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AE4170:

Rekayasa Perawatan Pesawat Udara


(Aircraft Maintenance Engineering)
Dr. Edy Suwondo
E-mail: esuwondo@gmail.com
esuwondo@ae.itb.ac.id
Mobile/WA: 081 22 000 785
Aircraft Design, Operation and Maintenance Research Group
Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Institute Technology Bandung

Peraturan Kuliah
Sistem kuliah:
Ceramah dan PR/Tugas
Evaluasi: Kuis 10 kali PG(?), dijadwal, dipakai semua (90%)
PR (3 buah) 10% (jika terlambat -20%/minggu)
Tidak ada toleransi terhadap kecurangan dalam kuis.
Tidak ada kuis susulan, UTS, UAS atau Rev.
A>84, 84AB>77, 77B>70, 70BC>62, C54, 54>E
HP SILENT!!

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Course Description
Short Description:
Overview on aviation safety and operating costs, review on
probability theory and models, failure density functions, discussion
on maintenance concept, Reliability-Centred Maintenance, MSG-3,
Regulations and Organisation, and Reliability Program.
Tujuan Instruksional Umum (TIU):
Kuliah ini memberikan pemahaman tentang latar belakang
perlunya perawatan, pemodelan keandalan, konsep perawatan,
metode pembuatan program perawatan, peraturan yang berlaku
dan metode pemantauan dan evaluasi program perawatan yang
sedang berjalan. Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu menerapkan
pemahaman tersebut pada studi kasus di pesawat udara.

Related Courses and References


Related Courses:
1. AE2201: Statistika (Pre-requisit?)
2. AE3180: Aircraft Systems (Co-requisit?)
References/Bibliography:
1. John Moubray, Reliability-centred Maintenance, ButterworthHeinemann, 2nd ed., 1997
2. F. Stanley Nowlan and Howard F. Heap, Reliability-Centered
Maintenance, United Airlines, 1978
3. ATA MSG-3, SAE JA 1011
4. Diktat kuliah: Manajemen Perawatan Pesawat, oleh Edy
Suwondo, 2001
5. Reliability Eng. Handbook, Dimitri Kececioglu, vol1, 2002
6. AC 120-17A: Maint. Control by Reliability Method, FAA, 1978
7. Aircraft Maintenance Management, C.H. Friend., 1992

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Pilih jawabanyangbenar (bisa beberapa atau tidak ada,tulis nomor soal dan jawaban saja).
1. Probabilitas sebuah sistemuntuk TIDAKmemenuhi fungsinyapada waktu dankondisi operasi
tertentu dinyatakan dengan fungsi:
a.Keandalan
b.Laju kegagalan
c.Densitas kegagalan
d.Denstitas kegagalan kumulatif
2.Bathtubcurve (kurva bak mandi)merupakan kurva antara umur itemdengan
a.Keandalan
b.Probabilitas densitas kegagalan
c.Probabilitas kegagalan kondisional d.Denstitaskegagalankumulatif
3.PernyataanhubunganberikutiniyangBENARadalah:
a.Fungsi densitas sama dengan negatif turunan pertama keandalan.
b.Laju kegagalan sama dengan fungsi densitas dibagi keandalan.
c.Keandalan sama dengan exponensial pangkat negatif integrallaju kegagalan terhadap waktu.
d.Probabilitas kegagalan kondisional sama dengan exponensial pangkat negatif integralkeandalan
terhadap waktu.
4.YangBUKANsyarat dapat diterapkannya tugas perawatan OnCondtion (OC)adalah:
a.Kegagalan potensial dapat didefinisikan
b.Laju kegagalan meningkat dengan tajam setelah umur tertentu.
c.Mudah untuk mendeteksi kegagalan potensial
d.PFintervalkonsisten dan panjang.
5.Jika PFinterval6bulan,sedangkan Nett PF1bulan,maka intervalinspeksi adalah:
a. 2bulan b.2,5bulan
c.1bulan
d.5bulan.

Course Program
Wk

Topik

Sub Topik

TIK

Act.

Overview on
aviation safety
and operating
costs

Accidents and incidents


which may be
prevented by
maintenance

Peserta dapat mengidentifikasi penting-nya


perawatan bagi keselamatan penerbangan
dan pengurangan biaya perawatan total,
serta potensi bisnis MRO

K, T

2&
3

Review on
Bath tub curve,
probability theory Failure data plotting,
and models
distribusi eksponensial,
normal, dan Weibull

Peserta dapat menentukan fungsi distribusi


dari sekumpulan data kegagalan,
menurunkan hubungan fungsi-fungsi yang
digunakan, serta menjelaskan karakteristik
laju kegagalan

K
PR

Maintenance
concept

Model degradasi
prestasi dan bentuk
distribusi pada strategi
perawatan

Peserta dapat menjelaskan strategi


perawatan yg sesuai berdasarkan bentuk
degradasi prestasi dan distribusi kegagalan

Q1, K

4,
RCM
5&6

Tujuh pertanyaan RCM,


Fungsi, kegagalan
fungsi, efek dan
dampak kegagalan

Peserta dapat menjelaskan fungsi dan


kegagalan fungsi, serta klasifikasi
konsekuensi kegagalan dan kriteria
efektivitas tugas perawatan

Q2, K

RCM

Metode penentuan
tugas perawatan

Peserta dapat memilih tugas perawatan


yang 'applicable', efektif dan efisien.

Q3, K

RCM

Tindakan standar

Peserta dapat menentukan tindakan


standar yang sesuai untuk tiap kategori
konsekuensi kegagalan

Q4,K

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Course Program (contd)


Wk

Topik

Sub Topik

TIK

Act.

RCM

Contoh penerapan pada


sistem dan mesin

Peserta dapat mengaplikasikan RCM


untuk sistem mesin pesawat.

Q5, K,
PR

10

RCM

RCM untuk structure


pesawat dan contoh
penerapannya

Peserta dapat menentukan penyebab


kegagalan struktur dan ratingnya.

Q6, K

11&
12

MSG-3

MSG-3 untuk Systems


and Power Plant, and
Structure

Peserta dapat menjelaskan perbedaan


MSG-3 dengan RCM dan logika
khusus MSG-3 untuk struktur

Q7, K

13

Regulasi dan
Organisasi.

FAR 25 dan 135


Advisory Circullar's

Peserta dapat menjelaskan regulasi


yang berkaitan dengan perawatan dan
dampaknya pada organisasi dan
proses pembuatan dokumen
perawatan pesawat.

Q8, K

14

Reliability Program

Proses dan data yang


diperlukan.

Peserta dapat menjelaskan proses


pemantauan prestasi program
perawatan.

Q9,K

15

Reliability Program

Bentuk-bentuk evaluasi

Evaluasi dan tindakan perbaikan

K,
Q10

What is Maintenance?
All activities subjected to technical systems
to keep the condition (Preventive)
or to bring to the condition (Corrective)
which is required to fulfill specified functions

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Performance level/condition/
resistance to failure

What is Maintenance?
Modification

Initial Condition

Maintenance
Potential failure condition
Functional failure condition

Time

Defect
available state

unavailable state

Aircraft Maintenance Overview


Objectives (ver. MSG3-2002):

To ensure realization of inherent safety


To achieve the targeted availability and reliability
(Mengindentifikasi adanya kebutuhan modifikasi)
To minimize total maintenance cost

9Maintenance Organization should achieve the goal in a


efficient way.
9Maintenance also contributes to Airlines profit by
minimizing its cost and maximizing aircraft availability

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Definisi
Airplane Accident (Boeing, ICAO, NTSB): An occurence associated with
the operation of an airplane that takes place between the time any person
boards the airplane with the intention of flight and such time as all such
persons disembarked, in which:
the airplane sustains substantial damage, or
the airplane is missing or is completely inaccessible, or
death or serious injury results from being in the airplane, or direct
contact with the airplane or anything attached thereto, or direct
exposure to jet blast.
Exluding fatal and nonfatal injuries from natural causes, and fatal and
nonfatal self-inflicted injuries or injuries inflicted by other person, and
nonfatal injuries resulting from atmospheric turbulence, normal
maneuvre, loose object, boarding, disembarking, evacuation,
maintenance and servicing.
Not considered as accident: result of experiment test flight, sabotage,
hijack, terrorism, and military action.

Terminologi
Destroyed: the estimated or likely cost of repair would have exceeded
50% of the new value of the airplane had it still been in production at the
time of accident (NTSB: not economically repairable; Hull Loss = totally
destroyed)
Fatal injury: any injury that results in death within 30 days of the accident
Major accident: an accident in which any of the thee conditions is met:
- the airplane was destroyed, or
- there were multiple fatalities, or
- there was one fatality and the airplane was substantially damaged
Serious injury: an injury that is sustained by a person in an accident
and that requires hospitalization > 48 hrs, commencing within 7 days
after injury, or results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fracture of
fingers, toes, nose). etc.
Substantial Damage: damage of failure which adversely affects the
structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the airplane,
which normally require major repair.

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

What is Maintenance
Any means or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection,
replacement, or defect rectification of an aircraft and or
aircraft components
The alteration of an aircraft and or aircraft component in
conformity with an approved standard
Airframe
Engine
Component

29%
46%
25%

Line
A-C Checks
Higher Checks

8%
7%
14%

Repairables
Rotables
Consumables

Aviation Safety Statistics


USA Passenger fatalities per billion passenger miles 20002009
[Ian Savage, in The Economics of Transportation Safety, July 2013]
Riding a motorcycle
Driving or passenger in a car or light truck
Passenger on a local ferryboat
Passenger on commuter rail and Amtrak
a
Passenger on urban mass transit rail (20022009)
Passenger on a bus (holding more than 10
passengers transit, inter-city, school, charter)
Passenger on commercial aviation
a While

212.57
7.28
3.17
0.43
0.24
0.11
0.07

onboard a train including assault and violent acts.

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

SOME A/C ACCIDENTS:


Beech BE-1900D (RIGGING)
Tupolev TU-154 (NUT)
A310, braking system failure

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Database accidents:
http://www.skybrary.aero/

AirDisaster.Com
Airbus A310-324, Sibir Airlines, 09 July 2006, on a scheduled
passenger flight from Moscow, veered off runway 30 after reportedly
carrying out a normal landing, smashed through several buildings,
and exploded in flames, at Irkutsk, Russia.

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

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Aircraft Maintenance Overview


Maintenance Strategy
How an Airline perform its aircraft maintenance
Contract Maintenance
Partly done in-house, the rest outsourcing
Garuda (in terms of cost): 30% in house, 70% outsource

Outsourcing
Pooling (Component & Engine): charge based on Flight Hours
(Power By the Hour)
Individual Repair/Overhaul: time and material basis (Cost +)

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

11

Innovative Cooperative Actions of R&D in EUROCONTROL Programme CARE INO III, Dynamic Cost Indexing

MRO Industry
The Amount of Usage or Demand for Aircraft
Operations
The level of maintenance is directly related to the amount of
usage in that it is the operation of aircraft which creates the
wear on equipment.

Government Policy
Government policy sets the basic ground rules under which
the industry operates
In many ways it creates the open market for maintenance, for
example RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima)
modification, ACAS 2 (Airborne Collision Avoidance System)
modification mandated by the government authority.

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

12

MRO Industry
The Big Players
Airframe Maintenance
Tramco/BF Goodrich
Lufthansa Technick
SR Technick
KLM
FLS Aerospace
HAECO
Air France
Timco
Boeing Aerospace
Team AER Lingus
Air Canada
American Airlines
British Airways
Delta Airlines
Finair

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

Engine Maintenance
Lufthansa Technick
General Electric
General Electric Strother
Pratt & Whitney
Rolls Royce
SR Technick
Greenwich
Volvo
KLM
Air France
Air New Zealand
Aviall
GE Caledonian
MTU
Snecma Services

Component Maintenance
SAS Components
Tramco/BF Goodrich
Lufthansa Technick
Allied Signal
SR Technick
Air France
Honeywell
Nordam Group
Rockwell Collins
British Airways
IAI / Bedek
Boeing Aerospace
Celcius Aviocom
FLS Ltd
Qantas

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http://www.mcgraw-hillhomelandsecurity.com/events/html/mas10/Day2%20Opening.BUDIHADIANTO.pdf

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

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Opportunity of Cooperation - Engineers/Technicians

Newtechniciansbyregion
20142033
Region
AsiaPacific
Europe
NorthAmerica
MiddleEast
LatinAmerica
CIS
Africa
Total

Technicians
238,000
101,000
113,000
66,000
47,000
22,000
22,000
609,000

4% 4%
7%

10%
39%

609,000
19%

Morethan
17%
Source:BoeingPilot&TechnicianOutlook2014,GMF2015

http://www.mcgraw-hillhomelandsecurity.com/events/html/mas10/Day2%20Opening.BUDIHADIANTO.pdf

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

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Three Phases of RCM-Based Maint Program


[Neil B. Bloom, RCM implementation made simple, 2006]

Phase 1: Identification of important items for


safety, operation, or asset protection.
Phase 2: Specification of the required tasks for
the items above.
Phase 3: Properly executing the tasks above.

Tugas 1 (3% NA, 25 Agustus 2015)


Cari (di mana saja) dua makalah/laporan/publikasi aplikasi
perawatan untuk mencegah kecelakaan pada alat transportasi
(bebas). Deskripsi harus teknis. Paling lama publikasi tahun
2013.
Ketentuan:
1. Sertakan print out (fotocopy) makalah (halaman pertama saja,
non-cover)
2. Buat ringkasan halaman A4 per makalah (boleh terjemah
abstrak) tulis tangan
3. Buat ulasan/analisis dan rekomendasi maksimum 1 halaman A4
tulis tangan rapi/terbaca (yang diketik nilai dikurangi 30%)
4. Diekerjakan sendiri2, yang nyontek, nilai dibagi bersama
5. Dikumpulkan Sebelum Kuliah minggu berikutnya (Selasa, 1
Sept. 2015).

(c) 2015 by Edy Suwondo

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