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Fully Automatic R O + D M Plant 10,000 LPH

Product Specification
Proces Description : RO Plant
Raw water gets collected in raw water tank; the raw water feed pump feeds it to the Multi Grade
Filter. The Multi Grade Filter will remove all suspended solid up to 50 micron particle size. The filtered
water is then feed to the RO system through a cartridge filter.
The 5 micron cartridge filter removes all suspended solids greater than 5-micron
size. Antiscalant will be injected in the feed water at the beginning of cartridge filter to prevent
precipitation of calcium carbonate salt on the membrane and prevent it from fouling. Also Acid will be
injected in feed water before cartridge filter to maintain feed water pH in range 6-7. At this pH, solubility
of scale forming salts is increased there by minimizing membrane fouling.
The raw water will now be feed into the R. O module after pressurizing it through a high pressure
pump. The R.O. module consists of semipermeable membranes. When the pressurized water is fed to the
R.O. membrane, the membrane rejects salt ions and only water is allowed to pass through the
membrane. The salt ions are continuously washed out of the module (reject/concentrate stream) and the
permeate stream is the desalinated product water stream. Some amount of the concentrate stream is
recycled to the RO module inlet to minimize wastage / increase water recovery. The permeate stream
contains free carbon dioxide and is feed to a degasser column.
In the degasser column water flows in the downward direction through the bed and Raschig rings. Air
is introduced from the bottom of the degasser and it passes through the bed and raschig rings in the
upward direction. The raschig ring bed ensures intimate contact between air and water. The carbon
dioxide in water escapes from the top of the degasser along with air. The water from degasser tower is
collected in degasser sump tank. The degasified water will be pumped in product water storage tank
through degasified permeate transfer pump.

Process Description : DM Plant


Demineralization process is used when the dissolved solids are to be almost completely removed from
water. A two bed DM plant consists of a cation exchanger and anion exchanger. The cation exchanger
contains strongly acidic cation exchanger resins in "H+" form. When filtered water is passed through the
cation exchanger, the resin retains calcium, magnesium, and sodium ions and gives an equal number of
hydrogen ions to the water.
The reactions are :
R H+

Ca

2+

=======>

R Ca

R H+

Mg

2+

=======>

R Mg

H+

R H+

Na+

R Na

H+

=======>

H+

When the resin is exhausted it is regenerated with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid.
The reactions are :
R Ca

HCl

=======>

R H+

CaCl2

R Mg

HCl

=======>

R H+

MgCl2

R Na

HCl

=======>

R H+

NaCl

Thus the water, which comes out of the cation exchanger is slightly acidic as the mineral salts are
converted to respective mineral acids.
When water passes through cation exchanger the Alkalinity gets converted into carbonic acid. The
reactions are as follows :
R-H

NaHCO3

=======>

R-Na

H2CO3

Degasifier
Introduction
In water demineralisation, a degasifier, or degasser, is often used to remove dissolved carbon
dioxide after cation exchange. The most common degassers are of the so-called forced
draft or atmospheric type. One is represented below:

A forced draft degasifier

Principle and details


After cation exchange, the bicarbonate and carbonate (if any) ions are converted to carbonic acid,
or carbon dioxide. CO2 is soluble in water (see graph below), but it tends to escape into the air,
much as it does in a glass of Coca-Cola when you stir it. Using a degasser to remove CO 2 reduces
the ionic load on the strong base anion resin, and the consumption of caustic soda is thus lower.
To be effective, the degasifier must be placed after the cation exchange column. Before cation
exchange, the water is containing bicarbonate. After it, the cations in water (Ca ++, Mg++ and
Na+ principally) are converted to H+ ions, which combine with the HCO3 bicarbonate anions to
produce carbonic acid. The reaction details are shown in the page about processes, under
demineralisation.
In practice, the water coming out of the cation exchange unit is introduced into a column where it
is sprinkled over a bed of filling material, often polypropylene shaped as saddles to leave a
maximum volume of voids in the bed. Air is introduced at the bottom of the column by a blower,
and escapes at the top, loaded with carbon dioxide from the water.

The solubility of CO2 in pure water is high: about 1.5 g/L or more than 30 meq/L at 25C and
atmospheric pressure (see graph). When you stir the water and divide it into small droplets in an
atmospheric degasifier and blow air through the "rain", the gas tends to move into the air because
the partial pressure of CO2 in air is much below the equilibrium pressure. The residual CO 2 after an
atmospheric degasifier is 0.20 to 0.25 meq/L (typically 10 mg/L as CO 2. Therefore such degassers
are used when the bicarbonate concentration plus free carbon dioxide in the feed water to
separate column demineralisation systems is at least 0.6 to 0.8 meq/L.
The forced draft degasifiers are the most common in industrial water treatment, although there
are other types of degasifiers, e.g.

Thermal degassers, allowing to strip oxygen as well as carbon dioxide,

Vacuum degassers, operating under a vacuum of 1 to 5 kPa for the removal of oxygen

Membrane degassers, interesting in view of their small size

For RO permeates with low pH and high free CO2 and for small demineralisation systems,
membrane degasifiers can be used: