigue.
6. The Pressure case is always performed using the design temperature.
7. The Thermal and Pressure + Thermal cases may be performed using the operating temperature at the
designers discretion.
8. The determination of Sn and the pass/fail status for the loading cases that include Fatigue may be
based on operating temperature at the designers discretion.
9. The value of SPS is either 3S or 2SY, per the designers discretion.

154 |Page

JACKET CLOSURE

(return to Contents)

General Info

155

Closure

155

General Info
Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Jacket Type: Select an option from the drop-down list. See Appendix 9 for more information.

Closure Type:Select an option from the drop-down list. See Appendix 9 for more information.

Closure
Inner Vessel
This section displays summary information on the inner vessel component that is connected to the
jacket closure.

Jacket
This section displays summary information on the jacket component that is connected to the jacket
closure.

155 |Page

Jacket Closure

Closure
Pressure: The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the component, which is determined from Table UW-12 for welded

joints and may also represent ligament efficiency per UG-53. When both ligaments and welded joints
exist, the lowest efficiency is used. See Appendix L for further help in determining the efficiency.

Nominal (tc): This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at

least the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. For
Jacket closures, this value must also meet certain detail requirements.

156 |Page

Jacket Closure

Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

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Jacket Closure
Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

158 |Page

LIFTING LUG

(return to Contents)

General Information

159

Lug Information

162

Repad Information

166

General Information
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Vessel Weight:When the lifting lug is created, this value will be automatically completed with the

calculated weight of the vessel at the time the lug was created. If components are added to the
vessel after the creation of the lifting lug, this field will not update. The weight that is calculated here
for the initial creation of the lifting lug does not include any weights or content listed in Vessel >
Attachments/Loadings.

Vertical Lift Angle:The angle formed between the vertical and the direction the lift force is pulling

(see the figure on the General Information tab in the software for more information).

Impact Factor:A multiplier on the vessel weight to account for dynamics on the vessel during the lift.

For example, if 5000 lb. is entered as the vessel weight and 1.5 is entered for the Impact Factor, the
weight will be increased to 7500 lb. for the calculations.

Calculate Localized Stresses: Select this box to also check local stresses in the host shell.

159 |Page

Lifting Lug
Support Types: Select a lifting lug type from the available options (see the figure for more

information). Types 1 and 2 are for horizontal vessels; types 3 and 4 are for vertical vessels.

Lug Location
Distance from Reference Line:The distance from the reference line datum measured along the axis

of the vessel to the top of the lug.

Calculate as a Pair: Enables entry of the "Distance from Reference Line" for both a right and a left

lug.

Lug Orientation:Determines the position of the lug around the shell.

Host Information
Description:Displays the description of the host as entered in the component's General Information

tab.

User Defined: Select this box to manually adjust the host values. By default, these values are

imported from the host component.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Thickness: This value is in the new condition. For the component to pass, this value must be at least

the sum of the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature, corrosion allowances, and
forming allowances or under-tolerances. If the thickness necessary for pressure and temperature is
less than the thickness required by UG-16, the nominal thickness must be at least the sum of the
UG-16 thickness and the tolerances, etc. In some cases, under-tolerance is not considered (e.g., for
nozzle reinforcement, the under-tolerance of the nozzle neck is ignored). When Solve for
Thickness is selected, the software will determine the smallest standard size that passes. The user
is able to manually edit this value.

Radius: The component radius in the new condition.

160 |Page

Lifting Lug
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the internal pressure condition. In cases where the temperature listed for the internal pressure
condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the value will be zero.
There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match
cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead retrieve the modulus
of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this attempt also fails, then
the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. Manually editing this field will
sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

161 |Page

Lifting Lug
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the
value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the
material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the
database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the temperature
listed for the internal pressure condition exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials
yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these
tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will
calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)
(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software
cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform
the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and
the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted
Material caption.

Lug Information
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the lug.

162 |Page

Lifting Lug
Lug Width/Lug Length: The horizontal dimension (in vessel operating position) of the lug at its base.

Lug Length is used for horizontal vessels and Lug Width is for vertical vessels.

Shackle Hole Diameter:Diameter of the hole where the lifting equipment will be attached to the lug.

Shackle Hole Centerline Height:Distance from the base of the lug to the center of the shackle hole.

For Type 4 lifting lugs, this is the axial distance (see the figure on the General Information tab in the
software for more information).

Lug Weld Leg: The fillet weld leg between the lug and the repad or the lug and the host.

Weld Joint Efficiency:Multiplier on the allowable stress of the materials attached by the fillet weld. A

lower value is considered more conservative and this value cannot exceed 1.0.

Weld Len. Omitted over head Weld:The length along opposite edges of the lifting lug where the weld

stops and then restarts to avoid welding over the head to shell seam. This field is only available when
3 or 4 is selected as the "Support Type."

Lug Thickness:The thickness of the lug.

Lug Radius: The radial distance from the center of the shackle hole to the outside edge of the lifting

lug.

Lug Foot Height:Available when 2 or 4 is selected as the "Support Type," this is the dimension on

the lifting lug from the base to where the lug cross-section changes for Type 2 lugs and to where the
lug is bent for Type 4 lugs. See the figure on the General Information tab of the software for more
information.

Lug Angle: The angle at which the lug cross-section reduces, starting at the top of the lug foot height.

This field is only available for Type 2 lugs.

Lug Weld Height:The measurement of the weld from its lowest point on the side of the lug to the

highest point. The total length of the welds on the sides of the lug is 2x the weld height minus 2x the
omitted length.

163 |Page

Lifting Lug
Add Weld Notch:Select this box to add a weld notch to the bottom of the lug. This will add a length of

weld equal to pi times the radius of the weld notch.

in. Radius of Weld Notch:The weld notch is assumed to be a half-circle of this radius and located in

the bottom-center of the lug.

Use Repad: Select this box to add a reinforcing pad between the lug and the host. This option is only

available for lifting lugs on horizontal vessels (Types 1 and 2).

Lug Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

164 |Page

Lifting Lug
Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
lug. In cases where the lug temperature listed exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the lug temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the lug temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the
user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

165 |Page

Lifting Lug
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the lug temperature. This value comes from Section II,

Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the lug temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Repad Information
Repad Design Information
Repad Height/Length: Enter the height/length of the reinforcing pad (measured along the length of

the shell).

Repad Width: Enter the width of the reinforcing pad (measured around the girth of the shell).

Repad Weld Leg:The fillet weld leg between the repad and the host.

Repad Thickness: The thickness of the reinforcing pad.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the reinforcing pad.

Repad Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

166 |Page

Lifting Lug
Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
the repad. In cases where the listed temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the repad temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

167 |Page

Lifting Lug
Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the repad temperature. This value comes from Section

II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

168 |Page

SADDLE

(return to Contents)

General Information

169

Wear Plate/Top Flange

170

Saddle Design

174

Base Plate/Anchor Bolt

176

Zick Stiffener

181

General Information
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Elevation above grade:The distance from grade to the bottom of the base plate.

Vessel Centerline height:The distance from the bottom of the base plate to the longitudinal axis of

the saddled shell.

Angle of contact of saddle with vessel: The central angle of contact between the outside stiffeners

with the vertex at the axis of the vessel. This value can be increased depending on top flange design
settings.

169 |Page

Saddle
Distance from center line of saddle to tangent line: Enter the distance from the center of a saddle to

the nearest tangent line. This will always be a positive number.

Add Wear Plate: Select this box to add a wear plate to the saddle design.

Support Design Condition: Select the design condition of the shell. If the A/R ratio is less than or

equal to 1/2 (A/R <= 1/2) and a stiffening ring is not added in the saddle design, the plane of the
saddle will consider the stiffening effect of the head. Stiffening rings may be considered regardless of
the A/R ratio, however if a wear plate is to be used to reduce various stresses during the Zick
Analysis, a ring stiffener cannot be in the plane of the saddle. If A/R > and there is not a stiffening
ring added in the saddle design, the plane of the saddle will not be stiffened.

Top Flange Design: The presence of a saddle top flange and its function are decided here. The

option to consider the top flange as a saddle element will allow the saddle stresses to consider the
added strength of a top flange, however it will not increase the angle of contact to the top flange
extension. Considering the top flange as a saddle extension will allow the saddle stresses to
consider the added strength of a top flange and will use the angle measured to the horn of the flange
as the angle of contact in the calculations instead of using the angle formed to the top of the outer
saddle stiffeners. This will result in lower stresses.

Wear Plate/Top Flange


These fields will only be enabled if their respective components (wear plate and top flange) are
selected on the General Information tab (See page 169).

Wear Plate
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the wear plate.

Thickness: The wear plate thickness.

Width: The width of the wear plate. The wear plate may be ineffective at reducing certain vessel

stresses if this value is too small.

170 |Page

Saddle
Extension:Enter the distance the wear plate extends beyond the outside of the saddle outer

stiffeners. The wear plate may be ineffective at reducing certain vessel stresses if this value is too
small.

Use Wear Plate for S2: Select the box to consider the wear plate in the tangential shear stress

calculations. The wear plate may be unable to reduce S2 if its dimensions are inadequate.

Use Wear Plate for S3: Select the box to consider the wear plate in the circumferential stress

calculations at the horn of the saddle. The wear plate may be unable to reduce S3 if its dimensions
are inadequate.

Use Wear plate for S5:Select the box to consider the wear plate in the calculations for the ring

compression stress in the shell over the saddle. The wear plate may be unable to reduce S5 if its
dimensions are inadequate.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

171 |Page

Saddle
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the wear plate temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the wear plate temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the wear plate temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor

is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the wear plate temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Top Flange
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the top flange.

Thickness:The top flange thickness.

Width:The width of the top flange.

172 |Page

Saddle
Extension: Enter the distance the top flange extends beyond the outside of the outside stiffener.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the top flange temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the top flange temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

173 |Page

Saddle
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the top flange temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor

is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the top flange temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Saddle Design
Support Type: Select the location of the saddle web. Type I places the saddle web in the middle.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the saddle.

Length:Enter the distance between the tops of outside stiffeners. This will automatically recalculate

if the "Angle of contact of saddle with vessel" field is changed (See page 169).

Width - Top: Enter the width of the outside stiffener at the top of the stiffener.

Width - Bottom: Enter the width of the outside stiffener at the bottom of the stiffener.

Number of saddle stiffeners: Enter the number of stiffeners. The saddle math assumes two stiffeners

for the outside; any additional stiffeners will be inside stiffeners.

174 |Page

Saddle
Outside saddle stiffener thickness: Enter the thickness of the outside stiffeners.

Inside saddle stiffener thickness: Enter the thickness of the inside stiffener or stiffeners. If a saddle

has only two stiffeners, this field will be disabled.

Saddle web plate thickness: Enter the thickness of the web plate of the saddle.

Saddle Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

175 |Page

Saddle
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the saddle temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the saddle temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the saddle temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the saddle temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Base Plate/Anchor Bolt


Base Plate
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the base plate. This value is also

used for bolting material.

176 |Page

Saddle
Thickness: The base plate thickness.

Width: The width of the base plate.

Length: The length of the base plate.

Ultimate 28 day concrete strength: The theoretical concrete strength after at least 28 days of setup.

This value will be multiplied by the concrete factor on the Wind/Seismic tab under Tools > Defaults to
determine the allowable concrete strength.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

177 |Page

Saddle
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the saddle temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the saddle temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the saddle temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the saddle temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Anchor Bolt
Num. of Bolts: The number of anchor bolts per base plate.

Bolt Size:The diameter of the bolt shaft. This field will be automatically completed if a bolt is selected

from the Bolt Search.

178 |Page

Saddle
Nominal Diameter: The nominal diameter of the bolt. This field will be completed automatically if the

Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Threads Per Inch: The number of threads per inch on the bolt shaft. This field will be automatically

completed if a bolt is selected from the Bolt Search.

Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Bolt Hole Diameter: The bolt hole diameter, not the bolt circle diameter. This field will fill in

automatically if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts; the value will be determined based on the
bolt nominal diameter.

Use sliding saddle support:Select this box to enter data for a sliding saddle support.

Allow sliding saddle support to support longitudinal loads: Select this box to allow the sliding

saddle to support longitudinal loads.

Coef. of thermal exp. from 70 to design temp.: The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of the

shell material at the shell design temperature. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on
the TE tables from Section II, Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials
that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the
softwares assignment criteria, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will sever the
connection to the material in the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Coef. of thermal exp. from 70 to MDMT: The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of the shell

material at the shell MDMT. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion based on the TE tables from
Section II, Part D; column B is used in those tables. There are several materials that do not have
clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment
criteria, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in
the database as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Slot length: When using sliding saddles, one saddle will have slots instead of bolt holes. This is the

length of the sliding saddle slot.

179 |Page

Saddle
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the saddle temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the saddle temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

180 |Page

Saddle

Zick Stiffener
This tab is only available when the shell is stiffened by rings in the "Support Design Condition" on the
General Information tab (See page 169)

Quantity: This value will be locked to 1 if the ring is in the plane of the saddle or it will be locked to 2 if

the ring is parallel to the saddle. This field is informational only.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the internal pressure case as

defined in UG-20(a).

Stiffener on the outside of the shell:Select this box if the stiffener is located on the outside of the

shell.

d1, d2, t1, t2: Dimensions for the stiffener. See the configuration sketch in the component form for

more information.

CA: Corrosion allowance affecting the zick stiffener.

Description: The label given for the component.

Stiffener Type: Select the configuration of the stiffener from the options provided.

Stiffener Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

181 |Page

Saddle
Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the stiffener temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the stiffener temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the stiffener temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the stiffener temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

182 |Page

Saddle
Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

183 |Page

LEG

(return to Contents)

General Information

184

Leg Information

187

Base Plate/Bolt Information

188

Repad Information

192

General Information
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Number of Leg Supports: Enter the number of leg supports on the vessel.

Base Plate to Vessel attachment Length: Distance from the bottom of the base plate to the bottom-

most location where the legs attach to the vessel.

Length of Supports:The length of the vessel legs.

Direction of Applied Force: The angle that determines the results displayed in the leg report result

grids. This value will not affect the worst case scenario results. The angle can range from 0 to
(360/number of legs) - 1.

184 |Page

Leg
Distance from Reference Line:The distance from the reference line datum measured along the axis

of the vessel to the top of the leg.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the leg.

Leg Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the leg temperature. In cases
where the leg temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the
value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When
a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead
retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this
attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

185 |Page

Leg
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed at the leg temperature. When a

3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table
1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1
safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in
Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables
for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where the leg temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will
inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the
database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the leg temperature. This value comes from Section II,

Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the leg temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

186 |Page

Leg

Leg Information
Leg Support Type:Select the leg type from the available options.

Leg Method of Attachment:With certain leg types (angle, W-beam, T-bar, channel), there are

varying methods of attaching the leg to the vessel. Select the preferred method from the drop-down
menu. See the drawing in the leg form for more information.

Leg Information
d1, d2, t1, t2: Dimensions for the leg component cross-section. See the configuration sketch in the

component form for more information.

Pipe ID:The inside diameter of the pipe in the new condition; this is only available if Pipe is chosen as

the "Leg Support Type."

Pipe Thickness:The pipe leg thickness.

Description: The label given for the component.

Weld Attachment Length Top: The length of the weld along the top of the leg which attaches it to the

repad or the shell.

Side: The length of the weld down one side of the leg which attaches it to the repad or the shell. The

method assumes that this length of weld will exist on both sides of the leg.

Weld Leg Dimension: The fillet weld between the leg and the repad or the leg and the host.

Leg is molded to Head Curvature: Select this box if the leg has been coped to fit around part of the

head.

187 |Page

Leg
Eccentricity:When the leg is molded to the head curvature, enter the distance between the outside

of the shell wall and the centroid of the leg cross-section in the radial direction.

Use repad:Select this box to add a reinforcing pad between the leg and the shell.

Base Plate/Bolt Information


Base Plate Design Information
Base Plate Width:Enter the width of the base plate.

Base Plate Length:Enter the length of the base plate.

Base Plate Thickness: The thickness of the base plate.

Design Temperature:The maximum mean metal design temperature for the base plate. This value is

also used for bolting material.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

188 |Page

Leg
Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the base plate temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor

is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the base plate temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the base plate temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the base plate temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

189 |Page

Leg
Effective Length Factor:This value can range from 0.50 to greater than 2.0, however some

references recommend that values less than 1.5 be avoided. Lower values are more likely to result in
a passing design and thus are considered less conservative. K=0.5 represents both ends of the leg
as being fixed with no lateral or rotational movement. K=1.0 represents both ends of the leg as being
pinned (rotational movement with no lateral movement). K=2.0 represents one end of the leg as
being fixed and the other end as able to move laterally.

Leg-to-baseplate Attachment Factor: The rigidity of the connection between the bottom of the leg and

the base plate. Lower values represent a less rigid connection and are considered more
conservative. The software will use the value entered in this field to calculate a corresponding value
in the "Effective Length Factor" field; to be consistent with the recommendations for that value, this
value should be in the range of 0.5 to 0.75.

Bending Coefficient: The bending coefficient can be calculated per equations in various references

(e.g., Manual of Steel Construction). This value should range between 0.85 and 1.0 for leg
calculations; 1.0 is the more conservative value.

Bolt Design Information


Anchor Bolt Circle Diameter: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of the bolt

patterns on every base plate.

Diameter:The anchor bolt nominal diameter.

Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Ultimate 28 day concrete strength: The theoretical concrete strength after at least 28 days of setup.

This value will be multiplied by the concrete factor on the Wind/Seismic tab under Tools > Defaults to
determine the allowable concrete strength.

No. of Bolts: The number of anchor bolts per base plate.

Bolt Size / Threads Per Inch:These fields are completed automatically when a bolt size is selected

from the Bolt Search.

190 |Page

Leg
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the base plate temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor

is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the base plate temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

191 |Page

Leg

Repad Information
Repad Design Information
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the reinforcing pad.

Repad Height/Length: Enter the height/length of the reinforcing pad (measured along the length of

the shell).

Repad Width: Enter the width of the reinforcing pad (measured around the girth of the shell).

Repad Thickness: The thickness of the reinforcing pad.

Repad Weld Leg:The fillet weld leg between the repad and the host.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

192 |Page

Leg
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the repad temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the repad temperature. This value comes from Section

II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials yield line, the value will be zero.There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

193 |Page

SUPPORTING LUG / SUPPORTING


RING

(return to Contents)

General Information

194

Lug Information

195

Bolt/Repad Information

198

General Information
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Design Temperature:The maximum mean metal design temperature for the lug/support ring

material. This value is also used for bolting material.

Base Plate Bottom Elevation:The distance from grade to the bottom of the base plate on the

lug/support ring.

Number of Lug Supports: Enter the number of lug supports on the vessel. These are assumed to be

evenly spaced around the vessel.

Number of Gussets/Gusset Pairs: For a supporting ring, enter the number of gussets or gusset pairs.

The selection in the "Gusset Type" field determines whether the gussets will be single or paired.
These are assumed to be evenly spaced around the vessel.

194 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Distance from Reference Line:The distance from the reference line datum measured along the axis

of the vessel to the top of the lug/support ring.

Gusset Type:Select from the four available gusset types. Single gusset types will have a number of

evenly spaced gussets equal to the value in the "Number of Lug Supports" field; double gusset types
will have a number of evenly spaced gusset pairs equal to this value. For single gusset types, each
gusset will be attached to the center of the bottom bar and the center of the top bar if one is present.
Double gusset types will have each gusset in the pair spaced symmetrically around the center of the
bottom bar and the center of the top bar if one is present.

Use Localized Stress: Select this box to also check local stresses in the host shell.

Lug Information
Top Extension:Radial distance from the outside shell wall measured at the center of the top

plate/ring. See the figure on the General Information tab for more information.

Bottom Extension:Radial distance from the outside shell wall measured at the center of the bottom

plate/ring. See the figure on the General Information tab for more information.

Bearing Length:The length - measured in the radial distance - that the bottom plate/ring is in contact

with the support column/structure. See the figure on the General Information tab for more
information.

Weld Leg:The fillet weld leg between the lug and the repad or the lug and the host. The method

assumes that weld is put down on all edges in contact with the shell.

Gusset Height:See the figure on the General Information tab for more information.

Gusset Angle:This value is calculated from the other gusset inputs. See the figure on the General

Information tab for more information.

Top Plate Thickness:The thickness of the top plate/ring. This field is only available when a gusset

type with a top bar is selected (See page 194).

195 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Base Plate Thickness:The thickness of the base plate/bottom ring.

Base Plate Width:For support lugs, this is the width of the base plate. The top plate width (if a top

plate is used) will be set to this value as well.

Gusset Thickness:The thickness of each gusset.

Gusset Spacing:The spacing between gussets in a pair. This field is only available when a double

gusset type is selected (See page 194).

Use repad: Select this box to add a reinforcing pad to the lug design. This field does not apply to

support rings.

Lug Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

196 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the design temperature listed for
lug. In cases where the lug temperature listed exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the lug temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the lug temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the
user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

197 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the lug temperature. This value comes from Section II,

Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the lug temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Bolt/Repad Information
Bolt Design Information
No. of Anchor Bolts:The number of anchor bolts per base plate.

Bolt Circle Diameter: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of the bolt patterns on

every base plate.

Diameter:The anchor bolt nominal diameter.

Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Bolt Size / Threads Per Inch:These fields are completed automatically when a bolt size is selected

from the Bolt Search.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

198 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the lug temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the lug temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the
user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Repad Design Information


Repad Design Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the reinforcing pad.

Repad Height: Enter the height of the reinforcing pad (measured along the length of the shell).

Repad Thickness: The thickness of the reinforcing pad.

199 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Repad Width: Enter the width of the reinforcing pad (measured around the girth of the shell).

Repad Weld Leg:The fillet weld leg between the repad and the host.

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the repad temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

200 |Page

Supporting Lug / Supporting Ring


Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the repad temperature. This value comes from Section

II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the repad temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart and the method
described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials. If no match is
found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

201 |Page

S K IR T / I N T E R ME D IA T E S U P P O R T

(return to Contents)

Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Skirt/Support Type: Select whether the skirt or intermediate support is cylindrical or conical.

Use Diameter: This option is only available for some components. The user may choose to input

dimensions as the inside dimensions or the outside dimensions where this option is available. For
some components (such as shell), the use of outside dimensions for internal pressure calculations
may result in a slightly higher required thickness.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the skirt/intermediate support.

Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition. The selection in the Use Diameter area

determines whether this is the inside or outside diameter of the component. In the context of curved
heads, this value is specifically the skirt diameter. For circular flat heads, this is the diameter as
defined in per the configuration in UG-34.

Top Diameter: For conical skirts and supports, enter the diameter of the top.

Cone Angle:The half-apex angle (half of the included angle) of the conical skirt or support. This field

is algebraically connected to the Diameter, Top Diameter, and Height fields. Entering the Cone
Angle will solve for the Height; entering the Height will solve for the Cone Angle.

Height: The axial length of the conical skirt or support. This field is algebraically connected to the

Diameter, Top Diameter, and Cone Angle fields. Entering the Cone Angle will solve for the
Height; entering the Height will solve for the Cone Angle.

202 |Page

Skirt / Intermediate Support


Length:Enter the length of the cylindrical skirt/intermediate support.

Joint Efficiency (Circ.): The joint efficiency of the circumferential joints (girth seams) in the

skirt/intermediate support. This may be determined from Table UW-12 for welded joints, however
several references would limit this value to 70% depending on how it is attached to the vessel wall
and/or base ring.

Nominal Thickness:The skirt thickness in the new condition.

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Long. Factor A: This is the Factor A that is determined in Step 1 of UG-23(b)(2). Factor A is

determined using the corroded dimensions. For pipe, this is based on nominal thickness as opposed
to minimum thickness.

Long. Factor B: The allowable longitudinal compressive stress determined in Step 2 of UG-23(b)(2)

as B. Factor B is determined at the temperature listed for the internal pressure condition. Note that
this is not the same Factor B that is determined for external pressure strength; the modulus value
that is sometimes used in these calculations is from the external pressure chart, not from the TM
tables.

Skirt/Intermediate Support Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

203 |Page

Skirt / Intermediate Support


Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table and the skirt temperature. In cases
where the skirt temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials TM table, the
value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When
a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will instead
retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned to the material. If this
attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the skirt temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is

specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the skirt temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for this
materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the
user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

204 |Page

Skirt / Intermediate Support


Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the skirt temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the skirt temperature
exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are
several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be
found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the
external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with
non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described
calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is
defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

205 |Page

BASE RING

(return to Contents)

General Information

206

Base Ring

207

Anchor Bolt

209

Gusset/Compression

211

Designing a Base Ring Without a Skirt

212

General Information
Description: The label given for the component. It will appear in the component pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the component report. This will default to the component
type and component number. For example, the third nozzle for the vessel will start with a description
of Nozzle 3.

Mark: A shorthand reference for the component. It will also appear in the component report. The

default entry will be an abbreviation of the component type and the component number. For
example, the second jacket shell for the vessel will start with a mark SJ2.

Calculate Skirt Stress: Select this box to add a special skirt check to the base ring report; this will

examine the skirt for adequacy under the load carried into the skirt from the external bolting chair or
top ring designs. The calculation is considered very conservative in many cases since it does not
adjust for the gusset spacing. In general, it is recommended to use this setting when the distance
between the gussets is at least two times the distance between the outside of the skirt and the bolt
circle.

Configuration
Select from the following configuration options:

206 |Page

Base Ring
Base Ring only: The skirt is welded to the base ring. Gussets, compression chairs, and top rings are

not part of the design.

Base Ring with gussets only: The skirt is welded to the base ring with gussets attached to the base

ring and the skirt. Compression chairs and top rings are not part of the design.

Base Ring with centered anchor bolt: The skirt is welded to the base ring and a half obround shaped

gusset is inserted into the skirt wall and attached to it. The anchor bolt circle is then equal to the
diameter at the mean thickness of the skirt. The designer is responsible for considering the lost area
of the skirt due to the insertion of the gusset as the calculations do not check for it. Compression
chairs and top rings are not part of the design.

Base Ring with gussets and complete top ring: The skirt is abutting the base ring and is attached to

it. The top ring inside diameter is attached to the skirt outside diameter; the two values must be
equal. The gussets are placed evenly around the entire skirt and are attached to both the top and
bottom ring and the skirt.

Base Ring with gussets and compression plate (chairs): The skirt is abutting the base ring and is

attached to it. The compression plates are spread evenly around the entire vessel and do not form a
continuous ring; they are attached to the skirt and to a gusset pair. A pair of gussets is placed
symmetrically around each anchor bolt and attached to the skirt, the base ring, and the compression
plate.

Base Ring
Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the base ring.

Base Plate Thickness: The thickness of the base plate.

Base Plate O.D.: The outside diameter of the base plate in the new condition.

Base Plate I.D.: The inside diameter of the base plate in the new condition.

207 |Page

Base Ring
Skirt O.D. at Bottom:The outside diameter of the skirt where it intersects the bottom of the base ring.

This value will fill in based on the skirt design.

Base Plate Width:The width of the base ring. This is calculated from the base ring ODand ID.

Width, Outside of Skirt: The width of the base ring outside of the skirt OD. This is calculated from the

base ring ODand the skirt OD (at the bottom).

Base Ring Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

208 |Page

Base Ring
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the base ring temperature. This value comes from

Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where the base ring temperature exceeds the highest
temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are several materials that
do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares
assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the external pressure chart
and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with non-ferrous materials.
If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described calculation, this value will be
zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material
differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will
be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Anchor Bolt

Bolt Size:The diameter of the bolt shaft. This field will be automatically completed if a bolt is selected

from the Bolt Search.

Threads Per Inch: The number of threads per inch on the bolt shaft. This field will be automatically

completed if a bolt is selected from the Bolt Search.

Nominal Diameter: The nominal diameter of the bolt. This field will be completed automatically if the

Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Root Area: The bolt root area based on the smallest diameter on the bolt. This field will automatically

be completed if the Bolt Search is used to select the bolts.

Number of Bolts: The actual number of bolts, not the number of bolt holes.

Bolt Circle: The diameter of the circle that passes through the center of each bolt.

Distance across flats of bolting nut:Enter the distance measured across the flats of the bolting nut.

209 |Page

Base Ring
Ultimate 28 day concrete strength: The theoretical concrete strength after at least 28 days of setup.

This value will be multiplied by the concrete factor on the Wind/Seismic tab under Tools > Defaults to
determine the allowable concrete strength.

Anchor Bolt Material


Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the base ring temperature. When a 3.5:1 safety factor

is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous
Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is
specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D;
furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep
governed cases. In cases where the base ring temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software
that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the
connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material
caption.

210 |Page

Base Ring
Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Gusset/Compression
Gusset Information
Thickness:The thickness of each gusset.

Depth:Radial dimension for the gusset plate. This is the greatest radial measurement for the "Base

Ring with gussets only" configuration.

Height:Vertical dimension for the gusset plate. This is the greatest vertical measurement for the

"Base Ring with gussets only" configuration.

Number of gussets: Enter the number of gussets. This must be at least the number of bolts. Typically

this will be equal to either the number of bolts or two times the number of bolts.

Angle:This value is only available for the "Base Ring with gussets only" configuration. See the figure
1 on the General Information tab for more information (See page 206).

211 |Page

Base Ring
Angle Starting Height:This value is only available for the "Base Ring with gussets only"

configuration. See the figure2 on the General Information tab for more information (See page 206).

Maximum distance between gussets: Enter the maximum distance from one gusset to the next. If the

number of gussets equals the number of bolts, this value must equal the value in the "Maximum
distance between gussets straddling bolts" field.

Maximum distance between gussets straddling bolts:Enter the maximum distance from one gusset

to the next with a bolt in between. If number of gussets equals the number of bolts, this value must
equal the value in the Maximum distance between gussets field.

Compression Plate Information


Top Ring O.D.:The outside diameter of the top ring. This is only available in designs with a complete

top ring.

Top Plate Depth: The depth of the top plate. This is only available in designs with a compression

plate.

Top Plate Width:The width of the top plate. This is only available in designs with a compression

plate. See the figure on the General Information tab for more information (See page 206).

Top Ring/Plate Thickness:The thickness of the top plate. This is only available in designs with a

complete top ring or a compression plate. See the figure on the General Information tab for more
information (See page 206).

Designing a Base Ring Without a Skirt


Though the software does not currently allow a base ring to be designed in the absence of a skirt, it is
possible to utilize a work-around to add a base ring to a flat bottom tank or another vessel without a
skirt. To do this, select "Skirt" as the support type on the General tab of the Vessel Information
window. Add a skirt that has the same inputs as the shell except for the length. Enter 0.0001"
(0.01mm) as the length.

212 |Page

Base Ring

Adding a skirt of this length will have a negligible effect on the calculations and it will allow the base
ring report/math to run.

213 |Page

AT T A C H IN G S T R U C T U R A L E L E ME N T S
When using DesignCalcs, it is important to pay close attention to your location in the Components
pane. Certain types of components can only be added to the vessel, while others must have a host
(such as a shell). Click here for more information about the component order.

Base Ring
In order to add a base ring/base plate to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and skirt
must be selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Base rings and base plates
can only be added to the vessel itself. Make sure the vessel name or number is highlighted on the
Components pane before attempting to select Base Ring/Base Plate from the Structural menu.

Intermediate Support
The location of this component in the component order is critical to the calculations.

In order to add an intermediate support to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and skirt
must be selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Intermediate Support will
only be available from the Structural menu when the vessel itself is highlighted on the Components
pane. If any component is highlighted - including the shell - Intermediate Support will be disabled.

Leg
In order to add legs to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and unbraced leg must be
selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Legs can only be added to the shell.
Make sure the shell is highlighted on the Components pane before attempting to select Leg from the
Structural menu.

Lug - Lifting
Lifting lugs may be added to vertical or horizontal vessels. The lug design options vary based on the
vessel orientation. Lifting lugs can only be added to the shell. Highlight the shell in the Components
pane before selecting Lifting Lug from the Structural menu.

214 |Page

Attaching Structural Elements

Lug - Support
In order to add supporting lugs to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and lug must be
selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Supporting Lug will only be available
from the Structural menu when the shell is selected. If any other component or the vessel itself is
selected, Supporting Lug will be disabled.

Saddle
In order to add a saddle to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be horizontal and saddle must be
selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Saddle will only be available from
the Structural menu when the vessel itself is highlighted on the Components pane. If any component
is highlighted - including the shell - Saddle will be disabled.

Skirt
The location of this component in the component order is critical to the calculations.

In order to add a skirt to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and skirt must be selected as
the support type on the Vessel Information window. Skirt will only be available from the Structural
menu when the vessel itself is highlighted on the Components pane. If any component is highlighted
- including the shell - Skirt will be disabled.

Support Ring
In order to add a supporting ring to a vessel, the vessel orientation must be vertical and support ring
must be selected as the support type on the Vessel Information window. Supporting Ring will only be
available from the Structural menu when the shell is selected. If any other component or the vessel
itself is selected, Supporting Ring will be disabled.

215 |Page

DESIGNING A STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR A


JACKETED VESSEL
You will be able to add a structural support to the vessel shell but not to the jacket shell. This is
because DesignCalcs does not support the attachment of structural elements to jacket components.
Jacket closures are currently designed for pressure loads only.

To test whether the supports themselves are sufficient, create a second vessel and represent the
jacket shell as a shell. This process is informational only as the software will not check the jacket
closures for the load path.

216 |Page

REPORTS

(return to Contents)

Showing the Code Edition in the Report Footer

217

Reports Tutorial

217

Report Troubleshooting: Report Fonts are Crowded

220

Showing the Code Edition in the Report Footer


Toshow the code edition/addenda on the report footer, click the Reports button on the Components
pane and select "Current Code" from the Footer Options.

Reports Tutorial
The reports in DesignCalcs can be customized to include only the information you desire in the order
that works for you. This document aims to assist you in creating your ideal reports.

217 |Page

Reports

Report Defaults
Most default settings for the reports are located on the Report tab under Tools > Defaults. Certain
settings on other tabs can also affect the data that appears in the reports. On the Report tab, you can
determine the default print settings for your reports, such as the size of the margins and the fonts that
will be used. You can also set the options for the appearance of certain elements and act to include
or remove specific calculations and information. If something is showing up on your report and it
shouldn't be, or something isn't showing up that should, check the defaults to see if it's an option.

Cover Page
The contents of the cover page can be customized by selecting Customize Cover Page from the
Reports menu. The Cover Page tab can also be accessed from Vessel > Vessel Information on the
Components pane. The job and vessel numbers are drawn from the vessel information and cannot
be changed. Certain other content is also automatically imported from the vessel information, but
these values can be changed or deleted. This information is taken from the values in the Vessel
Information window when the vessel is first created and saved. If changes are made to this
information after the first save, the cover page will not reflect those changes.

The defaults for the cover page are located in Tools > Defaults > Cover Page. In addition to the
options on the Cover Page tab, there are some checkboxes on the Report tab in the Cover Page
section to determine what will be printed on each report.

Footer Options
You can choose whether to use the software version or the current code as the footer on your
reports.

Company Information
The Company tab on the Vessel Information window can be accessed via the Vessel menu on the
Components pane or by selecting Company Information from the Reports menu. The page has a
few basic fields available for input. You may also choose to reset to the default company information.
The default settings are on the Global tab under Tools > Defaults.

218 |Page

Reports

Bill of Materials
The list of materials included in the vessel can be customized by selecting Bill of Materials from the
Reports menu on the Components pane. This list can be grouped, sorted, filtered, and manually reordered. When you have it how you want it, you can preview the final product from within the
customization window. The bill of materials is its own report and does not combine data with the
code calculations and other general information for the vessel.

Summary Report
Reports > Customize Summary Report opens the Summary Report Information window. Here you

can add descriptions and measurements of weights, volumes, and areas within the vessel.

Printing Reports
Once you have all of your details entered, you are ready to generate your report. Reports > Print
Reports opens the report builder. On this screen, you can add, remove and reorder the sections and
sub-reports in your report. You have the option to add and remove sections one at a time or
add/remove all. Once a section or sub-report has been added to the report, you can move it up and
down in the list.

219 |Page

Reports

When your report contains the desired sections in the correct order, you have the option to print a
physical copy of the report or save it as a PDF. By default, the report will be saved to the same
location as the vessel and the filename will consist of the job name and the vessel name separated
by an underscore (e.g., Job Name_Vessel Name.PDF). This can be adjusted when you save the
report.

Report Troubleshooting: Report Fonts are Crowded


Occasionally the font on a report will appear smashed together when you create a PDF. This article
will take you through the steps to adjust your computer's DPI and Display settings to resolve this
issue.

Please check your Display DPI and Resolution Settings. The DPI should be set at 100% or 96 DPI.
The text size should be set to "Smaller" or 100%. Either one or both of these settings can cause the
creation of the PDF to be skewed or misaligned.

220 |Page

Reports

Windows 7/Vista
Right click on your Desktop and select the screen resolution option, then click the "Make text and
other items larger or smaller" link.

Select "Smaller-100%" and click Apply. You may need to restart your machine for the changes to
take effect.

221 |Page

Reports

You will need to recreate any PDFs that were problematic. If the fonts are still crowded, return to the
screen above and click the "Set custom text size (DPI)" link in the blue sidebar. This setting should
also be at 100%.

222 |Page

Reports

Windows XP
Right click on your desktop and select Properties. Click the Advanced button on the Settings tab.

On the General tab, change the DPI setting to "Normal size (96 DPI)".

223 |Page

Reports

You will need to recreate any PDFs that were problematic.

224 |Page

WRC-107 ANALYSIS

(return to Contents)

General Info

225

Vessel/Attachment

226

Loads

231

WRC-107 Analysis Tips

233

Understanding the Pressure Stress Calculations in the DesignCalcs WRC-107


Implementation
236

General Info
Design Information
WRC 107 Description: The label given for the analysis. It will appear in the analysis pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the analysis report. This will default to the analysis type
and analysis number. For example, the third WRC-107 for the vessel will start with a description of
WRC-107 3.

Drawing No:The drawing number associated with the component. This does not refer to any

drawings that are generated in the software and it is listed here for the user's reference. It will default
to the drawing number input on the vessel screen.

Allowable Combined Stress: Select which combination of stress, yield, and their respective

multipliers will be used to determine the allowable combined stress. The stress multiplier is shown as
Cs and the yield multiplier is shown as Cy.

Consider Attachment Properties: Select the box to consider attachment properties when

determining the allowable combined stress. When attachment properties are considered, the
minimum of the selected yield or of the stress of the host or attachment is used to determine the
allowable stress.

225 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Internal Pressure:The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure.

Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature at the junction of the host and the

attachment.

Stress Multiplier: The number by which stress is multiplied when determining the allowable

combined stress.

Yield Multiplier: The number by which yield is multiplied when determining the allowable combined

stress.

Vessel Type: Select the type of vessel (host) from the available options. The type of vessel

determines the options available in the "Attachment Type" field.

Attachment Type: Select the type of attachment from the available options. When the "Vessel Type"

is Cylindrical, nozzles are Cylinder attachments; for Spherical or Elliptical vessels, nozzles are
Hollow Cylinders.

Vessel/Attachment
Vessel Information
Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition. Enter the diameter and select whether the

value represents the inside or outside diameter. For Elliptical host types, this should be the effective
inside spherical diameter at the location of the junction.

Thickness: This value is in the new condition.

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

226 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Mic. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table at the temperature for the junction of
the host and attachment. In cases where this temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

227 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature for the junction of the host and

attachment. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from
Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3
for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength
from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the
allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where this temperature
exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the temperature for the junction of the host and

attachment. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where this temperature
exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are
several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be
found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the
external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with
non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described
calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is
defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Attachment Information
Outside Radius: This field is only available for the cylinder, hollow cylinder, and rigid cylinder

attachment types. See the figure on the General Info tab for more information (See page 225)

Square Width:The outside width of one side of a square attachment. See the figure on the General

Info tab for more information (See page 225).

228 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Length circ. dir.:The outside length of a rectangular attachment in the circumferential direction with

respect to the host. See the figure on the General Info tab for more information (See page 225).

Length long. dir.:The outside length of a rectangular attachment in the longitudinal direction with

respect to the host. See the figure on the General Info tab for more information (See page 225).

Thickness: This value is in the new condition.

CA: Corrosion allowance on the inside of the component (concave side).

Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Mic. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

Density:The material density based on table PRD from Section II, Part D. For those materials that

did not have a clear match in this table, every effort was made to assign conservative values.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
"Unlisted Material" caption.

229 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table at the temperature for the junction of
the host and attachment. In cases where this temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry for
this materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature for the junction of the host and

attachment. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from
Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3
for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength
from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the
allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where this temperature
exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually
editing this field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is
stored in the database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is
indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

230 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Yield Strength: The material yield strength at the temperature for the junction of the host and

attachment. This value comes from Section II, Part D, Table Y-1. In cases where this temperature
exceeds the highest temperature entry for this materials yield line, the value will be zero. There are
several materials that do not have clear matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be
found by the softwares assignment criteria, the software will calculate the yield strength using the
external pressure chart and the method described in UG-28(c)(2) Step 3. This is more common with
non-ferrous materials. If no match is found and the software cannot perform the described
calculation, this value will be zero. Manually editing this field will inform the software that the user is
defining the material differently than what is stored in the database and the connection to the
material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

Loads
Solve For: When stresses are selected, the analysis will calculate the combined stress from all of the

loads entered. When one of the other options is selected, the analysis will set the combined stress to
its maximum and back solve for the item selected with the other loads given.

Loads
Radial Load: For both heads and cylinders as hosts, the radial load P is positive if it is inward.

Shear load and overturning moment inputs:For heads, decide arbitrary 1-1 and 2-2 axes that are

normal to each other. A shear load V2 acts in the 1-1 direction and causes the M1 moment; a shear
load V1 acts in the 2-2 direction and causes the M2 moment. For cylindrical hosts, the axes are the
longitudinal and circumferential directions: a positive shear load VC acts in the positive
circumferential direction and creates the positive moment MC; the positive shear load VL acts in the
positive longitudinal direction and creates the positive moment ML . See the coordinate system on
the General Info tab for more information (See page 225).

External torsional moment: The torsional load sign is arbitrary and this input is only available for the

cylinder, hollow cylinder, and rigid cylinder attachment types.

Use a repad: Select the box to add a reinforcing pad to the design. This option is only available for

cylinder and hollow cylinder attachment types.

231 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Use Stress Concentration Factor:WRC-107, Appendix B, identifies this as an adjustment for fatigue

considerations at the junction between the host and the attachment. Review WRC-107 for more
information.

Repad
Outside Diameter: The component diameter in the new condition.

Thickness: The repad thickness.

Stress Concentration Factors


Fillet radius:The radius of the concavity of the fillet weld between the attachment and the host or

pad.

Kn: The stress concentration factor for the membrane stress component based on the weld between

the attachment and the host or pad. This value can be found in WRC-107, Appendix B.

Kb: The stress concentration factor for the bending stress component based on the weld between

the attachment and the host or pad. This value can be found in Appendix B of WRC-107.

Repad fillet radius: The radius of the concavity of the fillet weld between the pad and the host.

Repad Kn: The stress concentration factor for the membrane stress component based on the weld

between the pad and the host. This value can be found in WRC-107, Appendix B.

Repad Kb: The stress concentration factor for the bending stress component based on the weld

between the pad and the host. This value can be found in Appendix B of WRC-107.

232 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis

WRC-107 Analysis Tips


What is the WRC-107 Analysis? The WRC-107 Analysis calculates the combined local stress

intensity from external loads at the junction of an attachment and a shell or head. The method may
be employed for structural supports or nozzles.

What are the limitations? The analysis is based on empirical data. Certain geometries falling

outside this data have no experimental basis to support them and it is up to the designer to determine
if the method is a valid approximation outside the range covered by the empirical data. In addition,
the method does not cover stress from internal pressure; however, DesignCalcs does allow for
internal pressure loading. (See page 236)

The second major limitation is the stress combination. This method combines the membrane and
bending stresses. Membrane only stress will have a set of allowable stress criteria if you look to
Section VIII, Division II, and the combined membrane and bending stress will have its own allowable
stress criteria. In addition, if you need to consider peak stress, the failure modes you need to check
per Division II get more complicated.

Finally, the WRC-107 reference does not clearly indicate the attachment details for the attachment
to the host. When utilizing this method, be careful when considering tilted or hillside nozzles or
attachments where full penetration groove welds are not used.

How does the WRC-107 coordinate system work? See the figures below for reference. For both

heads and cylinders as hosts, the radial load P is positive if it is inward. Choose arbitrary 1-1 and 2-2
axes that are normal to each other for heads. A shear load V2 acts in the 1-1 direction and causes
the M1 moment. A shear load V1 acts in the 2-2 direction and causes the M2 moment.

For cylindrical hosts, the axes are the longitudinal direction and the circumferential direction. A
positive shear load VC acts in the positive circumferential direction and creates the positive moment
MC. The positive shear load VL acts in the positive longitudinal direction and creates the positive
moment ML.

233 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis

How does the Solve For radio button work? When stresses are selected, the analysis will calculate

the combined local stress intensity from all of the loads entered. When one of the other options is
selected, the analysis will set the combined stress to its maximum and solve for the item selected
with the other items set.

What should I enter for the stress multipliers? - These multipliers are used to determine the

allowable combined stress. Cs represents the stress multiplier and Cy represents the yield multiplier.
You may choose which combination of stress, yield, and multiplier to use and whether to consider
the attachment properties. When the attachment properties are considered, the minimum of the
selected yield, the stress of the host, or the stress of the attachment is used to determine the
allowable stress.

234 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis

The ideal values for the stress multipliers depend on several factors, including the duration and
geography of the load. If the load is to be applied one time and then released (such as for lifting lugs),
a higher allowable may be justified. A typical operating nozzle load would be limited to a lower
allowable. See the stress classifications in Section VIII-II for further guidance. Pay special attention
to the primary local and secondary stresses and the slight differences between them.

An example of a typical allowable stress for primary local membrane stress would be 1.5*S. An
example of a typical allowable stress for primary local membrane plus secondary bending stress
would be Sps where Sps may be either 3*S or 2*Sy. Be careful when specifying 3*S if the allowable
stress criteria is based on 90% yield instead of 66-2/3% yield.

When do I use the Stress Concentration Factor? This is only used for cyclic type loadings or for

brittle materials. See appendix B in WRC-107 and proceed with caution.

How does the analysis handle reinforcing pads for nozzles? The analysis will calculate the

stresses at the periphery of the nozzle to host/pad combined thickness and it will calculate the
stresses at the periphery of the pad diameter to host junction. This is probably a conservative leaning
check unless the repad thickness is very close to external projection of the nozzle or the width of the
pad is very narrow; in either of those cases, the check is more accurate.

For a large diameter pad (e.g. a pad with 2x the diameter of the nozzle neck), it may be suitable to
increase the host thickness to represent the combined thickness of the pad and the host - assuming
the allowable stress of both are the same and the nozzle has a quality attachment detail to both the
pad and the host wall.

Can I bump up the host thickness to represent the combined host and pad thickness for a structural
attachment Yes, you can. However, this approximation is the most viable when the attachment is

attached through the pad to the host wall and the details include full penetration groove welds. In
addition, the pad should be fairly large compared to the attachment size (e.g. 8 x 8 pad for a 4x 4
attachment) and the pad should have an allowable stress similar to the host.

How can I import a nozzle or a host that I have already designed? On the Vessel/Attachment tab,

select the Nozzle Browser to import the information for the nozzle and its host. To add a structural
attachment, select the host browser and bring the host information into the WRC-107 form. Then
you can manually enter the attachment information.

235 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
Why do I need to enter the diameter when the host is an elliptical head? The analysis treats the

head as a sphere and uses the diameter entered to determine the spherical radius.

Are the wind loads, elevations, and diameters from the Vessel Information and
Attachments/Loadings windows used in the WRC-107 Analysis? - In order for wind loads to be

considered in the WRC-107 Analysis, they must be directly entered on the Loads tab of the WRC107 window. The analysis does not draw this data from any other location.

Understanding the Pressure Stress Calculations in the DesignCalcs


WRC-107 Implementation
General
l

The WRC-107 method only considers external loads and does not consider pressure.
The pressure stress equations used in the DesignCalcs implementation of the WRC-107 method are
for primary membrane stress caused from internal pressure.
The stresses caused by the external loads are typically classified as primary local stress and
secondary bending stress (although this is not always the case).
If pressure is considered for these calculations, the primary membrane stress from pressure will be
added stresses determined from the external loads.

Pressure Stress Calculation:Elliptical Host


The pressure stress for an elliptical host in the WRC-107 method assumes that the host can act like
a sphere at the location where the attachment/nozzle is placed. The diameter entered must
represent an effective spherical diameter at this location. The formula is derived from the UG-27(d)
formula from ASMESC VIII-I (setting E=1).

S = 0.5

PR

t + 0.2 P

Elliptical Host Pressure Stress vs. Elliptical Head Actual Stress


The Actual Stress formula for an elliptical head is derived from ASME SC VIII-I Appendix 1-4(c).

236 |Page

WRC-107 Analysis
S=

PDoK
t 2 P (K 0.1)

2E

As you can see, these equations are not the same and thus will produce different results.

In addition, the elliptical head form has a location to enter thin out; the WRC-107 form lacks this field,
so if the math needs to consider local thinning at the attachment/nozzle, the thickness must be
reduced manually to reflect that. The Actual Stress in the elliptical head report also considers
adjustment for the joint efficiency as joint efficiency is typically applied as a penalty to the allowable
primary stress.

237 |Page

CONE TO CYLINDER ANALYSIS

(return to Contents)

General Info

238

Pressure/Load

239

Stiffening Ring

240

General Info
Design Information
Juncture Description: The label given for the analysis. It will appear in the analysis pane, the report

dialog, the summary pane, and at the top of the analysis report. This will default to the analysis type
and analysis number. For example, the third WRC-107 for the vessel will start with a description of
WRC-107 3.

Juncture Location: Indicate the end of the cone on which the analysis will run. This field is for

informational purposes only.

Ring Temperature: The maximum mean metal design temperature for the ring.

Shell Information
Longitudinal Efficiency: The joint efficiency of the girth seam. Longitudinal stress pulls on these

seams.

Section Length: The unstiffened length of the vessel that the juncture falls in. This will default to the

shell's unstiffened length (dimension L) from the External Pressure tab of the Shell (See page 33)

238 |Page

Cone to Cylinder Analysis

Pressure/Load
Axial Load: The load per unit length on the junction. The check box to the right of the field toggles this

value between a tensile load and a compressive load.

For Internal Pressure


Internal Pressure:The internal design pressure (pressure on the concave side). This value is gauge

pressure. When Solve for Thickness is selected, this value is an input and should not include static
head. When Solve for Pressure is selected, this value is a result. In the latter case, it represents the
total internal pressure (design pressure plus head) that the component can handle and meet code in
the absence of any other loadings.

Static Head: The internal pressure (pressure on the concave side) resulting from the static head of

the fluid. The user must determine this value and input it accordingly. It will be added to the Pressure
input and the sum will be used in the internal pressure calculations for the component. This field will
not be present when Solve for Pressure is selected.

For External Pressure


External Pressure: The external design pressure (pressure on the convex side). This value is gauge

pressure. If the user wishes to consider the effect of static head for the external pressure case, this
input must be altered to consider the effect.

Juncture is a line of support: Select this box to consider the junction as a line of support for the

design of the vessel for vacuum. With this consideration, the juncture must pass additional
requirements. When the juncture is considered a line of support, the code does not require that the
cone required thickness (external pressure) be at least that of the adjacent shell.

Check Cone Pe tr vs. Shell Pe tr: When the junction is not a line of support and this box is selected,

the cone tr for the external pressure case must be at least the shell tr for the external pressure case
or the junction analysis will fail. Clear this box to avoid performing this comparison. See UG-33(f) for
more information.

239 |Page

Cone to Cylinder Analysis

Stiffening Ring
Ring Information
Stiffener Location: Select whether a stiffening ring is present and, if so, whether the stiffener is in the

shell or the cone.

External CA: Corrosion allowance on the outside of the component (convex side). This field is

available for internal heads and for the inner components of a jacketed vessel.

Stiffener Dimensions: Enter the dimensions for the stiffener in the appropriate fields. See the

diagram for more information.

Description: The label given for the component.

Ring Type: Select the type of stiffener from the available options.

Stiffener Material
Material:A brief description of the component material. When the material selection dialog is used,

the default description is based on settings on the Materials-Mic. tab under Tools > Defaults. For
example, if the settings are for Spec and Type/Grade and the material is SA-516 Grade 70, this field
will show SA-516 Gr. 70. If the settings are instead just for Spec, the field will show SA-516. The field
may be edited by the user to say anything without breaking the relationship to the material database;
while this flexibility can be very helpful, the user must take care to enter correct information.

Condition: A brief description of the component material. Similar to the "Material" field, the

description will default a certain way based on settings on the Materials-Misc. tab under Tools >
Defaults when the material selection is used. This field may be edited by the user without breaking
the relationship to the material database. As with the Material field, the user must take care to enter
correct information.

240 |Page

Cone to Cylinder Analysis


Factor B table:The external pressure table assigned to the material in the allowable stress tables in

Section II, Part D. The table is used to determine the external pressure strength of the component
and also the longitudinal compressive strength. Selecting a Factor B table other than the one
assigned to the material will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Hot): The material allowable stress at the temperature listed for the internal pressure

condition. When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section
II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table 1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for
Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is calculated based on the ultimate strength from
Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is limited to the values listed in the allowable
stress tables for yield and creep governed cases. In cases where this temperature exceeds the
highest temperature entry for this materials stress line, the value will be zero. Manually editing this
field will inform the software that the user is defining the material differently than what is stored in the
database and the connection to the material in the database will be severed. This is indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Stress (Cold): The material allowable stress at 70 F (20 C). When a 3.5:1 safety factor is specified

in the vessel screen, this value comes from Section II, Part D (Table 1A for Ferrous Materials, Table
1B for Non-Ferrous Materials, and Table 3 for Bolting). If a 4:1 safety factor is specified, this value is
calculated based on the ultimate strength from Table U in Section II, Part D; furthermore, the value is
limited to the values listed in the allowable stress tables for yield and creep governed cases.
Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database as indicated by the
Unlisted Material caption.

Modulus of Elasticity: The material modulus of elasticity based on the TM tables from Section II, Part

D. The value shown here is based on the applicable TM table at the temperature listed for the
internal pressure condition. In cases where this temperature exceeds the highest temperature entry
for this materials TM table, the value will be zero. There are several materials that do not have clear
matches in these tables. When a clear match cannot be found by the softwares assignment criteria,
the software will instead retrieve the modulus of elasticity from the external pressure chart assigned
to the material. If this attempt also fails, then the value will be zero. This is more common with nonferrous materials. Manually editing this field will sever the connection to the material in the database
as indicated by the Unlisted Material caption.

241 |Page

SPECIFYING LOADING CASES


You must define the loading cases you want to check in the structural support calculations.

If your leg/zick analysis/tower analysis/base ring/lug/support ring report is not showing any
calculations, access the loading cases by clicking the Vessel button on the Components pane.
Select Vessel Information, go to the Wind/Seismic tab, and click the Load Cases button.

242 |Page

Specifying Loading Cases

Operating conditions reference the liquid input on the Liquid tab of the Vessel Attachment/Loadings

window. These include static head from the components.

243 |Page

Specifying Loading Cases

Empty conditions are without the liquid from the Attachment/Loadings window and do not include

static head.

Vacuum will run for the Pressurized conditions. Static head will be included for Operating
Unpressurized cases.

Occasional loadings will consider wind/seismic loadings. Selecting Occasional Loadings enables

the Wind and Seismic cases for the condition. These are based on the Wind and Seismic codes
selected on the General tab of the Vessel Information window. For codes UBC-1997 and newer,
these represent the Code's Allowable Stress Design loading cases (ASD) that contain a
Wind/Seismic element.

Sustained loadings do not consider wind/seismic loadings.

244 |Page

UG- 22 LOADINGS
DesignCalcs considers several of the loadings in UG-22, but it does not cover all possibilities.

Supplemental loads can be entered directly in a custom flange design, but the software does not do
the same check on the nozzle neck at this time.

DesignCalcs does have the ability to examine shells and cones for combined pressure, weight, static
head, and bending from wind/seismic, depending on your design geometry and licensing.

245 |Page

A T T A C H M E N T S /L O A D I N G S T U T O R I A L
Once you have completed the design of your components and supports, you need to input the
attachments, contents (including packing and liquid), insulation, applied forces, and wind load
diameters of the vessel. This article will walk you through this process.

To begin, click the Vessel button on the Components pane and select "Attachments/Loads"from the
menu.

Attachments Tab
The Attachments tab is where any weights and horizontal loads that need to be included in the
structural analysis but are not already considered must be entered.

Note: The weights of your subcomponents (nozzles, stiffening rings, and flanges), jacket
components, or heat exchanger components, must be entered here to be considered.

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Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

Vertical Vessel
Packing Wire Mesh: At an elevation of 150 inches there is packing wire mesh to hold up packing

material. The weight of the mesh is 50 pounds and, since the center of gravity of the mesh is the
same as the axis of the vessel, the eccentricity is zero. The mesh is in place prior to the hydro test so
the "Include for Pressure Test" check box is selected.

Stiffening Ring:At an elevation of 225 inches a stiffening ring is attached to the inside of the vessel.

The ring is a complete stiffening ring and is of constant cross section except for a few negligible sized
holes for draining. Because the ring is complete and not partial and is basically of constant cross
section, the weight of the ring is symmetric around the axis of the vessel and so the eccentricity is
zero. Since the ring is in place before the hydro test, the "Include for Pressure Test" check box is
selected.

Trays: At an elevation of 350 inches, two separate items exist: an attachment and a horizontal force.

The trays are only 50 pounds, but they are not symmetric around the axis of the vessel so they
develop an eccentricity which contributes to a bending moment.

The cross-section of the vessel is circular and a plane view of the elevation gives us 360 degrees in
which to apply horizontal forces and eccentric weights. As the designer, you can arbitrarily pick your
zero reference point. You can select the direction of the uppermost eccentric load or uppermost
horizontal force as zero; you can select the direction north as zero. It does not matter what you select
as long as you are consistent over the entire height of the vessel.

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Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

In this case, the trays are creating a bending moment which is trying to bend the vessel in a direction
15 degrees from the zero reference. At the same elevation, the applied horizontal force is creating a
shear force in a direction 45 degrees from the zero reference, or 30 degrees from the direction of the
eccentric trays (at lower plane elevations the shear force will have a moment associated with it due
to a vertical moment arm). These items were not an issue to be considered in the hydro test so the
box was left unchecked.

Horizontal Vessel
In this case, at a distance of 25 inches left of the reference line is an attachment with a weight of 2500
lb and a resultant horizontal force of 18,000 lb at a resultant direction that forms a 60 angle with the
longitudinal axis of the vessel. These items will not be included in the Zick Analysis or Saddle design
for the hydro test condition since the "Include for Pressure Test" box is not checked.

Some important points:

1. The distance from the reference line is here solely for your benefit at this time. It will appear on the
Attachment/Loading report, but it will have no effect on the calculations.
2. The weight will be divided equally between the saddles; in this case, each saddle will see 1250 lb from
this attachment weight.
3. The horizontal forces will be separated into a longitudinal and a transverse force with the following
relationship:

248 |Page

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

F is Horizontal Force (18,000 lb in this case) and is the Horizontal Resultant Direction (60 in this case). In this

example, the longitudinal force component F

LF

will be 9000 lb and the transverse force component F

TF

will be

15,588 lb.
The F

TF

value will always be divided by two to find its effect on each saddle. The F

LF

value is different, though; its

ultimate effect will depend on certain inputs and whether a sliding saddle is used.

Wind Tab
The Wind tab is used to input wind load diameters other than those of the outside diameter of the
component.

Note: The wind load diameter will not automatically address expansion joints or jacket components.
The information entered here should reflect those items.

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Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

Vertical Vessel
The default wind load diameter for cones and formed heads is the largest outside diameter of the
component. This tab can be used to reflect increased wind load area due to ladders, stiffening rings,
and insulation, or simply to make the calculations more conservative or easier to follow. This tab can
also be used to change the wind load diameter for conical sections to the mean diameter. The
program calculates the wind area of each section as rectangular by multiplying the height of the
section by the wind load diameter; this includes heads and cones.

P is the wind pressure determined from the wind code selection and inputs. EE and SE are the
W

ending and starting elevations, respectively. D

is the wind load diameter for the segment. For this

example, assume P = 0.25 psi at all elevations. The value of F


W

85 will be 1593.75 lb. The value of F


value of F

for the segment going from 0 to

for the segment going from 85 to 485 will be 6500.00 lb. The

for the segment going from 485 to 511 will be 292.50 lb.

Horizontal Vessel
The values you enter for the wind load diameter will determine the wind load area in both the
longitudinal and transverse directions. If a value is not entered here, the wind load areas will be
calculated using the vessel outside diameter. The horizontal forces will be separated into a
longitudinal and a transverse force with the following relationship:

250 |Page

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

P is the wind pressure determined from the wind code selection and inputs. EP and SP are the
W

ending and starting points, respectively. D

is the wind load diameter. For this example, assume P

= 0.5 psi. The longitudinal force component F


F

TW

will be 21600 lb. The F

The F

LW

TW

LW

will be 1413 lb and the transverse force component

value will always be divided by two to find its effect on each saddle.

value is different, though; its ultimate effect will depend on certain inputs and whether a

sliding saddle is used.

Insulation Tab
The Insulation tab is used to input insulation that may exist on the outside of the vessel. This tab is
only available for vertical vessels.

In the above example, the section of the vessel with insulation has an outside diameter of 60 inches
(the 60 comes from the component info and is not seen in this screen), so the outside diameter of
the insulation is 65 inches. The weight of the insulation is then automatically calculated from this
information. The weight of the insulation is calculated using the following formula:

251 |Page

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

Ins

is the specific weight of the insulation: for customary units, the specific weight and density are

the same; for metric units, multiply the density times gravity to get the specific weight. EE and SE are
the ending and starting elevations, respectively. OD and ID are the insulation outside and inside
diameters, respectively. For this example, the insulation weight is 3407 lb.

In this case, the insulation was placed on the vessel prior to the hydro test so the "Include for
Pressure Test" box was selected. The column on the far right only applies to vessels supported by
skirts. If the elevations considered cross the boundary between the pressure boundary and the skirt
(e.g. the bottom head is inside the skirt), specify whether the insulation is on the vessel (pressure
boundary) or the skirt. An entry needs to be added to the wind tab to consider the effect of the wind
load area of this insulation.

Liquid Tab
The Liquid tab allows for the input of liquids for the operating condition (the hydro condition will flood
the vessel with water automatically) based on the starting and ending elevation in the vessel.

Note: This tab and the Summary page in the report are independent from each other. The flooded
weight on the Summary Report will not be used in the operating condition calculations for your
support design. Any fluid weight you wish to be considered in your operating condition must be
entered here.

252 |Page

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

Vertical Vessel
If different rows are entered, the program will order them so that the least density is on top and the
greatest is on the bottom. In the row where the starting elevation is the crown of the bottom head,
any value less than or equal to the elevation of the crown of the bottom head will suffice. The
software will only calculate the volume of fluid that can possibly exist within the vessel wall. The
same is true for the row with the ending elevation of fluid being the crown of the top head - any value
equal to or greater than the elevation of the top crown will suffice. In summary, if you wish to simply
flood the vessel, enter a 0 for the starting elevation and a rather high value (like 5000) for the ending
elevation and the software will take care of the rest. The equation for the weight of liquid between
two elevations for a vertical vessel is show below.

liquid

is the specific weight of the liquid: for customary units, the specific weight and density are the

same; for metric units, multiply the density times gravity to get the specific weight. EE and SE are the
ending and starting elevations, respectively. ID is the inside diameter of the vessel. For this example,
the ID is 60, so the liquid weight is 12,756 lb.

Horizontal Vessel
In the above example, the liquid is slightly more than twice the density of water and it is 15 inches in
depth in the vessel during operation. The weight of the liquid for a horizontal vessel is calculated
using a more complicated formula than for a vertical vessel because of the nature of partial filling for
horizontal vessels.

253 |Page

Attachments/Loadings Tutorial

Packing Tab
The Packing tab is identical to the Liquid tab in function. This tab is only available for vertical vessels.

254 |Page

S E IS MIC M E T H O D O L O G Y : AS CE 7 - 9 8 A N D
F O R WA R D
Inputs:
ASCE 7-98
1. Decide if the seismic calculation needs to be performed treating the vessel as a Non-Building Structure
(Self Supporting), Non-Building Structure (Supported by another Structure), or as a Non-Structural
Component. Use paragraphs 9.6.1, 9.6.3.9 and 9.14.4.1 for guidance.
2. Determine the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, from Figures 9.4.1.1(a) (j). As an
alternative, mapped values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 1
3. Determine the 1 second spectral response acceleration, S1, from Figures 9.4.1.1(a) (j). As an
alternative, mapped values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 2
4. Determine the Occupancy Category per Table 1-1 and then the Seismic Use Group per Paragraph
9.1.3; the Seismic Use Group is used only for reference. 3
5. Determine the Site Class per Paragraph 9.4.1.2 and Table 9.4.1.2. 4
6. Determine the Response Modification Factor from Table 9.14.2.1 (appearing as R) or Table 9.6.3.2
(appearing as Rp) as applicable. Table 9.14.2.1 is used for Non-Building Structures (Self Supporting)
and Table 9.6.3.2 is used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for NonStructural Components. 5
7. Determine the Component Amplification Factor from Table 9.6.3.2, ap. This value is only used for NonBuilding Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 6
8. Determine if any of the conditions in Par. 9.6.1.5 mandate Ip to use 1.5. This value is only used for
Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 7
9. Determine the overstrength factor or force multiplier to be used on the anchor design, per table
9.14.2.1. If you wish to not increase the force for the anchor design, set the value to 1. 8

IBC 2000
1. Decide if the seismic calculation needs to be performed treating the vessel as a Non-Building Structure
(Self Supporting), Non-Building Structure (Supported by another Structure), or as a Non-Structural
Component. Use IBC 2000 paragraphs 1621.1 and 1622.1 for guidance.
2. Determine the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, from Figures 1615(1) (10). As an
alternative, mapped values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 9
3. Determine the 1 second spectral response acceleration, S1, from Figures 1615(1) (10). As an
alternative, mapped values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 10
4. Determine the Occupancy Category per Table 1604.5 and then the Seismic Use Group per Paragraph
1616.2; the Seismic Use Group is used only for reference. 11

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Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


5. Determine the Site Class per 1615.1.1. 12
6. Determine the Response Modification Factor from Table 1622.2.5(1).
7. Determine the Response Modification Factor from Table 1622.2.5(1) (appearing as R) or Table 1621.3
(appearing as Rp) as applicable. Table 1622.2.5(1) is used for Non-Building Structures (Self
Supporting) and Table 1621.3 is used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and
for Non-Structural Components. 13
8. Determine the Component Amplification Factor from Table 1621.3, ap. This value is only used for NonBuilding Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 14
9. Determine if any of the conditions in Par. 1621.1.6 mandate Ip to use 1.5. This value is only used for
Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 15
10. Determine the overstrength factor or force multiplier to be used on the anchor design, per table
1622.2.5(1). If you wish to not increase the force for the anchor design, set the value to 1. 16

ASCE 7-02 and IBC 2003


Note: IBC 2003 accepts the use of ASCE 7 for seismic design in paragraph 1614.1

exception 1 on page 302. ASCE 7-02 is picked due to the relative publication dates of
the two documents even though IBC 2003 does not explicitly pick the 2002 release of
ASCE 7.

1. Decide if the seismic calculation needs to be performed treating the vessel as a Non-Building Structure
(Self Supporting), Non-Building Structure (Supported by another Structure), or as a Non-Structural
Component. Use ASCE 7-02 paragraphs 9.6.1 and 9.14.4 and 9.14.4.1 for guidance.
2. Determine the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, from Figures 9.4.1.1(a) (j) for ASCE 702 and Figures 1615(1) through 1615(10) for IBC 2003. As an alternative, mapped values are provided
at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 17
3. Determine the 1 second spectral response acceleration, S1, from Figures 9.4.1.1(a) (j) for ASCE 7-02
and Figures 1615(1) through 1615(10) for IBC 2003. As an alternative, mapped values are provided at
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 18
4. Determine the Occupancy Category per ASCE 7-02 Table 1-1 and then the Seismic Use Group per
ASCE 7-02 Table 9.14.5.1.2; the Seismic Use Group is used only for reference. 19 20
5. Determine the Site Class per ASCE 7-02 9.4.1.2. 21
6. Determine the Response Modification Factor from ASCE 7-02 Table 9.14.5.1.1 (appearing as R) or
Table 9.6.3.2 (appearing as Rp) as applicable. Table 9.14.5.1.1 is used for Non-Building Structures
(Self Supporting) and Table 9.6.3.2 is used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another
Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 22
7. Determine the Component Amplification Factor from ASCE 7-02 Table 9.6.3.2, ap. This value is only
used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural
Components. 23

256 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


8. Determine if any of the conditions in ASCE 7-02 Par. 9.6.1.5 mandate Ip to use 1.5. This value is only
used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural
Components. 24
9. Determine the overstrength factor or force multiplier to be used on the anchor design, per ASCE 7-02
table 9.14.5.1.1. Please also review paragraph 9.14.7.3.3. If you wish to not increase the force for the
anchor design, set the value to 1. 25

ASCE 7-05 and IBC 2006 and IBC 2009 and CBC 2010
Note: IBC 2006 defers to ASCE 7 for seismic design in both paragraphs 1602.1 on

page 278 and 1613.1 on page 302. IBC 2009 defers to ASCE 7 for seismic design in
both paragraphs 1602.1 and 1613.1. CBC 2010 defers to ASCE 7 for seismic design in
both paragraphs 1602.1 on page 6 of volume II and 1613.1 on page 42 in volume 2.
ASCE 7-05 is picked due to the relative publication date of ASCE 7-05 to these three
other standards even though IBC 2006, IBC 2009, and CBC 2010 do not explicitly pick
the 2005 release of ASCE 7.

1. Decide if the seismic calculation needs to be performed treating the vessel as a Non-Building Structure
(Self Supporting), Non-Building Structure (Supported by another Structure), or as a Non-Structural
Component. Use ASCE 7-05 paragraphs 13.1.5 and 15.1.1 and 15.3 for guidance.
2. Determine the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, from Figures 22-1 through 22-14 for
ASCE 7-05 and Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) for IBC 2006 and 2009. As an alternative,
mapped values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 26
3. Determine the 1 second spectral response acceleration, S1, from Figures 22-1 through 22-14 for ASCE
7-05 and Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) for IBC 2006 and 2009. As an alternative, mapped
values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 27
4. Determine the Occupancy Category per Table 1-1 for ASCE 7-05 and Table 1604.5 for IBC 2006 and
2009. 28
5. Determine the Site Class per Section 11.4.2 and chapter 20 for ASCE 7-05 and Sections 1613.5.2 and
1613.5.5 for IBC 2006 and 2009.
6. Determine the Response Modification Factor from ASCE 7-05 Table 15.4-2 (appearing as R) or Table
13.6-1 (appearing as Rp) as applicable. Table 15.4-2 is used for Non-Building Structures (Self
Supporting) and Table 13.6-1 is used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and
for Non-Structural Components. 29
7. Determine the Component Amplification Factor from ASCE 7-05 Table 13.6-1, ap, with additional
guidance from 15.3. This value is only used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another
Structure) and for Non-Structural Components. 30
8. Determine the long period transition period, TL, from ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-15 through 22-20. This is
only for Non-Building Structures (Self Supported). 31

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Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


9. Determine if any of the conditions in ASCE 7-05 Par. 13.1.3 apply. This step only needs to be
performed for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural
Components. 32
10. Determine the overstrength factor or force multiplier to be used on the anchor design, per table 15.4-2.
Please also review paragraph 15.7.3. If you wish to not increase the force for the anchor design, set the
value to 1. 33

ASCE 7-10 and IBC 2012 and CBC 2013


Note: IBC 2012 defers to ASCE 7 for seismic design in both paragraphs 1602.1 on

page 333 and 1613.1 on page 366. CBC 2013 defers to ASCE 7 for seismic design in
both paragraphs 1602.1 on page 3 of volume II and 1613.1 on page 36 in volume II.
ASCE 7-10 is picked due to the relative publication dates of the documents even
though IBC 2012 and CBC 2013 do not explicitly pick the 2010 release of ASCE 7.

1. Decide if the seismic calculation needs to be performed treating the vessel as a Non-Building Structure
(Self Supporting), Non-Building Structure (Supported by another Structure), or as a Non-Structural
Component. Use ASCE 7-10 paragraphs 13.1.5 and 15.1.1 and 15.3 for guidance.
2. Determine the short period spectral response acceleration, SS, from Figures 22-1 through 22-6 for
ASCE 7-10 and Figures 1613.3.1(1) through 1613.3.1(6) for IBC 2012. As an alternative, mapped
values are provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 34
3. Determine the 1 second spectral response acceleration, S1, from Figures 22-1 through 22-6 for ASCE
7-10 and Figures 1613.3.1(1) through 1613.3.1(6) for IBC 2012. As an alternative, mapped values are
provided at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/designmaps. 35
4. Determine the Risk Category per Table 1.5-1 for ASCE 7-10 and Table 1604.5 for IBC 2012. 36
5. Determine the Site Class per Section 11.4.2 and chapter 20 for ASCE 7-10.
6. Determine the Response Modification Factor from ASCE 7-10 Table 15.4-2 (appearing as R) or Table
13.6-1 (appearing as Rp) as applicable. Table 15.4-2 is used for Non-Building Structures (Self
Supporting) and Table 13.6-1 is used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and
for Non-Structural Components. 37
7. Determine the Component Amplification Factor from ASCE 7-10 Table 13.6-1, ap, with additional
guidance from 15.3. This value is only used for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another
Structure) and for Non-Structural Components . 38
8. Determine the long period transition period, TL, from ASCE 7-10 Figures 22-12 through 22-16. This is
only for Non-Building Structures (Self Supported). 39
9. Determine if any of the conditions in ASCE 7-10 Par. 13.1.3 apply. This step only needs to be
performed for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure) and for Non-Structural
Components. 40

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Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


10. Determine the overstrength factor or force multiplier to be used on the anchor design, per table 15.4-2.
Please also review paragraph 15.7.3. If you wish to not increase the force for the anchor design, set the
value to 1. 41

Math
1. Determine the site coefficient Fa from the table below:
Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods
Site Class
Ss 0.25
Ss = 0.5
Ss = 0.75
Ss = 1.00
Ss 1.25
A

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.0

2.5

1.7

1.2

0.9

0.9

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

Table 1:Values of Site Coefficient Fa 42

Note: If the Site Class is F, F is determined by the designer. If the Site Class is E and
a

SS > 1.00, Fa is determined by the designer for ASCE 7-98 and IBC 2000.
2. Determine the site coefficient Fv from the table below:
Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods
Site Class
S1 0.1
S1 = 0.2
S1 = 0.3
S1 = 0.4
S1 0.5
A

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

2.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.5

3.5

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.4

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

Table 2:Values of Site Coefficient Fv 43

Note: If the Site Class is F, F is determined by the designer. If the Site Class is E and
v

S1 > 0.4, Fv is determined by the designer for ASCE 7-98 and IBC 2000.
3. Calculate the maximum short period spectral response factor, SMS: 44
SMS = FaSS

(1)

4. Calculate the maximum 1 second spectral response factor, SM1: 45


S M 1 = FV S 1

(2)

259 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


5. Calculate the design short period spectral response factor, SDS: 46
SDS =

2
3

S MS

(3)

6. Calculate the design 1 second spectral response factor, SD1: 47


SD1 =

2
3

SM 1

(4)

7. Determine the Importance Factor, I :


Non-Building Structures (Self Supported)
Seismic Use Group

Occupancy/Risk Category

I or Ie

I or II

1.00

II

III

1.25

III

IV

1.50

Table 3:Occupancy Importance Factors 48

Non-Building Structures (Supported by another Structure), Non-Structural Component 49

ASCE 7-98: If any of the conditions in Par. 9.6.1.5 mandate Ip to use 1.5: I=1.5
IBC 2000: If any of the conditions in Par. 1621.1.6 mandate Ip to use 1.5: I=1.5
IBC 2003 or ASCE 7-02: If any of the conditions in ASCE 7-02 Par. 9.6.1.5 mandate Ip to
use 1.5: I=1.5
IBC 2006 or 2009 or 2012 or ASCE 7-05 or 7-10 or CBC 2010 or 2013: If any of the
conditions in ASCE 7 Par. 13.1.3 apply: I=1.5
Otherwise: I=1.0
Note: I is used here for simplicity in the procedure. The references use Ip.
8. Determine the Seismic Design Category based on Short-Period Response Acceleration:
Seismic Use Group
SDS

II

III

Occupancy/Risk Category
I or II

III

IV

SDS <0.167

0.167SDS <0.33

0.33SDS <0.50

260 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


Seismic Use Group
I

SDS

II

III

Occupancy/Risk Category
I or II

III

IV

0.50SDS

Table 4: Occupancy Category per Short-Period Response Acceleration 50

9. Determine the Seismic Design Category based on 1-Second Period Response Acceleration:
Seismic Use Group
I

SD1

II

III

Occupancy/Risk Category
I or II

III

IV

SD1 <0.067

0.067SD1 <0.133

0.133SD1 <0.20

0.20SD1

Table 5: Occupancy Category per 1-Second Period Response Acceleration 51

10. Determine the Seismic Design Category: 52

If Occupancy/Risk Category is IV (or Seismic Use Group is III) and S1 0.75:F


If Occupancy/Risk Category is I, II, or III (or Seismic Use Group is I or II) and S1 0.75:E
Otherwise:Use worst result from Math steps 8 and 9. The worst case is the letter later in
the alphabet.
11. Determine the height limitation:

If Code is ASCE 7-05 or ASCE 7-10 or Code is IBC 2006 or IBC 2009 or IBC 2012 or
Code is CBC 2010 or CBC 2013 AND Legs are used: 53
Seismic Design Category
Support

D
in. (mm)

E
in. (mm)

F
in. (mm)

Braced Legs

1920 (48800)

1200 (30500)

1200 (30500)

Un-Braced Legs

1200 (30500)

720 (18300)

720 (18300)

Table 6:Height limitations for vertical vessels supported on legs

261 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward

Otherwise: There is no height limitation.


12. Determine the following coefficient:

For Codes: ASCE 7-02, ASCE 7-05, ASCE 7-10, IBC 2003, IBC 2006, IBC 2009, IBC
2012, CBC 2010, CBC 2013. If the support is a skirt and the Occupancy/Risk Category is
IV and the Designer defines the vessel or support as sensitive to buckling failure: 54
CR I = 1

(5)

Otherwise:
CR I =

I
R

(6)

13. Calculate the minimum seismic response coefficient for Non-Building Structures (Self Supported):
ASCE 7-98

Seismic Design Category E or F 55


CS min = 0.5S 1C R I

(7)

Otherwise 56
CS min = 0.044S DS I

(8)

ASCE 7-02, IBC 2000, IBC 2003

Seismic Design Category E or F 57


CS min = 0.8S 1C R I

(9)

Otherwise 58
CS min = 0.14SDSI

(10)

ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-10, IBC 2006, IBC 2009, IBC 2012, CBC 2010 and CBC 2013

Use 15.4.1 Step 2 Exception


If S1 < 0.6: 59
CS min = max(0.044SDSI , 0.01)

(11)

If S1 0.6: 60

262 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


CS min = max(0.5S1C R I , 0.044SDSI , 0.01)

(12)

Do not use 15.4.1 Step 2 Exception


If S1 < 0.6: 61
CS min = max(0.044SDSI , 0.03)

(13)

If S1 0.6: 62
CS min = max(0.8S1C R I , 0.044SDSI , 0.03)

(14)

14. Calculate the minimum seismic response coefficient for Non-Building Structures (Supported by
another Structure) ORNon-Structural Components: 63
CS min = 0.3S DS I

(15)

Note:this is the combination of variables that Wp is calculated by in the referenced

equation.
15. Calculate the maximum seismic response coefficient if T is known for Non-Building Structures (Self
Supported):

If Code is ASCE 7-98 or 7-02 ORCode is IBC 2000 or 2003 OR T T L: 64


CS max =

S D1
T

CR I

(16)

Otherwise: 65
CS max =

S D1T L
T

CR I

(17)

16. Calculate the maximum seismic response coefficient for Non-Building Structures (Supported by
another Structure) ORNon-Structural Components: 66
CS max = 1.6SDSI

(18)

Note:This is the combination of variables that Wp is calculated by in the referenced

equation.
17. Calculate the seismic response coefficient for Non-Building Structures (Self Supported): 67

If T is known:

263 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


CS = max[CS min, min(S DS C R I, CS max )]

(19)

Otherwise:
CS = max(CS min, SDSC R I )

(20)

18. Calculate the seismic response coefficient for Non-Building Structures (Supported by another
Structure) ORNon-Structural Components: 68
z
CS = max CS min, min0.4a pSDSC R I 1 + 2 , CS max

(21)

Note:This is the combination of variables that Wp is calculated by in the referenced

equation.
19. Determine the total design lateral shear at the base of the structure:

If SDC = A 69
V = 0.01W

(22)

If for a Non-Building Structure (Self Supported) ANDT 0.06 AND SDC A: 70


V = 0.30SDSWI

(23)

Otherwise (including if T is unknown): 71


V = CSW

(24)

Note:The first equation appears as Fx in the references. The methodology for Non-

Building Structures supported by other Structures and Non-Structural components


actually uses the symbol Fp instead of V here. V is used for simplicity and normalization
across the different methods.
20. Calculate the height exponent: 72

If T is known:
k = min[max(0.5T + 0.75, 1), 2]

(25)

Otherwise:
k =2

(26)

264 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


21. Determine the vertical distribution factor for x = 1 to n: 73

If SDC = A 74
C vx =

Wx
ni =1 Wi

(27)

Note:This equation does not appear in the building codes. Its use simplifies the

normalization of the lateral force equation for SDC = A with the base shear and
component for equations.
Otherwise:
C vx =

Wx h x

ni =1 Wih i k

(28)

22. Determine the vertical seismic load case multiplier:


ASCE 7-98 75

If SDC = A OR If SDS 0.125 and Designer chooses to ignore it, then


IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

If

IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

(29)

C EV = 0

If Load Case is 3 and

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

(30)

C EV = 0.7

If Load Case is 5 and

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE
C EV = 0.7

(31)

:
(32)

IBC 2000 76

If SDC = A:
IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

(33)

265 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward

If

IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

C EV = 0

If Load Case is Formula 16-10 and

(34)

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

C EV = 0.7

If Load Case is Formula 16-12 and

:
(35)

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

C EV = 0.7

:
(36)

ASCE 7-02, ASCE 7-05, ASCE 7-10, IBC 2003, IBC 2006, IBC 2009, IBC 2012, CBC 2010, CBC
2013 77 78

If SDC = A ORIf SDS 0.125 and Designer chooses to ignore it ORLoad Case is 8 and
Designer chooses to ignore it for determining demands on the foundation:
IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

If

IgnoreVerticalEffect = TRUE

(37)

C EV = 0

If Load Case is 5 and

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

(38)

C EV = 0.7

If Load Case is 6 and

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

(39)

C EV = 0.525

If Load Case is 8 and

IgnoreVerticalEffect = FALSE

(40)

C EV = 0.7

(41)

23. Determine the horizontal seismic and dead load case multipliers:
ASCE 7-98 79

266 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward

If Load Case is 3:
C EH = 0.7
C De = 1

(42)
(43)

If Load Case is 5:
C EH = 0.7
C De = 0.6

(44)
(45)

IBC 2000 80

If Load Case is Formula 16-10:


C EH = 0.7
C De = 1

(46)
(47)

If Load Case is Formula 16-12:


C EH = 0.7
C De = 0.6

(48)
(49)

ASCE 7-02, ASCE 7-05, ASCE 7-10, IBC 2003, IBC 2006, IBC 2009, IBC 2012, CBC 2010, CBC
2013 81

If Load Case is 5:
C EH = 0.7
C De = 1

(50)
(51)

If Load Case is 6:
C EH = 0.525
C De = 1

(52)
(53)

If Load Case is 8:
C EH = 0.7
C De = 0.6

(54)
(55)

24. Determine the lateral seismic force for x = 1 to n: 82


F x = C vxVC EH

(56)

267 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


25. Adjust the weight to account for vertical acceleration and the dead load multiplier: 83
W = W (C De + 0.2S DS C EV )

(57)

26. Adjust the static head to account for vertical acceleration and the dead load multiplier: 84
S.H. = S.H.(C De + 0.2SDSC EV )

(58)

27. Once the loads are determined on the vessel wall and its supports, the overstrength factor entered is
then used to multiply the calculated force on the anchor bolts as applicable.

References
1 ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.4.1.1, pg. 98

2ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.4.1.1, pg. 98

3ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.1.3, pg. 98

4ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.4.1.2, pg. 98; ASCE 7-98, Table 9.4.1.2, pg. 118

5ASCE 7-98, Table 9.14.2.1, pgs 177 and 178; ASCE 7-98, 9.6.1.2, pg. 148

6ASCE 7-98, 9.6.1.2, pg. 148

7ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.6.1.5, pg. 149

8ASCE 7-98, Table 9.14.2.1, pg. 177

9IBC 2000, Par. 1615.1, pg. 331

10IBC 2000, Par. 1615.1, pg. 331

11IBC 2000, Par. 1616.2, pg. 354

12IBC 2000, Par. 1615.1.1, pg. 350

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Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


13IBC 2000, Par. 1621.1.4, pg. 376; IBC 2000, Par. 1622.2.5 Step 1, pg. 387

14IBC 2000, Par. 1621.1.4, pg. 376

15IBC 2000, Par. 1621.1.6, pg. 377

16IBC 2000, Par. 1622.2.5, pg. 387

17ASCE 7-02, 9.4.1.2.4, pg. 129; IBC 2003, Par. 1615.1, pg. 303

18ASCE 7-02, 9.4.1.2.4, pg. 129; IBC 2003, Par. 1615.1, pg. 303

19ASCE 7-02, Table 1-1, pg. 4

20ASCE 7-02, Table 9.14.5.1.2, pg. 192

21ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.4.1.2, pg. 107

22ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.5.1 Step 1, pg. 188; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.6.1.3, pg. 159

23ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.6.1.3, pg. 159

24ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.6.1.5, pg. 160

25ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.5.1 Steps 1 and 3, pg. 188; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.7.3.3, pg. 195

26ASCE 7-05, 11.4.1, pg. 115 ; IBC 2006, 1613.5.1, pg. 303; IBC 2009, 1613.5.1

27ASCE 7-05, 11.4.1, pg. 115 ; IBC 2006, 1613.5.1, pg. 303; IBC 2009, 1613.5.1

28ASCE 7-05, Table 1-1, pg. 3 ; IBC 2006, Table 1604.5, pg. 281; IBC 2009, Table 1604.5

269 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


29ASCE 7-05, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 144; ASCE 7-05, 15.3 , pg. 161; ASCE 7-05, 15.4.1 Step (1)(b), pg.

162

30ASCE 7-05, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 144; ASCE 7-05, 15.3 , pg. 161

31ASCE 7-05, 11.4.5, pg. 116

32ASCE 7-05, Par. 13.1.3, pg. 143

33ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.4.1 Step 1(b), pg. 162; ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.7.3(a), pg. 167

34ASCE 7-10, 11.4.1, pg. 65; IBC 2012, 1613.3.3, pgs 366 and 367

35ASCE 7-10, 11.4.1, pg. 65; IBC 2012, 1613.3.3, pgs 366 and 367

36ASCE 7-10, Table 1.5-1, pg. 2; IBC 2012, Table 1604.5, pg. 336

37ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 114; ASCE 7-10, 15.3 , pg. 139; ASCE 7-10, 15.4.1 Step (1)(b), pg.

140

38ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 113; ASCE 7-10, 15.3 , pg. 139

39ASCE 7-10, 11.4.5, pg. 67

40ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.1.3, pg. 111

41ASCE 7-10, Par. 15.4.1 Step 1(b), pg. 140; ASCE 7-10, Par. 15.7.3(a), pg. 150

42ASCE 7-98, Table 9.4.1.2.4a, pg. 119; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.4.1.2.4a, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05, Table

11.4-1, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Table 11.4-1, pg. 66; IBC 2000, Table 1615.1.2(1), pg. 351; IBC 2006,
Table 1613.5.3(1), pg. 304

270 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


43ASCE 7-98, Table 9.4.1.2.4b, pg. 120; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.4.1.2.4b, pg. 130; ASCE 7-05, Table

11.4-2, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Table 11.4.2, pg. 66; IBC 2000, Table 1615.1.2(2), pg. 351; IBC 2006,
Table 1613.5.3(2), pg. 304

44ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.4.1.2.4-1, pg. 119; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.4.1.2.4-1, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 11.4-

1, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 11.4-1, pg. 65; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-16, pg. 350; IBC 2006, Eq. 16-37, pg.
303

45ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.4.1.2.4-2, pg. 119; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.4.1.2.4-2, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 11.4-

2, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 11.4-2, pg. 65; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-17, pg. 350; IBC 2006, Eq. 16-38, pg.
303

46ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.4.1.2.5-1, pg. 119; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.4.1.2.5-1, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 11.4-

3, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 11.4-3, pg. 65; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-18, pg. 350; IBC 2006, Eq. 16-39, pg.
304

47ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.4.1.2.5-2, pg. 119; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.4.1.2.5-2, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 11.4-

4, pg. 115; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 11.4-4, pg. 65; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-19, pg. 350; IBC 2006, Eq. 16-40, pg.
304

48ASCE 7-98, Table 9.1.4, pg. 87; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.1.4, pg. 97; ASCE 7-05, Table 11.5-1, pg.

116; ASCE 7-10, Table 1.5-2, pg. 5; IBC 2000, Table 1622.2.5(2), pg. 389

49ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.6.1.5, pg. 160; ASCE 7-05, Par. 13.1.3, pg. 143; ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.1.3, pg.

111; IBC 2000, Par. 1621.1.6, pg. 377

50ASCE 7-98, Table 9.4.2.1a, pg. 122; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.4.2.1a, pg. 131; ASCE 7-05, Table

11.6-1, pg. 116; ASCE 7-10, Table 11.6-1, pg. 67; IBC 2000, Table 1616.3(1), pg. 354; IBC 2006,
Table 1613.5.6(1), pg. 306

51ASCE 7-98, Table 9.4.2.1b, pg. 122; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.4.2.1b, pg. 132; ASCE 7-05, Table

11.6-2, pg. 116; ASCE 7-10, Table 11.6-2, pg. 67; IBC 2000, Table 1616.3(2), pg. 355; IBC 2006,
Table 1613.5.6(2), pg. 306

271 |Page

Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


52ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.4.2, pgs 121 and 122; ASCE 7-98, Note a, pg. 122; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.4.2.1,

pg. 131; ASCE 7-02, Note a, pgs 131 and 132; ASCE 7-05, Par. 11.6, pg. 116; ASCE 7-10, Par.
11.6, pg. 67; IBC 2000, Par. 1616.3, pg. 354; IBC 2000, Note a, pgs 354 and 355; IBC 2006, Par.
1613.5.6, pg. 306

53ASCE 7-05, Table 15.4-2, pg. 163; ASCE 7-10, Table 15.4-2, pg. 142

54ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.7.3.11.7 (un-marked note at end), pg. 204; ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.7.11.7 (un-

marked note at end), pg. 173; ASCE 7-10, Par. 15.7.10.5, pg. 157

55ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.2.1-4, pg. 136

56ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.2.1-3, pg. 136

57ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.14.5.1-2, pg. 188; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.5.5.2.1-4, pg. 146; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-76,

pg. 387; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-38, pg. 360

58ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.14.5.1-1, pg. 188; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.5.5.2.1-3, pg. 146; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-75,

pg. 387; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-37, pg. 360

59ASCE 7-05, Eq. 15.4-3, pg. 162; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-5, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05 Supplement 2;

ASCE 7-10, Eq. 15.4-3, pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-5, pg. 90

60ASCE 7-05, Eq. 15.4-4, pg. 162; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-6, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05 Supplement 2;

ASCE 7-10, Eq. 15.4-4, pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-6, pg. 90

61ASCE 7-05, Eq. 15.4-1, pg. 162; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-5, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05 Supplement 2;

ASCE 7-10, Eq. 15.4-1, pg. 144

62ASCE 7-05, Eq. 15.4-2, pg. 162; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-6, pg. 129; ASCE 7-05 Supplement 2;

ASCE 7-10, Eq. 15.4-2, pg. 144

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63ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.6.1.3-3; pg. 148; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.6.1.3-3; pg. 159; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 13.3-3,

pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 13.3-3, pg. 113; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-69, pg. 376

64ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.2.1-2, pg. 136; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.5.5.2.1-2, pg. 146; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-

3, pg. 129; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-3, pg. 89; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-36, pg. 360

65ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-4, pg. 129; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-4, pg. 89

66ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.6.1.3-2, pg. 148; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.6.1.3-2, pg. 159; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 13.3-2,

pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 13.3-2, pg. 113; IBC 2000, Eq. 9.6.1.3-2, pg. 159

67ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.3.2.1, pg. 136; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.5.2.1, pg. 146; ASCE 7-05, Par.

12.8.1.1, pg. 129; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.8.1.1, pg. 89; IBC 2000, Par. 1617.4.1.1, pg. 360

68ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.6.1.3, pg. 148; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.6.1.3, pg. 159; ASCE 7-05, Par. 13.3.1, pg.

144; ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 113;IBC 2000, Par. 1621.1.4, pg. 376

69ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 130; ASCE 7-02; ASCE 7-05, Par. 11.7 pgs. 116-117; ASCE 7-

10, Par. 11.7, pg. 68 ; IBC 2000, Par. 1616.4.1, pg. 355

70ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.14.2.2, pg. 175; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.14.5.2, pg. 192; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 15.4-5, pg.

164; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 15.4-5, pg. 144; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-77, pg. 389

71ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.2-1, pg. 136; ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.5.5.2-1, pg. 146; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-1,

pg. 129; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-1, pg. 89; ASCE 7-10, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 113; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-34, pg.
360

72ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.3.4, pg. 137; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.5.1 step 6(a); ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.5.4;

pg. 148; ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.4.1 step 4(a), pg. 163; ASCE 7-05, Par. 12.8.3, pg. 130; ASCE 7-10,
Par. 13.3.1, pg. 113; ASCE 7-10, Par. 15.4.1 step 4(a), pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.8.3, pg. 91;
IBC 2000, Par. 1617.4.3, pg. 361

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73ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.4-2, pg. 137; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.5.1 step 6(a); ASCE 7-02, Eq. 9.5.5.4-

2; pg. 148; ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.4.1 step 4(a), pg. 163; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-12, pg. 130; ASCE 710, Par. 13.3.1, pg. 113; ASCE 7-10, Par. 15.4.1 step 4(a), pg. 144; ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-12, pg.
91; IBC 2000, Par. 1622.2.5 step 6, pg. 387; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-42, pg. 361

74ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 130; ASCE 7-02; ASCE 7-05, Par. 11.7 pgs. 116-117; ASCE 7-

10, Par. 11.7, pg. 68 ; IBC 2000, Par. 1616.4.1, pg. 355

75ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 130; ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.7, pgs 134 and 135; ASCE 7-98, Par.

2.4.1, pg. 5

76IBC 2000, Par. 1616.4.1, pg. 355; IBC 2000, Par. 1605.3.1, pg. 298

77ASCE 7-02, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 6; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 140; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.3, pg.

145; ASCE 7-05, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 5; ASCE 7-05, Par. 11.7, pgs 116 117; ASCE 7-05, Par. 12.4.3,
pg. 127 ASCE 7-10, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 8; ASCE 7-10, Par. 11.7, pg. 68; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.4.3, pgs
86 - 87

78ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.2.7, pg. 144; ASCE 7-05, Par 12.4.2.2 Notes 1 and 2, pg. 126; ASCE 7-10,

Par. 12.4.2.2, pg. 86

79ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 130; ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.7, pgs 134 and 135; ASCE 7-98, Par.

2.4.1, pg. 5

80IBC 2000, Par. 1616.4.1, pg. 355; IBC 2000, Par. 1605.3.1, pg. 298

81ASCE 7-02, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 6; ASCE 7-02, Table 9.5.2.5.1, pg. 140; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.3, pg.

145; ASCE 7-05, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 5; ASCE 7-05, Par. 11.7, pgs 116 117; ASCE 7-05, Par. 12.4.3,
pg. 127 ASCE 7-10, Par. 2.4.1, pg. 8; ASCE 7-10, Par. 11.7, pg. 68; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.4.3, pgs
86 - 87

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Seismic Methodology:ASCE 7-98 and Forward


82ASCE 7-98, Eq. 9.5.3.4-2, pg. 137; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.14.5.1 step 6(a), pg. 188; ASCE 7-02, Eq.

9.5.5.4-1; pg. 148; ASCE 7-05, Par. 15.4.1 step 4(a), pg. 163; ASCE 7-05, Eq. 12.8-11, pg. 130;
ASCE 7-10, Eq. 12.8-12, pg. 91; IBC 2000, Par. 1622.2.5 step 6, pg. 387; IBC 2000, Eq. 16-41, pg.
361

83ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.7, pg. 134; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.2.7, pg. 144; ASCE 7-05, Par.

12.14.3.1.2, pg. 139; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.14.3.1.2, pg. 104; IBC 2000, Par. 1617.1.2, pg 358

84ASCE 7-98, Par. 9.5.2.7, pg. 134; ASCE 7-02, Par. 9.5.2.7, pg. 144; ASCE 7-05, Par.

12.14.3.1.2, pg. 139; ASCE 7-10, Par. 12.14.3.1.2, pg. 104; IBC 2000, Par. 1617.1.2, pg 358

275 |Page

T O WE R AN A L Y S IS M E T H O D O L O G Y
The tower analysis will consider the forces and moments caused by a variety of factors: vessel
material, liquid, packing, insulation weight, wind and seismic loadings, attachment weights, bending
due to eccentric attachments, and applied horizontal forces. The calculations are based on common
industry methods that have been proven, both in theory and practice. The tower analysis stress and
deflection calculations are based on static design methods and are not adequate for tall vertical
vessels that are subject to wind-induced vibration. These vessels must be designed to meet static
requirements and then be designed to withstand dynamic loading (wind-induced vibration) or
redesigned to prevent it from occurring.

Tower Analysis Basics


Before you proceed with reviewing the tower analysis, check to make sure your component order is
correct one more time (top head, shells-cones, bottom head, skirt, base plate). Also check to make
sure that your attachments, wind load diameters, liquid, insulation, and packing all match up with the
correct elevations for the tower portions they are a part of. DesignCalcs will automatically perform a
tower analysis for you that incorporates all of these items. You will see the tower analysis in the
reports. Note that the base plate calculations will take information from the tower analysis; you can
see this in the base plate report. Below is a basic introduction to the way that the tower analysis
works.

Definitions
Section:A portion or length of the tower in which the general design parameters defined in Section

Boundaries are constant.

Section Boundaries: An elevation where a change occurs in one or more of the following:

Section Type (e.g., head, cylindrical shell, conical section, skirt, etc.)

Design Pressure

Material Type

Inside Diameter

Nominal Wall Thickness

Corrosion Allowance

Insulation Thickness

Insulation Density

Liquid Density

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Tower Analysis Methodology


n

Packing Density

Wind Load Diameter

Wind Pressure

Circumferential Weld Joint Efficiency

Segment: A section or a portion of a section used for calculation purposes.

Node: A node exists at the top and bottom of every segment. Nodes are placed at section

boundaries and at attachment locations.

Methodology
The tower methodology is the work of a professional engineering firm contracted to provide these
calculations to CEI. The method used relies on many of todays popular vessel manuals, including
AISC, Bednar, Megesy, and Moss. The calculations have been refined and perfected over time.

This section provides a basic outline of the steps and calculations that the tower analysis performs to
check the skirt and vessel reactions for adequacy. They are provided here in a logical order reflective
of the report and mathematics. These steps are performed for each calculation case of the tower
analysis (for example, Operating Pressurized Sustained Case and Empty Unpressurized
Occasional Loadings Seismic Case 5 are two different calculation cases).

1. Determine properties for the tower components


a. Divide the vessel into sections and segments
b. Look for cylinder lengths longer than 20%of the vessel total length and divide in half (repeat as
necessary)
c. Calculate the weight of each segment
d. Calculate the First Natural Period of Vibration (FNPV) for the vessel per Rayleigh's Method
2. Determine wind loading
a. Calculating the wind pressure at the midpoint of each segment from the wind code chosen.
b. Calculating the wind force on each segment.
c. Calculating the moment at the bottom of each segment from the shear at the top of the segment
and the wind force on the segment.
d. Calculating the bending stress at the bottom of each segment due to the moment at the bottom
of the segment.

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Tower Analysis Methodology


3. Determine seismic loading
a. Calculating the total seismic shear force on the vessel based on the seismic code selected.
b. Calculating the seismic shear distribution based on the seismic code selected.
c. Calculating the moment at the bottom of each segment from the shear at the top of the segment
and the seismic shear on the segment.
d. Calculating the bending stress at the bottom of each segment due to the moment at the bottom
of the segment.
4. Determine sustained loadings
a. Calculating the stress in each segment due to internal pressure.
b. Calculating the stress in each segment due to external pressure.
c. Calculating the stress at the bottom of each segment due to weight.
5. Perform stress superposition
a. Calculating the maximum tensile stress in each segment as follows:
b. Calculating the maximum compressive stress in each segment as:
c. Calculating the allowable tensile stress for each segment as the Section II, D allowable tensile
stress multiplied by the girth seam efficiency.
d. Calculating the allowable compressive stress for each segment per UG-23(b) from Section VIII,
Division 1
e. Calculating the critical buckling stress for each segment per engineering firms
recommendations. This is nearly always redundant with compressive stress.
6. Compare stresses: If the maximum tensile stress is less than the allowable tensile stress for each
segment and the maximum compressive stress less than the smaller of the allowable compressive
stress or the critical buckling stress, the tower design is acceptable.

Review
The calculated stresses are divided by the allowable stresses to determine stress ratios that allow for
a much more rapid review process. The stress ratios must be less than or equal to 1 for all cases for
a design to be passing. In addition, ratios greater than 1 are bolded to stand out in the report.

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SETTING THE CODE YEAR FOR A VESSEL


The code year for a vessel can be set in the vessel information. The "Code" field appears on the
General tab when you select Vessel > Vessel Information on the Components pane. Select the
correct code, then click Save or Save and Close to apply your changes to the vessel. This screen
also appears when you create a new vessel.

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CHANGING THE SUPPORT DATA PATH


To change the support data path in DesignCalcs, click the Tools button on the main toolbar and
select Change Support Path from the menu. Click the Browse button to navigate to the folder that
contains the support data file. If a folder with no support data is selected, the program will inform you
of this fact. You can click the Browse button again to select a new folder or you can close the Support
Path dialog without changing the data path.

Once the appropriate folder has been selected, click OK to apply the change. You will be informed
that DesignCalcs must close to accept the changes. Click OK and the program will close. The next
time you run the program, the support path you selected will be active.

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BACKING UP DCDATA
Originally posted on Think Tank as part of the You Ask - We Answer series

Nothing makes a person more frustrated with computers than losing a large chunk of their arduous
labor. Think your system is impervious to hardware failure or data corruption? Think again. Even the
best secured and well maintained systems can be struck by the unexpected, such as lightning
storms or electrical fires.

The best way to bounce back from such computer catastrophes is to consistently back up your data.
In this article, well show you how to back up your DesignCalcs data.

DesignCalcs allows the use of user-created custom data. Custom materials, pipes, tubes, bolts, and
gaskets youve created can be accessed via the Custom Data button on the main toolbar of
DesignCalcs. This data is stored inside your database, a file named DCSupport.adb.

By default, the DCSupport.adb file can be found in C:\CEI Data\DesignCalcs. However, it may be
in a unique location on your local machine or network. To determine where your database is being
stored, you can click the Tools button, then click Change Support Path. This will open a window
showing the direct path to your DCSupport.adb file.

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Backing up DCData

Once you locate your DCSupport.adb file, youll want to make a copy and store it in a safe, separate
location.

Secondly, it is important to note that all of your vessel design files are stored outside of your
database as singular files. These vessel design files will have a unique file extension
(*.DesignCalcs). By default, new vessel files are created and saved to your Documents folder.

Again, you may have vessel design files stored in other folders on your computer as well as
elsewhere on a network drive. Be sure to save copies of important vessel designs in a safe, alternate
location.

Frequent backups can save you a lot of stress and headaches, so make sure you stay on top of the
game. If you ever need assistance, you or a member of your IT team should contact CEI tech
support.

282 |Page

THE CEIPORTAL
This article will familiarize you with CEI's software update portal. The portal provides notifications of
upcoming expirations and makes downloading updates quick and easy.

The software portal is installed with your CEI software. It runs minimized in the taskbar and regularly
checks for updates. When an update for your installed software is available, the portal provides
notification. Downloading the update is as simple as clicking the link in the portal interface. Release
notes that detail the content of each update are also available.

The Software Update view displays the status of your installed CEI products. You will be able to see
which products need updating: the Portal displays which version you have installed and the most
recent version available. Updates and release notes can be accessed by clicking the links in the
Portal.

If you have purchased a new license or have updated your subscription, you can check for your new
license by clicking the Check for License Updates button. This will look for any new licenses on
CEIs license server and automatically apply them to your key.

Details about your CEIsoftware licenses can also be accessed through the portal. On the Software
License view, you can see which licenses are expired and how much time you have left on the
others. The portal will notify you of upcoming expirations. You can choose to not be reminded until
after a certain date by selecting the checkbox on the bar near the bottom that says "Don't remind
me..." and entering a date. The software portal will not send any reminders until after the date
entered even if licenses expire during this period. To ensure uninterrupted productivity, we
recommend that you do not turn off the portal reminders.

283 |Page

The CEIPortal

The software portal makes updating and licensing your software simple and straightforward. If you
do have difficulty, you can use the portal to contact CEI through our online chat. Occasionally we
may ask that you send us a specific license file - the portal also makes this easy. Click the "Email
C2V License Files to CEI" button or the Upload C2V License Files to CEI button and you're done.

284 |Page

LICENSE TROUBLESHOOTING
Our flexible licensing model increases the benefits of our software. Because the license can be
placed anywhere on a network, the software can be used by those who need it on any computer in
the network. Occasional issues do appear, however, so this article aims to walk you through those
issues and their solutions.

Software is running in Demo mode


Check to be sure that your subscription has not expired. Access the CEI Portal and click on My
Software Licenses. Green flags indicate current licenses, yellow flags indicate licenses that will
expire soon, and red flags indicate licenses that have expired. If your license has expired, you may
click the link at the bottom of the Portal and visit the CEI online store, or you may email our sales
department to purchase a new license.

Only part of the software is available/working


If your company has an unequal number of licenses to certain modules, some users may find
themselves operating in a partial demo mode. For example, if you have two licenses for DesignCalcs
Basic but only one license for the Skirt Module, the first user to launch the program will use a license
for DesignCalcs Basic and the license for the Skirt Module. The second user will only have access to
the DesignCalcs Basic license, so the Skirt Module will operate in Demo mode.

To remedy this situation, both users should exit the program and the user that needs the Skirt
Module license should then launch the software first.

Software was working when launched but is now in Demo


mode/not working
Check the CEI Portal to make sure your subscription has not expired. If your license is still valid, it
may have timed out. If the software is launched but not used for an extended period of time, the
license will be released back to the key so others may access it. Close and reopen the software to
obtain another license from the key.

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License Troubleshooting

License key is plugged in locally but no licenses are visible


If your license key is plugged into your physical machine and no licenses are visible in the CEIPortal,
you may need to install the HASP drivers. Click the link below and save the file.

ftp://ftp.aladdin.com/pub/hasp/Sentinel_HASP/Runtime_%28Drivers%29/Sentinel_HASP_Runtime_setup.zip

Locate and open the downloaded file on your computer. Double-click "HaspUserSetup.exe" and
select Run to install the drivers.

License key is plugged in locally but a "404" error appears when


accessing the HASP Admin Control Center
If your license key is plugged into your physical machine and your browser returns a "404"(page not
found) error when you click the Sentinel HASP Admin Control Center button in the CEIPortal, you
may need to install the HASP drivers. Follow the instructions above to do so.

Advanced Troubleshooting - HASP A CC configuration


& Firewalls
The primary functionality available within the ACC is the configuration of access to CEI's Flex
License Keys. By default, the keys will "broadcast" licenses to all systems on a network so any
system on that network with CEIsoftware and the Sentinel HASP driver installed will be capable of
using the licenses. In a large network with multiple sub-networks or in the case of users remote
accessing the network, additional configuration may be necessary.

Click the Sentinel HASP Admin Control Center (ACC) button at the bottom of the CEIPortal; on
the page that loads, select Configuration from the Administration Options.

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License Troubleshooting

To connect to a license on another machine, select the Access to Remote License Managers tab.
"Allow Access to Remote Licenses" and "Broadcast Search for Remote Licenses" should be
selected. Select "Aggressive Search for Remote Licenses" to allow access to licenses blocked by
firewalls.

Enter the IP address of the system which has the physical key plugged into it. Press Enter and then
type the machine name of that computer. Once the desired changes have been made, click Submit.

Hardware and software firewalls should be checked to verify that Port 1947 is open and accessible
as well.

287 |Page

CEI SALES MODEL


Originally posted on Think Tank as part of the You Ask - We Answer series

CEIs Customer Service staff is often asked about our license model. It is admittedly a bit complex,
but that complexity allows us to provide our customers with the flexibility they need at a price anyone
can afford. In this article, I will be breaking down the licensing model in depth.

All CEI Software is provided exclusively on a 12 month subscription basis as a Network Ready
concurrent use license, meaning you need only purchase the number of seats that corresponds to
the total number of concurrent users of the program, or your peak usage. You can install any CEI
program on every system in your enterprise and yet only purchase 1 concurrent seat if that meets
your needs. Weve found that even large corporations operating in dozens of countries often only
need a few dozen licenses with the right deployments and IT staff.

This subscription model means that if you choose not to renew your subscription at some point in the
future, you will no longer have access to the CEI Support staff, the CEI programs, or the information
stored within. One of our jobs is to make sure you never even consider that option by providing
exceptional customer service and adding the features that our users most request. However, if you
should decide to not resubscribe, all CEI programs output to PDF and those PDFs can still be
accessed regardless of your subscription status.

The License Key


One or more red USB thumb drives or hardware keys contain all the CEI subscription licenses for
an enterprise.

The hardware key can be inserted into any computer or


server on your network that has a free and functioning USB
port. CEI products support most virtualization and remote
access technologies, including Citrix, VMWare, and Terminal
Server/Hyper-V.

Temporary licenses can be provided that do not require the hardware key but are
limited to local workstations and will not function in virtual environments or as license

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CEI Sales Model

servers to other systems.

Each subscription license grants you access to one simultaneous instance of the software and
entitles you to all updates for that product/module released over the period of the subscription term.
Technical support services are also included with the subscription and are provided via chat,
email, and phone for that same period. CEI also conducts periodic webinars and training sessions
and offers several free utilities that may be used in conjunction with CEI programs or separately.

Key Placement
Whatever system has the License Key inserted into its USB port will act as the License Server.
Keys can be plugged into workstations, laptops, or servers. Multiple keys can be placed on the same
machine (as long as there are enough working USB ports) or they can be spread out throughout
your network.

Any system attempting to use a CEI Program will need the ability to query that License Server and
thus will be the License Client. If the key is plugged into the local USB port of the same system that
is running the CEI Program, that system is both the License Server and License Client.

To run CEI software, you must have access to an available license of that software. The system
running the software must be able to access a license key either locally or via your network.
Occasionally, firewalls and other security measures may block access to the license key. Make sure
all CEI programs, the CEI Portal, the CEI License Update Service and the SafeNet Sentinel HASP
licensing technology are allowed access through all firewalls and other security measures. Port
#1947 must be open to freely transmit and receive for those technologies as well.

Another reason a license may be unavailable is that another user in your organization is consuming
it. You may release the license by asking that person to close their instance of the software. If this is
happening regularly, you may want to contact our sales department and discuss adding seats to
your subscription.

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CEI Sales Model

Key Contents
Each CEI Subscription License Key can support up to 10 simultaneous uses of each CEI program
and every key can hold all CEI programs at the same time.

When launched, a CEI program can obtain licenses from multiple keys on the same or different
computers. For example when Workstation #1 launches the DesignCalcs program it may obtain a
DesignCalcs Basic license from Key #1 on Server A and a DesignCalcs Advanced license from Key
#2 on Server B.

Similarly, multiple instances of several programs can access licenses on the same key
simultaneously.

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CEI Sales Model

On the key above, three seats of DesignCalcs: Basic, two seats of DesignCalcs: Advanced, one
seat of DesignCalcs: Skirt, one seat of ProWrite:S9- Welder and one seat of ProWrite:S9- WPS are
present. Users on completely separate systems with no access to the others' work can all utilize the
same central key resource. However, all users must have access to the License Server.

291 |Page

FILE EXTENSION TIPS


This article lists the file extensions for the CEIprograms that use a flat file system (instead of a single
file database) and gives the most common/default location for the files. Your settings may place your
files elsewhere.

DesignCalcs
*.DesignCalcs - Vessel files are stored with this extension. They are often located in C:\CEI

Data\DesignCalcs

DcSupport.adb - This is a supporting database that is often located in C:\CEI Data\DesignCalcs

DesignDocs
*.DesignDocs - Design files are stored with this extension. These files are often located in the My

Documents folder.

WeldDocs
The following file types are used for WeldDocs files. These files are often located in the My
Documents folder.

*.welder

*.BS_EN_ISO_15609_1

*.API1104

*.BS_EN_281_1

*.AWS_D1_1_PQR

*.Section9WPS

*.AWS_D1_1_WPS

*.Section9WPQ

*.AWS_D1_1_WPQ

*.Section9WOPQ

*BS_EN_ISO_15614_1

*.Section9PQR

292 |Page

File Extension Tips

WeldToolbox
The following file types are used for WeldToolbox files. These files are often located in the My
Documents folder.

*.wtcad

*.bmp

*.whclc

*.wtest

Temporary Folder
Occasionally a program will use the Windows Temp folder to store files (e.g., ProWrite export
tables). This location typically looks like C:\Users\[user name]\AppData\Local\temp.

293 |Page

BASIC GRID SCREEN


Originally posted on Think Tank as part of the You Ask - We Answer series

The grid screen resembles and largely functions as any spreadsheet program such as Microsoft
Excel would function, providing data in rows and columns for easy viewing, printing and
manipulation.

Cells
A cell is the smallest discrete container for of information within the CEI grid. A cell
generally contains a singular piece of data, such as a welders stamp number or first
name, a pressure vessels orientation or support type, or a national board number from a U1 data
report.

However, a cell can also contain conglomerations of separate pieces of data. A welders first,
middle, and last name can be combined with punctuation into a single cell.

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Basic Grid Screen

Rows
Each horizontal band represents one record within the datastore being queried. This could be one
PQR or WPS, one pressure vessel design, one U1A or R1 data report, etc.

Columns
Each vertical band represents one type or classification of possible
information present within the datastore being queried. This could be
Last Name(s), Vessel Number(s), etc. The column header is the
descriptive abbreviation for the type of information present in that
column.

Add Columns
To add a column that is available but is not presently visible in the grid, click the asterisk at the top
left.

The list of available columns will appear. Add a check next to a column you wish to be visible.

295 |Page

Basic Grid Screen

Move Columns
Columns can also be moved on the main grid user interface screen. To move a column, left click on
the column header and hold down the left mouse button. Drag the column header to the desired
location and release the left mouse button. The column header will move to the new location you
have selected.

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Basic Grid Screen

297 |Page