Article about UAVs (Drones), and a simulating in an outdoor scenario. Not mine, but a very good paper.

© All Rights Reserved

55 tampilan

Article about UAVs (Drones), and a simulating in an outdoor scenario. Not mine, but a very good paper.

© All Rights Reserved

- Drone Sightings and Close Encounters
- Visual Servoing for a Quadcopter Flight Control
- Drone Program Aims to Accelerate
- UAVs
- PMDG 777 Tutorial 1.5 Ingles
- 51482_NEW
- RNL-NA-09 Study of Failure in Center Pivot Assembly L&T
- CAT 2003 Retest
- A Case for DHTs
- Https Www.unicauca
- Ada 508909
- 274641 Phd Thesis Ifernandez Aau OTTIMA
- Virtual Management Experience - IBS Institute Students
- cugnet2010_2
- GPS Lecture
- 6-John Walker
- ATStartUp
- Dynamic Simulation
- Simulation
- DD Katerra Case Study v3

Anda di halaman 1dari 7

September 14-18, 2014, Chicago, IL, USA

Andrew Symington, Renzo De Nardi, Simon Julier and Stephen Hailes

{a.symington,r.denardi,s.julier,s.hailes}@ucl.ac.uk

outdoor experiments, this paper presents a new multi-platform

quadrotor simulator. The simulator implements a novel secondorder dynamic model for a quadrotor, produced through evolutionary programming, and explained by domain knowledge.

The model captures the effects of mechanics, aerodynamics,

wind and rotational stabilization control on the flight platform.

In addition, the simulator implements military-grade models

for wind and turbulence, as well as noise models for satellite

navigation, barometric altitude and orientation. The usefulness

of the simulator is shown qualitatively by a comparing how

coloured and white position noise affect the performance of

offline, range-only SLAM. The simulator is intended to be

used for planning experiments, or for stress-testing application

performance over a wide range of operating conditions.

Figure 1. A screen shot of a QRSim search and rescue simulation.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have received significant

research attention as a result of the numerous military and

civilian applications that they enable. Quadrotors have proven

themselves as favourable platforms for research, since they

are inexpensive, easy to fly, agile and safe to operate [1].

Conducting outdoor experiments with quadrotors requires

ideal weather conditions and compliance with local aviation

regulations, uses significant resources, and puts platforms at

risk. It is therefore preferable to evaluate scenarios in simulation prior to experimentation, where possible. However,

the suitability of such an approach depends largely on the

fidelity of the simulator. The work in this paper is therefore

motivated by the need for a quadrotor simulator that (i)

enables multiple platforms to be simulated at the application

level, (ii) provides realistic models for dynamics, wind and

sensor noise, and (iii) balances accuracy with speed, thereby

enabling real-time, or near real-time, performance.

A great number of simulators exist as tools to for training

radio control enthusiasts, but not as platforms for research.

Research simulators based on first principles have been developed for USARSim [2] and Gazebo [3]. Both capture the behaviour of an ideal platforms mechanics and aerodynamics,

but not of the low-level controller used to perform rotational

stabilization control. The design of the stabilization control

algorithm is usually proprietary, and therefore cannot be

modelled by first principles. Although effort has been made

to investigate the effect of wind and turbulence on quadrotor

dynamics [4], such research remains to be integrated into the

widely-used simulators. More recent simulators are based on

the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and include SwarmSim

X [5] and Hector Quadrotor [6], which use a PhysX and

978-1-4799-6934-0/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

this work is the open-source1 QRS IM simulator depicted in

Fig. 1 that distinguishes itself by:

1) A general second-order dynamic model that captures

the behaviour of mechanics, aerodynamics, wind and

stabilization control. The model is derived from flight

data using the co-evolutionary programming method,

with model parameters fitted to a specific platform.

2) Models for environment and sensor noise, including a

military-grade model for turbulence that is validated

against a third-party implementation, and a satellite

navigation model that is validated against raw data.

3) Implemented as self-contained Matlab code that is

controllable over a TCP/IP interface, with the goal of

being a modular and extensible tool for research.

The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. Sec.

II discusses the dynamic model used in the simulator, and

shows how model parameters were obtained for a specific

flight platform. Sec. III then describes the environmental and

sensor noise models, as well as how they were validated. Sec.

IV then provides a qualitative illustration of the usefulness of

the simulator by comparing the effect of white and coloured

sensor noise on offline, range-only simultaneous localization

and mapping (SLAM) for a single platform. Sec. V concludes

the paper, and discusses directions for future work.

II. Q UADROTOR DYNAMICS AND C ONTROL

A flight control system (FCS) performs sensing to determine orientation or position, and then selects corrective motor

changes to stabilize the platform [1]. Orientation is usually

3382

1 Source

Z,W, r,

4J

orientation [c/J, B, 7jJ] , velocity [u,v, w] and angular velocity [p, q,r].

at a much lower rate. Closing the position control loop

however requires measurements to external reference points.

Indoor experiments use motion capture systems to provide

millimeter-accuracy positioning [7], enabling the evaluation

of complex platform [8] and team [9] maneuvers. For outdoor

experiments this is not currently possible; GPS waypoints are

fused with barometric altitude [10] to provide corrections.

A number of first order dynamic models for quadrotors

exist in the literature [11], [12], [13], which only capture

the effects of mechanics and aerodynamics. Closing the gap

between simulation and experimentation requires a model

learned from flight data that captures the behaviour of proprietary stabilization control algorithms.

The fundamental idea behind co-evolutionary programming is to iteratively refine a set of proposal functions based

on fitness. Each proposal is modelled by an algebraic tree,

where the inner nodes represent one of four mathematical

operators { +, -, x , ~ } and the leaf nodes represent either the

input variables or constant parameters. The reader is referred

to De Nardi and Holland [14] for further details.

An Acscending Technologies Hummingbird quadrotor was

flown indoors and fitted with reflective markers, so that

a motion capture system was able to track its state with

millimeter precision. Co-evolutionary programming was then

used to find the dynamic equations describing the relationship

between the input control (roll, pitch, yaw rate, throttle)

and state. These equations include a number of constant

parameters, which are unique to a platform. Non-linear least

squares optimization was then used to fit these constant

parameters to the Ascending Technologies Pelican shown in

Fig. 2 using data from the experiments shown in Fig. 3.

Figure 3. The static experimental set up (left) was used to obtain data for

calibrating the thrust model, while the dynamic experimental setup (right)

was used to obtain data for calibrating the rotation and translation models.

Let X, = [x,y,z,,B,'if;,u,v,w,p,q,r,Fth]T denote the

state of the platform at time t, where F th is the thrust force,

and the first four element triples correspond to position, Euler

orientation, velocity and angular velocity. Control is accepted

as the vector Ilt = [Upt; Uri; Uth; Uya; Vb], comprising of

desired pitch Upt and roll Uri angles, throttle Uth, yaw angular

velocity u ya and current battery voltage Vb.

The platform dynamics are captured by a Markovian

process X = f(X, Il), which propagates the state forward in

time using the control vector and state. The state update is

therefore separable into the thrust, rotational and translational

update equations, shown in Eqn 1-3. Note that the position

and angle update equations are simply velocity and angular

velocity, rotated into the navigation frame and integrated with

respect to time, and so are not explicitly listed.

Fth

(1)

[p,q,r]T

(2)

(3)

' , ']T

[u,v,w

force F T is shown as Eqn 4, and agrees with results in

the literature stating proportionality to the square of blade

speed [15], [13]. However, as Eqn 5 shows, this force

cannot exceed a maximum amount F M supported by the

battery. C thO, C th1 , C th2 , C tbO and C tb1 are platformspecific constants. For the sake of notational convenience,

the difference between the current and old thrust force is

denoted F D = min (FT, F M) - F th.

3383

c.: + CVb1Vb

(4)

(5)

rotational model. The same control control input (roll, pitch,

yaw rate) was applied to a hardware platform in a windless

indoor environment, and a simulated platform. The resulting

orientation (roll, pitch, yaw) was derived from fusing inertial

and magnetic data on-board the platform, and compared to

the predicted quantities (see Fig. 5a).

3) Translational : The relationship ftra between control

and translational velocity is given by Eqn 7. The first

two terms represent a body to navigation coordinate frame

change, while m is the quadrotor mass, and Kuv and Kw

are constant parameters specific to a platform representing

T

aerodynamic drag. The wind strength [wu , wv , ww ] is added

post-hoc as a perturbation to linear velocity, and is simply

the constant wind field plus platform-specific turbulence (see

Sec. III-A), rotated into the body frame.

Figure 4. Proof of match between measured (black), simulated (red) and

residual (blue) thrust over a 40 second period, for the same throttle control

input.

throttle values, thrust changes approximate instantaneously.

In all other cases it changes at a constant rate 1 , as a result of

inertia and drag. Combining this behaviour leads to the nonlinear relationship fthr in Eqn 6, where T is the time step,

and 0 and 1 are platform-specific constants. The literature

shows also that thrust depends not only on throttle control,

but also on the freestream velocity [13] and blade bending

[16]. Including this factors will likely lead to improved

performance, but experimental validation is challenging as

freestream and thrust force are difficult to measure in flight.

FD T 1

|FD | < 1 T

(6)

F th =

1

D <0

1

FD 0

by comparing the output thrust from the simulator and real

platform, as a function of the same input throttle control.

2) Rotational : The relationship frot between the control

and rotational velocity is given by Eqn 7. In general the

propellers are controlled to limit maximum rotational pitch

pm and roll qm , so as not to breach the sensing or control

envelope. The constants Kpq0 , Kpq1 and Kpq2 dampen the

difference between the current and desired orientation in

order to keep the control smooth. The roll and pitch models

are equivalent because of rotational symmetry, while the

model for yaw requires only two dampening constants Kr0

and Kr1 because its is specified as a rate, and not an angle.

Kpq1 (Kpq0 url ) + pKpq2 |p| < pm

p =

0

|p| pm

Kpq1 (Kpq0 upt ) + qKpq2 |q| < qm

q =

0

|q| qm

r = Kr0 uya + rKr1

(7)

qw + rv + gu + Kuv (u wu )

ru + pw + gv + Kuv (v wv )

Fth

w = pv + qu + gw

+ Kw (w ww ) (8)

m

Fig. 5b shows the proof of match for the translational

dynamic model. The platform was flown for 100s, and its

position was compared to post-processed GPS measurements.

The large translational residual error may be explained by the

fact that noisy accelerations are integrated twice with respect

to time through a noisy orientation to update position.

u

v

=

=

Error is simulated as either a zero-mean Gaussian or

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The latter process is stationary, Gaussian and Markovian, making it an analyticallyconvenient model for short-term time-correlated error. Given

a standard deviation , mean reversion rate , and unit White

noise process Wt , the zero-mean Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

is defined by the stochastic differential equation

dt = t dt + dWt .

(9)

then sample paths may be generated recursively by

p

(10)

t = e|ts| s + 1 e2|ts| wt .

If the starting state 0 is unknown, then 0 N (0, 2 ).

The expected value and covariance are given by

E(t |0 = c)

Cov(s , t |0 = c)

cet

(11)

2 |ts|

e

e|t+s| .(12)

2

A. Wind

Deterministic wind models require significant computational resources, and so the simulator adopts a simpler model

that is comprised of a mean field plus stochastic turbulence.

Both components are defined in a right hand coordinate

system, where the Z axis is parallel to gravity and the Y

3384

(a) Difference between measured angle (black) and predicted angle (red)

over a 100 second period, for roll (top), pitch (middle) and yaw (bottom).

(red) over a 100 second period, for X (top), Y (middle) and Z (bottom).

Figure 5. Proof of match for the rotational (left) and translational (right) models.

axis points in the direction of the mean wind field. Take note

that the wind vectors must therefore be rotated into the body

frame to be used in the dynamic model.

1) Mean Field: A mean wind field is described by a

magnitude u20 at 20 feet from the ground. As a result of

wind shear, the resultant wind speed depends logarithmically

on altitude. The navigation-frame wind vector wc at some

altitude pz can be modelled [17] by Eqn 13.

h

iT

z /0.15)

0

0

wc = u20 log(p

(13)

log(20/0.15)

is well above the ceiling of a quadrotor, turbulence can

be modelled as a stochastic process defined by its velocity

spectra [17]. The turbulence field is assumed to be frozen

in time and space, with the implication that the response of a

flight platform results from its motion relative to the turbulent

field. Under this assumption, turbulence can be modelled as a

one-dimensional field that involves just the three orthogonal

velocity components taken at the platforms centre of gravity.

The Dryden spectrum is a stochastic process that models

turbulence based on the platforms altitude pz and net

velocity V , the mean wind magnitude u20 . These are used

to calculate the turbulence scale lengths Lu , Lv and Lw and

intensities u , v and w as per Eqn 14. Lower altitudes experience turbulence of shorter lengths and greater intensities.

Lw

Lv = Lu

pz

pz

(0.177 + 0.000823h)1.2

w = 0.1u20

u

v

1

=

=

(14)

w

w

(0.177 + 0.000823h)0.4

The Dryden spectrum can be implemented [18] as the filter

in Eqn 15, where V is the airspeed of the platform, T is

2

perturbations with variances u2 , v2 and w

.

q

T

t+T

1 VLTu wut + 2V

u

L

u

wu

q

T

wvt+T =

1 VLTv wvt + 2V

(15)

v

Lv

q

t+T

ww

2V

T

VT

t

1 Lw w w

+

Lw w

The simulators turbulence model was experimentally

validated against the Dryden implementation in Matlabs

Aerospace Toolbox. Fig. 6 shows 200s of sample turbulence,

with a mean intensity and bearing of 2 feet per second and

30 degrees respectively. The graph on the left shows that the

intensity of both processes decay similarly with frequency,

while the graph on the right shows that the individual wind

direction components exhibit similar statistical properties.

B. Global Navigation Satellite System

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) position error

depends on the total number, configuration and accuracy of

the satellite vehicle positions, the dielectric constants of the

ionosphere and troposphere, and noise at the receiver. GNSS

satellite vehicle orbits change periodically and are difficult

to simulate, so recordings of real Global Positioning System

(GPS) orbits are used in the simulator. This data is freelyavailable from the International GPS Service (IGS)2 .

Modelling GNSS error is simplified by working with

measured distances to satellites (pseudo-ranges) rather than

the position solution. Each satellite has time-correlated error,

as a result of the ionosphere, troposphere, ephemeris and

clock drift. These errors are bundled into a single zero-mean

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process si , specific to satellite i.

3385

2 GPS

Figure 6. Proof of match between the Dryden model in Matlab (black) and in QRSim (red).

a given satellite i and receiver r may be written as Eqn

16. Here, di,r is the true distance between the receiver and

satellite, si is the satellite-dependent error term, Tr is a fixed

clock delay error, and r is a white noise term expressing the

accuracy to which the C/A code can be tracked.

i,r = di,r + si Tr + r

(16)

by solving the minimization problem in Eqn 17 using ordinary least squares. The solver itself uses the pseudo-ranges

to a subset of satellites S, which are collectively known as

the satellites in view (SV). In practice the SV is difficult to

calculate, so it is specified manually in the simulator.

X

2

(kpr pi k2 i,r )

(17)

pr = arg min

pr

iS

by comparing its statistical properties to real data. To mitigate

multipath effects, a quadrotor was placed stationary on the

ground outdoors for 350s. The actual and simulated error

random walks were recorded for the same date, location,

satellite positions and SV. Fig. 7a compares a synthetic

and real GPS random walk, and the corresponding Allan

Deviation plot for the data shown in Fig. 7b illustrates that

the two data sets share statistically similar noise properties.

C. Barometric Altitude

Barometric pressure sensors recover altitude from pressure

measurements, using the fact that atmospheric pressure is

inversely proportional to height above sea level. Such sensors

exhibit decimeter-level resolution, making them more accurate than GNSS for estimating altitude. However, the main

drawback of a barometric altimeter is that the air pressure

[10]. The simulator models this error by a single zero-mean

Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process b for each flight platform.

D. Orientation

Orientation noise cannot be modelled from first principles

when the data fusion algorithm is unknown. However, orientation is typically estimated by integrating angular velocity

measurements with respect to time. The estimate is periodically corrected against a the gravitational and geomagnetic

vectors. This implies that time-correlated orientation error

arises from uncorrected gyroscope bias errors. Further timecorrelation may be introduced during high acceleration maneuvers due to a simplified model adopted by the filter. To

replicate this behaviour roll, pitch and yaw are perturbed by

the zero-mean OrnsteinUhlenbeck processes , and .

IV. A PPLIED E XAMPLE : R ANGE - BASED SLAM

Each simulation component was either implemented from

a well-known model or validated experimentally from real

measurements. A complete evaluation of the simulator requires a mechanism for measuring the platform position and

wind field in-flight, both of which are difficult to achieve

in-flight. This section will therefore focus on an example

application illustrating the usefulness of the simulator.

The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)

problem describes the joint estimation of static landmark

positions and a mobile vehicles trajectory, using measurements. The full, or offline, variant of SLAM optimizes over

all measurements, rather than filtering them recursively. State

of the art approaches in offline SLAM use non-linear least

squares optimization, and exploit the block structure of the

problem to improve computational performance. However,

one of the fundamental assumptions made by this approach

3386

Figure 7. Proof of match between real (black) and synthetic (red) GPS errors, for the same date, location and satellites in view.

world problems this is seldom the case, but the approach

is nonetheless widely used. The objective of this section is

to qualitatively demonstrate the usefulness of the quadrotor

simulator through an investigation of the effect of coloured

GPS noise on offline, range-only SLAM.

To achieve this, two simulations were carried out. In

both simulations one quadrotor collected range measurements

to ten landmarks, which were distributed randomly over a

40 40 meter search region. The quadrotor moved between

randomly chosen waypoints drawn uniformly from the region, at an altitude of 20m. Each measurement was perturbed

by white noise with a standard deviation of 5m. The sensing

range was a sphere with radius 25m which, as a result of the

quadrotors altitude, results in a 15m sensing range on the

ground plane. In both simulations the only source of error in

the state estimate originated GPS noise. In the first coloured

noise experiment the GPS pseudoranges were perturbed by

errors with a standard deviation and time constant of 0.003m

and 1.005s, and a white receiver noise error with a standard

deviation of 0.002m. The second white noise simulation

used a truthful position estimate perturbed by white noise.

Both simulations used the same landmarks and sequence of

waypoints, and the latitude and longitude were perturbed in

the white noise simulation with a standard deviation equal

to what was measured in the coloured noise simulation.

x0

xinit

xt

xt+1

dt,i

ai

dt+1,i

xT

as the graphical model in Fig. 8. Unknown state values

are shown as circles, while measurements are shown as

rectangles. Control t (comprising of roll, pitch, yaw rate,

throttle) relates two sequential states xt and xt+1 through

the second order dynamic model function described in Sec

II. A range measurement is a distance d in meters between

of

the position ai of some anchor i, and the position xpos

t

the quadrotor at some time t. A prior measurement is a

constraint placed on the initial state of the quadrotor.

For both of the simulations a graph was built using

the control, range estimates and prior, and a non-linear

least squares solution was obtained over 10 iterations using

CERES - SOLVER3 . The initial trajectory estimate was taken

as the estimate produced by the simulator, i.e. corrupted by

either white or coloured noise, depending on the simulation.

The same set of random coordinates were used for initial

landmark positions in both simulations.

The two resulting trajectories and anchor points are shown

in Fig. 9. It is evident that time-correlated position error

affects the accuracy to which one is able to localize and

map using a standard SLAM approach the trajectory and

anchor points lie further from the truth in the case of timecorrelated position error. The underlying reason for this is

that time-correlated position error manifests as control error.

The result being that measurements relating sequential states

violate the white noise assumption made by the least-squares

solver, which leads to a sub-optimal solution. The Allan

Deviation plot in Fig. 10 provides a graphical summary of

the position error; in the white noise experiment noise can be

reduced by successive averaging of measurements, whereas

the same does not apply to time-correlated GPS error.

Circles represent unknown states, while rectangles represent observations.

3387

3 Available:

https://code.google.com/p/ceres-solver

(a) Result

Figure 9. Results of Gaussian (red) and coloured (blue) SLAM experiments.

This paper presents a quadrotor simulator featuring a

generic dynamic model and comprehensive environment and

sensor error models, implemented as a standalone MATLAB

toolbox. The usefulness of the simulator is demonstrated

through an experimental analysis of the effect of coloured

GPS noise on offline, range-only SLAM. The simulator

has several drawbacks, which are currently being addressed.

Firstly, the performance of the visualisation engine degrades

as more platforms are added. Secondly, the simulator is

currently restricted to quadrotor platforms, and the inclusion

other vehicles would be beneficial. These issues will be

resolved by moving to a ROS/Gazebo environment.

R EFERENCES

[1] R. Mahony, V. Kumar, and P. Corke, Multirotor aerial vehicles:

Modeling, estimation, and control of quadrotor, IEEE Robotics &

Automation Magazine, pp. 2032, Sept. 2012.

[2] A. Visser and N. Dijkshoorn, Closing the gap between simulation and

reality in the sensor and motion models of an autonomous AR. Drone,

in Proceedings of the International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and

Flight Competition (IMAV11), (t Harde, the Netherlands), 2011.

[3] N. Koenig and a. Howard, Design and use paradigms for gazebo,

an open-source multi-robot simulator, 2004 IEEE/RSJ International

Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat.

No.04CH37566), vol. 3, pp. 21492154, 2004.

[4] S. L. Waslander and C. Wang, Wind Disturbance Estimation and Rejection for Quadrotor Position Control, in AIAA Infotech@Aerospace

and Unmanned Unlimited Conference, (Seattle, WA), Apr. 2009.

[5] J. Lchele, A. Franchi, H. H. Blthoff, and P. Robuffo Giordano,

Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots,

vol. 7628 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg:

Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Nov. 2012.

[6] J. Meyer, A. Sendobry, S. Kohlbrecher, and U. Klingauf, Comprehensive Simulation of Quadrotor UAVs Using ROS and Gazebo, Lecture

Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7628, pp. 400411, 2012.

[7] B. Y. N. Michael, D. Mellinger, Q. Lindsey, and V. Kumar, Experimental Evaluation of Multirobot Aerial Control Algorithms, IEEE

Robotics & Automation Magazine, pp. 5665, Sept. 2010.

[8] M. Muller, S. Lupashin, and R. DAndrea, Quadrocopter ball juggling, 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots

and Systems, pp. 51135120, Sept. 2011.

[9] A. Kushleyev, D. Mellinger, C. Powers, and V. Kumar, Towards

a swarm of agile micro quadrotors, Autonomous Robots, vol. 35,

pp. 287300, July 2013.

[10] J. Seo, J. G. Lee, and C. G. Park, Bias suppression of GPS measurement in inertial navigation system vertical channel, in Proceedings of

the Position Location and Navigation Symposium, 2004. PLANS 2004,

pp. 143147, Apr. 2004.

[11] S. Bouabdallah, Design and control of quadrotors with application to

autonomous flying. PhD thesis, EPFL, 2007.

[12] C. Balas, Modelling and Linear Control of a Quadrotor, Masters

thesis, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, 2007.

[13] G. M. Hoffmann, H. Huang, S. L. Waslander, and C. J. Tomlin,

Quadrotor Helicopter Flight Dynamics and Control: Theory and

Experiment, in Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and

Control Conference (GNC), 2007.

[14] R. De Nardi and O. Holland, Coevolutionary modelling of a miniature

rotorcraft, in 10th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous

Systems (IAS10), (Baden Baden, Germany), pp. 364 373, 2008.

[15] R. De Nardi, Automatic Design of Controllers for Miniature Vehicles

through Automatic Modelling. PhD thesis, University of Essex, 2010.

[16] P.-J. Bristeau, P. Martin, E. Salan, and N. Petit, The Role of Propeller

Aerodynamics in the Model of a Quadrotor UAV, in European Control

Conference 2009, pp. 683688, Aug. 2009.

[17] Military Spec., Flying Qualities of Piloted Airplanes. MIL-F-8785C.

[18] S. Gage, Creating a Unified Graphical Wind Turbulence Model

from Multiple Specifications Table 1 : Dryden Longitudinal Spectra,

Simulation, no. August, 2003.

3388

- Drone Sightings and Close EncountersDiunggah olehDaily Freeman
- Visual Servoing for a Quadcopter Flight ControlDiunggah olehCraneo Loco
- Drone Program Aims to AccelerateDiunggah olehcoolcat7
- UAVsDiunggah olehm4naveed7874
- PMDG 777 Tutorial 1.5 InglesDiunggah olehLuisdelPino
- RNL-NA-09 Study of Failure in Center Pivot Assembly L&TDiunggah olehsubho21mukherjee4076
- CAT 2003 RetestDiunggah olehapi-19854986
- Ada 508909Diunggah olehdas
- 51482_NEWDiunggah olehrodruren
- Https Www.unicaucaDiunggah olehMarly Valverde
- 274641 Phd Thesis Ifernandez Aau OTTIMADiunggah olehfabry8080
- GPS LectureDiunggah olehDennise Shughni
- A Case for DHTsDiunggah olehhomtanks
- Virtual Management Experience - IBS Institute StudentsDiunggah olehKanchan20
- 6-John WalkerDiunggah olehJitabratapodder
- Dynamic SimulationDiunggah olehFelipeGonzales
- cugnet2010_2Diunggah olehReiHamed
- ATStartUpDiunggah olehKumar Nori
- SimulationDiunggah olehSunija Selvam
- DD Katerra Case Study v3Diunggah olehLiu Purnomo
- local case study reflectionDiunggah olehapi-341124499
- A Low-cost Unmanned Aerial System for Remote Sensing of Forested LandscapesDiunggah olehSEP-Publisher
- scimakelatex.30438.Hopkins John.pdfDiunggah olehDaniel Nachmanowicz
- Simulations for Research Design 2015Diunggah olehanzani
- VumaLDiunggah olehallison ramirez
- vertual mfg1Diunggah olehManoj Salunke
- 128Diunggah olehMuhammad Redzuan
- CourseDescription_FlowJEM_COMSOLDiunggah olehmortezagashti
- simulator ct after 1st rotation objDiunggah olehapi-391842100
- LAB3EBFYDiunggah olehpavan

- MASS GAIN 1Diunggah olehGiancarlo Vanzzini
- 3. 11-15Diunggah olehVISHAV
- WilberDiunggah olehMikka Aquino
- Weaning Your ChildDiunggah olehQuicklegalquotes Conveyancing
- Science Virtual Experiment ReportDiunggah olehferyz
- Pipeline GuidelinesDiunggah olehsidrana7
- PlumbingDiunggah olehNagarjun Reddy
- saving makkah library summaryDiunggah olehapi-195262816
- Criteria FOTDiunggah olehAnonymous nHQr1vK
- Feniex Product Catalog 2013-2014Diunggah olehdonald_wilson4741
- Service_Application_Form_February (1).pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous HNDvwhW0
- Active Directory Operations Guide- ALL PROCEDURESDiunggah olehd_katariya
- Chapter 07 WAN Princinpal and ConfigrationV2.0Diunggah olehWANKHAMA
- TVnews Survey JoshiDiunggah olehangelinechristy
- HmsDiunggah olehRiya Sharma
- SAMSUNG Bottom Mount Refrigerator RB2155SH:XAA Manual.pdfDiunggah olehsgross2130
- Super Sad Love StoryDiunggah olehNicole Santilices
- assignment 3 cell phone holderDiunggah olehapi-300445971
- Cinematography 101_ Frame Composition - Beyond the Rule of ThirdsDiunggah olehJavier Meza
- Gr. 7 Math LM (Q1 to 4)Diunggah olehNhil Cabillon Quieta
- Orca Expert Action LetterDiunggah olehKING 5 News
- 331948646 Evidente Exercise 8Diunggah olehpauline aeriel
- Defiant Images - Terence TurnerDiunggah olehAndré Brasil
- Problems on the Metric, Connection and CurvatureDiunggah olehLuis Larrinaga
- Samsung Camera DV300F English User ManualDiunggah olehSamsung Camera
- End of Year Test Grade2Diunggah olehSunny Yoo
- BRM Lecture 16-19, 22-23Diunggah olehsajalagarwal_ibs
- Phys Exam Nov 2013 Gr 11Diunggah olehMangwane Sello
- BSCI guideDiunggah olehSmite
- Table of BA FA TA Updated April 2016Diunggah olehvdeviv