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Technical Information

Punching
Technology, tools, practical operation

Technical information

Punching
Technology, tools, practical operation

Edition: 10/2006

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TRUMPF Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH + Co. KG
Technische Dokumentation
Johann Maus Strae 2
D-71254 Ditzingen
Phone: +49 (0) 71 56/3 03-0
Fax: +49 (0) 71 56/3 03-5 40
Internet: http//www.trumpf.com
E-mail: docu.tw@de.trumpf.com

This document has been compiled in the Technical Documentation


department at TRUMPF Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH + Co. KG.
All rights to this documentation, especially the rights of reproduction and
distribution as well as that of translation are retained by TRUMPF
Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH + Co. KG. This also applies in cases of
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no matter in which form, may be reproduced or processed, copied or
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modifications.
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TRUMPF Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH + Co. KG is not liable for any errors in
this documentation. Liability for direct and indirect damage or injury resulting
from the delivery or use of this documentation is excluded, in so far as this is
legally permissible.

Before you read on...


On the contents

The technical information provided in "punching" gives you access


to essential themes concerning punching, nibbling, and forming.
The components of a punching machine are described after a short
description of necessary terminology. An introduction to TRUMPF
tool systems then follows. Main themes are also covered such as
quiet punching, scratch-free machining, and measures for retaining
flat sheets. Information and tips from practical operation round the
themes off.
At the end of the section on technical information on "punching",
you will find an appendix and an index which will give you quick
reference in finding the information you require.
More profound information on special themes or single tools
appear in further technical information and tool information
manuals.

T450EN.DOC

Before you read on...

Table of contents
1.
1.1

Punching, nibbling, forming ............................................3


Definitions and terminology ................................................3
Punching .......................................................................3
Nibbling .........................................................................3
Forming .........................................................................3

2.
2.1

Punching machine concept .............................................3


Components of a punching machine ..................................3
C-frame .........................................................................3
Hydraulic punching head ...............................................3
Tool adapter ..................................................................3
Linear magazine............................................................3
Coordinate guide ...........................................................3
Machine tables ..............................................................3
CNC control...................................................................3
Punching ............................................................................3
Machine loading ............................................................3
Program execution ........................................................3
Part removal ..................................................................3
Clamp dead areas .........................................................3
Repositioning.................................................................3
Automatic acceleration programming ............................3
Tool management ..............................................................3
Automation .........................................................................3

2.2

2.3
2.4
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

3.7

Toolsystem .......................................................................3
Punch with alignment ring ..................................................3
Stripper...............................................................................3
Die......................................................................................3
Criteria for toolselection......................................................3
Tools and workpiece .....................................................3
Tools and machining quality ..........................................3
Tools and company requirements .................................3
Tooltypes............................................................................3
Toolcare .............................................................................3
Sharpening tools ...........................................................3
Setting tools with QuickSet............................................3
Setting tools with setting fixture .....................................3
Loading tools with QuickLoad........................................3
Sticking tools with adhesive pads ..................................3
Storing tools ..................................................................3
Toolcatalog.........................................................................3

4.

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch ................3

3.5
3.6

Table of contents

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4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5.
5.1
5.2

5.3
5.4
5.5

Punching and nibbling without scratches......................3


Brush tables .......................................................................3
Special tools .......................................................................3
Adhesive pads...............................................................3
Slug retaining dies.........................................................3
Additional measures......................................................3
The answer: combine different measures...........................3
Tips for practical operation .................................................3
Other options......................................................................3

6.

Flatness of sheets during punching and

6.1
6.2
6.3

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Introduction ........................................................................3
Comparison: punching and nibbling with and
without Softpunch...............................................................3
Sequence of a hit rate ........................................................3
Parameters for noise reduction...........................................3
Table collection ..................................................................3

nibbling .............................................................................3
Introduction ........................................................................3
Causes of deformation .......................................................3
Strategies for reducing deformation....................................3
Selection of suitable punches and dies..........................3
Strain-free machining through correct tool
choice............................................................................3
Use of the presser foot ..................................................3
Pre- and post-punching .................................................3

7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Appendix...........................................................................3
Operation of the hydraulic punching head ..........................3
Tables of maximum capacities ...........................................3
Feed step ...........................................................................3
Tensile strength..................................................................3

8.

Index................................................................................93

Table of contents

1.

Punching, nibbling, forming

1.1

Definitions and terminology

Punching and nibbling are mechanical slitting processes in


industrial machining. Cut-outs and contours in any shape or size
(within the working range of the machine) can be produced in flat
workpieces using these slitting processes.

Punching

Fig. 28519

Process

Punching belongs to the "shearing" (DIN 8588) group. In shearing,


the sheet is positioned between two tool lips which move past one
another in a parallel line, and separate the sheet in doing so. The
punch goes so deep into the die that the sheet is punched through.
The punching slug is pushed out in a downward direction.
Punching includes the manufacture of an outer shape (cut out),
and the manufacture of an inner shape (perforating).

Punching, nibbling, forming

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Example: bolt circle

Fig. 19726

When punching, the break-through in the workpiece corresponds


exactly to the geometry of the punch. Row of holesn, circle of
holes, and hole grids are produced by offsetting the workpiece
according to the specified dimension after every single stroke.
Application

The mechanical slitting process of punching always come into


consideration if break-throughs with an outer circle diameter of
max. 76.2 mm are to be produced.

Speed

The speed of a punching machine, i.e. the number of strokes per


minute, is dependent on the following parameters:
Speed of the axes.
Spacing of holes for the single punching operations.
Material thickness.
Punching capacity of the machine.
Sheet weight.
Regrind status of the tool (tool length).
Use of flat or sheared punches.
Application of special punching functions, e.g. elevated
working height for forming.

Table of stroke rates

An overview of the resulting stroke ratesis shown by the table of


stroke rates, which are compiled for every punching machine type.
They are calculated for various machining situations, or alternately
for the application of a forming toolor a multitool.

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Punching, nibbling, forming

X-axis
Material thickness
Weight of
workpiece [kg]
Hole spacing [mm]
1
5
10
25
50
100
200

1
25

3
75

Strokes/min
1200
704
847
527
721
451
532
372
422
312
323
257
238
204

4
100

6
150

8
200

613
464
397
321
277
228
185

484
422
365
301
260
213
171

316
315
296
246
209
173
152

Example of a table of stroke rates in relation to the


X-axis

Tab. 1

The table of stroke rates specific to the machine can be found in


the operator's manual for the machine.
Advantage

10

The advantage of punching as opposed to nibbling is that with just


one stroke, i.e. as quickly as possible, the complete geometry is
brought into the sheet. Furthermore, punching creates a clean
cutting edge.

Punching, nibbling, forming

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Nibbling

Fig. 28520

Process

Nibbling means the piece-by-piece separation of the material along


a randomly formed nibbling line by a multitude of punchings (DIN
8588: nibbling). In doing so, the distance from hole to hole is
smaller than the dimension of the punch.
In the nibbling process, the workpiece is advanced step-by-step in
the required feed direction while the punch constantly moves up
and down (continuous stroke rate). The feed control assures that
the workpiece is stopped shortly before each lowering of the
punchs into the workpiece surface.

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Punching, nibbling, forming

11

The next feed step commences as soon as the punch is above the
workpiece surface again. Through continuous repetition of this
process, the cutting of the required workpiece shape is divided into
a score of small, individual cuts.
The size of the individual feed increments is determined primarily
by the following factors:
Type and size of applied tool.
Required quality or roughness tolerance of nibbled edge.
The maximum acceptable feed step depends on the material
thickness and the stroke rate of the ram.
More information on the selection of the suitable feed step can be
found in the appendix.

Applications, advantages

Nibbling tools

The fact that the cutting process is divided into partial cuts in rapid
succession, using a simple tool, makes nibbling particularly
suitable for the following tasks:
Fabrication of cut-outs and contours of any size and shape
which, due to the punching capacity of the machine, cannot be
made in one single downstroke of the ram:

Because the required size is over the max. outer


circlediameter of the tool of 76.2 mm.

Because the max. punching capacity of the machine would


be exceeded.
Production of cut-outs that are irregular in shape and for which
a special tool capable of making the cut-outs in one
downstroke of the ram would be too time-consuming or too
costly.
The required number of tools for a job can often be reduced by
applying the nibbling process instead of the punching process
for break-throughs. This often results in time-saving
advantages in the production process.
Generally speaking, all TRUMPF punching tools can be used for
nibbling. It is best, however, to use tools with punch diameters or
punch edge lengths between 4 and 30 mm.
Punching tools which are primarily used in nibbling operations,
especially those applied for machining thicker sheets or those of a
higher tensile strength, are available in the following versions:
Special materials, e.g. HSS (super-speed steel).
Coatings, e.g. TICN (titanium carbonitride).
This is why a much higher tool life is reached.

12

Punching, nibbling, forming

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Forming

Example: extruding

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Fig. 28521

Process

There are various processes for forming by which the sheet is


changed by plastic deformation. Examples of forming are
extruding, louver cutting, beading, and tapping.

More processes

There are other processes, as well as forming, that can be applied


on a punching machine:
Marking
Embossing
Punch marking.

Punching, nibbling, forming

13

2.

Punching machine concept

2.1

Components of a punching machine


5
4
3

7
8
9
10

14
13
11
12

Machine table

Hydraulic unit

11 Tool rotation

Ram

Transverse rail

12 Shavings and punching slugs

Ram control

Linear magazine

13 Workpiece

Workpiece clamps

Tools

14 Parts flap

C-frame

10 Sheet

Statement of principle

14

Punching machine concept

Fig. 28522

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C-frame

FEM-calculated C-frame

C-frame

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Fig. 25888

The C-frame retains the forces needed for punching. It is


constructed in a C form and is opened at the front. The C-frame
allows good access to the working range, and the machining of
oversized sheets by rotating.

Punching machine concept

15

Hydraulic punching head

Fig. 28800

Center piece of the


punching machine

The punching head is the center piece of a TRUMPF punching


machine. The hydraulic punching head operates power- and
energy-optimized. The required punching force stage is
automatically selected depending on the required punching
capacity.

Hydraulic ram

The hydraulic ram has its own NC-axis, which automatically


adjusts the start point and reversing point of the ram movement to
the material thickness. A hydraulic pump generates the required oil
pressure (up to 230 bar), which is converted to a punching stroke
via a cylinder. Stroke rates up to 1200 min-1 are possible today.
More extensive information on the operation of the hydraulic
punching head can be found in the appendix.

16

Punching machine concept

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Tool adapter

Rotating toolabsorption

Fig. 28523

The ram absorbs as upper tool adapter the punch with stripper, the
lower tool adapter absorbs the die. Upper and lower tool adapters
are centrically allocated to each other. The long, hydraulic ram
guide provides high dimensional accuracy for the tool alignment
and allows extreme off-center loads of the tools, e.g. for nibbling
and notching.
Rotary axis

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The tool adapter is designed as a rotary axis, which enables all


tools to rotate. Tool rotation reduces the required number of tools,
the set-up application, and the number of tool changes.

Punching machine concept

17

Linear magazine

Fig. 47129

The required tools for machining are housed in the linear magazine
(Linear magazine). They are manually engaged in the specified
positions or transferred automatically using the external tool
memory ToolMaster 40/70. The linear magazine is mounted along
the transverse rail, and uses the available motion axes.
Absorption of tools and
workpiece clamps

18

A set of tools required for machining is inserted into the tool


adapter of the punching head by means of a process programmed
through the coordinate guide and thus the linear magazine. As
well as the tools, clamps are also integrated in the linear magazine
for clamping the workpiece.

Punching machine concept

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Coordinate guide

Fig. 26181

Positioning the sheet

T450EN.DOC

The sheet held by the clamps is positioned by a program-controlled


coordinate guide in longitudinal and transverse directions during
machining. Rack and pinion systems execute the travel motion.
High-dynamic drives provide for positioning speeds of up to over
100 m/min.

Punching machine concept

19

Machine tables

X
Y

Fig. 28752

Supporting the sheet

The machine tables serve to provide support for the sheet during
machining. The (where possible) complete support reduces the
vibrations and the sagging of the sheet when positioning. The
machine tables are designed to be moved in the Y-direction. Ball
rollers or brushes, which are integrated in the table surface, assure
non-scratch machining of the sheet.

CNC control
Coordinating the drives

20

Several machining functions and the positioning of the sheet are


CNC-controlled. The CNC control coordinates the drives to ensure
the synchronization of separate travel motions and the exact alignment from the coordinate guide (workpiece positioning) and ram
(punching stroke).

Punching machine concept

T450EN.DOC

2.2

Punching

Machine loading
Before machining, the operator loads the linear magazine with tool
cartridges which already include combined tools for tool sets. He
then brings the raw sheet to the machine tables where the sheet is
clamped by clamps. The previously created program (e.g. with the
help of TruTops Punch) is called up at the control system.
Sheet quality

It is recommended to specify to the supplier general details


regarding evenness, dimensional accuracy, storage, and quality
before ordering the raw sheets. The DIN norms concerned are
DIN EN 10131/10029/10051 and DIN EN 10130.

Loading-/unloading aid

To simplify the insertion of the raw sheet in brush tables, large-size


sheets or thick sheets, liftable ball rollers can be activated, as an
option, in the machine tables on which the sheet can roll when
inserting.

Program execution

TruTops Punch implementation

Fig. 28548

It is mostly the case that several, often identical, parts are produced from one sheet. First, the tool inserted into the tool adapter
machines all equal elements of the sheet. Then the next tool is
inserted. The machine only separates the single workpieces with a
tool when the sheet has been completely machined.

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Punching machine concept

21

22

Optimization measures

Program execution is already optimized in speed and efficiency


during sheet programming:
If forming is to be carried out, the variable forming height of the
ram should be used. This enables the formed areas to be
passed along with minimal distance.
When producing continuous formed areas, e.g. beading, you
should make sure that in thin sheet the sheet is always
machined near a tensile force, i. e. the machining should, if
possible, take place close to the clamps due to stability
reasons. Furthermore, it is recommended, e.g. for creating
circles, to program two overlapping semi-circles so that
pushing the sheets together is avoided.
If noise reduction and, therefore, the use of Whisper tools is
not necessary, then flat punches can be used for quicker
machining.
When repositioning, you should always make sure that the
sheet is fixed centrally, so that inaccuracies due to unsymmetrical clamp positions are avoided.

Automation

The following measures frequently result in shorter processing


times for machines with automation:
Under certain circumstances, the "peel off" function can be
ignored for greater material thicknesses and grease-free
sheets.
Trimming should always be carried out on the left-hand side.
The (L-shaped) sheet skeleton can thus be securely gripped
from the right using the GripMaster 500/5000 grippers.
Thin sheets can be distorted when inserting with SheetMaster.
Increased safety and accuracy is reached when using the
"Relieve sheet" function. At the same time, the clamps are
opened again and then closed so that the sheet is relieved of
pressure.

Punching machine concept

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Part removal

Programmable parts flap

Fig. 26183

Fixed chutes and a programmable parts flap enable the quick


removal of finished parts and waste parts out of the working area
of the machine after machining.
Optimization measures

T450EN.DOC

The following measures can be taken with a view to quick removal


and to shorten the whole processing time:
A row-by-row push-out after the last stroke respectively (for
grid machining) with an open parts flap reduces the push-out
time. In doings so, the parts sensor should be activated for
safety reasons.
The removal of the parts can also be carried out with the ram
in the highest position. Due to its own weight pushing it
forward, the respective part falls unimpeded into the bucket or
onto a conveyor belt.
Cut-out punching of the sheet skeleton in non-automatic
machining can be a practical alternative to manual removal if
the parts geometry, material thickness are suitable, and
according to how the sheet is used. Cut-out punching, for
example, is practical for straight parts in thin metal.

Punching machine concept

23

24

Automation

The following measures normally lead to shorter processing times


for automatic machines:
First, the large finished parts should be removed using
SheetMaster. Whilst the smaller parts are then removed
through the parts flap or chutes, the SheetMaster can prepare
a new raw sheet.
SheetMaster should remove the parts in sequence from left to
right so that collisions are prevented with free-punched, but not
yet removed parts.

Unloading

Sheet skeletons and waste parts should be sorted, according to


the class of material, into containers ready for picking up.

Punching machine concept

T450EN.DOC

Clamp dead areas


Caused by the geometrical dimensions of the tool adapter and
clamps, areas are established in the immediate proximity of the
workpiece clamps, where machining cannot be carried out. These
so-called clamp dead areas must be observed without fail when
programming. This not only applies to feeding break-throughs and
contours to the sheet, but also to the approach of positions close to
the clamp dead area.
Dead areas for closed clamps

97
72

97

Clamp

Dead area
Fig. 28526

Dead area for open clamps

The process with opened clamps, e.g. when repositioning, is only


permitted outside the dead area in the X-direction. This means a
minimum strip width of 85 mm is required along the linear
magazine.

Dead areas when multitools


are used

Multitools bring about larger clamp dead areas due to the eccentric
arrangement of their single tools.
Multitool
5-fold
10-fold

Outer circle
diameter
20 mm
26 mm

Dead area in
X-direction
234 mm
246 mm

Dead area in
Y-direction
92 mm
98 mm

Dead areas when multitools are used

T450EN.DOC

Punching machine concept

Tab. 2

25

Repositioning
Application

Repositioning can be necessary for:


Machining sheets of excessive length.
Machining in the clamp dead area.

Two options

Repositioning can be carried out:


By using the active presser foot. The sheet is clamped under
the punching head with the aid of the presser foot whilst the
opened clamps travel. Prerequisite is that a punching tool is
inserted for the deselected forming height (raised ram
position).
On some machines with an optional repositioning cylinders.
These clamp the sheet whilst the opened clamps travel.

Formed areas

If formed areas are present in the sheet, you must make sure that
these are not damaged when repositioning. Two strategies prevent
collisions with formed areas:
Punch machining is carried out after repositioning and from the
forming height.
A forming tool is used after repositioning.

Automatic acceleration programming


Considerable increase
in productivity

26

The acceleration values of the axes have been optimized in favor


of a considerable increase in productivity with the newest TRUMPF
punching machines (TruPunch 5000). The considerable influence
the masses to be moved have on the acceleration was the reason
for this optimization. This was a success by adjusting the
acceleration values to the respective machining situation:
The number of loaded tools and clamps is recorded in weight.
The cartridge type (metal or RTC (Rapid Tool Change)) is
recorded in weight.
The current sheet weight is continuously recorded during
machining, i. e. the more parts that are separated, the lighter
the sheet.
the recorded values are calculated to the advantage of the highest
possible acceleration.

Punching machine concept

T450EN.DOC

2.3

Tool management

The fully automatic execution of a program through the punching


machine requires loading the correct tools from tool storage into
the linear magazine. For this purpose, the tools are managed in
table work.
Tool setup list

The tool setup list is generated by pressing a button for the NC


program to be executed. The tools are displayed in the tool setup
list with all identification characteristics such as ID number, tool
dimensions, tool station etc.

Fig. 28804

A tool setup list can also be created for the loading of the external
tool memory ToolMaster 40/70.

T450EN.DOC

Punching machine concept

27

Tool requirements list

Fig. 26739

All tools which are needed for the execution of an NC program are
entered in the tool requirements list. The operator can have
displayed which and how many various tools must be available.
Further lists show the tool changed and the identification characteristics of not only single tools, but all tools in overview. The lists
can be edited directly.

28

Punching machine concept

T450EN.DOC

2.4

Automation

Due to the embedding in a system of automation components,


TRUMPF punching machines have become flexible production
cells. The automation inside the production cell applies to the tool
handling and the material handling. Regardless of the raw sheet
blanks, the batch size, and the dimensions of the assembly units,
the automation components support the entire spectrum of
machining possibilities.

0
00
h5
nc
Pu
Tru

5
Xtool M aster

40

1
2
3
4

1
2

SortMaster Pallet sorting unit

SortMaster Box sorting unit

SheetMaster 1305/1605 for loading

GripMaster 5000 for sheet

and unloading

skeleton removal

ToolMaster 40/70 external tool


memory

StoreMaster

Example: TruPunch 5000 automation

T450EN.DOC

Fig. 47130

Punching machine concept

29

3.

Toolsystem

Punch

Stripper

Alignment ring

Die

Complete tool set

30

Fig. 19173

Tool set

A punching tool comprises of a punch and die. The alignment ring


and stripper complete the tool set. A tool cartridge holds the tool
set. Regardless of the tool size, uniform tool cartridges are
available as RTC cartridgesn (Rapid Tool Change) or as metal
cartridges. The complete tool set can be inserted into the tool
adapter of the punching head in one working step.

Size groups

The tools are available in 3 size groups which are designated with
0, I, II. Tools belonging to one particular size group vary only in
their cutter geometry and are not identical in construction or
clamping range.

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

3.1

Punch with alignment ring

Punch
Versions

Punches are made of super-speed steel (HSS) and are extremely


durable. They can be designed differently:
Uncoated or coated: TICN coated punches are especially
recommended for aluminum- and stainless steelmachining, to
prevent cold welding effects and premature wear of the punch.
For use in particularly thick sheet or in sheets with a high
tensile strength, punches can be employed in a stronger
version.
Furthermore, a difference is noted between needle punches
and solid punches. Needle punches can be used in thin sheet
ranges and are less expensive than solid punches. They are
available in 2 versions: for example, round punches with
0.56 mm and 610.5 mm.

1
1

Needle punch

Solid punch

Fig. 28528

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Toolsystem

31

1
2

Punch chuck

Needle punch

Structure of needle punch

Regrinding
Whispertools

Fig. 28801

Solid punches and needle punches can be reground by max.


3 mm.

Tools with angled punches are called Whispertools:


They have a reduced cutting force requirement for the
same punch dimensions.

The noise reduction is up to 50 %.

Whispertools are particularly effective when machining


high-strength and tough materials.

The shearing angle is 5 up to a diameter of 35 mm, the


height h is variable. As from a diameter of 35 mm, the
height of the shearing bevel is 3 mm, the angle is variable.

Shearingangle
Height of the shearing
bevel

Flat, Whispertool, and roof shear

32

Toolsystem

Fig. 19172

Alternatively, punches with roof shears can be used. The


off-center load is lower with these tools than with
Whispertools.

T450EN.DOC

Flat punch

Angled punch (Whispertool)

3
3

Punch with roof shear

Fig. 28529

Long punch

The current TRUMPF punching machines can be equipped with


long punches. Flat punches (and also needle punches) are 3.5 mm
longer than before. The previous short punches can, however, also
be used.
2

Flat punch

37.3 mm

34.3 mm
(37.8 mm)*

Angled punch (Whispertool)

()* Dim.: long punch


Fig. 19501

T450EN.DOC

The usefulness of the new punch lays in the deployment of the


active presser foot: machining with an active presser foot is
carried out with a punch in its new state almost as fast as in
operation with a passive presser foot.
Regrinding: the new, long punches can be reground by up to
6.5 mm, angled punches (Whispertools) by up to 3 mm. Make
sure you observe with long punches that the punch diameter is
slightly reduced the more it is reground; this is due to
technological reasons concerning the clearance angle on the
punch.
If a longer punch has been reground more than 3.5 mm, it can
also be used on a TC 500 R, TC 200 R or TC 600 L.

Toolsystem

33

Tool length
Fig. 19499

Tool length measurement: the tool length is entered into the


tool data, and processed there. It is defined as the measurement from the upper edge of the alignment ring to the cutting
edge.

Compensating the
regrind amount

A magnetic plate, which can be written on with a felt-tipped pen


and can be washed off, is located on the cartridge . The current
tool length can be noted on this. If the punch with the alignment
ring has been temporarily removed from the cartridge, the
magnetic plate can also be attached to the alignment ring. The
information on the tool length will thus "stored" with the tool.

Maximum punch dimensions

Depending on the punch geometry, the following max. dimensions


apply for punches:
Punch shape
Round: dmax [mm]
Square: amax [mm]

Standard punch
76.2
50.8

Reinforced punch
42.0
30.0

Tab. 3

Tables of maximum
capacities

34

Toolsystem

The maximum permissible dimensions for round and square tools


can, with and without shearing bevel, be referred to in the tables of
maximum capacities for four tensile strengths and varying material
thicknesses.

T450EN.DOC

Influencing factors

The values given in the tables of maximum capacities are standard


values which, above all, are influenced by the following factors:
The material thickness can, in accordance with DIN EN 10131/
10029/10051, can include tolerances of up to +18 % upwards.
The tensile strength can, in accordance with DIN EN 10130,
reach up to +12.5 %.
The reduction of the clearance between punch and die from
10 % to 5 % of the material thickness induces an increase of
the required punching capacity by approx. 4 %.
Lubricating the workpiece reduces friction.
The shear factor is calculated theoretically, and is also
influenced by the workpiece characteristics.
The sharpness of the punch.
In practice, this means: if all the unfavorable factors are multiplied
with each other, then only approx. 70 % of the given values should
actually be used to ensure that the punching-through operation can
be carried out.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

35

Table of maximum capacities


for tensile strength
Rm = 200 N/mm2

The tool dimensions specified in the "With" columns only apply to


tools with original shearing bevel (Whispertools). To calculate the
permissible tool dimension, the shearing factor (x) must be taken
into consideration for Whispertools.
Material Shear
Ref.
thicknes factor x Shear
s [mm]
factor
x/s

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

3.5
2.66
2.25
2
1.83
1.71
1.62
1.5
1.41

3.5
1.8
1.1
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.23

Round
d [mm]

With
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
74.7

Example of a table of maximum capacities

Square
a [mm]

Without
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
76.2
63.7
53.0

With
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8

Without
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.8
50.0
41.6
Tab. 4

Further information on the tables of maximum capacities, as well


as the basic formulas and information on tensile strength, can be
found in the appendix. The table of maximum capacities specific to
the machine can be found in the operator's manual for the
machine.

36

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Application range

Punch type

The following table gives an overview of the main application


ranges of normal punch versions. Please observe the punching
capacity and the maximum permissible material thickness of your
machine.

Max. punching
capacity

Max. material thickness

Punching
Flat punch, size 0:
up to 6 mm outer circle

50 kN

6-10 mm outer circle

50 kN

Flat punch, size I


(max. outer circle : 30 mm)
Flat punch, size I/II
(max. outer circle : 76.2
mm)
Whispertool

Mild steel :
mm
Stainless steel :
mm
Mild steel :
mm
Stainless steel :
mm

Material

Nibbling
4
2

Mild steel: Stainless steel: Mild steel: 3 mm


Stainless steel: -

HSS
HSS
HSS
HSS

6
3

200 kN

10 mm

Mainly for nibbling up


to 10 mm

HSS

300 kN

12 mm

As from 10 mm

HSS oxidized

200 kN

10 mm

For tensile strength of


400 N/mm2 to 3 mm
For tensile strength of
800 N/mm2 to 2 mm

HSS

Tab. 5

Alignment ring

Fig. 19505

Function

T450EN.DOC

The alignment ring is a clamping ring which holds the shape punch
(e.g. rectangular tool) in the zero position. The alignment ring
fulfills the following functions:
Transferring the punching capacity to the punch.
Allocating the relative position of the punch and retaining.
Adapting different punch sizes.
Holding the punch in the cartridge.

Toolsystem

37

There are 3 alignment ring versions:


Tool size
Application

Size 0/I
Punching tools

Size II
Punching tools

Size II
With oxidized
punches (HSS)
Slitting tools
Punches with
cutter guide

Illustration

Fig. 7133
Fig. 6

As from an outer circle diameter of 40 mm, punches with an


integrated alignment ring are also available.

38

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

3.2

Stripper

Fig. 19504

Three functions

The stripper or presser foot can assume three functions:


Stripper function: The stripper strips the sheet on its upstroke
from the punch. This prevents the sheet from being pulled up
by the punch. During operation with a passive presser foot, the
stripper is located 0.61.6 mm above the workpiece surface.
Presser foot function: If punching with an active presser foot,
the stripper rests on the sheet while the punching stroke is
executed. This helps to press the sheet against the die underneath, thereby improving the position accuracy, the quality of
the cut, and the evenness. Machining with an active presser
foot is carried out in combination with a long tool (tool length
37.8 mm) almost as quick as operation with a passive presser
foot.
Holding the workpiece: for repositioning oversized sheets, the
stripper is lowered directly onto the sheet, and clamps it while
the coordinate guidance travels with opened clamps for
repositioning.
For pushing out thin sheets, TRUMPF recommends the use of
specially sprung push-out strippers.
Risk of collision between the old stripper and workpiece!

Caution

On the newer punching machines, strippers of the older type


may not be used as they were for use in the TC 260, for
example. The stripper must have similar shear properties as
used on the machines TC 200 R, TC 500 R, TC 600 L,
TC 2000 R and TruPunch 5000!

T450EN.DOC

Only use the new strippers with shear!

Toolsystem

39

3.3

Die

Fig. 19503

Function

The punch and die function as shearing tools which move away
from each other in opposite directions and cut the sheet. The
resulting punching slugs fall through the die and are vacuumed.

Versions

Standard dies and reinforced dies are available up to the following


maximum sizes:
Die shape
Round: dmax
Square: amax

Standard dies [mm]


77.0
52.0

Reinforced dies [mm]


62.0
43.0

Tab. 7

Die heights

Die size
I
II

Standard dies [mm]


18
20

Reinforced dies [mm]


29

Tab. 8

Max. punching capacity

Die size

Die version

Round d
[mm]

Square a
[mm]

I
II
II

All
Standard
Reinforced

Up to 32.0
32.01 77.0
32.01 62.0

Up to 22.0
22.01 52.0
22.01 43.0

Max.
punching
capacity
[kN]
250
180
250

Tab. 9

Scratch-free machining

Selecting the suitable die

Special slug retaining dies (see p. 3) prevent the punching


slugs being pulled up and causing scratches on the sheet
surface during the upstroke of the punch.
Dies with brush inserts also reduce the scratch formation.

When selecting the suitable, the material thickness to be machined


must also be observed. A larger clearance between the punch and
die is needed the more the material thickness increases.
The die geometry to be chosen is calculated as the sum from
punch geometry (DSt) plus the practically established value 0.2 x

40

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

material thickness (s). Consequently, for round tools this leads to


the calculation:
Die = Punch + 0.2 x Material thickness
Other geometries are to be handled accordingly.
Regrinding

T450EN.DOC

Dies can be reground by a max. of 1 mm. Reground dies are


placed underneath the tool adapter with shims (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mm).

Toolsystem

41

3.4

Criteria for toolselection

Tools and workpiece


When punching, punching tools bring holes and break-throughs of
varying shape into the workpiece. The most normal tool shapes are
round-, square-, rectangular- and oblong tools. The outer contour
of a single part can be machined with punching tools or with
slittingtools according to the contour run.
Minimum punch dimension

The minimum dimension of a blanking punch is calculated


according to the rule-of-thumb:
Punch dimension (outer circle diameter) material thickness.
There is a danger the punch will break in the event a smaller
dimension is applied. To prevent the punch from breaking
however, tools with a cutter guide can be used or work must be
carried out using an active presser foot.

Maximum punch dimension

The maximum punch dimension of a blanking punch is dependent


on the following influencing factors:
The maximum punching capacity available.
Material thickness.
Tensile strength of the sheet.

nibbling punch

For nibbling, the following recommendations for the tool


dimensions of round or square punches apply depending on the
material thickness:
Material
thickness
s
[mm]
8
6
5
4
3
2
1

Round punch
dmax
[mm]
12
12
14
16
20
24
30

Square punch
dmin
[mm]
12
12
10
10
8
6
4

amax
[mm]
12
12
14
16
20
20
20

amin
[mm]
12
12
10
10
8
6
4
Tab. 10

Tensile strength
The tensile strength Rm of the workpiece to be machined plays an
important part in the tool selection. The most important materials
with their tensile-strength range are shown in the appendix.

42

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Tools and machining quality


Clearance and
shearing-breakage ratio

The technically required clearance is the distance between the


cutting edge of the punch and the die. It influences the quality of
the punching operation.

4
1

Punch

Die

Sheet

Clearance
Fig. 28530

4 phases

T450EN.DOC

The punching process is divided into 4 phases:


Phase 1: sheet deformation.
Phase 2: cut.
Phase 3: break.
Phase 4: pushing out the punching slugs.

Toolsystem

43

4 phases of the punching process

Fig. 28531

The selection of the die, and hence the clearance, affects the cutbreakage ratio (phase 2 and 3) when punching. For a clearance of
0.1 x material thickness, the ratio of cut to breakage quota
amounts to 1/3 to 2/3. If the clearance is smaller, then the cut
quota increases to 2/3.

44

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Example for 2/3-cut quota

Fig. 28532

Punching operations with


very level cutting surface

The larger the cut quota, the more cylindrical is the punching
operation, which can be necessary, e.g. for fits with a very high
percentage contact area. The greatest possible cut quota can be
reached if the sheet is prepunched with a tool approx. 1-2 mm
smaller and with a clearance of 0.1 x material thickness, and then
repositioned using the desired tool to create a scraping cut with a
small clearance. This procedure has also proven its value for
punching capacity minimizing during thick sheet machining with
large tools.

Machining stainless steel


and aluminum

When machining stainless steel and aluminum, cold welding


effects and built-up edges can arise. These effects can be reduced
by employing two measures:
Additional lubrication of the tool.
Use of oxidized or coated punches.

Manufacture of very exact


punching operations

When punching with an active presser foot, the stripper/presser


foot contacts the sheet during the punching stroke. In doing so, the
sheet is pressed against the die laying underneath it, which results
in very accurate punching operations of level workpieces and an
improvement of the quality of cut.

Roughness

If a contour, e.g. a circle, is nibbled using round tools, the nibble


edge shows a roughness which correlates with the selected feed
rate per stroke. If the feed rate is low, the quality of the nibble edge
will improve, i. e.: the roughness is less.

Heat transmission

Another quality criterion is the heat transmission from the ram and
C-frame. It must be taken into consideration especially when
programming embossing and forming. During machine operation,
the C-frame and ram stretch by a total of 0.10.3 mm, i. e., the ram
position must be programmed higher.
Further information on roughness and on the feed-rate values, as
well as the basic formulas, can be found in the appendix.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

45

Tools and company requirements


Service life

In general, a service life of 400 000 up to 600 000 strokes applies


to punching tools. The requirements needed to reach this service
life are:
A stable tool guide. The long, hydraulic guide of the ram
assures ahigh dimensional accuracy of the tool allocation.
Material-specific lubrication of the tool.
Sharp cutting edge. The required sharpness of the cutting
edge can only be guaranteed by regrinding.
Exact centric alignment of punch and die.

Whispertool

For punches with an angled cutting surface (Whispertool), the


punching-capacity requirement is reduced by the passing run-off in
power when the punch is lowered into the workpiece.
The lower punching capacityrequirement causes noise to be
reduced by approx. 50 % in comparison to a punch with a flat
cutting surface. The maximum material thickness machined is
lower, however.

3.5

Tooltypes

TRUMPF punching tools can be divided into 5 groups. The groups


are defined via their technology:
The most frequently used tools are the standard tools (e.g.
round tools), which are allocated in punching technology. They
have been described comprehensively in the previous
sections. Furthermore, special tools such as multitools and
shaped tools are also allocated to this group.
Special tools for separating produced single parts are compiled
in the slitting group.
The most extensive group of tools can be found in the forming
group. Forming tools are described in several separate technical infos.
The technologies marking, embossing, and tools for scratchfree machining complete the spectrum of tools.
Special tools are customized and can be defined freely (in
limits). Several special tools have been standardized due to
corresponding demand.

46

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Technology
Punching

Slitting
Forming

Marking, embossing

Scratch-free machining

Special tools

Tool type
Standard tool:
Round tools
Square tools
Rectangular tools
Oblong tools
Special tools:
Push-out tools
Banana tools
Shaped tools
Multitool tools
Punch with cutting edge guide
Special tools
Slitting tools
Microjoint tools
Special tools
Folding tools
Countersink tools
Sheet tapping tools
Flanging tools
Single louver cutting tools
Continuous louver cutting tools
Tapping tools
Hinge tools
Boss welding tools
Countersink shaped tools
Centering dimple tools
Extrusion tools
Beading tools
Special tools
Punch-mark tools
Marking tools
Embossing tools
Special tools
Extrusion tools with brushes
Upstroke tools
Dies with brushes
Parting dies with brushes
Intermediate rings with brushes
e.g. Keyhole tools

Tab. 11

More detailed information on the single tools can be found in the


numerous tool infos, in technical information, and in the electronic
punching tool catalog.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

47

3.6

Toolcare

Sharpening tools

QuickSharp

Function

Fig. 47131

QuickSharp is a grinding machine on which the punching tools can


be reground. Dies, as well as flat and angled punches can be
reground.
QuickSharp is completely encapsulated and allows operation in the
immediate proximity of the punching machine.
The grinding process runs automatically. Due to a precise column
guide, QuickSharp enables a high-precision regrind for the tools by
the operating personnel while the punching machine is in
operation. Regrinding is carried out in the wet regrinding process
with a boron nitride grinding wheel.

48

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Setting tools with QuickSet

Fig. 47132

Function

The following work can be carried out using the QuickSet:


Allocating punch and die exactly.
Aligning the punch.
Controlling the punch stripper alignment.
Defining the tool length.
The QuickSet is suitable for tools with flat and angled
cutting surfaces of tool sizes I and II.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

49

Setting tools with setting fixture

Fig. 21328

Function

The following work can be carried out using the setting fixture:
Allocating punch and alignment ring exactly.
Defining the tool length.
The setting fixture is suitable for tools with flat and angled cutting
surfaces of tool sizes I and II.
It is included in the scope of delivery for the newer punching
machines.

50

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Loading tools with QuickLoad

Fig. 47133

Function

QuickLoad is a device for quick and exact-fit loading of


tool cartridges with a punch, stripper, and die.
Down times for loading procedures are eliminated to a great
extent, because the tool sets outside the machine are setup using
the tool setting device QuickSet and loaded in cartridges using
QuickLoad.
QuickLoad offers the following advantages:
Quick and easy loading of tools, supported by a pneumatic
unlocking system.
Safe and easy loading of cartridges.
No damage to the sharpened tools.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

51

Sticking tools with adhesive pads

QuickPad

Function

Fig. 47134

QuickPad is a gluing device, which enables adhesive pads to be


mounted easily onto dies, intermediate rings, and strippers.
Adhesive pads serve to prevent scratches on the workpiece.
Adhesive pads are fabricated, self-adhesive polyethylene films with
a thickness of 0.3 mm; they are available in different versions
according to shape and size of the die (see section 5.2, p. 3).
The basic equipment for QuickPad includes a press-set for
strippers. In addition, press-sets are available for dies and presssets for intermediate rings.

52

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

Storing tools

Cartridge trolley

Function

Fig. 28535

The cartridge trolley allows assembly of tools, which are required


for a machining program, without being bound to a certain position.
It can also be used as an intermediate storage place for tools.
The numbering of the upper level (15 positions) and the lower level
(5 positions) enables direct alignment to the tool cartridge positions
of the punching machine.
As an additional option, the cartridge trolley offers space to accommodate technical drawings.

T450EN.DOC

Toolsystem

53

3.7
Ordering tools

Toolcatalog

TRUMPF offers several options for ordering tools:


Paper punching tool catalog.
Electronic punching tool catalog.
Ordering warehouse tools per Internet.

Paper punching tool catalog

In the paper catalog, the tools and replacement parts are listed in
table form, vary according to technology (forming, slitting etc.), and
are listed with prices.

Electronic punching tool


catalog on CD-ROM

The intelligent, database-supported design of the electronic


punching tool catalog simplifies and accelerates tool ordering.
Machine- and tool specific factors such as the max. punching
capacity, the max. material thickness, clearance, or the selection of
a reinforced version are automatically taken into consideration. If
several tools should come into consideration, then the most
reasonably priced solution is offered accordingly.

Parameter input

Fig. 28536

After entering the relevant workpiece- and tool parameters, the tool
data is collected in the shopping cart and transferred into an order
form which is printed and can be sent directly per fax or e-mail
from the computer to TRUMPF. Furthermore, the direct transfer of
all ordering data is possible in TruTops Punch and Excel.

54

Toolsystem

T450EN.DOC

The required TRUMPF know-how on punching tools is available on


this CD-ROM. Extensive information on programming,
maintenance, and applications is allocated to the separate tools.
Notes on tool care and a www-link to the TRUMPF homepage
complement the catalog.
Special tools can be specified on a prepared form, and, where
necessary, accompanied by a draft and sent directly to TRUMPF
as an inquiry or order.
Ordering warehouse parts

T450EN.DOC

The stock list is highlighted on the TRUMPF homepage. Warehouse parts can be selected here and the order sent directly per
e-mail to TRUMPF.

Toolsystem

55

Function

Principle of function

4.

Quiet punching and nibbling with


Softpunch

4.1

Introduction

The Softpunch option enables considerably quieter sheet


machining. Depending on the parameters entered, such as
material class and material thickness, a noise reduction of up to
80 % can be achieved.

Softpunch stage (S)1


up to Softpunch stage (S)4

56

Due to a pressure sensor mounted on the punching head,


pressure on the upper ramsurface of the punching head is
permanently measured. The measured values are compared
with the programmed Softpunch stages. The evaluation takes
place in the ram control.
If the measured pressure increases to a defined limit value
when the ram contacts the workpiece, the ram speed will be
reduced - resulting in much quieter punching through.
The reduced ram speed has a lower hit rate (stroke rate/min)
and, therefore, results in a longer machining time.
The ram speed is reduced via 4 programmable Softpunch
stages:

Largest reduction in ram speed = largest reduction in


noise.

Lowest reduction in ram speed = lowest reduction in noise.

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

T450EN.DOC

4.2

Comparison: punching and nibbling


with and without Softpunch

In fig. 28776, the Softpunch stages 1 to 4 are listed on the X-axis in


comparison to machining without Softpunch. The unit sone listed
on the Y-axis describes the value of the subjective perception of
loudness. This is calculated from the average level LpAeq at the
operating site.
To illustrate the relation between loudness in sone and noise level
in dB(A), several comparative values are listed below.
sone
1.00
8.00
16.00
32.00
64.00

dB(A)
40
70
80
90
100

Comparative values

Tab. 12

310
30

Punching

425

Nibbling E5

Loudness [sone]

200

195
175

20
250

110

240

165

135

10

0
0

Softpunch step
Material thickness: 3 mm

Punch, flat: 20 mm

Material: USt12.03

Die: 20.4 mm
Fig. 28775

The diagram illustrates the considerable noise reduction due to


Softpunch. The number of ram strokes per minute is noted above
every bar.

T450EN.DOC

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

57

4.3

Sequence of a hit rate

s [mm]

The path-time diagram documents the change of the ram speed


during a hit rate, without and with Softpunch.

3
6
5
4
t [s]

Punching stroke without

Softpunch

Softpunch stage reached

Punching stroke with Softpunch

Softpunch stage not reached

Working height

Path-time diagram

58

Lowest position

Fig. 5273

Punching stroke without


Softpunch

The ram travels from the working height downwards with max.
speed to the lowest position, and with max. speed upwards again.

Punching stroke with


Softpunch

The ram travels from the working height downwards with reduced
speed until the programmed Softpunch stage (5) is reached (the
punch touches the sheet). The actual punching stroke is now
carried out with further reduced ram speed. After reaching the
changeover point, the starting speed is switched back to. The ram
travels in the lowest position and then upwards with max. speed.

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

T450EN.DOC

4.4

Parameters for noise reduction

The effect of Softpunch on noise reduction depends on various


parameters:
Tool type (flat or angled).
Material class.
Clearance between punch and die.
Presser foot (active or not active).
Material thickness.
Parameters for tool type

Softpunch is effective when flat and angled tools (Whispertools)


are used. An optimum noise reduction is reached with a combination of Whispertools with Softpunch, because Whispertools
fundamentally enable a quieter machining than flat punches.
Flat punch

30

Loudness [sone]

Whispertool

20

10

0
0

Softpunch step
Material thickness: 3 mm

Punch: 20 mm

Material: St37.2

Die: 20.4 mm
Fig. 28776

Parameters for material class

In principle, Softpunch can be applied to every material. However,


the effect is dependent on material-specific characteristic values.
For materials of a higher tensile strength (e.g. stainless steel), the
noise reduction is, due to the sudden break-through of the punch
during the punching process, lower than with materials of an
average tensile strength (e.g. mild steel).
By using Whispertools, this can partially be compensated and a
similar noise reduction such as in machining mild steel can be
reached.

T450EN.DOC

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

59

Parameters for clearance

The effect of Softpunch on noise reduction can be raised by


optimizing the clearance between punch and die. This applies
especially for the use of flat punches. When using angled tools, the
clearance plays a less important part.
In the diagram, the loudness is documented in relation to the used
die (diameter 21.2 and 20.8 mm).
For a smaller clearance, more attention must be paid to adequate
tool lubrication.
Die 21.2

60

Loudness [sone]

Die 20.8

40

20

0
0

Softpunch step
Material thickness: 6 mm

Punch, flat: 20 mm

Material: MRSt37.2

Die: 21.2 mm or 20.8 mm


Fig. 28777

To gain the greatest effect from Softpunch, it is recommended that


you select a smaller than usual clearance between punch and die.
When using Softpunch in combination with flat punches, the
clearance is calculated according to the formula:
Die = Punch + (0.1 to 0.15) x Material thickness
Without Softpunch, the normal recommendation for the clearance
is:
0.2 x Material thickness
Even without Softpunch, noise can be reduced by selecting a
smaller clearance.

60

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

T450EN.DOC

Parameters for active


presser foot

When selecting the active presser foot in combination with


Softpunch, the loudness will be further minimized.

Loudness [sone]

50

230

passive
active

215

40

30
135

120

85

30

80

65
65

50
50

10

0
0

Softpunch step
Material thickness: 6 mm

Punch (Whispertool): 20 mm

Material: RSt37.2

Die: 21.2 mm
Fig. 28603

One can see from the diagram that a reduction in the ram speed
via Softpunch stage 4 results in further reduction of the stroke rate
(number above the bar) while the loudness is only minimally
reduced.

T450EN.DOC

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

61

4.5

Table collection

For mild steel and stainless steel, TRUMPF has worked on


recommendations for the (S) value for the Softpunch stage,
depending on the material thickness, and tested the effect of
different Softpunch stages on loudness and stroke rate. The table
can be referred to for selecting the respective optimum Softpunch
stage.
The table points here explicitly to recommendations; varying
applications must be adapted accordingly. The details in brackets
point to conditional recommendations.
Mild steel (USt 12.03)
Material thickness 13 mm
Tool
Cutting shape
Round 12 mm
Flat punch
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 20 mm
Flat punch
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 35 mm
Whispertool
Round 70 mm
Whispertool
Round 75 mm
Roof shear
Square 20 mm
Whispertool
Slittingtool
Roof shear
5 x 56 mm

Operating mode
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Nibbling (E5)
Punching
Nibbling (E5)
Punching
Punching
Punching
Nibbling (E15)
Slitting (E50)

Softpunch stage
1
2

4
x
x
x
x

(x)

(x)
(x)

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Tab. 13

Naturally, the loudness can be further reduced for a recommended


Softpunch stage 3 or 4 by selecting the Softpunch stage 2 or 1.
Material thickness 46 mm
Tool
Cutting shape
Round 12 mm
Flat punch
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 20 mm
Flat punch
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 35 mm
Flat punch
Square 20 mm
Whispertool

Operating mode
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Nibbling (E5)
Punching
Nibbling (E5)
Punching
Nibbling (E15)

Softpunch stage
1
2
x

(x)

x
x
x

(x)
x
x
x

(x)
x
x
(x)
Tab. 14

62

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

T450EN.DOC

Stainless steel (1.4301)


Material thickness 13 mm
Tool
Cutting shape
Round 12 mm
Flat punch
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 20 mm
Flat punch
Whispertool
Whispertool
Round 70 mm
Whispertool
Square 10 x 40 mm
Whispertool
Whispertool

Operating mode
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Nibbling (E3)
Punching
Punching
Nibbling (E5)
Punching
Punching
Slitting (E35)

Softpunch stage
1
2

3
x
(x)
x
(x)

4
(x)
x
x
x
(x)
x
x

x
x
x
Tab. 15

The operator can switch Softpunch on and off at the machine even
during machining.

T450EN.DOC

Quiet punching and nibbling with Softpunch

63

5.

Punching and nibbling without


scratches

Causes of scratches

When a workpiece undergoes punch machining, scratches can


result on the surface and underside of the workpiece when
machine parts and tools rub against the material. A critical point
here is the die, on whose surface microscopic burrs can form and
thereby create scratches. In many applications however, such as
the production of cover plates which will visible when assembled
later, scratches are unacceptable under any terms.

Consequence

Various measures are listed below which allow scratch-free


machining.

5.1
Function

Brush tables

The brushes prevent any direct contact between the underside of


the sheet and machine components, such as the die, which might
cause scratches. The sheet glides over the brushes which, due to
their length, yield in the direction of travel, thereby eliminating the
track marks which result on the sheet underside on tables fitted
with rollers.

Brush tables

64

Punching and nibbling without scratches

Fig. 15004

T450EN.DOC

5.2

Special tools

Adhesive pads
Adhesive pads are fabricated, self-adhesive polyethylene films with
a thickness of 0.3 mm. They can be stuck on strippers, intermediate rings, and dies.
Function

An adhesive pad prevents microscopic burrs on the die producing


scratches on the underside of the sheet.

1
2
3
4

Punch

Die

Sheet

Microscopic burr

Adhesive pad

Punching slugs

Function of the adhesive pad

T450EN.DOC

Fig. 28537

The sheet is brought into position, the punch is lowered.


The sheet is pressed onto the die, the punching stroke is
executed.
The adhesive pad has the effect of lifting the sheet from the die
after the upstroke. A microscopic burr on the die cannot create
any scratches.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

65

Allocation (Fig. 14754)

A: For size I dies, the intermediate ring is affixed with an


adhesive pad 62 / 96 mm, and the die set 0.050.1 mm
below the upper edge of the adhesive pad.

0 ,0 5 - 0 ,1 m m

B: Size II dies are affixed with adhesive pads 72 / 96 mm.


C: The illustrated special adhesive pads are available for dies
for rectangular, oblong and slitting tools.
D: The illustrated special adhesive pad is recommended for
square tools measuring 3050 mm edge length.
E: Only adhesive pads notched along the perimeter may be
affixed to strippers.

2 3

Intermediate ring

Die, size II

Adhesive pad

Stripper

Die, size I

Examples for adhesive pads

Procedure

Fig. 14754

66

Carefully degrease the die, intermediate ring, and stripper


(e.g. with Isopropanol) and remove all old gum residue.
Sharpen the tool where deemed necessary.
Affix the pad, properly centered and air-free. TRUMPF offers
the QuickPad gluing device(see p. 3) for attaching the pads to
strippers. Pads can be glued on dies and intermediate rings
manually.
For strippers, the inside contour must be cut out carefully with
a sharp knife.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

T450EN.DOC

Durability

T450EN.DOC

Select elevated working height: Set activityPRODUCTION


TablesSheet technologyParameter "non-scratch machining"
to "1".

The adhesive pads are highly durable depending on the material


thickness, how many cut-outs are punched etc. Damage does not
impair the scratch prevention properties, except that ragged
corners should be trimmed. In the course of a test material
thicknesses 0.53 mm, diverse materials, three-shift operation
the adhesive pads were in use for several weeks before they had
to be replaced.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

67

Slug retaining dies


Function

Slug retaining dies prevent the slug from being pulled up during the
upstroke of the punch.

Principle

Slug retaining dies have small grooves on the cutting surface. The
material "flows" into them due to the force exerted during the
punching stroke. If the cohesive force of the punch then pulls the
slug up along with it, the latter will be held fast in the grooves,
which run in opposite direction. Vacuum slug removal is deactivated when working with slug retaining dies.
Slug retaining dies can be used for punching but not for nibbling.
Angled tools (Whispertools) can be utilized.

Groove

Slug retaining die

Retrofitting

68

Fig. 14688

Your existing dies can be retrofitted at TRUMPF if they have a


minimum inside diameter or side length of 3 mm.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

T450EN.DOC

Additional measures
Dies and intermediate rings
with brush inserts

To further reduce scratching, dies and intermediate rings with


additional brush inserts are also available.

Brushes

Die with brush insert

Fig. 9793

Setting:
The brushes project about 1 mm above the die surface and bolster
the scratch reduction effect described above. In addition, the die
has a finely polished surface. Different versions of dies and
intermediate rings with brush inserts are available.
Multitool
Forming tools

Multitool dies can be fitted with adhesive padsof 72 x 96 mm.

T450EN.DOC

A modified (downward) extrusion tool is fitted with springloaded brush elements on the die for scratch prevention.
A tool with brush segments on the punch and die can be used
for slitting toolsin formed areas.
Forming tools with a higher ejector, e.g. cupping tools made of
AMCO, can be ordered. AMPCO is a relatively soft alloy whose
lubricating effect prevents the ejector from scratching the sheet
underside.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

69

5.3

The answer: combine different


measures

The most effective way to avoid scratches is to use a combination


of the following methods:
Roller- or brush tables...

TRUMPF offers two types of machining tables:


Tables fitted with rollers, which have proven most suitable for
working with sheets >3 mm.
Tables fitted with brushes, which have yielded the best results
in scratch prevention when processing sheets <3 mm.

...in combination with slug


retaining dies...

Both table versions can be ideally combined with slug retaining


dies. The vacuum system for slug removal should be deactivated
when working with these dies.

...and adhesive pads

Affixing adhesive pads on strippers and dies completes the array of


effective measures for scratch-free punching.
For this purpose, select the working height elevated by 1 mm,
because the adhesive pads on the stripper and die together are
0.6 mm thick: Set activityPRODUCTIONTablesSheet technologyParameter "non-scratch machining" to "1". Advantage of the
elevated height: larger clearance available for uneven sheets,
coupled with reduced wear on the pads.

70

Punching and nibbling without scratches

T450EN.DOC

5.4

Tips for practical operation

Adhesive pads

Affix adhesive pads to strippers and dies.

Daily cleaning

Proper care of tools is of crucial importance.


Clean the following daily: table surfaces, brushes, brush
segments (especially after working sheets with scales), and the
sheet support points on the machine.

Working with the active


presser foot

You can choose between active or passive presser foot. The


active presser foot holds the sheet down during the punching
operation. This prevents scratches being formed due to sheet
deformation. Adhesive pads can also be used with the active
presser foot.

Elevated working height

Select the working height (stripper 1 mm higher). This helps to


eliminate scratches on the upper side of the sheet caused by
the stripper, especially when working uneven sheets.

Additional measures

Keep tools sharp at all times (QuickSharp).


Use slug retaining dies, turn the slug vacuum off.
Punch and die must be precision aligned to each other to
prevent burring (QuickSet).
Check alignment between upper and lower tool adapter.
Check the setting of the brush fields close to the die; if
necessary, re-adjust or replace. Setting: 0.51 mm above the
die surface.
Polish the dies, strippers and repositioning surfaces (grain size
min. P360).
Make sure the brushes are set correctly on the dies and
intermediate rings.
Use polyamide-coated strippers.

T450EN.DOC

Punching and nibbling without scratches

71

5.5
Use level sheets

Other options

Avoid sheet deformation:


Choose the suitable punches and dies in relation to the
clearance: Tests have shown that both too small and too large
a clearance between punch and die lead to increased
deformation.
1

10

Deformation

Cutting clearance

15

20

25

30

35

s = 1.5 mm

(2 x clearance) in % of the
material thickness
Fig. 28538

Suitable sequence for tool deployment: e.g. pre-punching a cut


out with square tool, then finishing sequence for cut out using
slotting tool.

10

Deformed workpiece due to unfavorable processing


sequence

72

Fig. 5449

Use active presser foot.


Pre-punching and finish punching: e.g. pre-punch with round
tool 9.8 mm, finish punch with 10 mm.
Row-by-row processing reduces sheet deformation.
Use flat, even sheets (EN 29-81); if necessary, stipulate
tolerance limits that your supplier must meet.
Use sheets that have been stress-relief annealed.

Punching and nibbling without scratches

T450EN.DOC

T450EN.DOC

Use foil-coated sheets (e.g. polyethylene PE). No adhesive


pads are needed in this case.
Ample tool lubrication prevents cold welding effects, built-up
edges on the punch, and premature or excessive burr
formation.
As an additional measure, oil can be brushed on the underside
of the sheet (machines with roller tables only).

Punching and nibbling without scratches

73

6.

Flatness of sheets during punching


and nibbling

6.1

Introduction

When buying the sheets, the evenness is defined according to


DIN EN 10051 or DIN EN 10029. Additional deformations can arise
when machining the sheet on a punching machine. The degree of
deformation increases with the number of punching operations on
the sheet.
This results in a loss both in quality and accuracy, requiring
refinishing (straightening) and, in extreme cases, a risk of collision
at the machine between the sheet and tool. For this reason, it is
imperative that the sheet be kept as flat as possible while it is
being machined.
The causes of deformation are dealt with below and strategies for
reducing deformation are pointed out.

6.2
Deformation due to strains

Causes of deformation

The sheet may become deformed due to strains induced by the


punch and die in the immediate proximity of a punching operation.
These strains do not spread to the entire sheet.
During the punching process, the material is "compressed" by the
punch and die, until the punching capacity is great enough for the
slug to break through the die. However, the strains that such
"compression" produces in this area of the sheet persist, resulting
in deformation. As tests at TRUMPF have shown, the sheet
becomes flat again if the area of strain (approx. 1 mm for sheets
with material thickness of 2 mm) e.g. is removed by laser cutting.

2
1

Sheet

Strains, workpiece

Punch

Die

Strains, punching slugs

Strains

74

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

Fig. 28539

T450EN.DOC

The degree of deformation increases with the punching capacity


required. Pursuant to this, deformation increases with:
Thick sheets.
Hard material (stainless steel).
Dies that are too small or too large.
Blunt tools.
Deformation due to bending

Another cause for deformation is the bowing of the sheet between


punch and die during machining. This again results in strains.

1
1

Sheet

Die

3
3

Punch
Fig. 28540

Note
For better illustration, sheet bowing is exaggerated in Fig. 28540.

T450EN.DOC

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

75

6.3

Strategies for reducing deformation

Strategies for reducing deformation are described in the following:


Selection of suitable punches and dies.
Strain-free machining through correct choice of tools.
Use of the presser foot.
Pre-punching and finish punching.

Selection of suitable punches and dies


Sharp punches

The punch must be ground very sharp if the punching force (and
consequently the deformation) is to be reduced. Even better results
are attained by using Whispertools.

Clearance

Tests have shown that both too small and too large a clearance
between punch and die lead to increased deformation. A die which
may be ideal for minimizing sheet deformation can however, in
unfavorable situations, result in burr formation at the sheet edge.

Strain-free machining through correct tool


choice
In conventional machining of the sheet in Fig. 5449 (slitting tool,
with active presser foot), the deformation is approx. 10 mm.

Material thickness s: 2.5 mm

Punch: square 10 mm

Material: aluminum
Fig. 5449

On the other hand, if the cutouts are prepunched with a 8 mm


square tool and then finished with the slitting tool, the resulting
deformation is only about 5 mm.

76

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

T450EN.DOC

Use of the presser foot


Sheet deformation is reduced when the presser foot (stripper) is
used, because the presser foot holds the sheet flat down while it is
being machined.
Note
For soft materials such as copper or aluminum, the presser foot
may also produce the opposite effect as it presses the sheet,
causing the sheet to bow. On machines where the presser foot
pressure can be adjusted, the pressure should be lowered.
The following measures described below boost the effectiveness of
the presser foot:
Arching over the sheet.
Use of shims.
Chamfering the die.

T450EN.DOC

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

77

Arching over the sheet

This method reinforces the effect of the active presser foot. To do


this, the presser foot (stripper) must be able to arch a little over the
die. In the process, the sheet is "straightened" by the stripper
which bows slightly at its outer ends. A flat stripper is used in this
method, with the normal clearance between punch and stripper
(approx. 12 mm).

1
F

Presser foot force

Stripper

Sheet

Punch

Die
Fig. 28542

Note
For better illustration, stripper and sheet bowing is exaggerated in
Fig. 28542.
Strippers of older design with a thicker base cannot be used.
For the stripper and the sheet to be able to arch over the die, the
latter must be raised or chamfered as described in the following.

78

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

T450EN.DOC

Dies of size I with intermediate ring are underlaid about 0.3 mm


with shims.

0.3

Use of shims

1
1

Shim

Die (size I)

2
3

3
Intermediate ring
Fig. 28543

To enhance this effect, you can:


Underlay the die with shims higher than 0.3 mm.
Use a stripper with an opening of >60 mm (diameter of the die
size I). However, this is advisable only in sheets where s
>2 mm: due to the inadequate stripper action, the material may
be pulled upward on the punch upstroke.

T450EN.DOC

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

79

2
1

Stripper with opening <60 mm

Stripper with opening >60 mm

Presser foot force


Fig. 28544

Note
For better illustration, the arching of stripper and sheet is
exaggerated in the figure above.
Chamfering the die

In cases where the die cannot be underlaid with shims (e.g. for
dies of size II), the die can be chamfered to a pyramid shape.

0.3

New bevels
Fig. 28545

80

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

T450EN.DOC

The die is ground off 0.3 mm with the aid of the tool grinding
machine, the QuickSharp.
In this process, the die is shimmed in the grinding adapter on one
side and ground down except for an area of 35 mm around the
die opening; it is then turned 90 at a time and ground again in that
position. The result is a die with four evenly beveled faces.

Chamfered die

Fig. 5450

Pre- and post-punching


Sheet deformation can also be reduced by means of pre- and postpunching. In this method, just as in "strain-free machining", the
area of strain in the sheet is punched off. However, it must be
assured that only very little material will be removed by postpunching as new strains will otherwise appear in the sheet (i.e. the
punches used for pre- and post-punching vary only minimally in
diameter).
In testing, it was possible to reduce sheet deformation by half by
pre-punching with a round punch diameter 9.8 mm and postpunching with a tool 10.0 mm in diameter.

T450EN.DOC

Flatness of sheets during punching and nibbling

81

7.

Appendix

7.1

Operation of the hydraulic punching


head
6

7
5
8
9
4
3
10

A
B

Upper ram surface

Hydraulic valve

Lower ram surface

CNC control

Punch

Ram control

Ram

Stepping motor

Pinion

To the tank

Rack

10 From the pump

Schematic structure

Setting the ram position

82

Appendix

Fig. 28546

The control system specifies the distance of the ram above the
sheet surface. This distance is set via a stepping motor. In this
start position, the lower ram surface is under hydraulic pressure
before the punching stroke is executed.

T450EN.DOC

Executing the
punching stroke

The punching stroke is started by another signal from the control


system. The hydraulic valve for the linear amplifier is opened and
feeds a flow of oil to the ram surface which makes the ram travel
downwards. If the ram now touches the sheet, the hydraulic
pressure on the upper ram surface is automatically increased until
the sheet has been punched through. In addition, the hydraulic
pressure on the lower ram surface is switched off when a very
strong punching capacity requirement is needed.

Return stroke of ram

After punching through, the ram reaches its lowest position. The
hydraulic valve is then closed via mechanical regeneration, through
toothed rack and pinion gears. The ram is returned to the start
position by increasing the hydraulic pressure on the lower ram
surface while simultaneously sinking the pressure on the upper
ram surface.

T450EN.DOC

Appendix

83

7.2

Tables of maximum capacities

The maximum permissible dimensions for round and square tools


can, with and without shear, be referred to in the tables of
maximum capacities for four tensile strengths and varying material
thicknesses. For intermediate values of the material thickness and
tensile strength, either the next lowest table value should be
referred to or, otherwise, the tool dimension calculated according
to the following formulas:
maximum diameter for
round tools

Maximum edge length for


square tools

Maximum cutting perimeter


for randomly shaped or
cluster punching tools
without shearing bevel

84

Appendix

d max =

px
s 0.9 Rm

dmax
p
s
Rm
x

a max =

Maximum tool diameter (round) [mm]


Punching capacity [N]
Material thickness [mm]
Tensile strength [N/mm2]
Shearing factor (for tools without
Shearing bevel = 1)

px
4 s 0.9 Rm

amax
p
s
Rm
x

LMax =
Lmax
P
S
Rm

Maximum edge length (square) [mm]


Punching capacity [N]
Material thickness [mm]
Tensile strength [N/mm2]
Shearing factor (for tools without
Shearing bevel = 1)

p
s 0.9 Rm
Maximum cutting perimeter [mm]
Punching capacity [N]
Material thickness [mm]
Tensile strength [N/mm2]

T450EN.DOC

7.3

Feed step

The feed step for nibbling must be separately selected according to


the tool deployed. The feed step is adjusted according to the
desired roughness depth. At the same time, you have to
differentiate between round tools, square- and rectangular tools
and slitting tools, oblong tools and tools with corner radius.
Depth of roughness

Nibble edge

Fig. 28520

If a contour is nibbled using a round tool, the nibble edge shows a


roughness (depth of roughness) which correlates with the selected
feed step. When a smaller feed step is used, the quality of the
nibble edge improves, i.e. the roughness will be less.

T450EN.DOC

Appendix

85

Round tools
The optimum feed step for round tools can be read in the following
roughness-depth diagram.

Rt

Roughness depth [mm]

Rd coarse

Punch diameter [mm]

Rd medium

Rt fine

Spp Feed step [mm/stroke]


Roughness-depth diagram

Fig. 19497

The following rule-of-thumb formula applies for the minimum feed


step:

Spp min = 0.5 s


Sppmin
s

Minimum feed step [mm/stroke]


Material thickness [mm]

The rest is differentiated according to linear and circular feed step.


The linear feed step follows a straight path, the circular feed step
follows a circle.

86

Appendix

T450EN.DOC

Rt

Linear feed step

Spp

Spp Feed step [mm]


Rt

Roughness depth [mm]

Tool diameter [mm]


Fig. 28547

The linear feed step can also be calculated according to the


following equation:

Spplinear = 4 Rt (D Rt )
Spplinear

Linear feed step [mm/stroke]

Tool diameter [mm]

Rt

Roughness depth [mm]

Circular feed step

Rt

Rt

Roughness depth [mm]

Tool diameter [mm]

R2

R1

Spp
Spp Feed step [mm]

R1 Radius of the tool center point


path [mm]
R2 Radius of the workpiece
edge [mm]
Fig. 13198

T450EN.DOC

Appendix

87

The circular feed step per stroke can be calculated according to


the following equation:

Spp circular = Spplinear

R1
R2

Sppcircular

Circular feed step [mm/stroke]

R1

Radius of the tool center point path [mm]

R2

Radius of the workpiece edge [mm]

Square- and rectangular tools


Minimum feed step

B /2

V R

L /3
L

Punch length [mm]

Punch width [mm]

VR Feed step direction


Fig. 3678

The following rule-of-thumb formula applies for the minimum feed


step:

Sppmin =
Sppmin
L

L
3
Minimum feed step [mm/stroke]
Punch length [mm]

Note
In the X- or Y-direction, half of the punch must be contact.
For a lateral feed rate, the ratio L : B > 3 is to be avoided.

88

Appendix

T450EN.DOC

Maximum feed step

L
2 m m

Punch length [mm]


Fig. 0330

The following rule-of-thumb formula applies for the maximum feed


step:

Sppmax = L 2mm
Sppmax

Maximum feed step [mm/stroke]

Punch length [mm]

Slitting tools, oblong tools, tools with corner radius


The following rule-of-thumb formulas apply for the minimum and
maximum feed step:

Sppmin =

Minimum feed step

L
2

Sppmin
L

Maximum feed step

Minimum feed step [mm/stroke]


Length of the punch [mm]

Sppmax = L (2 R ) 1mm
Sppmax
R

Maximum feed step [mm/stroke]


Radius of the punch [mm]

Note
The punch must always operate with the whole width. When
cutting strips, the minimum width of the strip is 10 mm. If the
minimum width is not reached, the deformation of the strip causes
lateral forces to affect the punch, and thereby induce a reduction of
its service life.

T450EN.DOC

Appendix

89

7.4

Tensile strength

The most important materials with their tensile-strength range are


listed below. If the actual tensile strength is not known, you can
count on the maximum tensile strength of the tolerance range
(column "Tensile strength Rm range".
Mild steels

Abbreviation
(DIN EN 10025)
St 33

Material number
(DIN EN 10025)
1.0035

Tensile strength Rm
[N/mm2] range
290-540

St 37-2

1.0037

340-510

St 37-3

1.0116

340-510

St 44-2

1.0044

410-580

St 44-3

1.0144

410-580

St 52-3

1.0570

510-680

St 50-2

1.0050

470-660

St 60-2

1.0060

570-770

St 70-2

1.0070

670-900
Tab. 16

Nonrusting- and
acidproof steels

90

Appendix

Abbreviation
(DIN 17440)
X 7 Cr 13

Material number
(DIN 17440)
1.4000

Tensile strength Rm
[N/mm2] range
700

X 7 CrAl 13

1.4002

450-700

X 10 Cr 13

1.4006

550-750

X 15 Cr 13

1.4024

650-800

X 20 Cr 13

1.4021

650-950

X 40 Cr 13

1.4034

-800

X 45 CrMoV 15

1.4116

-900

X 8 Cr 17

1.4016

450-600

X 8 CrTi 17

1.4510

450-600

X 8 CrNb 17

1.4511

450-600

X 6 CrMo 17

1.4113

450-650

X 12 CrMoS 17

1.4104

550-850

X 22 CrNi 17

1.4057

850-950

X 12 CrNiS 18 8

1.4305

500-700

X 5 CrNi 18 9

1.4301

500-700

X 5 CrNi 19 11

1.4303

500-700

X 2 CrNi 18 9

1.4306

450-700

X 10 CrNiTi 18 9

1.4541

500-750

X 10 CrNiNb 18 9

1.4550

500-750

X 5 CrNiMo 18 10

1.4401

500-700

X 2 CrNiMo 18 10

1.4404

450-700

X 10 CrNiMoNb 1810

1.4580

500-750

X 5 CrNiMo 18 12

1.4436

500-700

X 2 CrNiMo 18 12

1.4435

450-700

X 2 CrNiMo 18 16

1.4438

500-700

X 2 CrNiN 18 10

1.4311

550-750

T450EN.DOC

Abbreviation
(DIN 17440)
X 2 CrNiMoN 18 12

Material number
(DIN 17440)
1.4406

Tensile strength Rm
[N/mm2] range
600-800

X 2 CrNiMoN 18 13

1.4429

600-800
Tab. 17

Copper and copper alloys

Abbreviation
(DIN 17670)
SW - Cu

SF Cu

CuZn5

Material number
(DIN 17670)
2.0076

Tensile strength Rm
[N/mm2] range

2.0090
F20

.10

200-250

F22

.10

220-260

F24

.26

240-300

F29

.30

290-360

F36

.32

360

F23

2.0220.10

230-280

F28

2.0220.26

280-340

CuZn37 F30

2.0335.10

300-370

F37

2.0335.26

370-440

F54

2.0335.32

540-610

CuZn40 F34

2.0360.10

340

F41

.26

410

F47

.30

470
Tab. 18

T450EN.DOC

Appendix

91

Aluminum and
aluminum alloys

Abbreviation
(DIN EN 485)
Al 99.8 F10

Material number
(DIN EN 485)
3.0285 .26

Tensile strength Rm
[N/mm2] range
100-140

Al 99.8

F12

3.0285

.30

120-160

Al 99.7

F10

3.0275

.26

100-140

Al 99.7

F12

3.0275

.30

120-160

Al 99.5

F8

3.0255

.07

75-110

F9

.24

90-130

F11

.26

110-150

F13

.30

130-170

AlMn1

F15

.32

F12

3.0515

F14

.26

140-180

F17

.30

165-205

AlMnCu F13

3.0517

F15

AlMg1

AlMg3

.24

.26

F17
AlMn1Mg1

150
.24

3.0526

125-165
145-185

.28
F19

120-160

170-210
.24

190-230

F22

.26

220-260

F26

.28

240-280

F13

3.3315

F15

.26

145-185

F17

.28

165-205

F22

3.3535

F24

.26

F27

.28

AlMgSi1 F21

3.2315

.24

.24

125-165

220-260
240-280
265-305

.51

205

F28

.71

275

F30

.72

295

AlCuMg1 F39
AlCuSiMn

F40

3.1325

.51

390

3.1255

.51

400
Tab. 19

92

Appendix

T450EN.DOC

Index
Die with brush inserts............................. 40, 69
Drives..................................................... 19, 20

A
Active presser foot ... 26, 33, 39, 42, 45, 61, 71,
72, 76, 78
Adhesive pad ..............................52, 65, 69, 70
Alignment ring...................................30, 37, 50
Aluminum....................................31, 45, 77, 92
Arching over the sheet ............................77, 78

B
Ball rollers.....................................................20
Ball rollers, liftable.........................................21
Bolt circle ........................................................9
Bowing of the sheet ......................................75
Brush ......................................................47, 69
Brush segment..............................................69
Brush tables............................................64, 70
Brushes ..................................................20, 71
Built-up edge ................................................45
Built-up edges...............................................73
Burr formation ...................................71, 73, 76

E
Ejector.......................................................... 69
Electronic punching tool catalog............. 47, 54
Embossing ............................................. 13, 47
Evenness of the sheet.................................. 39
Execution ..................................................... 21

F
Feed step............................................... 12, 85
Feed step, circular ....................................... 87
Feed step, linear .......................................... 87
Feed step, maximum ................................... 89
Feed step, minimum .................................... 88
Finish punching............................................ 72
Foil-coated sheets........................................ 73
Forming.......................9, 13, 26, 45, 46, 47, 69
Forming tool ..................................9, 26, 46, 69

G
Gluing device ......................................... 52, 66

Cartridge type ...............................................26


Cartridge, see Tool cartridge ........................26
Chutes, fixed.................................................23
Clearance ................. 35, 40, 43, 59, 60, 72, 76
Cold welding .....................................31, 45, 73
Coordinate guide ..............................18, 19, 20
Copper....................................................77, 91
Cut out ............................................................8
Cut-out punching ..........................................23
Cutting clearance..........................................72

Deformation of the sheet.........................74, 81


Depth of roughness ......................................85
Die ..............................................30, 40, 51, 70

Insertion aid ................................................. 21


Intermediate ring with brush inserts ............. 69

T450EN.DOC

Heat transmission ........................................ 45


Hit rate ................................................... 56, 58
Hole grids....................................................... 9
HSS super-speed steel .................... 12, 31, 37

Appendix

93

Koordinatenfhrunge ....................................39

Paper punching tool catalog......................... 54


Part removal ................................................ 23
Parts flap...................................................... 23
Passive presser foot ........................ 33, 39, 71
Path - time diagram...................................... 58
Peel off......................................................... 22
Perforating ..................................................... 8
Polyamide-coated strippers.......................... 71
Post-punching .............................................. 81
Pre-punching.......................................... 72, 81
Presser foot ..........................39, 59, 76, 77, 78
Press-set...................................................... 52
Processing

processing, row-by-row.......................... 72
Punch....................................11, 30, 31, 33, 51
Punch dimensions, maximum .......... 34, 42, 84
Punch dimensions, minimum ....................... 42
Punch marking ............................................. 13
Punching............... 8, 10, 15, 42, 47, 56, 62, 74
Punching capacity.......9, 37, 40, 46, 54, 75, 83
Punching force stage ................................... 16
Punching slug ................................................ 8
Punching slugs......................40, 43, 65, 68, 74
Punching tool, see Tool................................ 12
Push out, row-by-row ................................... 23
Push-out stripper.......................................... 39

L
Linear magazine .....................................21, 27

tool ...................................................21, 30

workpiece clamps.................18, 19, 21, 25


Linearmagazin ..............................................18

Spannpratzen .........................................39

Werkzeug ...............................................18
Loading the machine ....................................21
Long punch...................................................33
Loudness ......................................................57
Lubrication ............................ 35, 45, 46, 60, 73

M
Magnetic plate ..............................................34
Marking...................................................13, 47
Material class..........................................56, 59
Material thickness . 9, 12, 35, 42, 54, 56, 60, 86
Microscopic burrs..........................................64
Mild steel ..........................................37, 59, 62
Multitool ........................................9, 25, 47, 69

N
Nachsetzen...................................................39
Needle punch ...............................................31
Nibbling..................... 11, 37, 42, 45, 57, 62, 85
Nibbling punch ..............................................42
Nibbling tool..................................................12
Noise level ....................................................57
Noise reduction............... 32, 46, 56, 57, 59, 60

Ram ..........................12, 17, 20, 45, 56, 82, 83


Ram position .......................................... 45, 82
Ram surface .......................................... 82, 83
Regrind length.................................... 9, 34, 49
Regrinding ....................................... 33, 46, 48
Relative position........................................... 37
Repositioning ................................... 22, 25, 26
Repositioning cylinder .................................. 26
Roller ........................................................... 70
Rollers.................................................... 64, 73
Rotary axis................................................... 17
Roughness............................................. 45, 85
Roughness tolerance ................................... 12
Roughness-depth diagram........................... 86
Row of holes .................................................. 9
RTC cartridge......................................... 26, 30

Outer circle diameter ..........................9, 25, 42

S
Scratch-free machining .......................... 40, 47

94

Index

T450EN.DOC

Service life ..............................................46, 89


Shape punch ................................................37
Shear factor ..................................................35
Shearing .........................................................8
Shearing bevel............ 9, 33, 34, 48, 59, 68, 84
Shearing factor .............................................84
Shearing-breakage ratio .........................43, 44
Sheet deformation ......................13, 43, 71, 72
Sheet quality.................................................21
Sheet weight .............................................9, 26
Shims......................................................41, 79
Size group ....................................................30
Slitting.........................................42, 46, 47, 62
Slitting tool ..................................66, 69, 76, 89
Slug retaining die ........................40, 68, 70, 71
Softpunch .....................................................56
Softpunch stage......................................56, 61
Solid punch...................................................31
Special tool ...................................................47
Stainless steel................. 31, 37, 45, 59, 62, 75
Stepping motor .............................................82
Stock list .......................................................55
Strain-free machining..............................76, 81
Stripper .. 17, 30, 39, 45, 51, 52, 65, 66, 70, 77,
78, 79
Stroke rate ..............................9, 12, 16, 56, 61

T
Table of maximum capacities .................34, 36
Table of maximum capacity ..........................84
Table of stroke rates .......................................9
Technical information....................................47
Tensile strength .............. 31, 34, 36, 42, 84, 90
TICN-coating ..........................................12, 31

T450EN.DOC

Tool.. 12, 17, 21, 26, 27, 30, 42, 46, 48, 54, 76,
84
Tool adapter................................21, 25, 30, 71
Tool cartridge ..................21, 26, 30, 34, 37, 51
Tool infos ..................................................... 47
Tool length ....................................... 34, 39, 50
Tool life ........................................................ 12
Tool set .................................................. 18, 30
Tool setup list............................................... 27
Tool storage ................................................. 27
Tool type ...................................................... 59
Tools ............................................................ 42
Trim.............................................................. 22
GripMaster 5000 .......................................... 29
SheetMaster 1305/1605............................... 29
SortMaster Pallet ......................................... 29
SortMaster Box ............................................ 29
StoreMaster ................................................. 29

V
Variable forming height ................................ 22

W
Whispertool, also see Shearing bevel ... 32, 33,
46, 59, 62, 68
Whispertool, also seeShearing bevel ........... 76
Whispertool, see also Shearing bevel .......... 59
Working height ........................9, 58, 67, 70, 71
Workpiece clamps.......................18, 19, 21, 25

Index

95

96

Index

T450EN.DOC