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Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review ISSN 2315-6880 Vol. 2(6) pp.

130-137 June 2013


Available online http//www.basicresearchjournals.org
Copyright 2012 Basic Research Journal

Full Length Research Paper

Valuation of mangrove services of Andaman and


Nicobar Islands, India
Subhash Chand1, R.C. Srivastava2 P. Krishnan3 and S Dam Roy4
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair 744 105. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
*Corresponding author Email: scchand46@gmail.com, Tel: 9474206538(M), 03192250436(O)
Accepted 17 June, 2013

Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are matter of concern in climate change scenario. Present
area under mangroves was about 617 sq.km. which has been decreasing over the years(Forest
Department A and N Islands 2009). The qualitative assessment indicates that mangroves are 10 folds
superior to manmade defense systems in dealing with climate associated disasters (subhash etal.
2012). The total economic value of Andaman Mangroves was worked out to be more than INR. 125
million per year. The value of goods and services harvested by per household per year was more than
INR 61,000/-. Similarly, the value of mangroves per hectare in A & N Islands was more than INR 0.2
million. The peoples perception about the use and ecological services delivered by mangroves
obtained from 120 respondents. About 95% of the respondents perceived that mangroves will die due to
change in sea level. 56% were in opinion that damage of mangroves will result in reduction in fish
catch. During 2004 tsunami, the areas fringed with mangroves were less affected than those open seas.
Thus, sufficient effort should be made to conserve the existing mangroves.
Keywords: Mangroves, total economic value, climate change

INTRODUCTION
Indian coasts fall within the bounds of the tropics,
measures about 7516.6 km. and are distributed among
nine coastal states and four Union Territories of this, over
22.6% of the total length of the coasts of India is of
islands i.e. Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Diu
Islands etc. The climate along the Indian coast varies
from one that of true tropical region in south to that of
sub-tropical and arid environment in Kachchh in
northwest. Rainfall varies from only 300 mm in the semiarid region of Kachchh in western part of Gujarat State to
average maximum of 3200 mm in Andaman-Nicobar
Islands in south. Sundarban in West Bengal, the Great
Nicobar Island in southern middle islands of Andaman
and Nicobar in marine environment has to be protected
and conserved. The loss of mangroves continues at
alarming rates, but the rate of net loss is showing signs of
slowing down in line with the trend in forests. About
185000 ha. mangroves lost every year, in 1980s, the net
loss 118500 ha. per year in the 1990s and dropped to
102000 ha. per year (a loss of 0.66 percent annually)
during the 20002005 period, reflecting an increased
awareness of the value of mangrove ecosystems (FAO,
2006). Andaman and Nicobar Islands have tall dense

mangrove forest due to favourable climatic conditions


such as short dry season and high tidal fluctuation, heavy
amount of rainfall (Naskar and Mandal 1999). Some area
has been reclaimed for agriculture and settlement (A and
N Islands Environment and Forest Department, 1997.
Mangrove associated fauna play a significant role in the
functioning of the ecosystem (Dagar et.al. 1997Lee,
2007; Kristensen et al., 2008; Nagelkerken et al., 2008)
and it can be a useful indicator of the state of managed
mangroves. The socio-economic importance of natural
mangrove goods and services has been documented
repeatedly (Adger et al., 2001; Barbier, 2006), However,
restored mangroves generate income similar to that of
natural mangroves. The climate change will have direct
effect on the productivity of the agriculture, livestock and
fisheries, the coastal areas are likely to get inundated,
disease and malnutrition may increase and freshwater
availability may get reduced. The impact of climate
change on the fragile ecosystem is more evident as the
islands have witnessed the tragic incidence of
earthquake followed by devastating tsunami in 2004.
Realistic and accurate assessments of Sea Level Rise
(SLR) impacts need to consider the joint effect of secular
trends in sea level and storm regimes (Anand, 2006,

Chand et al. 131

Figure 1. Geographical location of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

IPCC;2001,IUCN; 2002). Impact on highly diverse and


productive ecosystems such as mangrove forests will
depend upon the rate of sea level rise relative to growth
rates and sediments supply, space for an obstacle to
horizontal migration, changes in climate and ocean
environment. Existing mangroves can keep pace with a
relative sea level rise of 8-9cm/100years.

About the study area


The topography of the islands is rolling with low range
hilly mountains to narrow valleys at the foothills resulting
in an undulating terrain ranging from steep slopes to
coastal plains. The Andaman and
0
Nicobar group of Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal (6-14
0
N lat.; 92-94 E long). Altitude ranges from 0 to 365 m
above sea level (Figure 1). The climate of the Islands is
an equatorial warm humid tropical. Average temperatures
0
0
varies from 29 to 32 C (maximum) and 22 to 24 C
(minimum), respectively. Average annual rainfall is 3100
mm, distributed over 8-9 months and nealy 95 percent of
annual rainfall is received during May to December
(2250mm) and during North East monsoon (685mm, Oct.
to Dec.). Remaining four months (January to April) is dry
in which agriculture suffers with severe moisture stress.
Average Relative Humidity (RH) ranges from 68 to 86%.
Mean wind speed varies from 5 to 15 km/hr, although
higher wind speed of 15km/hr is experienced during June
to August. Maximum sunshine hours of 8 to 10 hours per
day are observed during dry months. The total population
in these islands is about 0.36 million (Population Census,
2001) with growth rate of about 26.9 percent in the last
decade and grown up to 0.38 million (population census;
2011). Decade growth was seven percent during (2001 to
2011), the lower rate of growth may be due to the fact
that loss of mankind during tsunami 2004. Assuming the
population growth rate as in the last decade, it is
projected that the population in these islands will increase
to nearly 5,73,500 in 2021, nearly 55 percent population

living in rural areas (Ambast et al., 2010). There are six


Major tribes in A and N islands namely Andamanese,
Onges, Sentinelese and Jarawas in which Andaman are
Mongoloid and next are Negrite. The British attempted to
civilise the Andamanese people, teaching them to eat
exotic food, to wear clothes, live in houses, schools, and
hospitals and farms. These experiments failed, and led to
the total decimation of the Great Andamanese (Portman,
1899). The Sentinelese and the Jarawas, the other two
tribes in the Andamans, has resisted contact until the
1960s. The Sentinelese numbering 100-150 (estimated),
have for long inhabited North Sentinel Island, an island
2
60 km south west of South Andaman.
These people have been living total isolation for over
hundreds of years except for contact attempts made by
the A and N Administration in 1967, 1991, 2000 and
2004. However there are lot of disturbances around their
island, due to intensive fishing, lobster collection and
Myanmar poachers, who dive for sea cucumber and
shells. The Jarawas are confined to the west coast of
South and
Middle Andaman Islands. There are around 3000 Karens
tribe in the islands now, with the main concentration living
just south of Mayabunder in Middle Andaman. Settlement
was opened up in South, Middle and North Andaman for
them, and the majority of the settlement in the Diglipur
area occurred during 1957-1959. Between 1953 and
1972, 4212 families of refugees from East Pakistan and
landless persons from other states were settled here
under various colonization and rehabilitation scheme
including 297 families of ex-servicemen settled on Great
Nicobar Island. In the 1960s a group of 300 repatriates
were brought from Srilanka under the Shastri Sirimavo
Pact and settled in Katchal Island in Nicobars, and this
population has increased to over 3000 numbers. Mostly
upper reaches coconut, arecanut, and other plantation
crops are predominant. While in valley areas, vegetables,
paddy, spices and fruits are cultivated and agriculture are
practiced only on 43000 ha area (6%) to total
geographical area.

132. Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. Rev.

Figure 2. Climatic profile and tourist inflow and availability of


perishable foods in Islands

Table 1. Area and Production of Major Crops


S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Name of crop
Paddy
Pulses
Oilseeds
Black Pepper
Clove
Coconut ( million nuts)
Arecanut
Cashewnut
Banana
Pineapple
Sugarcane
Vegetables
Tapioca
Sapota
Sweet potato

Area Ha.
8139.85
2971.09
110.80
600.40
155.90
21760.22
4152.50
1077.85
1596.30
224.71
141.80
5200.00
274.65
156.40
161.90

Production (Metric Tons)


24907.01
1890.66
69.80
58.31
4.82
84.97
5200.00
332.13
14872.95
608.42
2007.60
41500.00
2120.00
2914.60
912.02

(Source: Dept of Agriculture; A and N Administration, 2011)

In recent past perishable food item production took


enormous turn over because of increased population,
inflow of tourists and increased per capita income in the
Bay Islands as well as in India. Monthly rainfall pattern,
availability of local agriculture production and tourist
inflow in these islands is given in figure 2. There was
deficit rainfall during December to April but in same
period local agri horticulture produce availability was also
higher similarly tourist inflow was also higher. This means
we need suitable technology for this period so that
agriculture production can be enhanced and the demand
of locals and tourist can be met. However, research
efforts of CARI, have indicated that if protected cultivation
is promoted, fruits, vegetables and flowers supply can be
assured. Further, it was observed that some of the
vegetable are available throughout the year indicating
potential of local production (Subhash et al., 2012). Main
crops grown in A and N Islands viz. Plantations (50%)
occupies major agriculture area followed by paddy (19%)
and followed by other vegetables, spices and fruit crops
(Table 1).

The mangroves in A and N islands provide many fold


ecological benefits and deliver multifarious ecological
functions to the islands. The direct beneficiaries are the
fisherman, farmers, labours, pharmaceutical industry,
tourism sector, etc. apart from the indirect benefits of the
mangroves to the researchers, shoreline protection,
conservation of biodiversity, neutralization of green house
gasses etc in A and N islands. Mangroves also enhance
the production and productivity of agriculture crops by
providing biomass in the form of manure and moisture.
The total economic value of mangroves assessment will
create awareness among researchers, policymakers and
end users to realize its importance and will result in
protective and conservation policies of these vulnerable
areas. In view of the above facts, this study was
conducted with the objectives of assessing the total
economic values and ecological services of mangroves in
A and N Islands, India. The findings are given in following
section, materials and methods, results and discussion,
conclusions and policy implications.

Chand et al. 133

MATERIAL AND METHODS

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Primary data were obtained by extensive field surveys


and open end questionnaire method at South, North and
Middle and Car Nicobar islands and series of
consultations were held with different stakeholders.
Secondary data from the A&N Administration were
obtained with respect to the meteorological parameters,
demographic particulars and productivity in the
agricultural sector. To access socio economic status of
the beneficiaries from mangroves area, 120 respondents
were selected randomly for the detailed study. The data
were collected on the aspects viz. use of mangroves,
income of the beneficiaries, family size, education level,
utilization pattern of mangroves, willingness to pay for
conservation of mangroves, impact of climate change,
reasons for degradations of mangroves, etc. The
secondary data were collected from the published report
of forest department, statistical abstracts and other
published research reports from national and
international organisation.

Status and trend of mangrove degradation


Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Analytical framework for valuation techniques


There are many techniques available to estimate the
economic value of environmental goods and services.
Further details and guidance on how and when they
should be applied can be found in, Barbier et al. (1996);
Duke et al. (2007); Badoll and Husain (2005). The
collected data were analyzed for logical conclusions. The
benefits (direct and indirect) from the mangroves as
perceived by the different stakeholders i.e. fisherman,
tourism, local community, Govt. research organization etc
were given the weights as under. 0= not important, 1=
less important, important and 3 = very important (James
Spurgeon and Jacobs GIBB; 2002). The weights were
further categorized based on the potential value for
income, employment and other benefits. The total
economic value was worked out based on revenue
generated through fisheries, fuel wood, transport,
medicinal and recreational value.
Total economic value (TEV) = f (F,fe,Tr, Med, Rc)
Where,
F= Fisheries fe= Value of fuel woods,
Tr= Transport value, Med= Medicinal value,
Rc= Recreational value
The utility and ecological benefits harvested by
stakeholders were obtained from the respondents by
using structural questionnaire.

in

The world has lost some 3.6 million hectares of


mangroves over the last 25 years. The loss of mangroves
continues at alarming rates, but the rate of net loss is
showing signs of slowing down. About 185 000 ha. lost
every year in the 1980s, the net loss dropped to some
118500 ha. per year in the 1990s and to 102000 ha. per
year (or a loss of 0.66 percent annually) during the 2000
2005 period, reflecting an increased awareness of the
value of mangrove ecosystems (FAO, 2006). Most
countries have now banned the conversion of mangrove
areas for aquaculture purposes and insist environmental
impact assessments (EIAs) prior to large-scale
conversion of these areas for other uses They are not
only the source of livelihood of coastal people but also
breeding ground for fishes and act as bio shield against
natural calamity and pollution. Andaman and Nicobar
Islands possessed more than 86 percent area under
forest. The extent of mangroves in the A and N islands
(20%), West Bengal (44%) and Gujarat (21%) followed
by Orissa and other states of India (Figure 3). The trend
of forest degradation and deforestation indicated that
from 1987 to 2009 about 13 % of forest covers are lost in
the islands. However, in the case of mangroves about 10
percent indicating nearly one percent loss per annum
which is an alarming signal. It is high time policy makers,
researchers and stakeholders respond before this natural
defence vanishes. Subhash et al. (2011) estimated that a
total economic value of Andaman mangroves was INR
125 millions on current price. All the ecological functions
were not taken into account due to non availability of
data. Therefore, taking into account all the benefits of
mangroves proper policy decisions need to be devised so
that mangroves of these islands can be conserved.

Benefits harvested by respondents per annum in Rs.


From mangroves
The values of mangrove products harvested per annum
calculated based on the income based classification of
the respondents i.e. small (58%), medium (28%) and
large (14%). It was found that on an average, each
household harvests more than INR61000/- from the
mangroves area in terms of fuel wood, fodder, timber,
medicine, fish and others. This value was higher in the
case of small households (INR 70,447/-) followed by

134. Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. Rev.

Figure 3. Status of mangroves in India

Table 2. Average values of mangroves products collected per Household


Products
Fish harvesting
Shrimp harvesting
Crabs harvesting
Fuel wood Collection
Timber
Wooden poles
Vegetables
Coir industry
Fraund viewing
Total

Value (INR)/ Annum


Small (69)
Medium (34)
52400.4
35890.5
9177.5
5465.8
3390
3000
2271
1560.5
400
400
948
1890
409.1
150.5
124
100
1326.8
1055.6
70446.80
49512.90

Overall
Large (17)
28690.5
10500.6
800
1000
2500
2000
0
0
2000
47491.10

(INR)

44363.69
8313.29
2912.58
1889.63
697.50
1363.93
277.87
99.63
1345.33
61263.47

Figure 4. Ranking of benefits of mangroves of A and N Islands

medium and large, which indicates that small farmers are


more dependent on mangroves forests (Table 2). To
protect the livelihood of small and marginal farmers
alternate options are to be explored so that dependency
on mangroves can be reduced and they can be
protected.

Ranking of mangroves benefits


The ranking of benefits was assessed through a point
scale (0-10) and same is presented in Figure 4. The
study revealed that people were aware about the benefits
of the mangroves and they ranked coastline protection as

the most important benefits of mangroves followed by


biodiversity and protection of natural resources. However,
education benefits, alternate livelihood and enhancing
ecotourism also were important benefits. This has
indicated that people are concerned about the
degradation and loss of mangrove. In spite of their
immense role in protecting human resource as well as
biodiversity, these unique mangrove habitats of India
have been facing tremendous threats due to
indiscriminate exploitation of mangrove resources for
multiple uses like fodder, fuel wood and timber for
building material, alcohol, paper, charcoal and medicine
(Upadhyay et al., 2002). Apart from those, conversion of
forest area to aquaculture and agriculture, construction of

Chand et al. 135

Table 3. Ecological functions of mangroves perceived by different stakeholders


Functions
Output
mangrove

&
of

1.
Direct use:
Fuel
Fodder
Medicine
Genetic res.
Apiculture
Wild life res
Fish res.
Recreation
Tourism
Education
and
research
1. Indirect use
Support
to
fisheries
Support
to
habitats
&
Species
Shoreline
protection
Sediment
&
accretion
Other function
Non Use Other
none use value
Total
I = Income

Stake holders
Fisherman
Local
People
I
E B
I
E
0
0 1
1
1

(0-3 point scale)


Total Score

Tourism
B
1

I
0

E
0

B
0

Res.
Edu.
I
E
0
0

&

Govt.

B
0

I
1

E
0

B
1

I
2

E
1

B
3

0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0
2
0
2
0

0
0
0
0
2
2
1
2
0

0
2
2
1
0
0
2
0
0

1
2
2
1
0
0
2
0
0

1
0
0
0
1
2
0
2
0

1
0
0
0
1
0
2
2
0

1
0
0
0
1
0
2
2
0

0
0
2
0
0
0
1
1
1

0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
1

1
1
4
0
3
6
3
6
1

1
2
5
1
1
2
5
2
1

3
4
5
1
1
2
5
5
1

0
2

0
2

0
3

1
3

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
1

1
0

0
1

1
1

0
0

0
0

0
1

2
5

0
3

2
6

10

13

15

13

42

29

51

E= Employment

B= Other Benefits

port and harbour, extension of human inhabitation, overgrazing, urbanization, industrialization, and chemical
pollution are major issues that affect mangroves (Naskar,
2004). Therefore, mangroves play a greater role in
protection of island ecosystem.

Opinion of different stakeholder about mangroves


ecological services
To assess the benefits of mangroves in terms of
perception by different stakeholders, a scoring technique
was used. The scores were assigned as 3 for most
important and 0 for not important and benefits were
categorized i.e. I = Income E= Employment B= Other
Benefits. The functions performed by the mangroves in
favour of mankind in terms of fodder, medicine, genetic
resource, apiculture , wild life resources, fish resources,
recreation, tourism, education, shoreline protection,
sedimentation and accretion. Table 3 indicates that
different stakeholder i.e. fisherman, local people, tourism
industry, research and education and government derives
direct and indirect benefits from the mangroves across
the globe and A and N Islands are not an exception. In
the case of fisherman direct benefits have received score

10 and 7 for employment generation whereas for other


benefits score was higher (13) indicating that fisherman
perceive protective and ecological benefits supplied by
mangroves ecosystem are more. In the case of local
people direct benefits i.e. income and employment
generation scored at high level as compared to indirect
benefits. The tourism industry has rated higher score (13)
for indirect benefits. In the case of research and
education a similar trend was noticed and has indicated
that mangroves ecosystem is important for researchers
since it provide live laboratory for their research. The
government departments who were engaged in
management and protection of mangroves i.e. forest and
agriculture department also have indicated higher score
for indirect benefits (9). Though majority of stakeholder
have given higher score for indirect services provided by
the mangroves but fisherman, tourism industry and
research education institutions have rated still very high
of these benefits. The total scores assigned by the
beneficiaries to employment (42) and for income (29) and
other benefits (51), respectively. This has indicated that
highest score obtained by indirect benefits means
environmental protection and ecological balance is at top
priority of the stakeholder. However, ecological functions
delivered by the mangroves indirectly

136. Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. Rev.

Table 4. Expenditure preference on visit of mangroves site seen of tourists in A and N Islands
No

Important Tourist Place

Expenditure
preference (%)

N=35

1.

Light & Sound Show

10

2.

Rajiv Gandhi Water Sports Complex (ride the


equipments)

3.

Visitors to Mini Zoo, Haddo

12

4.

Mahatma
Wondoor

17

5.

Mount Harriet National Park

12

6.

Limestone Caves

25

7.

Biological Park, Chidiyatappu

14

Gandhi

Marine

National

Park,

Table 5. Peoples perception about the effect of climate change on mangroves


S.No.

Particulars

1.
2.
3.

Mangroves will decline


Mangroves will vanish
Other species of mangroves will
regenerate
Fish production will decrease
Houses will be affected
Agriculture land will be affected
General infrastructure will be
affected

4.
5.
6.
7.

were more as to direct benefits i.e. income generation


and employment opportunities. Hence, valuation process
should take into account the assessment of other benefits
by using the surrogate measures. Since A and N Islands,
are developing as tourist destination, need to be devised
proper policies for conservation of existing valuable
biodiversity.

Mangroves and ecotourism


The tourists were interviewed to assess how they rank
the available tourists site in A and N Islands, how they
allot the expenditure to tourist sports which have
mangroves. The expenditure preference is presented in
the table 4. This was observed that out of 35 interviewed
tourist who came from mainland, have allocated about 50
expenditure on the tourists sites within the mangrove
area among the sites they have been visited in A and N
Islands. About 2.0 lakh tourists are visiting A and N
Islands annually and it is expected to increase over the
year. Though, tourist inflow was less than 0.4 lakh
numbers during 1991-92. But during 2006-07 upward
trend was noticed immediately after tsunami, having
upward trend in tourist inflow, need biodiversity

Frequency
N=120
91
70
54

Peoples
perception (%)
76
58
45

Ranking

58
98
80
64

48
82
67
53

VI
I
III
V

II
IV
VII

conservation and protection measures urgently in A and


N Islands.
The information gathered from the 120 stakeholders on
what will be the possible impact of the climate change on
mangroves and is presented in (Table 5). It was observed
that people were aware of negative effect of climate
change, as they were living in areas adjacent to
mangroves. More than 80 percent were of the opinion
that their houses, general infrastructure and agriculture
area will be affected if mangroves are destroyed. This is
mainly due to the fact that sea level will rise due to high
tides; cyclone etc. available limited avenues will destroy.
An increase in sea level due to global climate change
produces greater wave attack and flooding leading to
greater erosion and amplified impact of storm
(Patwardhan, 2006). Developing countries are likely to be
more vulnerable to climate change due to projected
magnitude and poor adaptive capacity (Climate change
2001, IPCC) following institutional and resource
constraints. The contribution of islands to global climate
change is negligible though but they bear the maximum
brunt of climate associated disasters. This calls for an
adaptation-centric
climate
policy
in
terms
of
developmental projects and issues against the
conventional approach in terms of response to an

Chand et al. 137

environmental problem. The 20 percent of coastal length


of total coastal area in India, existing in Andaman and
Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Diu Islands).

Conclusions and Policy implications


The role of mangroves in terms of income and
employment generations is less than the other indirect
benefits. Indirect benefits in true sense cannot be
assessed with certainty due to absence of market. But
qualitative assessment indicates that mangroves give
benefits more than 10 times in comparison of manmade
defense system against climate change. The total
economic value of Andaman Mangroves was worked out
to be more than INR 125 million (Subhash et al., 2011)
with constraints of non availability of quality data. On an
average per household harvests mangroves associated
products more than INR 61000/- per ha. from the
mangroves area in A and N Islands. These multifarious
functions in terms of protection of natural and manmade
resources apart from providing livelihood opportunities
and coastal economic products. Inter-tidal mudflats,
saline and less productive coastal lands provide
opportunity to raise coastal forests as a multiple use
ecosystems (sink for carbon; barrier against cycle, storm
and salty winds, coastal land stability; sustainable
agriculture behind shelter belt and basic needs of coastal
community). Strict protection of existing mangroves
against encroachment and cutting and its expansion by
regenerating potential intertidal areas through plantation
of suitable species, including vulnerable and threatened
species appears to be necessary management options.
Adaptation capability of the species, which may not adapt
quickly to climate change, can be improved through
management intervention, especially by facilitating their
regeneration in new areas. The scientific studies and
continues monitoring the ecological changes and sea
level rise should be done to provide continuous inputs for
necessary management intervention. At present hyper
saline area of high tidal mudflats is not suitable for
mangroves but scenario may change with sea level rise.
Large such area, especially in A and N Islands is
expected to provide adequate scope for adjustment and
adaptation of mangroves against sea level rise.
Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are matter
of concern for even low rate of sea level rise. Therefore,
this is high time to formulate policy for conservation of
existing mangroves of A and N Islands.
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