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Linux Essentials Certification

Overview / The Linux Essentials Exam

Linux Essentials Exam


welcome:

What is the LPI Linux Essen0als Cer0ca0on?


Vendor-Neutral program by the Linux Professional Ins0tute
It is the First stop cer0ca0on course before the Professional certs by LPI

It is an outstanding course for new users to Linux

Linux Essentials Exam



In order to pass your Linux Essen0als Cer0ca0on:

Working knowledge of Computer Hardware
Understand the concepts of Processes, Programs, the components of an opera0ng
system
Understanding of Open Source Applica0ons within the workplace and how they relate
to tradi0onal close source equivalents.
How to navigate within the Linux desktop and know where to go in case you need help
Need to be able to work from the command line and manage les
Use a basic command line editor

Linux Essentials Exam



lpi.org Specics Weight Values and objec0ves topics: (V1.5 updates)
wiki.lpi.org/wiki/LinuxEssen0als_Objec0ves_V1.5


TOPIC 1: The Linux community and a career in open source (Weight: 7)
TOPIC 2:

Finding your way on a Linux system (Weight: 9)

TOPIC 3:

The power of the command line (Weight: 9)

TOPIC 4:

The Linux opera0ng system (Weight: 8)

TOPIC 5:

Security and le permissions (Weight: 7)

Linux Essentials Certification


Overview / The Linux Essentials Course
Breakdown

Linux Essentials Certification


A Linux Introductory

Linux Essentials Certification



Was created in the early 1990s
Was created by Linus Torvalds
Free of Charge

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Open Source Philosophy

Linux Essentials Certification



So why would Linux just be given away?

GNU Gnus Not Unix!

GNU/Linux

FSF Free Socware Founda0on

GNU C Compiler gcc



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Linus Torvalds was heavily inuenced by the GNU project in which his rst Linux kernel
was released under the (GPL)

GPL (General Public License)



GPL Requires that the source code remain freely available to anyone who might want it








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Distributions

Linux Essentials Certification



Linux is actuality has many dierent distribu0ons

Each Distribu0on has a Linux Kernel, and its own u0li0es and congs.
You can think about Linux Distribu0ons as you think about Ice Cream brands, or even
Dierent Car manufactures.

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So what could make up a full blown Linux Distribu0on?

LINUX KERNEL

CORE UNIX TOOLS

SUPPLIMENTAL SOFTWARE

STARTUP SCRIPTS

INSTALLERS

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A few dierent Linux Distribu0ons:

CENTOS
DEBIAN
FEDORA
GENTOO
OPENSUSE
REDHAT
SLACKWARE
SUSE
UBUNTU



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What Distribu0on is right for my project?

Is the system going to be for desktop or server use?

If produc0on a commercial distro with support might be best for your needs
Does your system hardware support the distribu0on of choice?






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Embedded Systems

Linux Essentials Certification


Wikipedia.org
says that Opera0ng systems based on the Linux kernel are used in embedded

systems such as consumer electronics ( such set-top boxes, smart TVs, in-vehicle
infotainment (IVI), networking equipment (such as wireless routers), machine control,
industrial automa0on, naviga0on equipment, spacecrac ight socware, and medical
instruments in general).

Linux Essentials Certification



Android
i
s
a
mobile opera0ng system based on the Linux kernel that is being developed by

Google.




Linux Essentials Certification



Another
g
reat
example of an embedded Linux setup is that Debian, has a Linux kernel, that

Is embedded to the Raspberry Pi device.
Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer

monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable liple device that
enables people of all ages to explore computer, and to learn how to program in languages
such as Python.

Linux Essentials Certification



Linux
c
an
b
e
found embedded in a lot of dierent cable providers TV boxes around the

world.

Android is now showing up on these boxes such as Google TV which is in itself another
Form or type of Linux as an embedded system.

Linux Essentials Certification


Using the Linux Essentials Lab Server

Linux Essentials Certification


You
c
an
use our Linux Essen0als Lab server available to you for this course!


This is setup especially for this course.

It is accessible both via SSH

You can even use X Windows on this server via VNC!

Linux Essentials Certification


Desktop Applications

Linux Essentials Certification



Linux as a Desktop

Linux provides many dierent Desktop Environments

GNOME
KDE
LXDE
UNITY
XFCE

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Linux Desktop Applica2ons

OpenOce.org
Audacity
Thunderbird
GIMP
Blender
Pidgin
Calibre Oce





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Server Applications

Linux Essentials Certification


of the most powerful server applica0ons today
Linux runs some
Linux server applica0ons actually run most of the websites that you might visit


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Applica0ons listen and bind on IP addresses via network ports


10.10.30.112:80 , 10.10.30.112:443
Think of ports as the extension to a telephone number


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Common Network Ports:
PORT#
Protocol

22

SSH

23

TELNET
25

SMTP
53

DNS

80 HTTP

443 HTTPS

Server Applica2ons

OpenSSH
telnetd
PostFix, Sendmail
BIND


Apache or NGINX
Apache or NGINX

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Server Applica0ons c on0nued

Apache

NGINX
MySQL
MONO
CUPS
POSTFIX

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Mobile Applications

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like apps on Android Phones and Tablets


Mobile Applica0ons
Apps can either be free or have a small fee
Apps are downloaded and installed via the Android marketplace
Android based apps are dierent than the typical desktop based like apps
as they are specic for the android mobile platorm.

Linux Essentials Certification


Development Languages

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Open Source So;ware Development

Socware Development Models


Cathedral Model


The Bazaar Model

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Some Popular Open Source Development Languages:

Java
C and C++
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Perl
PHP

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Compiled Languages

Interpreted Languages

Assembly Language Programming



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Package Management Tools and Repositories

Linux Essentials Certification



What is Package Management?

u Package management can dier from one distribu0on to the next

u Installing Linux Applica0ons/Programs is similar but very dierent than
windows

Most Applica0ons/Programs require what is known as library packages.

Linux Package les, unlike Windows installers, are NOT programs.
Packages actually rely on OTHER programs in order to install the
socware.

Linux Essentials Certification



What is in the package?
Dependency Informa2on
Version Informa2on
Architecture Informa2on
Binary Packages are packages that have an executable built form
source
You can actually compile and install socware from the source code
yourself manually, without using a packaging tool.

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Package tool socware
keeps a database of informa0on about the

installed applica0ons including the loca0on of the les that were placed
on the Linux le system during that package installa0on.
There are two Common package systems usually used today
RPM
Debian
Linux Distribu0ons typically have there own package types. Therefore
you can not install say an RPM based package on say a debian distort.
Package Managers used to rely on locally, you had to download the
package le and then install it.
Modern Distribu0ons now oer network based tools that use socware
repositories.

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How does a usual so;ware
install work on Linux?

1. Issue the install command for the program
2. The so;ware then locates any dependencies it might need and then
no2es you if those addi2onal so;ware dependencies need to be
installed.
3. Approve the so;ware to be installed and con2nue the process.
4. The So;ware then downloads the packages that might be needed
5. Finally the so;ware then installs.

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package format:
Distribu0ons and there

Distribu2on

Package Format

CentOS


RPM
Debian


Debian
Ubuntu


Debian
Arch



pacman
Fedora


RPM
Red Hat


RPM
Slackware


tarballs
Gentoo


ebuild
Suse Enterprise
RPM
openSUSE


RPM

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that so;ware?
What about upgrading

1. Most of the modern distribu2ons check periodically for any updates to packages
installed

2. You may then be no2ed of the so;ware needing to be updated

3. You then approve this usually and it is typically upgraded automa2cally a;er you
approve

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Managing RPM Systems

Distribu2ons that use these RPM packages use the local les with the text-mode rpm
command to install.

In order to use online network repositories there are other tools such as for:

Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora text mode YUM, and gui based front end versions like YUMEX

SUSE Enterprise, openSUSE zyper command line and for GUI based, YAST
Mandriva uses a text mode tool known as urpmi and then GUI, Rpmdrake

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Hands on Package Management

Linux Essentials Certification



Hands on

Lets now take a look at the dierences of the command line for Red Hat RPM based distros
and Debian based distros.

RPM Based
- YUM
rpm

Debian Based APT
dpkg


Linux Essentials Certification


Licensing

Linux Essentials Certification


Licensing


So;ware is a type of Intellectual Property

Open Source beginnings can thank there begging to these organiza2ons:



Free So;ware Founda2on (FSF)

Open Source Ini2a2ve (OSI)

Crea2ve Commons

Linux Essentials Certification


Copyrights and So;ware


A copyright is a legalized right to copy something.



Most countries are signatories of what is known as the Berne Conven2on
Berne Conven2on is an interna2onal treaty that requires countries to recognize
the other countries copyrights.

Linux Essentials Certification


So;ware Trademarks and Patents


Patents: are the very IDEA of a copyrighted work.


Example: If you invented something you can get it patented.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to inventor or assignee for
a limited period of 0me in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an inven0on.

Trademarks:
The essen0al func0on of a trademark is to exclusively iden0fy the commercial source or
origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as
a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to iden0fy a par0cular business
as the source of goods or services. The use of a trademark in this way is known as
trademark use.

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Commercial So;ware and Shareware So;ware


Commercial So;ware is a socware that is developed with the intent to sell that socware as
a prot.

Shareware socware is is similar to commercial socware except at its copyright and legal
perspec0ve.

Freeware is like shareware but the socware is always free and there is no cost involved.

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Free Software Foundation (FSF) , Open Source
Initiative

Linux Essentials Certification


General Public License (GPL)


The license used by the Linux Kernel
Free So;ware Founda2on (FSF)
Founded by Richard Stallman 1985
Driving force behind the Gnus Not Unix (GNU) project

Free as in Speech, Not Free as in Beer


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Free So;ware Founda2on


Dened by Four So;ware Freedoms:

Freedom to use the so;ware for any purpose
Freedom to examine the source code and modify it as you
see t

Freedom to redistribute the so;ware
Freedom to redistribute your modied so;ware

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Free So;ware a nd the GPL (Legal Expressions)
This is known as the GNU GPL
There are 2 versions used today
GPLv2
GPLv3
Version 1 of GPL is rarely used today
The Lesser GPL known as LGPL

Linux Essentials Certification


Ini2a2ve
The Open Source

(OSI) was founded in 1998 by Bruce Perens, and Eric Raymond
The approach of the (FSF) Free Socware Founda0on seemed
threatening to some business.
Because of this the Open Source Ini0a0ve (OSI) creators designed
organiza0ons as a way to advocate FREE Socware. They created this
and used this term Open Source to socen what the Free Socware
Founda0on (FSF) uses in there moral impera0ve.
The (OSI) basis it to promote open source socware to the
business world.

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***
Open Source Development methods for socware that hardness the
power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The
promise of open source is beper quality, higher reliability, more
exibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory lock-in
***


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Open Source So;ware
(FOSS) Free and
Is computer socware that can be classied as both free socware and
Open-source socware. That is, anyone is freely licenses to use, copy,
Study, and change the socware in any way, and the source code
Shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the
Design of the socware. This is in contrast to the proprietary socware,
Where the socware is under restric0ve copyright and the source code
Is usually hidden from the users

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(FLOSS) Free Libre
Open Source So;ware
Was used in 2001 as a project acronym by Rishab Aiyer Ghosh for
Free/Libre/Open-Source socware.

"FLOSS" aimed to avoid taking sides in the debate over whether it
was beper to say "free socware" or to say "open-source socware".

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Dening Open Source So;ware

The OSI has ten principles that were derived from those expressed
by the Debian GNU/Linux developers.



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Permission to d erive works

Respect for source code integrity

No discrimina2on against persons or groups

No discrimina2on against elds of endeavor

Automa2c license distribu2on


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specicity
Lack of product

Lack of restric2ons on other so;ware

Technology neutrality



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Crea2ve Commons
The Crea0ve Commons, was founded by Lawrence Lessig.

A Crea0ve Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright
licenses that enable the free distribu0on of an otherwise copyrighted
Work. A CC license is used when an author wants to ve people the
right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created. CC
provides an author exibility (for example, they might choose
to allow only non-commercial uses of their open work and
protects the people who use or redistribute that work if they
abide by the condi0ons specied in their author work license.

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The (FSF) and t he (OSI) are dedicated to promo2ng so;ware
freedoms. The Crea2ve commons goals however are broader as
their licenses are aimed at things like audio recordings, textual
works, and so on. Not just computer programs.

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The Major Open Source licenses are:



GNU GPL and LGPL

BSD MIT

Apache Ar2s2c

NPL MPL

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Open Source Business Models

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Open Source Licensing in a Business World?



There are many Approaches to making a prot:

Dual Licensing
Mul2ple Products
Open Source Drivers
Boun2es
Dona2ons

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Open Source Licensing in a Business World?



There are many Approaches to making a prot:

Dual Licensing
Mul2ple Products
Open Source Drivers
Boun2es
Dona2ons

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Open Source Licensing can be Complex!



The FSF, OSI and the Crea2ve Commons all promote the freedom,
awareness, and structure around Open Source.


(FSF) Free So;ware Founda2on
(OSI) Open Source Ini2a2ve
(CC)Crea2ve Commons
(FOSS) Free and Open Source So;ware
(FLOSS) Free/Libre Open Source So;ware

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Desktop Skills

Linux Essentials Certification


Informa2on and Community Technology skills (ICT)



Where all is Linux found and used?
LOTS OF PLACES!

Server Rooms all over data centers around the world
Cloud Compu2ng
Embedded Devices like Android, TiVo, and GPS
Airport signage, the mars rover and so much more

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We can also use Linux on our Desktop!



There are many dierent Desktop Managers available

Oce Produc2vity Apps

Web Browsers

File Saving

Terminal

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KDE

The K Desktop Environment is one of the most popular desktop


environments for Linux. Its the default desktop environment
for Mandriva and SUSE distribu2ons

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GNOME

Another very popular desktop environment that is the
default for Linux distribu2ons like red hat, CENTOS and
more.

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LXDE

The Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment is, as its full name
suggests, intended to consume few resources and therefore
work well on older or modest computer hardware.

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UNITY

Canonical, the publisher of the Ubuntu Linux Distribu2on,
created its own desktop environment known as Unity.

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XFCE

This desktop environment was originally modeled on a
commercial desktop environment and provides more
customiza2on than that of GNOME or KDE.

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XFCE

This desktop environment was originally modeled on a
commercial desktop environment and provides more
customiza2on than that of GNOME or KDE.

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Launching Programs

Most desktop environments provide several ways to launch
programs.

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Desktop Menus

Many desktop environment provide menus along a top, bolom,
or side edge of the screen.

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Panels

Some desktop environments enable you to place icons in the ain
area of the desktop.

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Context Menus

You can some2mes right-click in an unused part of the screen to
obtain a context menu with a variety of op2ons.

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Searching for Programs



Some desktop environments, such as GNOME 3, provide a
prominent search feature that you can use to nd programs by
there name.

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Terminals

You can launch a program called a terminal, which provides a
text-mode user interface inside a window.

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Desktop Skills Hands On

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Getting to the Command Line

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Industry Uses of Linux, Cloud Computing and
Virtualization

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Basic Shell

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SHELL

A shell is just a command line interpreter that allows us to type
commands at our keyboard and those commands are actually
sent to the opera2ng system kernel.

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There are several dierent shells available


Some of the more popular ones are:

sh - Bourne shell
bash - Bourne again shell
csh - C shell
tsch - tsch shell
zsh - Z shell
ksh - Korn Shell

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Command Line Syntax

Linux Essentials Certification


There are several dierent shells available


Some of the more popular ones are:

sh - Bourne shell
bash - Bourne again shell
csh - C shell
tsch - tsch shell
zsh - Z shell
ksh - Korn Shell

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Variables

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A Variable is just a placeholder for another value.


These can be used in scripts for example later on.
Variables live in areas of your systems RAM that is reserved to
store whatever values you want to put in it. Its like a container in
memory.

An Environment is just a set of variables that are used in
conguring systems compu0ng environments.

There are USER DEFINED Variables and SYSTEM DEFINED
Variables.

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Tilde key ( ~ ) its the key to the le; of your number 1 and
below esc on most keys.

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Common Environment Variables


Env Variables Default Values
BASH and SHELL /bin/bash
CPU spec to your system
DISPLAY the local video card monitor
ENV /etc/bash.bashrc
EUID the UID number of current users
HISTSIZE 1000
HOME current users home directory
HOST and HOSTNAME systems assigned hostname

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Common Environment Variables


Env Variables Default Values
LOGNAME username of current user
MAIL /var/spool/mail/username OR /var/mail/username
MANPTH distribu0on dependent
OLDPWD prior current directory
OSTYPE Linux
PATH distribu0on dependent
PSI distribu0on dependent
PWD depends on current directory within
USER and USERNAME username of the current user

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Globbing

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Globbing

? A ques0on mark stands in for a single character.


EXAMPLE:
T??XT.txt or ??ST.txt

* An asterisk matches any character or set of characters, including no character.
EXAMPLE: *.txt

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Globbing

$ ls *.txt

$ ls test*

$ ls ?.txt

$ ls ????.txt

$ ls [f-i]*.txt
$ ls [t-v]*.txt

# list all text les The * symbol means zero or more characters
# list text les with 1 character names
# list text les with 4 character names
#list text les that could be between the lepers f through i
#list text les that could be between the lepers t through v

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Quoting

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Quo2ng


Double quote
Subs0tutes the value of variables and commands

Ex: echo Username is $USER

The above will print what your current username is.

Single quote
This preserves the literal meaning of each character of a given string
This will turn o the (special) meanings of all characters

Ex: echo Username is $USER

The above example will print/echo the literal Username is $USER

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Quo2ng


Backslash
This takes away, or removes the (special) meaning from a single character
Can be used an escape character
If we did NOT have the \ character before $5.00 here it would try and interpret the
following command as a variable:
$ echo The cheeseburger is going to cost you $5.00
The cheeseburger is going to cost you .00
But if we used the \we can negate our special character:
$ echo The cheeseburger is going to cost you \$5.00
The cheeseburger is going to cost you $5.00

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Formatting Commands

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Formapng Commands



Opera0on for a Linux command can be thought of in three ways:

First the Computer waits for user input


Secondly the user selects a commands enters it via there
keyboard or mouse
Finally The computer then executes the command

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[stephen@linuxacademy1 ~]#


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[stephen@linuxacademy1 ~]# ls

[stephen@linuxacademy1 ~]# pwd


[stephen@linuxacademy1 ~]# cd

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Working With Options

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Parameters can be divided into two types:
Linux Commands

Parameters with a dash (-) are called op0ons.

Parameters with no leading dash are called arguments.


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Formang commands
conceptually looks like this:

command - what to do?

op0ons

- How to do it?

arguments - What to do WITH it?


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Man

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The Linux MAN Pages!


Linux Manual for commands, cong les and more

Linux MAN pages are not meant as a tutorial

MAN pages are a reference like format

Linux Essentials Certification


Man Pages are b roken out in to 9 sec2ons:


1 Executable programs and the shell commands
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


System calls provided by the kernel


Library calls provided by program libraries
Device les ( typically these are stored in the /dev )
File Formats
Games
Miscellaneous
Root based programs for System Administra2on
Kernel rou2nes

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MAN pages are organized like so:


Name

Synopsis
Descrip2on
Op2ons
Files
See Also
Bugs
History
Author


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Using less key c ommands
to navigate MAN pages:

H or h







displays help
Page Down, spacebar, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+F

moves down one screen

Page Up, Esc+V, Ctrl+B




moves up one screen
Down Arrow, Enter, Ctrl+N, Ctrl+E, Ctrl+j
Up Arrow, y, Ctrl+y, +P, +K


/palern






?palern






n or /






Q or Q or ZZ




moves down one line


moves up one line
searches forward (palern)
Searches backward on (palern)
repeat the previous search
quits

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Info

Linux Essentials Certification






Info pages similar to man but its goal is to support func2ons in which man cant


Most notable hyperlinks, info pages supports hyperlinks and man does not.

You can actually use info to even read man pages if you so wish

Linux Essentials Certification


Naviga2ng using
the info u2lity:


?




Displays help info
N




P




U




Arrow keys


Page Up, Page Down
Enter



L




T




Q



Moves to the next nodes in a linked series or level


Moves back in a series or level
Moves up one level in the mode hierarchy
Moves the curser around the screen to select links
These keys scroll up and down within a single node
Moves to a new node once you select it
Displays the last info page your read
Displays the top page for a topic
Exits from the info page system

Linux Essentials Certification


Other ways to get help

Linux Essentials Certification


Other ways to g et help



README
les
README, readme.txt

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Other ways to g et help


README for unzipped source are usually found in:
The
/usr/doc/packagename

/usr/share/doc/packagename

/usr/share/doc/packages/packagename

Linux Essentials Certification


Other ways to g et help


other formats of Help Files can be found as well using formats:
Many

PostScript

PDF (Portable Document Format)

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

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Other ways to g et help


programs have congura2on les located in:
Some
/etc

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Other ways to g et help


If y ou are using an RPM-Based Linux Distribu2on you can actually use the RPM
tool to locate documenta2on for a package.

Ex:

rpm -ql packagename | grep doc

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Other ways to g et help


nd /usr/share/doc name *passwd*

locate passwd

whereis passwd

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U2li2es to read dierent le formats:


extensions
le
.1 - .9

.gz or .bz2
.txt


.html .htm
.odt


.pdf


.0f, .png, .jpg

Programs to read them




man, info, less



gunzip, bunzip2 then less



less and ANY text ed0or vi, vim



Any Web Browser
LibreOce, OpenOce.org, any other word app



xpdf, Adobe Reader



Gimp

Linux Essentials Certification


Other ways to g et help


We can also get documenta2on online!

Google for endless amounts of tutorials, Web Forums, User groups like here
at the linux academy we have an awesome community!



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Windows, Mac, and Linux Differences

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Windows

Uses proprietary apps

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Windows

Uses proprietary apps
Ac2ve Directory

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Windows

Uses proprietary apps
Ac2ve Directory
Microso; SQL

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Apple (OSX)
Has their own Hardware AND So;ware



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Apple (OSX)
Has their own Hardware AND So;ware
Tight integra2on within its own ecosystem


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Apple (OSX)
Has their own Hardware AND So;ware
Tight integra2on within its own ecosystem
Security. Extremely dicult to lock down and manage


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LINUX

Desktop is freeing and personal



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LINUX

Desktop is freeing and personal
Server Room exibility!



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LINUX

Desktop is freeing and personal
Server Room exibility!
Seen everywhere on in the mobile world (Android)



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GUI AND CLI?


All of these Opera2ng Systems have GUIs and CLIs





Linux Essentials Certification


GUI AND CLI?


All of these Opera2ng Systems have GUIs and CLIs
Linux Server can be run on CLI only with no GUI for overhead




Linux Essentials Certification


GUI AND CLI?


All of these Opera2ng Systems have GUIs and CLIs
Linux Server can be run on CLI only with no GUI for overhead
OSX has UNIX under the hood we can manage it via CLI for the
most part




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GUI AND CLI?


All of these Opera2ng Systems have GUIs and CLIs
Linux Server can be run on CLI only with no GUI for overhead
OSX has UNIX under the hood we can manage it via CLI for the
most part
Windows can have both GUI and CLI. Can use PowerShell to
manage it via cli.



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Searching and Extracting Data from Files
Commands

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Cat
less

head/tail
nd
grep
sort
cut
wc

D isplays the contents of a text le


Reads a le
Reads 10 rst lines of a le or last 10 lines of a le
Locates les on system
Searches a string on our le
Organizes text in a le
Manipulates data by columns
Can be used to do a word count on a le

Linux Essentials Certification


Cat
less

head/tail
nd
grep
sort
cut
wc

D isplays the contents of a text le


Reads a le
Reads 10 rst lines of a le or last 10 lines of a le
Locates les on system
Searches a string on our le
Organizes text in a le
Manipulates data by columns
Can be used to do a word count on a le

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Searching and Extracting Data from Files
Command Line Pipes

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Standard Bash F ile Descriptors



stdin
This means we have standard input

stdout
This means we have standard output

stderr
This le descriptor stand for standard error

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INPUT--------------------COMMAND----------------OUTPUT
(stdin 0) | (stdout 1)
|
Error
(stderr 2)

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Searching and Extracting Data from Files
I/O re-direction

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Searching and Extracting Data from Files
Regular Expressions

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Regular Expressions:

* matches any number of any char le*
. Any single character
? matches zero or one of the proceeding char f?le
^ matches expression if it appears at the beginning ^le
$ matches expressions if it appears at the end le$
[nnn] matches any one character between the braces [abc]
[^nnn] matches an expression that doesnt contain any one of the
char specied [^abc] wont match a, b, or c
[n-n] matches any single char in the RANGE [1-10]
Any number between 1 and 10

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Turning Commands into a Script
Basic Text Editing

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Turning Commands into a Script
Basic Shell Scripting

shell scripts

Scripts need an interpreter


/bin/sh (rarely used these days original Bash Shell)

/bin/bash ( bourne again shell)

This is where we will run almost ALL of our scripts in Linux.




shell scripts

Variables


$ANYNAME

Arguments:
$1 First Argument
$2 Second Argument
$? Exit Code/Status (variable that stores 0 or non 0
numbers depending on if the previous statement was
successful or not.

#!



/bin/bash

Variables

Arguments

echo

for


if


Exit

(shebang)

shell scripts

The Bourne Again Shell


We can pass variables or create Arguments to pass through scripts
Op0ons we can pass to our scripts that can also be variables
prints/echo's what we tell echo to to print to the screen
loops through and iterates through data for us
used for condi0onal coding based on exit status code for example
Exit or stop a script func0on

shells scripts
&&
= AND


||
= OR

Syntax using &&:


command1 && command2

Syntax using ||:


command1 || command2

Syntax using both &&, ||:
command1 && comand2 || command3


# rm le1.txt && echo File was deleted || echo File was NOT deleted
# File was deleted

shells scripts

If/then:


if condi2on then

command
else

command



shells scripts

for if / then /else


Op2ons

-d
Checks to see if the specied directory exists.
-e
Checks to see if the specied le exist.
-f
Checks to see if the specied le exist and if its a regular le.
-G
Checks to see if the specied le exist and is owned by a specied group.
-h or -L Checks to see if the specied le exist and if it is a symbolic link
-O
Checks to see if the specied le exist and if it is owned by the spec. UID
-r
Checks to see if the specied le exist and if the read permissions granted
-w
Checks to see if the specied le exist and if the write perm is granted
-x
Checks to see if the specied le exist and if the execute perm is granted

shell scripts

Looping Structures
while loop

un2l loop

for loop

while loops, execute over and over un0l a specied condi0on is No
longer true.

Structure:

while condi2on
d o

script command
done

shell scripts

un2l loop, it runs over and over as long as the condi0on is false. as soon as its
condi0on is true it will stop.

Structure:

un0l condi0on
do

script command
done



shell scripts

for loop, will loop a specic number of 0mes.



There are three op0ons for crea0ng a number sequence with seq:
If specify a SINGLE value, the sequence start at one, increments by one,
and ends at the specied value.
If specify TWO values, the sequence starts at the rst value, increments by
one, and ends at the second value.
If specify three values, the sequence starts at the rst value, increments by
the second value, and ends at the third value.
E xample:

seq 5 15
This would create a sequence of numbers that starts at 5, increments
by 1 and ends at 15

shell scripts

Using seq in a for loop:



for i in seq 15

do


echo The current number in the sequence is $1.

done
exit 0






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The Power of the Command Line

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Archiving Files on the Command Line
Files, Directories

Archiving Files



Tar
A Linux u2lity that archives things. It does not compress or
compact les. It just s2cks all your les together in to ONE le.

Tradi2onally Tar was actually used to create Tape Archives. We
used it to archive data on to old tape backups. Tar actually stand
for Tape Archive.



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Archiving Files on the Command Line
Archiving, compression

Compression Tools


Gzip



gzip
gunzip




Bzip2

Zip

bzip2
bunzip

zip
unzip

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tar



tar -cf (creates le)
tar -xf (extracts le)




le.tar
le.tar

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We
can also call on the compression algorithm types when using
the tar u2lity with op2on ags:

tar WITH compression:
tar -zcf (gzip) le.tar.gz or le.tgz

tar -jcf (bzip2) le.tar.bz2 or le.tb2



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Distribution Life Cycle Management

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Design



Develop

Deploy

Manage

Re2re

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Distribu2on Life
Cycle Management


RHEL Fedora SLES OpenSUSE

10 yrs

1 year

7 yrs

18 Months

Distribu2on Release Cycle Management



RHEL Fedora SLES OpenSUSE
3-4 yrs 6 mth. 3-4 yrs 8 mth.

Debian

Ubuntu

Debian

Ubuntu

2 yrs

6 mth.

3-4 yrs

5 yrs

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Hardware

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Processor cpu




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RAM random-access
memory




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Graphics Card


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Motherboard


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Power Supply


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Hard disks


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Op2cal drives


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Display


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Kernel

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Kernel



Linux Kernel os a Unix-like computer opera0ng system.
The

Linux was developed and created by Linus Torvalds.


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Kernel




The Linux kernel is the core of any Linux installa2on.

The kernel is responsible for managing every other piece of so;ware
on a running Linux computer

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Kernel



To maintain order on a chao2c Linux system of processes the kernel
imposes order by using a hierarchy.

When the system boots typically one process called the init process
starts up the /sbin/init that in turns manages child processes.

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Small subset of the many processes that could be running:



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Processes

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Every process h as
an associated Process ID (PID)


Parent process has a Parent Process ID (PPID)
Every

We can iden2fy these PIDS, and PPIDS with tools like ps


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Tops common o p2on keys:



k kills a process
q quits top
r change a process priority
s changes the displays update rate in seconds
P sorts the display on CPU usage (default view)
M sorts the display on memory usage


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Top can also provide
load average (a measure of the demand on

CPU) b y applica2ons.

For example:
A load average of 0 is a system that no programs are demanding CPU 2me.
A load average of 1 is a system with one program running a CPU intensive task.
A system in which it has higher load averages on a single CPU system reects
programs compe2ng for available CPU 2me.
A system that has mul2ple Processors or CPU cores, load averages can reach
the number of CPUs or cores before compe2ng for CPU 2me even begins. A
load average for example of 4.0 on a system with a quad core processor
reects processes demanding exactly as much CPU 2me as the computer has
available.

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syslog, klog, dmesg

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/lib, /usr/lib, /etc, /var/log

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Data Loca2ons:



/lib
Linked Library Files used by Binaries in /bin and /usr/bin

/usr/lib Linked Library Files used by Binaries in /bin and /usr/bin

/etc Congura2on Files for our Linux Opera2ng System

/var/log Log les for Our Linux Opera2ng System


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Files, Directories

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The Linux File System

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The role of the L inux File System:



Where
the data is stored on a storage device within a certain maler.

Data is organized and easily located


Data can be saved in a persistent manner
Data integrity is preserved
Data can be quickly retrieved for a use in a later point in 2me

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The Linux File S ystem
and the File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)


The Linux le system uses a hierarchy structure to organize data.

Linux systems have a standard in which at the root directory
there are always several of the same sub directories in a certain
order of fashion.

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/etc contains text-based
congura0on les used by the system as well as services
on the system. We can edit these les with a text editor and then
running
customize
how Linux behaves in dierent manners.

/etc/aliases Contains a table used to redirect all to local users
/etc/exports Congured le systems to be exported to remove NFS clients
/etc/fstab lists the par00ons and le systems that will be automa0cally
mounted when we boot our Linux system
/etc/;pusers Controls users access to FTP service running on a Linux system
/etc/group Contains local group deni0ons
/etc/grub.conf Contains congura0on parameters for the init process
/etc/hosts this contains a list of hostname to IP address mappings that
we can use to resolve certain hostnames

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/etc/inilab Contains congura0on parameters for the init process



/etc/init.d
This is a subdirectory that contains startup scripts for services
installed
on the system. RedHat/Centos system these are located at /etc/rc.d/init.d/

/etc/passwd This is our Linux systems user accounts le
/etc/shadow This contains encrypted password for our user accounts
/etc/resolve.conf This is where we specify what DNS server and domain
sux that our system is going to use
/etc/X11/
Has the X windows congura0on les





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Linux Disk File Systems


ext2






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Linux Disk File Systems


ext2


ext3








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Linux Disk File Systems


ext2


ext3

Reiser






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Linux Disk File Systems


ext2


ext3

Reiser

ext4




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Linux Disk File Systems


ext2


ext3

Reiser

ext4




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Hidden files and Directories

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Linux is a Tree-Structured
le system of both directories and les

Single root: /
Current Working Directory








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Absolute, and Relative Paths

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Home

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Files and Directories

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Case Sensitivity

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Simple Globbing and Quoting

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The d ouble quote

The double quote (quote) protects everything enclosed between two double
quote marks except $,, and \. Use the double quotes when you want only
variables and command subs0tu0on.






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quote
The s ingle

The single quote (quote) protects everything enclosed between two single quote
marks, It is used to turn OFF special meaning of all characters.








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The Backslash

The backslash (\) alters the special meaning of the and example it will escape or
cancel the special meaning of the next character.

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\a
alert ( bell)
\b
backspace
\e an escape character
\f
form feed
\n
new line
\r
carriage return
\t
horizontal tab
\v
ver2cal tab
\\
backslash
\
single quote
\nnn the eight-bit character whose value is the octal value nnn (one to
three digits)

\xHH the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value HH
(one or two hex digits)
\cx a control-x character

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We use the e op2on of the echo command to enable interpreta2on of
escapes.
backslash

To the command line for some examples!







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Simple Globbing and Quoting

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Creating Users

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Root and Standard Users

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System Users

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User IDs

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File/Directory permissions and owners

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Permissions,
USER, Group, Other

drwxrwxr-x. 2 user user
-rwxrwxr-x. 2 user user


d = directory
- = le

r=read
w=write
x=execute

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rwx rwx rwx


421
421 421

7 7 7

-rwxr-xr-x

On directories X means that we can cd (change directories) in to it.
on les = you can execute if it is an X


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Octal Nota2ons:

rwx rwx rwx
421 421 421
7 7 7

R=4
W=2
X=1
Total=7

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Octal Nota2on

Adding:

-rw-r--r--
420 4 4
6 4 4 = 644





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-rw-r--r--
420 4 4
6 4 4 = 644


using the Octal Nota2on:
Sepng permissions



chmod 555 lename

or

chmod ugo+w (this adds write permissions to the
user, group, and other)

Octal Nota2on

Adding:

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you can change the permissions of a le you rst either need


Before
to already be the owner of a le OR you need to be the root account.
To change the ownership of a le we can use the chown command:


chown username.groupname lename



chown stephen.accoun2ng lename.txt

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Removing
permissions:



chmod o-r lename.txt

chmod g-w lename.txt

chmod u-r lename.txt


(We removed the read permission from the others)


(We removed the write permission from the groups)
(We removed the read permission from the user)

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Adding
permissions:



chmod o+r lename.txt

chmod g+w lename.txt

chmod u+r lename.txt


(We added the read permission from the others)


(We added the write permission from the groups)
(We added the read permission from the user)

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Adding
permissions with octals:


chmod 644 lename.txt










R=4
W=2
X=1




(This means we are giving USER Read and Execute NO Write


and Read for group no write or execute
and Read for other and no write or execute)

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Special Files/Directory Sticky Bit

Linux Essentials Certification


Special
Directories and Files

Previous lessons we learned about directories like /etc, /lib, and /usr/lib


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Special
Directories and Files

/var

Contains such les that change ocen such as mail, logs, etc

/var/tmp

Contains temporary les les that do NOT get deletes on reboot

/tmp

Contains temporary les that DO get deleted on reboot


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The p roblem with temp folder that have permissions of 777


Example:
rwx rwx rwx


There is a caveat here:
Other users on the system could delete OUT les and vice versa!



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S2cky
Bit to the rescue!
We
can add a s0cky bit to a folder in which makes users can only delete there
OWN folder within a directory but can not delete anything that another user has
created within a folder, even if the folder has 777 (rwx rwx rwx).




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System Files, Sticky Bit

Linux Essentials Certification


Internet, Network, Routers

Internet, Network, Routers


Domain Controller

Database Server

DHCP Server
Web Server
E-mail Server
File and Print Server
Packet-ltering, stateful, or even applica2on-level rewall
Proxy Server
Content Filter Server
Router

Internet, Network, Routers


Networking Basics


Networks
use protocols to talk to one another (think of a protocol as a language)

Computer Systems need to speak the same language to send and receive data.







Internet, Network, Routers


Networking Basics


Networks
use protocols to talk to one another (think of a protocol as a language)

Computer Systems need to speak the same language to send and receive data.

IP Protocol: A networking protocol used on the Internet.
Works with other protocol such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Works with the UDP (User Datagram Protocol)





Internet, Network, Routers


Networking Basics


Networks
use protocols to talk to one another (think of a protocol as a language)

Computer Systems need to speak the same language to send and receive data.

IP Protocol: A networking protocol used on the Internet.
Works with other protocol such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Works with the UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

The OSI Reference Model breaks down the overall communica2on process into
specic task. The OSI model has 7 layers.


Internet, Network, Routers




PC1


7Applica2on
6Presenta2on
5Session

4Transport
3Network
2Data link
1Physical



PC2

7Applica2on
6Presenta2on
5Session
4Transport
3Network
2Data link
1Physical

Internet, Network, Routers





PC1












PC2
192.168.0.1









192.168.0.2
Sends fragments data




Receiver re-sequences and












defragments data








Packet
Packet
Packet






Fragments Transferred on network Media

Internet, Network, Routers






The
en2re picture of the IP protocol and the Transmission Control Protocol:





TCP/IP

TCP ensures data exchanged between two network hosts is exchanged reliably


Typical upper-layer applica2ons that use TCP are:
Web Servers
E-MAIL Servers
FTP Servers

Internet, Network, Routers



UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP is a connec2onless protocol. UDP packets are sent unacknowledged.


Applica2ons that can tolerate less reliability can use UDP.


Typical upper-layer applica2ons that use UDP are:
Streaming Audio
VoIP



Internet, Network, Routers



ICMP -

Internet Control Message Protocol

ICMP is for tes2ng and verifying network communica2on between hosts






Internet, Network, Routers


PORTS

TCP and UDP both provide ports for upper layer protocols.



Port numbers range from 0 up to 65536 for each individual IP address

Internet, Network, Routers


20 and 21
23


25


80


110


137, 138, 139
443


Well Known PORTS


range 0-1023

FTP
Telnet
SMTP
HTTP
POP3
NetBIOS
HTTPS

Internet, Network, Routers


Registered PORTS
range 1024-49151

Organiza2ons can program their own network service and then apply for a
registered port number to be assigned to it.




Internet, Network, Routers


Dynamic PORTS
range 49152-65535

dynamic ports and are available for use by any network service.

Internet, Network, Routers



Every host on an IP-based
network MUST have a unique IP address assigned to it.
than the MAC address in which the MAC Address never changes and is
Dierent
burned
in (hard coded) to the network board.

IP addresses consists of four numbers, separated by periods.

10.10.0.1
192.168.0.1
172.16.5.1

In this decimal nota2on, each number MUST be between 0 and 255

Example:


INVALID IP Address 256.257.1.1 (cant use greater than 255)


INVALID IP Address 10.10.1 (MUST use four values)

Internet, Network, Routers


address is an eight-bit binary number, called an octet. Each
Each number in the
a binary number, it can be represented by 0s and 1s
octet is

Example: the IP address 192.168.1.1 in binary:



11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001

Internet, Network, Routers


192. 168 .1 .1


11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001


11000000 = 128 + 64 = 192

Decimal
Binary

10101000 = 128 + 32 + 8 = 168


00000001 = 1 = 1

00000001 = 1 = 1

Conversion Tool
Bits 1 = 128
Bits 2 = 64
Bits 3 = 32
Bits 4 = 16
Bits 5 = 8
Bits 6 = 4
Bits 7 = 2
Bit 8 = 1

Internet, Network, Routers


128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255
No decimal
value of the octet can exceed 255!

Conversion Tool
Bits 1 = 128
Bits 2 = 64
Bits 3 = 32
Bits 4 = 16
Bits 5 = 8
Bits 6 = 4
Bits 7 = 2
Bit 8 = 1

Internet, Network, Routers


Some IP addresses are
reserved and cant be assigned to a host. You cant use the last octet
in host a ddress a 0. This reserved for the address of the network segment itself that the
host resides on.


Example:
10.10.1.15 Host address has the Broadcast Address of 10.10.1.0

Internet, Network, Routers


with IPV4 available IP addresses being available a new IP
To address the issue
6 was created: IPV6
version

IPV4 is a 32 bit IP scheme
IPV6 is a 128 bit IP scheme

IPV6 are composed of four-character hexadecimal numbers serrated by colons
Example: FE80:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329

Internet, Network, Routers



NAT Network Address
Transla2on


We
use a NAT Router that creates a Private ip address space on our LAN with
mul2ple devices and computers but the outside (the Router) has only 1 Public IP
address in which the internal network gets translated through this router.









Public Internet










|





Public Network

(NAT ROUTER) PUBLIC IP 72.23.130.135 Private IP 192.168.0.1







|


|


LAN



|
PC 1 192.168.0.10



PC2 192.168.0.15

Internet, Network, Routers


Private IP address R anges:


10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 (Class A)
172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 (Class B)
192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 (Class C)

Internet, Network, Routers


Subnet Mask

Network vs. node with our IP address







(NETWORK 192.168.1). (1 NODE)

(NETWORK 11000000.10101000.00000001) . (00000000 NODE) 192.168.1.1
(NETWORK 11111111.11111111.11111111) . (00000000 NODE) 255.255.255.0

Internet, Network, Routers


Subnet Mask

CLASS A SUBNET MASK:







First Octet must be between 1 and 126





First Octet is is the Network Address





Last Three octets of the address is the Node Address









Default Subnet Mask Class A:





255.0.0.0











Class A allows 126 total possible networks





Class A can oer 16.7 million possible node addresses

Internet, Network, Routers


Subnet Mask

CLASS B SUBNET MASK:







First Octet must be between 128 and 192





First Two Octets are the Network Address





Last Two octets of the address is the Node Address









Default Subnet Mask Class B:





255.255.0.0











Class B allows 16,384 total possible networks




Class B can oer 65,534 million possible node addresses

Internet, Network, Routers


Subnet Mask

CLASS C SUBNET MASK:







First Octet must be between 192 and 223





First Three Octets are the Network Address





Last octet of the address is the Node Address









Default Subnet Mask Class C:





255.255.255.0











Class C allows 2,097,152 total possible networks





Class C can oer 254 possible node addresses (limited host)

Internet, Network, Routers


Subnet Mask Can b e typed in Shorthand:
192.168.1.1/24
/24 indicates there are 24 bits used for the subnet mask

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.0


Par2al Subnepng:
You do not have to use the default subnet mask. Example a Class A address COULD use only
part of an octet for the address such as 255.255.0.0. Or for Class B you COULD do a
255.255.252.0 subnet mask.

PC1
192.168.1.1
255.255.255.0

PC2
192.168.1.2
255.255.255.0

For PC3 to speak with


PC1/PC2 we need a router
because its a dierent subnet

PC3
192.168.1.3
255.255.252.0

Linux Essentials Certification


Domain Name Service and the Default Gateway
(Network Router)

Internet, Network, Routers


When looking up U RL or domain names up we have to translate that domain
to the IP address of a web server:
name i n

For Example: www.linuxacademy.com to 54.165.61.14 and 54.164.230.15

DNS Servers translate Domain Names in to IP addresses.




Internet, Network, Routers


[root@stephen1 ~]# dig www.linuxacademy.copm


; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-14.el7_0.1 <<>> www.linuxacademy.copm
;; global op0ons: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NXDOMAIN, id: 26797
;; ags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 0, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, ags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.linuxacademy.copm.
IN
A

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
.


10800 IN
SOA a.root-servers.net. nstld.verisign-grs.com. 2015030501 1800 900 604800 86400

;; Query 0me: 2 msec
;; SERVER: 172.31.0.2#53(172.31.0.2)
;; WHEN: Thu Mar 05 22:04:26 UTC 2015
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 125

[root@stephen1 ~]#

Internet, Network, Routers



Sending PC1
192.168.1.2

Network

192.168.1.0

Router 2 NICS with


192.168.1.254 and
10.10.30.254

Receiving PC2
10.10.30.2
Network
10.10.30.0

In this example we have a router that is able to direct sending trac from
the 192.168.1.0 network segment to the 10.10.30.0 network segment.

Linux Essentials Certification


Network Configuration

Linux Essentials Certification


A few Important N
etwork Tools:


ping Tes0ng of connec0vity of a remote network device
dig



Allows us to lookup IP Addresses for DNS Names
netstat


List Network connec0ons, Rou0ng Info, NIC info
route


current route/net sengs
traceroute

traces the route a packet takes
ifcong


current network sengs
ip addr


current IP address and Net Sengs


/etc/resolv.conf
This is where our DNS Server info is stored

(FILE)

Linux Essentials Certification


Industry Uses of Linux, Cloud Computing and
Virtualization

Linux Essentials Certification


Industry Uses o f the Linux OS
Web Servers
Mobile app Servers
SQL Servers





Linux Essentials Certification


Industry Uses o f the Linux OS
Cloud Compu2ng ex:

Google Apps
Web-based email
Dropbox
Evernote




Linux Essentials Certification


Virtualiza2on is the crea2on of a virtual OS through a virtualiza2on
so;ware
that is know as the hypervisor. This allows us to virtualize
an OS in another computer/OS known as the host. The virtualized
OSs that live upon this host are known as the guest OS.

Virtualiza2on So;ware's
VirtualBox
VMWare
QEMU
Xen