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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

2012
ACHPER TRIAL EXAMINATION
VCE PHYSICAL EDUCATION
NOTES FOR TEACHERS
Please note the following:
1.

The November examination will consist of two sections. Section A will consist of multiple-choice
questions. Students will be required to mark their responses on a multiple-choice answer sheet. A mock
blank version is also provided if teachers wish to use this for the ACHPER Trial Examination.
Section B will consist of short-answer and extended response questions.

2.

To duplicate the format of the November examination, it is suggested that you present the ACHPER Trial
Examination as a question booklet to give students practice at completing an examination in this format.

3.

Students will be required to write their student number in figures and in words. They should practice this
on the ACHPER Trial Examination, as indicated.

4.

The ACHPER Trial Examination has been designed to provide students with the opportunity to use the full
two hours of writing time.

5.

The ACHPER Trial Examination should not vary considerably in format to the November examination;
however, the type of stimulus material used, the number of questions and the allocated marks may be
different. (Note: The ACHPER Trial Examination may have fewer graphics and photographs, due to
copyright restrictions.)

6.

The suggested answers provided in this booklet should be used as a guide only and do not represent all
possible answers that students could write.

7.

ACHPER provides approval for schools that have purchased this trial examination to copy it for the
purpose of teaching students in schools. Other than for this specific purpose, copyright exists with
ACHPER Victorian Branch. It may not be reproduced for any other purpose without permission from
ACHPER Victorian Branch.

ACHPER Victorian Branch, 2012. ACHPER provides approval for schools that have purchased this trial examination to copy it

for the purpose of teaching students in schools. Other than for this specific purpose, copyright exists with ACHPER Victorian
Branch. It may not be reproduced for any other purpose without permission from ACHPER Victorian Branch. No responsibility or
liability whatsoever can be accepted by ACHPER Victorian Branch or the authors for any loss, damage or injury that may arise
from any person acting on any statement or information contained in this publication and to the extent permitted by law, all such
liabilities are expressly excluded. Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of copyright material. Information that will
enable the publisher to rectify any error or omission will be welcome. In such case, please contact ACHPER who will arrange
payment of the usual fee.
Page 1

2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

SOLUTION PATHWAY
This solution pathway is not intended to be a definitive set of answers in all cases. Students may provide factually
correct responses that have not been outlined here. These answers are a set of sample responses and a guide to the
acceptable depth and range of possible responses.
Section A: Multiple-choice Questions
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Section A Total Marks: 15

Answer
B
B
D
C
A
C
D
B
A
C
C
B
C
C
D

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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Section B: Short answer questions

Section B Total Marks: 105

Question 1
a.

A model that recognises the interwoven relationship that exists between the individual and their
environment and the factors which affect their behaviour (VCAA, 2010, p.36).
OR
The social-ecological model explores the multiple influences impacting on physical activity
behaviour. It includes the individual factor (gender and age), the environmental factor (physical
and social) and the policy factor (organisations).

2 marks

One mark for listing the levels of influence and one mark for acknowledging that the levels do
not operate in isolation, they have an interrelationship.
b. i.

Individual:
Social:
Physical:

Policy:

Individuals can register and join the Challenge even if their class/school is not
registered allowing an individual access to the program.
Organisations such as primary schools, out of school hours care services, sporting
clubs and recreational organisations can participate in the Challenge.
Once the registration period commences, in April, organisations and individuals
will be able to activate their registration on the website. Organisations such as
primary schools, out of school hours care services, sporting clubs and recreational
organisations can participate in the Challenge. Schools, out of school programs,
sporting clubs and recreational organisations will have been targeted in this
initiative as they most likely have the physical environment to allow an individual
or group of people to access physical activity, with a range of equipment and
space that allows for and encourages participation in physical activity.
A government delivered strategy with a website collecting data and rewarding
students with prizes and certificates for their participation in physical activity.

4 marks

To receive full marks students must use information from the stimulus material provided as
demonstrated in the above answers.
b. ii.

Any two of the following statements for two marks:


- The Prime Ministers Challenge is focusing on the individual within the schools setting.
- The school setting provides the student with both the social setting (friends and peers) in
addition to the physical setting (outdoor areas and equipment).
- The rewards scheme administered by the Australian Government website would satisfy the
policy element of the socio-ecological model.
- A statement such as; The Prime Minister Challenge considers the individual, the
environment including social factors and the policy. It could be assumed it should have
some success as it addresses the multiple levels of influence on physical activity
participation and their ability to work to together to influence a young person to participate
in physical activity.

2 marks

c. i.

The guidelines suggest that children between the ages 5-12 years should limit sitting and
watching television or using other electronic media particularly during daylight hours to less
than 2 hour per day unless it is educational. Therefore a child can be sedentary; however, as
long as they are involved in at least sixty minutes of moderate to vigorous activity they will
meet the requirements of the guidelines for their age group.

2 marks

Must refer to the statement regarding sedentary behaviour in the NPAG for two marks.
c. ii

1 mark for listing correct time/duration in line with NPAG, 1 mark for activities listed in each
day, 2 marks for activities listed from the Prime Ministers Challenge stimulus material.
Day 1
Playing
soccer in the
backyard (1
hr)

Day 2
Rugby
training
(1.5hrs)

Day 3
Playing
Tennis in the
backyard
(2 hrs)

Day 4
Run to and
from the
shops
(1 hr)

Day 5
Rugby
training
(1.5hrs)

Day 6

Day 7

Playing
soccer with
mates (2 hrs)

Rugby game
with team
(2 hrs)

4 marks

Total 14 marks
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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 2
Tapering is the deliberate manipulation of training volume to ensure an athlete performs at their
optimal (reduced presence of fatigue etc.), whereas reversibility is the lack of, or absence of sufficient
training to maintain previously gained chronic adaptations.

2 marks

Total

2 marks

a.

The key to this graph is that the contribution from CHOs will decrease over time, while
conversely the contribution from fat will increase. The key to this graph is that the contribution
from CHOs will decrease over time, while conversely the contribution from fat will increase,
so the cross-over point is not pertinent

2 marks

b.

The athlete could employ carbohydration; that is the intake of liquid high GI carbohydrates
during the race. This will delay the reliance upon fat as the primary fuel source enabling the
athlete to work at higher intensities.

2 marks

Question 3

Total 4 marks

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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 4
a.

As the race progresses David Rudishas speed decreases/declines.

b.

1 mark

The predominant energy system for this event is the aerobic system because of the duration
of 1 minute 41 seconds.
The PC system would be the predominant provider of energy in the first 50 to 100metres
and thus the first 200m split will be because this system produces energy at the most rapid
rate.
The Anaerobic Glycolysis system would provide energy throughout this event as the PC
system will deplete and the intensity or pace of each 200m split around 25 seconds is of a
fast pace. This system produces energy at a slower rate than the PC system.
The depletion of PC would cause a decline in speed and the build-up of ADP and Pi will
inhibit the actions of the muscle cross bridges leading to a slowing in Davids muscular
contractions.
The use of the Anaerobic Glycolysis would result in the build-up of Hydrogen ions. At this
high intensity they would be unable to be cleared. This would result in a reduction in Ph
levels that affect the functioning of the glycolytic enzymes to prevent further break-down
of glycogen. The Hydrogen ions also prevent the release of calcium that is essential to
enable the muscles to contract.
As the aerobic system is predominant and this system produces energy at the slowest rate, it
is expected that the final 200m split will be the slowest because at this time the
multifactorial fatigue factors will be contributing resulting in a decline in speed.

6 marks

c.

As the 800m event will use the Anaerobic Glycolysis system as a significant energy system
provider David Rudisha may use Sodium bicarbonate as a buffering agent. The ingestion of
sodium bicarbonate allows H+ to leave the muscles at a faster rate, therefore enabling fatigue
caused through the build-up of H+ to be delayed or enabling the athlete to continue to use the
anaerobic glycolysis system for a longer period of time.

2 marks

d.

Gastric upsets
Nausea
Diarrhoea

1 mark

Total 10 marks
Question 5
a.

Could choose:
- High GI food consumption
- Active recovery
- Ice vests to reduce core body temperature
- massage
- static stretching
- rehydration

3 marks

b.

Examples:
- Active Recovery would enable hydrogen ions to be oxidised at a faster rate and as a result
the player would enter the second match with a reduced level of toxic by-products, and an
active recovery would prevent venous pooling and thus accelerate the return of blood to the
heart enabling further removal of toxic by-products
- Wearing an ice vest would reduce core body temperature. The reduction in core body
temperature would reduce oxygen debt and allow for greater quantities of blood to be
directed to muscle tissue to enable a more rapid recovery for the player.
- Ingesting High GI foods would rapidly replace glycogen lost in game 1. High GI foods are
rapidly absorbed into the body. This would ensure that at the beginning of the second match
the player had refuelled the muscle stores, enabling glycogen to be readily available to
produce high intensity efforts that require glycogen as the fuel.

2 marks

Total 5 marks
Page 5

2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 6
a.

Rapid reduction of body weight through urination / Mask the use of anabolic steroids.

1 mark

Cardiac arrhythmia / Dehydration / Cramps / Muscle injury (strain)/ Kidney failure.

1 mark

c. i.

Scientific or medical evidence, pharmacological effect or experience that the substance or


practice (by itself or used with other practices or substances) has the potential to enhance,
or does enhance sport performance
Scientific or medical evidence, pharmacological effect or experience that the use of the
substance or practice represents an actual or potential health risk to an athlete
WADAs determination that use of the substance or practice violates the spirit of sport as
described in the code

c. ii.

Refusal to submit a sample or evading sample collection


Failure to supply whereabouts or missed tests
Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
Possession of a banned substance or method
Trafficking or attempted trafficking of a banned substance or method
Administration or attempted administration to an athlete of a banned substance or method,
including assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting or covering up of an anti-doping rule
violation

d.

Role 1:
- Aims to ensure that the pure spirit of sport remains in play through regulation and
enforcement of the anti-doping policy
Role 2:
- Educate athletes and the community regarding the anti-doping policy in place in Australia.

2 marks

1 mark

2 marks

Total 7 marks
Question 7
a.

b.

Magnussen

8 marks

Poort

Type of Interval Training

Short or intermediate Interval


training

Long Interval Training

Aim of Training Method

To increase lactate tolerance

Recommended W:R ratio

Short interval 1:5+


Intermediate 1:2 or 1:3

To increase LIP or to increase


VO2max/Aerobic capacity
1:1 or larger; that is 2:1; 3:1 etc.

Provide a different example of


how overload could be applied to
each swimmer

Increase reps or sets


Increase intensity ie intermediate
interval from 90 to 95% intensity.

Increase reps or sets


Increase intensity ie from 85 to 88%
intensity

Decrease rest; though must be


careful to work within appropriate
W:R ratios

Decrease rest; though must be


careful to work within appropriate
W:R ratios

All three energy systems contribute to energy system for both events. In the 100m the
anaerobic glycolysis system will dominate while in the 1500m the aerobic system will
dominate. The anaerobic glycolysis system has a faster rate of ATP production than the aerobic
energy system and will therefore enable a higher average speed for the event.

3 marks

Total 11 marks

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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 8
Fitness Component

a.
Health-related

Skill-related

Define the fitness


component
The total amount of
energy obtainable
from the aerobic
energy system (ie
energy produced in
the presence of
oxygen), (VCAA,
2010, p. 35).

Appropriate
Fitness test
Coopers 12 min test
Beep Test
VO2 max treadmill

Training method to
be used
Continuous
Fartlek
Long Interval

Local muscular end

The ability of a
muscle or group of
muscles to sustain
repeated
contractions against
a resistance for an
extended period of
time (VCAA, 2010,
p.36).

Push ups: 30 sec. or


60 sec.
Curl ups: 60 max @
20/min
Sit ups: 5 min 100
max, 60 sec max

Continuous
Fartlek
Long Interval
Intermediate interval
Circuit

Muscular strength

The muscles ability


to generate force
against an object,
(VCAA, 2010, p.36)

Dynamometers=Grip
strength

Weight/resistance
Circuit

Muscular power

The ability of a
muscle or muscle
group to exert a
maximum amount of
force in the shortest
period of time,
(VCAA, 2010, p.
36).

- Vertical Jump
- Standing long
jump
- Seated basketball
throw

Weight/ resistance
Circuit
Plyometrics

Speed

The rate of motion,


(VCAA, 2010,
p.36).

15m or 20-50m

Intermediate interval
Sort interval
Speed
Circuit
Plyometrics

Reaction time

How quickly the


body can react to
external stimuli.

Ruler drop test

Speed

Co-ordination

Hand-eye and footeye coordination


responding to the
nervous system
sending messages to
the skeletal/
muscular system.

Alternate hand wall


toss

Weight Training
Circuit

Aerobic capacity

Page 7

8 marks

2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

b.

The answer must include data from the stimulus and correctly match it up to the fitness
component, fitness test and appropriate training method.

4 marks

An example could be that Michael Clarke faced 468 balls (1 mark), he would require well
developed local muscular endurance (1 mark) of the upper body to continuously face this many
balls in a game. A fitness test that would be most appropriate to test local muscular endurance
is the 60 second push up test, as it is testing the upper body as opposed to other fitness tests of
local muscular endurance. (1 mark) A training method that could be used to improve or
maintain local muscular endurance of the upper body is a circuit that focuses on the upper body
(1 mark).
Another example could be that Michael Clarke has batted for 622 minutes over two days, this
could be linked in discussion to aerobic capacity, a VO2 Max test (or similar), and Long Fartlek
training.
1 mark for using data, 1 mark for correctly linking to the appropriate fitness component, 1 mark
for correct link to fitness test and 1 mark for link to training method.
c.

Breathing Control- especially prior to reaching milestones such as 100s or 50s.


Mental imagery- imagine themselves successfully performing a skill during play to keep
focused and get ready for the next stage of play.

2 marks

Total 14 marks
Question 9
a.

Area A is showing Oxygen Deficit. Area A is showing the contribution from the 2 anaerobic
energy systems. Anaerobic energy is required at the beginning of the event as the body is
incapable of supplying oxygen to the muscles immediately and as a result there is a lag in
time before the body can produce aerobic energy. Therefore in order for ATP resynthesis to
occur early in the1500m race the anaerobic systems must be utilised.

2 marks

b.

Lactate Inflection Point reflects the balance between lactate entry into and removal from the
blood. As exercise intensities beyond this point increase, lactate production will exceed lactate
removal.

1 mark

c.

At Point B the athlete would have reached their Lactate Inflection Point. The athlete would
need to time their run perfectly to run beyond their L.I.P as they concluded the race. The athlete
would need to ensure that L.I.P. wasn't reached too early or they would have to drop their
intensity which may compromise their finishing time.

2 marks

It is also likely that an athlete that can buffer H+ would also be advantaged as they can make
greater use of the anaerobic glycolysis system in the later part of the event as having a larger
anaerobic capacity would also assist a 1500m athlete.
d.

An aerobically fit athlete would have a smaller oxygen debt than an untrained subject as they
would be able to restore muscle fuels, metabolise lactate/H+ and replace oxygen to myoglobin
more rapidly- So being Aerobically fit would reduce the size of Area C.

2 marks

Total 7 marks

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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 10
The National Heart Foundation is responsible for the delivery and promotion of Jump Rope for
Heart. This initiative involves students and teachers in schools across Australia training and preparing
for a day of skipping. It encourages physical activity to continue beyond the event as registrations are
given skipping ropes to ensure practice and involvement in the activity is accessible. Other answers
could include, Heartmoves or Walking.

4 marks

VicHealth offers funding and support to local sporting clubs, local council and other community
groups to encourage physical activity. One initiative is funding active transport such as Streets Ahead
or Victoria Walks. Victoria Walks aims to empower people to walk with information about how to get
started and how to access the activity within their local council area. It encourages physical activity by
ensuring activities are available for people of Victoria to access.
Total 4 marks
Question 11
a.

Training principles evident in weeks 1 to 6 include:


- Specificity as the continuous training would replicate the cross-country event
- Duration as each training session has a nominated time period
- Overload as the continuous session held on a Monday is increased in weeks two and four
- Frequency as Gertrude is training Monday, Wednesday and Friday

2 marks

b.

Training principles evident in weeks 8 & 9 include:


- Frequency (or Maintenance) as Gertrude is training twice per week to maintain previous
improvements
- Variety as Gertrude has introduced either/or both Pilates, cycling and a pool session to her
training regime

1 mark

c.

The introduction of maintenance will allow Gertrude to maintain previously gained chronic
adaptations. Therefore when she resumes her usual training she will be in a better physiological
condition to improve on her previous performances.

2 marks

The introduction of variety may enable her to psychologically refresh, enabling her to approach
her return to normal training with increased vigour, as well as allowing extra time for her body
to recover physiologically.
Total 5 marks
Question 12
a.

Lean meat, fish / seafood, poultry, eggs, soy products, lentils, legumes, dairy products, seeds /
grains

2 marks

b.

Repair of body tissues, such as strained muscle fibres (eg. due to DOMS), regeneration of rbc,
etc.
- Production of hormones & antibodies to enhance the immune system
- Production of enzymes (glycolytic, oxidative & ATPase) to speed up energy production.
- When taken in combination with CHO, enhances insulin response leading to a more
efficient restoration of glycogen stores.

2 marks

c.

Used in extended duration exercise, such as a marathon or extended duration triathlons and in
extreme cases of malnutrition or anorexia.

1 mark

d.

The production of ATP using protein uses a greater amount of oxygen and has more complex
chemical reactions, leading to a reduction in performance. Breaking down protein essentially
means the body must break down muscle tissue (the form in which protein is stored) which
leads to further reduction in performance.

2 marks

Total 7 marks
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2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

Question 13
a.

Training Method 1:
- Each set has lasted close to an hour or longer, with the game totalling 353 minutes therefore
aerobic power would need to be trained. A training method could be Continuous or long
interval.
Training Method 2:
- The game has gone for five sets continuously hitting a ball for over 5 hours, local muscular
endurance would be required, therefore training methods to be used could include
continuous, long interval, intermediate interval or circuit.

4 marks

Other training methods that could be discussed with relevant data from the stimulus
information include; Resistance training with heavier racquet, speed, agility, muscular power.
b.

Muscular adaption:
- Muscular increase a-vO2 difference means more oxygen can be extracted by working
muscles can be extracted by working muscles and increased surrounding capillaries will
further support this process. Other adaptations include increase mitochondria (size,
number), increase glycogen stores.
Cardiovascular:
- Playing 5 sets would require increased haemoglobin to get more oxygen to working
muscles more often. Others include increased ventricle size, decrease in recovery heart
rates, increased plasma levels, increased red blood count, increased blood volume.

4 marks

For each response a correct chronic adaption must be linked to the stimulus material to receive
the 4 marks.
Total 8 marks
Question 14
a.

b.

Speed as the aim is to get from one base to the other as quickly as possible
Anaerobic Capacity to enable the person to generate as much ATP via the anaerobic
systems as possible
Muscular Power to be able to generate explosive force while accelerating from the home
plate

Limiting factors for speed include:


- Age; speed generally declines after the age of 30
- Gender; males generally exhibit more speed than females
- Fibre type; Fast twitch fibres produce more speed than slow twitch fibres

2 marks

1 mark

Limiting factors for anaerobic capacity include:


- Age; anaerobic capacity generally declines with age
- Gender; males generally exhibit greater anaerobic capacity than females
- Fibre type; Fast twitch fibres compliments anaerobic capacity more than slow twitch fibres
Limiting factors for muscular power include:
- Age; muscular power generally declines after the age of 30
- Gender; males generally exhibit greater muscular power than females
- Fibre type; Fast twitch fibres are able to generate greater muscular power than slow twitch
fibres
c.

Each test should be related back to specificity ie:


- Speed is a critical component of softball as players must try and reach the base before the
fielding side can run them out.
- A higher Anaerobic Capacity will enable the player to reach more bases in a shorter time as
the anaerobic energy systems produce ATP at the fastest rate
- Muscular Power is vital to ensure the player can reach near maximal speeds as quickly as
possible.

Page 10

2 marks

2012 PHYSED Units 3 & 4 SOLUTION PATHWAY

d.

Reasons for including fitness testing prior to implementing a training program include:
- Determining strengths and weaknesses of various fitness components
- Establishing a baseline to measure the effectiveness of a training program
- Help to determine team positions
- Improving motivation to complete a training program
- Predicting the potential of future performers

2 marks

Total

End of Answer Book

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7 marks