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Classification and performance of ceramic insulators

National Standard GB 8411.1-87 porcelain material of the first part of the


definition, classification and performance clearly states Ceramic insulators
material is mainly composed of clay,Feldspar, quartz (or aluminum oxide material)
and other aluminosilicate materials mixed formulated, processed into a certain
shape, to obtain an inorganic insulating material calcined at higher temperatures.
In addition to withstand high electric field strength of the electric field, but also to
withstand high voltage insulator run hundreds of thousands or even tens of
thousands of Newton Newton external force, the strength of EHV line has become
the core of theater child development. porcelain material Mohs hardness between
6 and 8 (ten), the hardness of the crystal is determined by its binding force
between atoms - determined by the strength of chemical bonds, covalent bond
strength up, so typical of pure common valence bond crystal diamond highest
hardness. Corundum, quartz crystals belong to polar covalent bond. porcelain
material hardness is also high in a large number of mullite (hardness between
corundum and quartz), quartz or corundum hardness is higher, siliceous porcelain
ten Mohs hardness of about 7.
Since the Ceramic insulators is insulated and also play a supporting role, and is
long-term work at a certain voltage, in order to meet the electrical and mechanical
properties or cold performance of complex requirements, and some mechanical
and electrical Ceramic insulators but also through joint experiments - such as
suspension insulator, under certain voltage required mechanical strength test;
such as thermal stability test high voltage bushings, measurement stability under
specified electrical and environmental conditions to measure the thermal stability
of the casing.
ceramic industry accustomed to the high-voltage electrical porcelain porcelain
into ordinary and high-strength porcelain, ordinary porcelain blank mineral
composition and generally blank ceramic mineral composition similar class, all
belong to the clay - feldspar - quartz system. The vast majority of high-strength
ceramic alumina ceramic, it belongs to the clay - feldspar - alumina ceramic
system. These products are made from raw materials final at 1280 ~ 1350 high
temperature firing, through a series of physical - chemical changes, different
mineral raw materials have played a different role in the formation of the
microstructure of ceramic material.
Ordinary high-voltage porcelain blanks from about 40% -55% of clay mineral raw
materials each about 20% -30% of feldspar and quartz, the firing temperature
between about 1280 ~ 1350 , firing about 40% -60 form % glass phase, 20%
-30% of mullite and 25% -35% residual quartz, glass particles combine with the
crystal phases together into a dense sintered body. Open pores of the sintered

body tends to zero, by raw material and process limitations and influence, there is
0-8% of the closing rate of the ceramics in tone
Most products are porcelain enamel surface layer of enamel porcelain Ceramic
insulators plays an important role.
(1)improve the chemical stability of the Ceramic insulators, porcelain enamel
surface formed dense airtight, watertight glass thin porcelain pieces made with
high surface hardness and good resistance to external corrosive gases, liquids
erosion ability to improve the chemical stability of the Ceramic insulators.
(2)increase the strength and thermal stability of the Ceramic insulators, the glaze
can be filled and smooth glass ceramic surface of various defects - rough, tiny
holes, microcracks, improve the surface quality of the insulator. Since the
destruction of porcelain insulators in most of the cases are from the surface, and
to make up for the elimination of surface defects, mechanical strength naturally
increased. More importantly, a conscious adjustment coefficient of thermal
expansion of the glaze, so have a strong compressive stress after firing glaze
layer, the so-called compression glaze porcelain insulators mechanical strength
can be increased by 20% to 30%.
(3)improve the ability of anti-contamination Ceramic insulators, smooth and
smooth glazed Ceramic insulators gives a better self-cleaning ability, the
operation is not easy to pollution, but also to facilitate cleaning of the surface of
the waste decontamination.
(4)The dazzling luster glazing porcelain insulators, different regions and countries
have their own battery glaze transfer requirements.
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