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HOW MATERIALS ARE AFFECTED BY STRETCHING

Some strings such as guitar strings break easily after the limit of proportionality is exceeded.
However, rubber can stretch a lot for a small force. The polymers in the rubber is straightened
during stretching. This allows rubber to stretch a long extension before breaking. Metal such
as copper wire can also stretch easily, but the wire gets thinner as it stretches more. This
happens until the wire finally breaks.

Elasticity

Elasticity is the property of an object or material which causes it to be restored to its original
shape after distortion. It is said to be more elastic if it restores itself more precisely to its
original configuration. A rubber band is easy to stretch, and snaps back to near its original
length when released, but it is not as elastic as a piece of piano wire. The piano wire is harder
to stretch, but would be said to be more elastic than the rubber band because of the precision
of its return to its original length. A real piano string can be struck hundreds of times without
stretching enough to go noticeably out of tune. A spring is an example of an elastic object
when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length.
This restoring force is generally proportional to the amount of stretch, as described
by Hookes Law. For wires or columns, the elasticity is generally described in terms of the
amount of deformation (strain) resulting from a given stress (Youngs modulus). Bulk elastic
properties of materials describe the response of the materials to changes in pressure.

Elastic limit
In reality, materials obey Hookes law only up to a certain limit, as Figure 10.34 shows. As
long as stress remains proportional to strain, a plot of stress versus strain is a straight line.
The point on the graph where the material begins to deviate from straight-line behavior is
called the proportionality limit. Beyond the proportionality limit stress and strain are no
longer directly proportional. However, if the stress does not exceed the elastic limit of the
material, the object will return to its original size and shape once the stress is removed. The
elastic limit is the point beyond which the object no longer returns to its original size and
shape when the stress is removed; the object remains permanently deformed.

Figure 10.34 Hookes law (stress is


directly proportional to strain) is valid
only up to the proportionality limit of
a material. Beyond this limit, Hookes
law no longer applies. Beyond the
elastic limit, the material remains
deformed even when the stress is
removed.

Materials are classified into


Elastic and Plastic

Elastic Property: The ability of every material to maintain their shape when a force is
applied.
For example, A rubber-band can always goes back to its origional shape after stretching.
Becasue of this elastic property it is called elastic band.
Every material has the ability to return to their origional shape when stretched. Metals can
also return to their origional shape when stretched only slightly.
However, if materials are stretched with a large force then they are permenantely deformed.
This means that there is always a limit to stretching or compression and this limit is called
elastic limit.

Hooke's law statement

"Within the elastic limit, Extension is directly proportional to the Applied Force"

Direct proportional relationship with the force means that if we draw a graph of a material
(wire/spring/rubber) then it would be a straight line.

Hooke's law is valid up to straight line of the graphs, means upto elastic limit where force and
extension are directly proportional. Beyond elastic limit point, Hooke's law is not valid.
For example, if a force is applied on a spring and is stretched for a small length and when the
force is removed then the spring would be able to go back to its origional shape. We say that
the material is in elastic region.
If spring is stretched too hard ie large force is applied then the spring won't be able to return
back to its original shape, it will become elongated forever. We say that spring is now in
plastic region.
All materials (copper, iron, rubber etc) behave in the same way as that of spring, they extend
on the application of force but return back. However, if force is large all material deform
permenantely or go in plastic region.

Applications: Hooke's law is used to determine the yield point of a material.


This is crucial for selecting materials which will subjected to heavy loads.
Examples of its application include designing springs for shock absorbers and
dampening vibrations in machines.

Hooke's Law Experiment


Hooke's law is defined as, within the elastic limit the compression or extension of an elastic
material is directly proportional to the applied load. Mathematically, Hooke's law can be
represented as:
F = -k x
x is the displacement of the end of the string from its equilibrium position
F is the force applied on the material; and
k is the force constant (or spring constant).

Determine Spring Constant


Aim: To determine the force constant or spring constant (k) of a given spring.
Materials required: Vertical spring stand, elastic spring, standard attachable weights, pointer
attachable to the end of the spring, hook attachable to the spring with a pan to hold weights,
ruler.

Procedure:
1. Suspend the spring from the spring stand.
2. Attach the pointer and the hook with the pan to the end of the of the spring.
3. Place the ruler vertically (on a vertical stand if required) such that the pointer corresponds
to a readable marking on the ruler.
4. Note the initial reading of the pointer against the ruler.
5. Place a known weight on the pan.
6. Note the displacement x of the pointer.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with different weights (3 trials).
8. For each case, calculate the force constant k using the formula k = mg/x, where m is the
mass of the weight used, g = 9.8 m/s.
9. Find the average of the force constants calculated. This is the final force constant of the
spring
Precautions:
Ensure that the spring does not oscillate when the reading of the pointer is measured.

Ensure that there is no parallax error.


Applications: Hooke's law is used to determine the yield point of a material. This is crucial
for selecting materials which will subjected to heavy loads. Examples of its application
include designing springs for shock absorbers and dampening vibrations in machines.

The law states at "the extentsion of a spring (or any elastic body) is directly proportional to
the applied load (stretching force), provided that elastic limit is not excceded.
The graph of load and extention is a straight line which passes through the origin.
The gradient of the line is the measure of the stiffness of the spring, which is called spring
constant.
Hook's law (Elastic behaviors)

If the applied force or load is removed the spring returns to its original length. This behavior
is called elastic behavior.
This behavior is upto a particular point or limit called elastic limit.
Hook's law (Plastic behaviors)
If the applied force or load is removed the spring does not return to its original length. This
behavior is called plastic behavior.
This behavior is after a particular point or limit called elastic limit.
Hook's law - Elastic limit
Elastic limit:
If you stretch the spring too far, the line (Force-extension graph) no longer straight, and
hooks law is no longer true.
The point at the end of the straight line is known as the limit of proportionality or elastic
limit.
If the material (spring) is stretched beyond the elastic limit, there is a permanent change in
its shape.

After elastic limit different materials behave differently.


Effect of applied force on the materials:
1)A music wire will behave as shown in the graph. It will break shortly after the limit of
proportionality is reached.
Effects of applied force on the materials
Whenever force is applied on the material, It bring the change either in its length, area or
volume.
Hook's law explains the the effect of applied force on the length of the material.