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Charles Dierbach

Wiley

Contents

Preface

XXI

Acknowledgments

xxv

About the Author

xxvii

Introduction

MOTIVATION

FUNDAMENTALS

1.1 What Is Computer Science?

Computational Problem Solving


5
of Computational Problem Solving

1.1.1 The Essence of


1.1.2 Limits

Self-Test Questions
1.2

1.2.2

Algorithm? 6
Algorithms and Computers:
an

Self-Test Questions
1.3

Computer Algorithms
1.2.1 What, Is

A Perfect Match

Computer Hardware 9
1.3.1 Digital Computing: It's All about
1.3.3 Fundamental Hardware

1.3.4 Operating
1.3.5 Limits of

8
Switches

10

1.3.2 The Binary Number System

11

Components

SystemsBridging Software and Hardware


Integrated

Self-Test
1.4

Questions
Computer Software

Circuits

Technology: Moore's

13
14

Computer Software? 14
14
1.4.2 Syntax, Semantics, and Program Translation
17
1.4.3 Procedural vs. Object-Oriented Programming
1.4.1 What Is

Self-Test Questions

17

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

Computational
Problem Analysis
18

1.5 The Process of


1.5.1

1.5.2 Program Design

Problem

19

Program Implementation
21
1.5.4 Program Testing
1.5.3

21

17

Solving

17

Law

11
12

Contents

1.6 The

1.6.3 The

22

Python

1.6.2 The IDLE

Python Development Environment


Standard

Python
Python

1.6.4 A Bit of
1.6.5

Learning

1.7 A First

Library

ProgramCalculating

26

the Drake Equation

29

30

1.7.2 Problem Analysis

30

1.7.3

Program Design

1.7.4

30

Program Implementation

1.7.5

30

32

Program Testing
Chapter Summary 33

Chapter Exercises 34
Python Programming Exercises

36

Modification Problems

Program Development

22

23

24

How to Use IDLE

1.7.1 The Problem

Program

22

Python Programming Language

1.6.1 About

37

Problems

37

Data and Expressions

MOTIVATION

38

39

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
2.1 Literals

2.1.1 What Is

Literal?

2.1.2 Numeric Literals


2.1.3

40

40

String Literals

40
40

44

2.1.4 Control Characters

46

2.1.5

47

String Formatting

2.1.6

Implicit and Explicit Line Joining

48

2.1.7 Let's Apply It"Hello World Unicode Encoding"


Self-Test

Questions

2.2 Variables and Identifiers


2.2.1 What Is

50

Variable?

50

2.2.2 Variable Assignment and


2.2.3 What Is
2.2.4

Identifier?

Keywords and

2.2.5 Let's
Self-Test

2.3

an

Operators

Apply

Keyboard Input

52

53

Other Predefined Identifiers in

It"Restaurant Tab Calculation"

Questions
an

2.3.2 Arithmetic

57

Operator?
Operators

57

Self-Test

Questions 60
Expressions and Data Types
2.4.1 What Is

an

61

61

Expression?

2.4.2 Operator Precedence


2.4.3

55

56

2.3.3 Let's Apply It"Your Place in the Universe"


2.4

Python

57

2.3.1 What Is

48

49

Operator Associativity

61

63

59

54

Contents
2.4.4 What Is

2.4.5

Data

64

Type?

64

Mixed-Type Expressions

2.4.6 Let's Apply


Self-Test

It"Temperature
Questions 66

Conversion

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


2.5

Age

in Seconds

2.5.2 Problem

2.5.3

67

67

Program

2.5.1 The Problem

65

Program"

67
67

Analysis

67

Program Design
Implementation

2.5.4 Program

Chapter Summary

74

Chapter Exercises

74

Python Programming Exercises


Program Modification Problems

and

Testing

69

76
76

Program Development Problems

77

Control Structures

MOTIVATION

79

80

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
3.1 What Is

80

Control Structure?

80

3.2 Boolean

Expressions (Conditions)
Operators 81
3.2.2 Membership Operators
82

81

3.2.1 Relational

3.2.3 Boolean

3.2.4

Precedence and Boolean

3.2.5 Short-Circuit

3.2.6

83

Operators

Operator

(Lazy)

Evaluation

Expressions

Logically Equivalent Boolean Expressions

Self-Test

85

86
87

88

Questions

3.3 Selection Control

89

3.3.1 If Statement

89

3.3.2 Indentation in

Python

90

3.3.3

Multi-Way Selection 91
3.3.4 Let's Apply ItNumber of Days
Self-Test Questions
96
3.4 Iterative Control

Program

96

3.4.1 While Statement

97

3.4.2 Input Error Checking


3.4.3 Infinite

in Month

loops

98

99

3.4.4 Definite

vs.

3.4.5 Boolean

Indefinite

Flags and Indefinite Loops

Loops

100

100

3.4.6 Let's Apply ItCoin Change Exercise Program


Self-Test

Questions

104

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

3.5 Calendar Month


3.5.1

Program

The Problem

104

104

104

101

94

xi

3.5.2 Problem Analysis


3.5.3

104
105

Program Design

3.5.4

Program Implementation and Testing


Chapter Summary 117
Chapter

Exercises

107

118

Python Programming Exercises

120

Program Modification Problems


Program Development

121

Problems

123

Lists

125

MOTIVATION

126

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
4.1

List Structures
4.1.1 What Is

127

127
a

List?

4.1.2 Common List

127

4.1.3 List Traversal

128

Self-Test Questions

129

4.2 Lists

(Sequences)

4.2.1

List

4.2.2

Python
Tuples

4.2.3

Sequences

127

Operations

in

130

Python
130

Type

131
132

4.2.4 Nested Lists

134

4.2.5 Let's Apply ItA Chinese Zodiac Program


Self-Test Questions

4.3

Iterating Over Lists (Sequences) in Python


4.3.1

For

135

137
137

137

Loops

4.3.2 The Built-in range Function

138

4.3.3

List Index Values

Iterating Over List Elements

4.3.4 While

4.3.5 Let's
Self-Test
4.4 More

4.4.1

on

Loops

Apply

and Lists

(Sequences)

144
144

Assigning and Copying Lists

144

146

Comprehensions

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


4.5 Calendar Year

Program

4.5.1 The Problem


4.5.2 Problem

147

147

147

Analysis

147

4.5.3 Program

Design 148
4.5.4 Program Implementation and Testing
Chapter Summary

161

Chapter Exercises

162

Python Programming Exercises


Program Modification Problems
Program Development Problems

164
164
165

139

140

ItPassword Encryption/Decryption

Questions
Python Lists

4.4.2 List

vs.

149

Program

141

Contents

Functions

168

MOTIVATION

169
169

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
5.1

Program

Routines

5.1.1 What Is
5.1.2

169

Function Routine?

Functions

Defining

169

170

5.1.3 Let's Apply

ItTemperature
Self-Test Questions
175
5.2 More

on

Functions

Conversion

Program (Function Version)

173

176

5.2.1

Calling Value-Returning Functions 176


177
5.2.2 Calling Non-Value-Returning Functions
5.2.3 Parameter Passing
178
181
5.2.4 Keyword Arguments in Python
5.2.5 Default Arguments in Python
183
5.2.6 Variable Scope
183
186
5.2.7 Let's Apply ItGPA Calculation Program
Self-Test Questions

189

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

5.3 Credit Card Calculation


5.3.1 The Problem
5.3.2 Problem

5.3.3

Program

189
190

Analysis

190

Program Design

5.3.4

Program Implementation
Chapter Summary 202
Chapter Exercises 202

Python Programming

Exercises

and

Testing

191

203

Program Modification Problems


Program Development

189

189

204

Problems

204

Objects and Their Use


MOTIVATION

206

207

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
6.1 Software Objects
6.1.1 What Is
6.1.2

an

Object?

References

Object
Questions

Self-Test
6.2 Turtle
6.2.1

208
209

216

216

Graphics

Creating

207

207

Turtle

Graphics

6.2.2 The "Default" Turtle

Window

216

218

6.2.3 Fundamental Turtle Attributes and Behavior

6.2.4 Additional Turtle Attributes


6.2.5

Creating Multiple

Turtles

222
225

219

xiii

xiv

Contents

6.2.6 Let's

Apply ItBouncing Balls Program

Self-Test Questions

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


6.3 Horse Race Simulation

6.3.1 The Problem

229

229

Program

230

6.3.2 Problem Analysis


6.3.3

230
231

Program Design

6.3.4 Program Implementation and Testing

Chapter Summary

243

Chapter Exercises

243

Python Programming
Program

Exercises

Modular

245
246

Design

MOTIVATION

247

248

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
7.1

Modules

248

248

7.1.1 What Is

Module?

248

7.1.2 Module Specification


Self-Test Questions
7.2

Developing

7.2.2

251
a

Specification

Modular Design of the Calendar Year Program


of the Calendar Year Program Modules

Self-Test Questions

Python

Modules

7.3.1 What Is

249

251

Top-Down Design
7.2.1

7.3

231

244

Modification Problems

Program Development Problems

j^J

226

229

252

255

255

Python Module? 255


Namespaces 256

7.3.2 Modules and

7.3.3

Importing Modules

257

7.3.4 Module Loading and Execution


7.3.5 Local, Global, and Built-in
7.3.6 A

260

Namespaces in Python

Programmer-Defined Stack Module

7.3.7 Let's Apply ItA Palindrome Checker Program


Self-Test Questions
268
COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING
7.4 Calendar Year

7.4.1 The Problem

7.4.2 Problem
7.4.3
7.4.4

269
269

Program Design
Program Implementation

Chapter Summary
Exercises

284

Python Programming Exercises


Program

269

269

Analysis

284

Chapter

269

Program (function version)

Modification Problems

Program Development Problems

and

286
287

287

Testing

262

264

269

267

251

Text Files

289

MOTIVATION

290

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
8.1 What Is

8.2

Using
8.2.1

Text File?

Text Files

291

Text Files

8.2.2

Opening
Reading Text Files

8.2.3

Writing

294

295
296

String Processing
8.3.1

Traversal

String

8.3.2

String-Applicable Sequence Operations

8.3.3

String Methods

8.3.4 Let's Apply

296

297
Text

Program

300

303

Questions
Exception Handling
8.4.1 What Is

296

ItSparse

Self-Test
8.4

291

293

Text Files

Self-Test Questions
8.3

290

290

303

Exception? 303
Propagation of Raised Exceptions 304
8.4.3 Catching and Handling Exceptions
305
8.4.4 Exception Handling and User Input 307
8.4.5 Exception Handling and File Processing
309
8.4.6 Let's Apply ItWord Frequency Count Program
an

8.4.2 The

Self-Test

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


8.5

Cancer Correlation

Cigarette Use/Lung
8.5.1 The Problem

8.5.4
8.5.5

314

Program

314

315

8.5.2 Problem
8.5.3

Analysis
Program Design

315
316

Program Implementation and Testing 318


Determining the Correlation Between Smoking

Chapter Summary

331

Chapter Exercises

332
Exercises

Python Programming

Program Modification Problems

Program Development

310

314

Questions

Problems

and

Lung Cancer

333

333
334

Dictionaries and Sets

MOTIVATION

337

338

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
9.1

Dictionary Type
9.1.1 What Is

in

Python

Dictionary?

338
338

339

9.1.2 Let's Apply ItPhone Number


Self-Test

Questions

331

346

Spelling Program

342

xvi

Contents

9.2 Set Data Type


9.2.1

346

The Set Data

in

Type

346

Python

9.2.2 Let's Apply ItKitchen Tile Visualization

348

356

Self-Test Questions

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

9.3 A Food

Program

Co-op's Worker Scheduling

9.3.1 The Problem

356

Simulation

356

357

9.3.2 Problem

Analysis 357
9.3.3 Program Design 358
9.3.4 Program Implementation and Testing
9.3.5 Analyzing

Scheduled

vs.

360

Unscheduled

Co-op Worker Approach

375

379

Chapter Summary

Chapter Exercises 379


Python Programming Exercises

380

Program Modification Problems


Program Development

380

Problems

381

383

Object-Oriented Programming
MOTIVATION

384

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
10.1 What Is

384

Class?

385

10.1.2 Three Fundamental Features of


10.2

Encapsulation

Classes in

10.2.3 Let's Apply ItA

387

Python

Recipe

Conversion

Program

399

Questions

10.3 Inheritance

386

Encapsulation?

Defining

Self-Test

Object-Oriented Programming

386

10.2.1 What Is
10.2.2

384

Object-Oriented Programming?

10.1.1 What Is

400

10.3.1 What Is Inheritance?


10.3.2

Subtypes

10.3.3

Defining Subclasses

400

401
in

Python

402

10.3.4 Let's Apply ItA Mixed Fraction Class


Self-Test Questions

10.4

Polymorphism
10.4.1 What Is

411

411
411

Polymorphism?

10.4.2 The Use of Polymorphism


Self-Test Questions

10.5 Object-Oriented Design


10.5.1 What Is UML?
10.5.2 UML Class

414

417

Using UML

Diagrams

Self-Test Questions

417

417
418

422

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING


10.6 Vehicle Rental

Agency Program

10.6.1 The Problem

423

423

423

407

394

385

Contents
10.6.2 Problem

Analysis 423
Program Design 423
10.6.4 Program Implementation
Chapter Summary 453
10.6.3

Chapter

Exercises

Testing

429

454

Python Programming Exercises


Program

and

455

Modification Problems

456

Program Development Problems

457

Recursion

460

MOTIVATION

461

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

11.1 Recursive Functions


11.1.1 What Is

461

461

Recursive Function?

461

11.1.2 The Factorial Function

464

11.1.3 Let's Apply ItFractals

(Sierpinski Triangle)

Self-Test

11.2 Recursive Problem


11.2.1
11.2.2

472

Solving

Thinking Recursively 472


MergeSort Recursive Algorithm

11.2.3 Let's Apply


Self-Test

vs.

472

ItMergeSort Implementation

474

476

Questions

11.3 Iteration

467

471

Questions

Recursion

476

COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

11.4 Towers of Hanoi

477

477

11.4.1 The Problem

477

11.4.2 Problem

Analysis 477
11.4.3 Program Design and Implementation
Chapter Summary

487

Chapter Exercises

487

Python Programming

Program

Exercises

488

Modification Problems

Program Development

481

489

Problems

490

Computing and Its Developments

491

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MODERN COMPUTER

12.1 The

Concept of

Programmable Computer

492

492

12.1.1 "Father of the Modern

12.1.2 "The First Computer


12.2

Electronic

Computing 493
Development of Boolean Algebra (mid-1800s)

Developments Leading to
12.2.1 The

Computer"Charles Babbage (1800s) 492


Programmer"Ada Lovelace (1800s) 493

12.2.2 The Development of the Vacuum Tube (1883)


12.2.3 The

Development

of

493

494

Digital Electronic Logic Gates (1903)

494

xvii

xviii

Contents

12.2.4 The Development of Memory Electronic Circuits (1919) 495


12.2.5 The Development of Electronic Digital
Logic Circuits (1937) 495
12.2.6 "The Father of Information
Theory"Claude Shannon (1948) 496
FIRST-GENERATION COMPUTERS (1940s-mid- 1950s)
12.3 The Early Groundbreakers 496
12.3.1 The Z3The First

496

Programmable Computer (1941)

496

12.3.2 The Mark IFirst Computer


Project in the United States

(1937-1943)

12.3.3 The ABCThe First

497

Fully Electronic Computing Device (1942) 498


12.3.4 ColossusA Special-Purpose Electronic Computer
(1943) 499
12.3.5 ENIACThe First Fully Electronic Programmable
Computer 500
12.3.6 EDVAC/ACEThe First Stored Program Computers
(1950) 501
12.3.7 WhirlwindThe First Real-Time Computer
(1951) 502
12.4 The First Commercially Available
Computers 503
12.4.1 The Struggles of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer
Corporation (1950) 503
12.4.2 The LEO Computer of the J.
and
Lyons
Company (1951) 504
SECOND-GENERATION COMPUTERS (mid-1950s
12.5 Transistorized Computers
505

to

mid-1960s)

505

12.5.1 The Development of the Transistor (1947)


505
12.5.2 The First Transistor
506
(1953)
Computer
12.6 The

Development of High-Level Programming Languages 506


The Development of Assembly
Language (early 1950s) 506
12.6.2 The First High-Level
Programming Languages (mid-1950s) 507
12.6.3 The First "Program Bug" (1947)
508
12.6.1

THIRD-GENERATION COMPUTERS (mid-1960s to early 1970s)


12.7 The Development of the Integrated Circuit (1958)
508
12.7.1 The

508

Catalyst for Integrated Circuit Advancements (1960s)


Microprocessor (1971) 511
12.8 Mainframes, Minicomputers, and Supercomputers 512

509

12.7.2 The Development of the

12.8.1 The Establishment of the Mainframe Computer (1962)


12.8.2 The Development of the Minicomputer (1963)
513
12.8.3 The

Development

512

of the UNDC

Operating System (1969) 513


(early 1960s) 514
Supercomputer (1972) 515

12.8.4 The Development of Graphical User Interfaces


12.8.5 The

Development of the

FOURTH-GENERATION COMPUTERS

(early 1970s to the Present) 515


Microprocessor 515
12.9.1 The First Commercially Available Microprocessor (1971)
515
12.9.2 The First Commercially Available Microcomputer Kit
(1975) 516
12.10 The Dawn of Personal
516
Computing
12.10.1 The Beginnings of Microsoft (1975)
516
12.10.2 The Apple II (1977)
517
12.10.3 IBM's Entry into the Microcomputer Market (1981)
517
12.10.4 Society Embraces the Personal Computer
(1983) 518
12.10.5 The Development of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) 518
12.10.6 The Development of the C+ + Programming
Language 519
12.9 The Rise of the

Contents

THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER NETWORKS


12.11 The

Development of Wide Area Networks

520

520

12.11.1 Theldeaof Packet-Switched Networks (early 1960s)


12.11.2 The First Packet-Switched Network: ARPANET

12.12 The Development of Local Area Networks (LANs)


12.12.1 The Need for Local Area Networks
12.12.2 The
12.13 The

Development

Development

of Ethernet

(1980)

12.13.2 The Development of the TCP/IP

520

521

521

521

of the Internet and World Wide Web

12.13.1 The Realization of the Need for

520

(1969)

"Internetworking"

522
522

Internetworking Protocol (1973)

12.13.3 The

Development

of the World Wide Web

12.13.4 The

Development

of the Java

(1990)

522

522

Programming Language (1995)

523

Appendix

525

Index

569

xlx