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Georges Matheron

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Georges Matheron

Georges Matheron in 1998


December 2, 1930


August 7, 2000





Doctoral advisor

Paul Lvy

Doctoral students

Jean Serra

Georges Franois Paul Marie Matheron (December 2, 1930 August 7, 2000) was a
French mathematician and geologist, known as the founder of geostatistics and a co-founder
(together with Jean Serra) of mathematical morphology. In 1968, he created theCentre de
Gostatistique et de Morphologie Mathmatique at the Paris School of Mines in Fontainebleau. He is
known for his contributions on Kriging and mathematical morphology. His seminal work is posted for
study and review to the Online Library of theCentre de Gostatistique, Fontainebleau, France.

1 Early career

2 Geostatistics

3 Mathematical morphology

4 The Centre de Gostatistique et de Morphologie Mathmatique

5 Books by Matheron

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links

Early career[edit]
Matheron graduated from cole Polytechnique and later Ecole des Mines de Paris, where he
studied mathematics, physics andprobability theory (as a student of Paul Lvy).
From 1954 to 1963, he worked with the French Geological Survey in Algeria and France, and was
influenced by the works of Krige,Sichel, and de Wijs, from the South African school, on the gold
deposits of the Witwatersrand. This influence led him to develop the major concepts of the theory for
estimating resources he named Geostatistics.

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Matherons [Formule des Minerais Connexes] became his Note Statistique No 1. In this paper of
November 25, 1954, Matheron derived the degree of associative dependence between lead and
silver grades of core samples. In his Rectificatif of January 13, 1955, he revised the arithmetic mean
lead and silver grades because his core samples varied in length. He did derive the length-weighted
average lead and silver grades but failed to derive the variances of his weighted averages. Neither
did he derive the degree of associative dependence between metal grades of ordered core samples
as a measure for spatial dependence between ordered core samples. He did not disclose his
primary data set and worked mostly with symbols rather than real measured values such test results
for lead and silver in Matheron's core samples. Matheron's Interprtations des corrlations entre
variables alatoires lognormales of November 29, 1954, was marked Note statistisque No 2. In this
paper, Matheron explored lognormal variables and set the stage for statistics by symbols. Primary
data would have allowed him to assess whether or not lead and silver grades departed from the
lognormal distribution, or displayedspatial dependence along core samples in his borehole.
Matheron coined the eponym krigeage (Kriging) for the first time in his 1960 Krigeage dun Panneau
Rectangulaire par sa Priphrie. In this Note gostatistique No 28, Matheron derived k*,
his estimateur and a precursor to the kriged estimate or kriged estimator. In mathematical statistics,

Matherons k* is the length-weighted average grade of a single panneau in his set. What Matheron
failed to derive in this paper was var(k*), the variance of his estimateur. Matheron presented
his Stationary Random Function at the first colloquium on geostatistics in the USA. He called
on Brownian motion to conjecture the continuity of his Riemann integral but did not explain what
Brownian motion and oredeposits have in common. Matheron, unlike John von Neumann in 1941
and Anders Hald in 1952, never worked with Riemann sums. It was not Professor Dr Georges
Matheron but Dr Frederik P Agterberg who derived the distance-weighted average of a set of
measured values determined in samples selected at positions with different coordinates in a sample
space. What Agterberg did not do was derive the variance of this function.
Matheron did indeed derive length-weighted average grades of core samples and ore blocks but did
not derive the variance of these functions. In time, the length-weighted average grade for Matheron's
three-dimensional block grade was replaced with the distance-weighted average grade for
Agterberg's zero-dimensional point. Both central values turned into honorific kriged estimates or
kriged estimators. An infinite set of Agterberg's zero dimensional points fits within any ore block,
along any borehole, or inside any sampling unit or sample space. Matheron's block grades and
Agterberg's point grades are unique because both are functions without variances.

Mathematical morphology[edit]
In 1964, Matheron was supervising the PhD thesis of Jean Serra, dedicated to quantifying
the ore properties of the iron deposit of Lorraine. Serra came up with the idea of usingstructuring
elements for the analysis, which led to the concept of hit-or-miss transform. The theoretical analysis
of this transform led Matheron to derive and investigate the concepts
of erosion, dilation, opening and closing, which became known later as the basic morphological
operators. He also developed a tool for granulometry, i.e., the computation of a "size distribution",
where he mathematically characterizes the concept of size. In December 1964, Matheron and Serra,
together with Philippe Formery, named this approach mathematical morphology. It has since
evolved into a theory and method that is applied in a variety of image processing problems and
tasks, and is researched worldwide[1] (main article: Mathematical morphology). Matheron continued
to contribute to mathematical morphology during the years, his best-known contribution being
the morphological filtering theory, which he developed with Serra in the 1980s.
Matheron Lecture Award was established [2] by the International Association for Mathematical
Geosciences (IAMG). This award was named after Georges Matheron. Matheron Lecturers will be
selected by a small committee chaired by the IAMG Vice President. The Georges Matheron Lectures
will be held annually during IAMG Conferences and during International Geological Congresses.
Each year IAMG selects a Georges Matheron Lecturer who is a scientist with proven research ability
in the field of spatial statistics or mathematical morphology. Beginning at IAMG2006 in Lige, Jean
Serra was the first recipient of this award in 2006, delivered the first Georges Matheron Lecture.

The Centre de Gostatistique et de Morphologie

In 1968, the Paris School of Mines created the Centre de Morphologie Mathmatique, located
in Fontainebleau, France, and named Matheron its first director. In 1979, the center was
renamed Centre de Gostatistique et de Morphologie Mathmatique, and, in 1986, the latter was
split into two separate centers: Centre de Gostatistique, directed by Matheron, and Centre de
Morphologie Mathmatique, directed by Serra.

Books by Matheron[edit]

Trait de gostatistique applique, Editions Technip, France, 196263, where Matheron