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10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS

SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

ABSTRACT
OF PRESENTATION
10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS
SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
25 27th August 2014
Hotel Perdana, Kota Bharu,
Kelantan, Malaysia

Organised by
Sports Science Unit
School of Medical Sciences
Univeristi Sains Malaysia
Kota Bahru
Kelantan
Malaysia

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
TABLE OF CONTENT
NOS

NAME OFPRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

PAGE

Oral 1

Chin Ngien-Siong

Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kampus


Tun Abdul Razak, Malaysia

10

Oral 2

Hazliza Razali

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,


Malaysia

11

Oral 3

Tirata Bhasavanija

Ramkhamhaeng University,
Thailand

12

Oral 4

Keyvan Molanorouzi

Islamic Azad University


Islamshahr Branch

13

Oral 5

Shazlin Shaharudin

Universiti Sains Malaysia

14

Oral 6

Ardalan Shariat

University Putra Malaysia

15

Oral 7

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

16

Oral 8

Diyana Zulaikha Abdul


Ghani
Mehdi Kargarfard

University of Isfahan, Iran

17

Oral 9

Aida Roha

Universiti Teknologi MARA,


Malaysia

18

Oral 10

Sedigheh Moghaddam

Universiti Sains Malaysia

19

Oral 11

Adam Abdul Malik

Universiti Sains Malaysia

20

Oral 12

Ru Peneyra

ADOLESCENT ATHLETES EXPECTANCY


BELIEFS, TASK VALUES, INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION, EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
AND AMOTIVATION IN SPORTS
MUSIC TRAINING (ZIKR) IS SUPERIOR
TO AUTOGENIC AND PROGRESSIVE
MUSCLE RELAXATION TRAINING TO
INCREASE ENDURANCE LEVEL AMONG
UNIVERSITI SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDINS
ATHLETES
COMPARISON OF BODY-TEMPERATURE,
OXYGEN-SATURATION, AND HEARTRATE AMONG REST, PRACTICE,
STRETCH, AND IMAGERY IN YOUTH
TAKRAW ATHLETES
RELIGION
DIFFERENCES
IN
MOTIVATION
TO
PARTICIPATE
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN WOMEN WITH
HIJAB AND WITHOUT HIJAB
MUSCLE SYNERGY DURING WINGATE
ANAEROBIC
ROWING
TEST
OF
COLLEGIATE ROWERS AND UNTRAINED
SUBJECTS
ASSESSMENT
THE
ISOMETRIC
CONTRACTION OF QUADRICEPS AND
VERTICAL JUMP IN RESPONSE TO SOFT
TISSUE MASSAGE AMONG MALE
JUDOISTS
FOREHAND STROKE ANALYSES IN
SQUASH
THE EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF WATERBASED EXERCISE ON THE LOWER LIMB
MUSCLES STRENGTH IN PATIENTS
WITH PARKINSON
ASSESSING THE ATTITUDE OF PUBLIC
TOWARDS INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE
WITH DISABILITY IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
INFLUENCE OF TWELVE WEEKS
COMBINED AEROBIC EXERCISE AND
MILK SUPPLEMENTATION ON BLOOD
LIPIDS IN FEMALE STUDENTS
DETERMINATION
OF
EXERCISE
INTENSITY AND AFFECTIVE RESPONSE
ON SELECTED TRADITIONAL GAMES
LOW-IMPACT DANCE-BASED PHYSICAL
ACTIVITY: IS IT INTENSE ENOUGH TO
PROVIDE CARDIOVASCULAR BENEFITS?

University of the Philippines


Diliman

21

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
NOS

NAME OF PRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

PAGE

Oral 13

Khairal Afiq Jamal Abdul Haziq

Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia

22

Oral 14

Siti Sakinah Ismail

Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia

23

Oral 15

G Vasanthi

Pondicherry Central
University, India

24

Oral 16

Eman Ahmed Karud

Universiti Sains Malaysia

25

Oral 17

Syahrul Ridhwan Morazuki

Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia

26

Oral 18

Jonathan Cagas

University of the
Philippines, Diliman

27

Oral 19

Mohd Nazri Azeli


Asai Kailas

Oral 21

Tahereh Bagherpour

Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia
University of Mumbai,
India
Universiti Sains Malaysia

28

Oral 20

Oral 22

How Peck Ngor

National Sport Institute of


Malaysia

31

Oral 23

Hossein Analuie

Universiti Sains Malaysia

32

Oral 24

Mahmoud Alomari

Jordan University of
Science and Technology

33

Oral 25

Ayu Suzailiana Muhamad

Universiti Sains Malaysia

34

Oral 26

Nur Atiqah Wadiah Azmi

EFFECT OF POST EXERCISE ACTIVE


RECOVERY AND CRYOTHERAPY RECOVERY
ON HEART RATE AMONG ROAD CYCLING
RACE ATHLETES
THE EFFECT OF SPORTS MASSAGE ON
LACTIC ACID LEVEL AMONG NATIONAL
WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL ATHLETES
ANALYSIS OF SELECTED HEMATOLOGICAL
VARIABLES DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE
PHASES BETWEEN SEDENTARY AND
SPORTS WOMEN
THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE BOUT OF SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE DURING RAMADAN
FASTING AMONG SEDENTARY UNIVERSITY
STUDENTS
CHALLENGES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF
AEROBIC FITNESS TRAINING AMONG
MALAYSIAN
TENNIS
COACHES:
A
PRELIMINARY STUDY
INTRA-TEAM COMMUNICATION IN MIXEDGENDER SPORT: DO MALE AND FEMALE
ATHLETES COMMUNICATE DIFFERENTLY?
THE SPECIAL JUDO FITNESS TEST (SJFT)
PERFORMANCE OF MALAYSIAN JUDOKAS
EFFECT OF LEZIUM TRAINING PROGRAMME
ON PHYSICAL FITNESS OF BOYS
THE
EFFECTS
OF
TWO
MONTHS
PSYCHOLOGICAL
TRAINING
ON
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) AMONG
ATHLETES
COPING AND EMOTIONS AMONG MALAYSIAN
NATIONAL YOUTH TENPIN BOWLERS: DO
THEY COPE EFFECTIVELY?
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL
TOUGHNESS, ANXIETY AND ACTION
ANTICIPATION
FORCED AND VOLUNTARY EXERCISES
EQUALLY IMPROVE SPATIAL LEARNING AND
MEMORY AND HIPPOCAMPAL BDNF LEVELS
THE
EFFECTS
OF
KALOBA
SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE LEUKOCYTES
AND SALIVARY IGA IN RESPONSE TO
PROLONGED EXERCISE
EFFECTS OF CHOCOLATE MALT DRINK
CONSUMPTION COMBINED WITH AEROBIC
DANCE EXERCISE ON BLOOD BONE
TURNOVER MARKERS AND ANTIOXIDANT
ENZYMES IN YOUNG FEMALES

Universiti Sains Malaysia

35

29
30

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
NOS

NAME OF PRESENTER

Oral 27

Gupta Ramesh

Oral 28

Fadzel Wong Chee Ping

Oral 29

Nurul Ain Abu Kasim

Oral 30

Nik Azma Hanin Nik Ismail

Oral 31

Nur Hasanah Ruslan

Oral 32

Juliana Johan John

Oral 33

Rajeswaran STN

Oral 34

Sharifah Maimunah
Muhd Puad

Oral 35

Ardalan Shariat

Oral 36

Nabila Adha Hasan

Oral 37

Nur Hidayah Ilyas

Oral 38

Asmadi Ishak

Oral 39

Nima Garahdaghi

Syed

TITLE

INSTITUTION

WE ARE WHAT WE EAT=TAURINE ;


COMPONENT OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD &
NUTRACEUTICALS - ELEVATED LEVEL IN
EXERCISE: FROM ENERGY BOOSTER TO
ALLEVIATION OF AGEING
EFFECT OF 8-WEEK BEE BREAD
SUPPLEMENTATION ON RUNNING TIME
TRIAL PERFORMANCE
EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK
SUPPLEMENTATION COMBINED WITH
RESISTANCE TRAINING ON ISOKINETIC
MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND WINGATE
ANAEROBIC POWER IN YOUNG MALES
ENRICHING PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILL
TRAINING TO ENHANCE CONCENTRATION IN
ARCHERS
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL
EDUCATION ENJOYMENT AND EXERCISE
HABIT STRENGTH AMONG SELECTED
SECONDARY ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SCHOOL IN
JOHOR
THE EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING AND
PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION ON
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND
BOWLING PERFORMANCE
PREDICTING COMPETITIVENESS OF WOMEN
BASKETBALL PLAYERS USING PROFILE OF
MOOD STATES AND SPORTS ORIENTATION
ATTITUDE
EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES PROGRESSIVE
MUSCLE RELAXATION ON SELECTED
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND
PSYCHOMOTOR PARAMETERS FOLLOWING
REPEATED SUB-MAXIMAL INTENSITY
EXERCISE
EFFECTS OF 12 WEEKS OF COMBINED
EXERCISE TRAINING ON ADIPOCYTOKINES
AND HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE
PROTEIN IN OBESE WOMEN PATIENTS WITH
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE BETWEEN
FOLLICULAR AND LUTEAL PHASE AMONG
EUMENORRHEIC FEMALES
STEP TEST AND HEART RATE

Nagaland University, India

36

Universiti Sains Malaysia

37

Universiti Sains Malaysia

38

National Sport Institute of


Malaysia

39

Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia

40

Universiti Sains Malaysia

41

Bharathiar University,
India

42

Universiti Sains Malaysia

43

University Putra Malaysia

44

Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia

45

Univesiti Teknologi
Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia

46

University of Tehran, Iran

48

THE EFFECTS OF 2-WEEKS EXPONENTIAL


TAPER ON SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND
BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG JUNIOR
CYCLISTS
THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL
TRAINING ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC
INDICES IN SOCCER PLAYERS

PAGE

47

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
NOS

NAME OF PRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

PAGE

Oral 40

Nurul Aimy Kamal

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

49

Oral 41

Junaidy Mohamad Hashim


Muhamad Hafiz Ismail

Institut
Pendidikan
Guru
Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim,
Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

50

Oral 42
Oral 43

Nurul Hidayah Amir

Universiti Sains Malaysia

52

Oral 44

Nur Hafizah Kamaruddin


Nur Ezzaini Mohd Nor

National Sport Institute of


Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

53

Oral 45

Oral 46

Lee Yuin Yi

Universiti Malaya

55

Oral 47

Nur Zieta Syaidatul Akma Azizi

Oral 48

Siti Khadijah Lokman

Oral 49

Puneet Nivrutti Aute

Oral 50

Mazuin Adnan

Oral 51

Rozaliana Jepiridin

Oral 52

Choo Morley Liza

Oral 53

Mehdi Kargarfard

Oral 54

Mahmoud Alomari

BABY WEARING DAN PENGGUNAAN


OKSIGEN (VO2)
NORMA PRESTASI KECERGASAN FIZIKAL
PENGADIL RAGBI BERASASKAN BATERI
UJIAN PRUDENTIAL FITNESSGRAM
MENGENAL PASTI BAKAT SUKAN BOLA
SEPAK DALAM KALANGAN PELAJAR
LELAKI BERUMUR 14 DAN 15 TAHUN
COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF
SINGLE BOUT OF 15 MINUTES COLD
WATER
IMMERSION
AND
EMG
BIOFEEDBACK ON DELAYED-ONSET
MUSCLE
SORENESS
(DOMS)
INDICATORS
DYSMENORRHEA: A PILOT STUDY IN
FEMALE MALAYSIAN ATHLETES
REVIEWING
AGILITY
TESTING
INSTRUMENTS:
PROPOSAL
FOR
PRODUCING REACTIVE AGILITY TEST
FOR NETBALL GAME
TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION OF THE
MALAY VERSION OF SJWS AND CSEQ: A
REVIEW
OF
PSYCHOMETRIC
PROPERTIES
EXPLORING THE MEASUREMENT OF
ATTITUDE, SUBJECTIVE NORMS AND
PERCEIVED BEHAVIOURAL CONTROL IN
PREDICTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG
BANK WORKING WOMEN
DEVELOPING A NEW FUNDAMENTAL
MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST: IDENTIFYING
CONSTRUCT,
ELEMENTS
AND
SELECTION OF ITEMS
DEVELOPMENT OF TEST MEASURING
MUSCULAR AND SPEED ENDURANCE OF
ATHLETES
HABITUAL PARTICIPATION ON PHYSICAL
ACTIVITIES AMONG POSTGRADUATE
SPORTS SCIENCE STUDENTS OF
MEASURING THE DETERMINANTS OF
ONLINE SHOPPING INTENTION AMONG
MALAYSIAN FOOTBALL FANS
DETERMINATION OF INTENSITY LEVEL
BETWEEN SELECTED TRADITIONAL
GAMES AMONG Z GENERATION
PREVALENCE OF FEAR OF FALLING AND
ITS CORRELATION WITH BALANCE AND
QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG OLDER
ADULTS
VASCULAR EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUSRELATED PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE
ELDERLY

Universiti
Malaysia

Teknologi

MARA,

51

54

56

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

57

Vibgyor High,Pune, India

58

Universiti Sains Malaysia

59

Universiti
Malaysia

Teknologi

MARA,

60

Universiti Sains Malaysia

61

University of Isfahan, Iran

62

Jordan University of Science


and Technology

63

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014
NOS

NAME OF PRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

PAGE

Oral 55

Masri Baharom

Oral 56

Siti Ajar Md Noh

Institut Pendidikan Guru,


Kampus Sultan Abdul
Halim, Malaysia
Institut Pendidikan Guru,
Kampus Gaya, Malaysia

Oral 57

Shamierul Afieda Md Ghani

PERKEMBANGAN KEMAHIRAN LOKOMOTOR


KANAK-KANAK AWAL PERSEKOLAHAN DI
NEGERI PULAU PINANG
KESAHAN DAN KEBOLEHPERCAYAAN ITEM
BAGI
INSTRUMEN
SIKAP
TERHADAP
PENDIDIKAN JASMANI BERDASARKAN MODEL
PENGUKURAN RASCH APLIKASI WINSTEPS
BABYWEARING DAN PENGGUNAAN TENAGA

Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia

66

Oral 58

Farzaneh Narmenji

Alzahra University, Iran

67

Oral 59

Nihaya Al-sheyab

Jordan University of
Science and Technology

68

Oral 60

Rakhshan Emadi

Islamic Azad University,


Iran

69

Oral 61

Hashemvarzi Seyed Abdollah

Islamic Azad University,


Iran

70

Oral 62

Malathi Balakrishnan
Asrenee Abdul Razak

Institut Pendidikan Guru,


Kampus Pendidikan
Teknikal, Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia

71

Oral 63
Oral 64

Wan Mohd Norsyam


Norfaezah Mohd Rosli

Oral 66

Fadhel Kamel Mathkor

Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia
Mustansiriya University,
Iraq

73

Oral 65

COMPARING THE EFFECT OF ATTRIBUTIONAL


FEEDBACK ON FINE AND GROSS TASKS UNDER
PRESSURE
THE FEASIBILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF A
SCHOOL-BASED, PEER-LED EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAM AIMING AT IMPROVING NUTRITIONAL
INTAKE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIORS
AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN NORTHERN JORDAN
EFFECTS OF EXERCISE-BASED CARDIAC
REHABILITATION ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL,
BODY MASS AND BODY MASS
THE EFFECT OF AHA-ACSM EXERCISE
TRAINING PRESCRIPTION ON HEMATOLOGICAL,
IMMUNOLOGICAL
AND
COAGULATION
PARAMETERS IN YOUNG SEDENTARY MEN
PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY IN GAMES WITH
TGFU APPROACH
PROMOTING SOCIAL INCLUSION AMONG
ADOLESCENTS
THROUGH
COMMUNITY
SOCCER
PHYSICAL FITNESS PROFILE AMONG AVIATION
CADETS IN MALAYSIA: A PRELIMINARY REPORT
PUBLIC RECREATIONAL PARK ACCESSIBILITIES
AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES
THE
AEROBIC
CAPACITY
AND
ITS
RELATIONSHIP
WITH
ANTHROPOMETRIC
MEASUREMENTS AND HEART RATE RESERVE
FOR SECOND STAGE STUDENT OF SPORT
SCIENCE COLLEGE

64
65

72

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

NOS

NAME OF PRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

Poster 1

Amritpal Singh

Kinematical Analysis Of Arm Swing And Ball Velocity Of


Spikers In Volleyball

Poster 2

Ardalan Shariat

Poster 3

Ayu Suzailiana
Muhamad

Poster 4
Poster 5

Ayu Suzailiana
Muhamad
Garry Kuan

Poster 6

Hungu Jung

Poster 7

Kazuaki Mochida

Poster 8

Kesinee Saelao

Poster 9

Patrick Kor

Poster 10

Melih Salman

Assessment Of Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain In


Response To Moderate Exercises: A Systematic Review
Effects of a 14-strain Probiotic Supplement on Salivary
Antimicrobial Proteins at Rest and in Response to an Acute
Bout of Prolonged Exercise
The Effects of Stimulant Dose on Whole Blood Culture
Cytokine Production
Music and Mindfulness Imagery: The Psycho-Physiological
Perspectives
Effects Of Range Of Motion And Physical Performance On
Quality Of Life Among People Aged 65 Years Or Older
Development Of The Japanese Version Of Sport
Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale
Effects Of Weight And Plyometric Training On Leg Muscle
Power In Female Thai National Volleyball Players
The Health Benefits Of Tai Chi On Patients With Heart
Failure: A Systematic Review
Determination Of The Opinions Of Some Sports Members
On Defining The Success Level Of Turkish Sports

Chaudary Devi Lal,


University Sirsa,
Haryana, India
Universiti Putra
Malaysia
University Sains
Malaysia

Poster 11

Masayuki Hirota

Mathematical Classification in Kendo

Poster 12

Mazlina Mahmood

Poster 13

Mitsuru Taketani

Intervensi Meningkatkan Penglibatan Orang Dewasa Dalam


Aktiviti Fizikal
Mathematical Classification in Grand Sumo

Poster 14

Nabhan Hameed

Poster 15

Nur Fasya Ibrahim

The Impact Velocities Varied Training Method On Some


Physical Abilities And Functional Indicators Have Players
Handball
Selected Traditional Games Create Enjoyment Among
Children

PAGE
76
77
78

University Sains
Malaysia
Universiti Sains
Malaysia
Hiroshima
University,Japan
Kobe University,
Japan
Sports Authority of
Thailand
The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University
Aksaray University
School of Physical
Education and Sports,
Turkey
College of Industrial
Technology, Japan
Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia
College of Industrial
Technology, Japan
University of
Anbar,Iraq

79

Universiti Sains
Malaysia.

90

80
81
82
83
84
85

86
87
88
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10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


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NAME OF PRESENTER

TITLE

INSTITUTION

PAGE

Poster 16

Nur Syafika Mohd Sukuri

An Analysis Of Bowling Scores

91

Poster 17

Nurfadilah Darmansah

Poster 18

Nurul Rafeeda Saarani


Putri Haryati Ibrahim

Poster 20

Rozaliana Jepiridin

Poster 21
Poster 22

Siti Rabiatul Adawiyah


Mahasan
Siti Sri Dalimah Suhaimi

Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia
International Islamic
University Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi
MARA, Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia

93

Poster 19

Integrating Visual Analysis System Into Fundamental


Movement
Assessment
Instrument:
Preliminary
Development Of CEKAP Visual
Rekacipta Alat Teng Teng Board Untuk Kanak-kanak
Sindrom Down
Cost Analysis Between Conventional Turfing And Synthetic
Turfing For Football Field
Determinants Of Online Shopping Intention Among
Malaysian Football Malaysian Fans
Status Fisiologi Babywearer: Kajian Eksploratori

Universiti Sains
Malaysia.
1Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia

Poster 23

Garry Kuan

Universiti Sains
Malaysia.

98

Poster 24

Kazushi Takami

Kobe University,Japan

99

Concurrent Validity During Test Development: Steps Taken


In Selecting Appropriate Standard Fundamental Movement
Skills Instruments
Effect of Traditional Malay Music, Western Classical Music
and No Music during Imagery on Novices Archery
Performance
Relationship between Childhood Play Experience and
Current Exercise Habit among College Students

92

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10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 1

Adolescent Athletes Expectancy Beliefs, Task Values, Intrinsic


Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation in Sports
*1

Chin, N.S., 2Teo, E.W.

Institute of Teacher Education Tun Abdul Razak Campus, Sarawak


2
Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

*ngiensiong@gmail.com
Introduction: This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value model of achievement
choice and self-determination theory to investigate gender, age groups and locality
differences in adolescent athletes expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values,
intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation goals in sports.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 205 (131 male, 74 female)
athletes from the under 15 and 21 years age groups (15.53 2.37 years). The
expectancy-value questionnaire and sports motivation scale questionnaire were
employed.
Results & Discussions: Results found significant main age effect for expectancy belief
F(1,197)=6.47, p < 0.05, subjective task values F(1, 197)=7.33, intrinsic motivation F(1,
197)=9.15, and extrinsic motivation F(1, 197)=6.96 and main gender effect for
expectancy belief F(1,197)=12.97, intrinsic F(1,197)=10.56, and extrinsic motivation
F(1,197)=11.52. There are no significant interaction effect between sex, age group and
locality for all subscales. Expectancy-related beliefs were found to be correlated with
subjective task values (r=0.78) and intrinsic motivation (r=0.65). Whereas, subjective
task values were moderately correlated with intrinsic motivation (r=0.65) and extrinsic
motivation (r=0.54). Intrinsic motivation were correlated to extrinsic motivation
(r=0.83) but weakly with amotivation (r=0.20). The study provides additional
information about gender, age and locality differences in adolescents beliefs, values
and levels of autonomy in sports. It is a critical factor to ensure the adolescent athletes
are intrinsically motivated to maintain their level of performance and stay physically
active in the long run.
Conclusion: This study supports the link in integrating Eccles et al. expectancy-value
model of achievement choice and self-determination theory for a better understanding of
motivation in sports from the Malaysian perspective.
Keywords: adolescent athletes; expectancy-related beliefs; subjective task values;
intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; amotivation

10

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 2

Music Training (Zikr) Is Superior To Autogenic And


Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training To Increase
Endurance Level Among University Sultan Zainal Abidins
Athletes
1

Rohayah, H., 1Marhasiyah, A. R., *1Hazliza, R., 1Khairi, C. M., 1Nordin, S.,
1
Ahmad Zubaidi, A. L.
1

University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

*hazlizarazali@unisza.edu.my

Introduction: This study was designed to compare the effects of three different
relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMRT), autogenic
relaxation (AGRT) and Music Training (MT) following endurance exercise among
University Sultan Zainal Abidins Athletes.
Methodology: Fifty university athletes aged 18 to 25 (mean age: 19.8 1.7) received
either AGRT (n=12), PMRT (n=14), MT(n=14) or C no training C (n=10) biweekly for
four weeks. The mood state were measured using the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) ,
endurance level, heart rate, oxygen consumption and lactate accumulation parameters
were measure at pre and post intervention.
Results & Discussion: The mean differences of endurance level among athletes differed
significantly pre and post intervention (F=4.963, p=0.005.). For the psychological
parameters repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed
that total mood distress (TMD) differed statistically significantly between time points (F
= 132.24, P < 0.0001). For the physiological parameters oxygen consumption and
lactate accumulation differed significantly between groups of relaxation techniques (F =
2.311, P < 0.05). Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that MT is the
most effective, followed by PMT and AGRT respectively.
Conclusion: We conclude that all the three type of relaxation training is effective to
increase endurance level among athletes. All those relaxation training produced
significantly changes in physiological parameters namely VO2 max and serum lactate;
as well as a reduction in positive mood scores. We also found that music training using
the sentimental and arabic lyric (zikr) which is similar to meditation is the superior
method of relaxation training, followed by progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic
relaxation
Keywords: music training; zikr; muscle relaxation; autogenic relaxation

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10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 3

Comparison Of Body-temperature, Oxygen-saturation, And


Heart-rate Among Rest, Practice, Stretch, And Imagery In
Youth Takraw Athletes
*1

Bhasavanija, T.

Health Education Department, Faculty of Education, Ramkhamhaeng University,


Thailand

*applecott@gmail.com

Introduction: The skeletal muscles and organs need oxygen and nutrients delivered by
heart through blood streams to produce energy (Strok, Novak, & Zeman, 2010).
Imagery has also been an important technique in producing energy mentally (Plessinger,
2014). It seems like energy use and recovery in athletes need to be investigated if they
want to extract maximum physical output.
Methodology: This study aimed to examine oxygen saturation (SO2), heart rate (HR),
and body temperature (BT) at rest (R), practice (P), stretch (S), and imagery of warmth
(IW) in 51 youth Takraw players, age ranging from 14 18 years old, of the Bangkok
Sports School, using the dependent t-test.
Results & Discussion: Results reported that SO2 at R (M =98.54, SD =.54) was
significantly higher (t =7.8, p < .05) than during P (M =96.74, SD=1.56), but there was
no difference (t =2.46, p > .05) with SO2 during S (M =98.25, SD =.65) and with (t
=.53, p > .05) during IW (M =98.49, SD =.75) which was significantly higher (t =7.49,
p < .05) than during P (M =96.74, SD =1.56), but showed no difference (t =1.97, p >
.05) with during S (M =98.25, SD =.65), as well as that HR at rest (M =74.94, SD
=7.24) was significantly lower
(t =-15.54, p < .05) than during P (M =132.52, SD
=12.42), (t =-5.93, p < .05) during S (M =89.29, SD =11.96), and there was no
difference (t =-.03, p > .05) with during IW (M =75.01, SD =9.46), then, BT at rest (M
=34.61, SD =.99) was significantly higher (t =7.63, p < .05) than during P (M =32.44,
SD =1.76) and (t =6.05, p < .05) during S (M =33.23, SD =1.29), but showed no
difference (t =-1.08, p > .05) with during IW (M =34.80, SD =.71). However, BT during
IW (M =34.80, SD =.71) was significantly higher (t =7.59, p < .05) than during S (M
=33.23, SD =1.29).
Conclusion: This study suggests that oxygen saturation decreases, heart rate increases
and body temperature decreases when body moves (and uses oxygen and energy), as
well as imagery can increase oxygen saturation and body temperature. This may be
useful for the next study on sport injury.
Keywords: imagery; takraw; psychophysiology

12

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 4

Religion Differences In Motivation To Participate Physical


Activity In Women With Hijab And Without Hijab
*1Kevyvan, M.
Islamic Azad University Islamshahr Branch

*keivannorozy@gmail.com
Introduction: Motivation is a popular studied topic in sport psychology in various areas
of sport research studies. The most crucial reason for people to be physically active is
motivation. Motivation not only effects physical activity participation, but is also a
critical factor in exercise adherence. Cross-religion comparison is one of the important
points for studying the influences of motivation on physical activity. At this point it will
be useful to look at the impact of Islamic attitudes on motivation to improve Muslim
womens physical activities; the objective of current study was to investigate the
differences in motivation in physical activities among female students with Hijab and
without Hijab.
Methodology: A total of 385 volunteers female students (190 with Hijab, 195 without
Hijab) aged 18 to 25 years (M = 21.2; SD = 3.8) from the university of Malaya
completed the 40-item questionnaire, Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale
(PALMS) based on Self-Determination Theory.
Results & Discussion: Significant difference were found in 5 of 8 physical activity
motivation subscales by Hijab (affiliation, competition/ego, others expectations,
mastery, and enjoyment) (p<.05). Women with Hijab were motivated by intrinsic factors
(enjoyment and mastery) (p<.05) and women without the Hijab by extrinsic factors
(appearance, psychological condition, physical condition, affiliation, competition/ego,
and others expectations). Significant differences for physical activity motivation in
female with Hijab and without Hijab population were documented. Understanding these
differences is important for health professionals and social and private centers for
programming strategies and promoting physical activity.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that motives for women with Hijab are more
intrinsic and may facilitate improved adherence to physical activity recommendations.
Keywords: intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; Hijab; Muslim; physical activity

13

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 5

Muscle Synergy During Wingate Anaerobic Rowing Test Of


Collegiate Rowers And Untrained Subjects
*1, 2

Shaharudin, S., 3Zanotto, D., 3Agrawal, S.

Sport Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, USA

*shazlin@usm.my

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergies during
Wingate anaerobic rowing test of collegiate rowers and physically active individuals
who were not specifically trained in rowing. As a power-endurance sport, high
anaerobic capacity is one of the determinants of rowing performance. Due to the close
link that exists between the state of energy supply and types of muscle fibers being
recruited, the relationship of muscle synergies and rowing economy during an anaerobic
dominant activity was investigated.
Methodology: Ten subjects were recruited for both groups. Muscle synergies were
extracted from 16 rowing specific muscles using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
with varimax rotation. An all out Wingate anaerobic rowing test was performed on
Concept 2 sliding ergometer. Rowing performance, muscle synergies and physiological
variables were analyzed.
Results & Discussion: Rowers showed better rowing performance in terms of peak
power output, mean power output, distance covered, maximal oxygen consumption and
energy expenditure compared to the untrained subjects. Three muscle synergies were
extracted from both groups with some variability of timing coefficients and muscle
weightings. A significant association was found between Synergy #1 and rowing
economy, although there was no difference among the groups. Expertise in rowing was
related to the ability to adjust the sequence of synergies activation and the muscle
weightings activation level during intense anaerobic burst.
Conclusions: Rowers could apply the results from this study to improve rowing
economy especially during the start of a rowing race, where anaerobic metabolism is
predominant.
Keywords: muscle synergy; EMG; rowing; anaerobic

14

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 6

Assessment of The Isometric Contraction of Quadriceps and


Vertical Jump in Response to Soft Tissue Massage Among
Male Judoists
*1

Ardalan, S., 2Mehdi, K., 2Shamsul Bahri, M.T.


1

University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia


University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
*Ardalan_sh2002@yahoo.com

Introduction: Soft Tissue Massage is a useful way used to perk up and avoid sports
injuries. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of soft tissue massage
after intensive resistance exercise on isometric contraction of quadriceps and vertical
Jump among male Judoists.
Methodology: Twenty four male Judoists were selected and randomly divided into two
groups of experimental (n = 12) and control (n = 12). They performed a protocol of
intensive resistance training; contain 10 exercises, 6 repetitions, with 85% of 1RM. The
experimental group received soft tissue massage for 20 minutes right away after
exercise, whereas the control group did not receive massage. Sargent jump test and
isometric contraction of quadriceps were measured, previous to and immediately after
exercise, and at 2, 24, 48 and 72 hours later. The repeated measures analysis of variance
(ANOVA) was used to analyzing the data.
Results & Discussion: There were no significant differences between control and
experimental groups immediately after exercise and also after 2 hours (P > 0.05). There
was a significant increase in experimental group for vertical jump and isometric
contraction of quadriceps after 24, 48 and 72 hours after exercise (p=0.001).
Conclusion: These results suggest that a soft tissue massage can improve the vertical
jump and isometric contraction of quadriceps, if continue at least for 24 hours, but its
not effective exactly after exercise. However, it may not be beneficial in the treatment of
strength and functional declines.
Keywords: soft tissue massage; judoists; isometric contraction; vertical jump

15

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 7

Forehand Stroke Analyses in Squash


*1

Diyana Zulaika, A.G., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Halijah, I.


1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

*diyanazulaika@utm.my

Introduction: In squash, there are varieties types of shots have been played during
tournament. Players performed a shot according to their opponents response. The
purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of strokes and types of shots
performed in the forehand area among three different levels of playing in squash game.
Methodology: Thirty-five matches performed by fifteen players divided equally for
each level which were professional elite, intermediate and beginners (age 21.27 5.22,
height 1.69 0.98 m, weight 64 10 kg), were analyzed via hand notational analysis
while SPSS version 16 was used to analyze inferential statistics.
Results & Discussion: Results indicated that the professional elite had recorded the
greatest number of forehand shots (n=2250) during games followed by the intermediate
(n=1357) and the beginners (n=1139). Further analysis has shown that the forehand
shots frequencies significantly differed between groups (F=6.25, p0.014
). The
notational analyses have identified 15 types of forehand shots performed by players
throughout the matches and the most performed shot was the forehand drive (FHDV)
(25% of 4,746 shots). Only five types of shots were frequently performed by all three
groups: the forehand drive (FHDV) (1,188 of 4,746 shots), cross-court drive
(FHXCDV) (955 of 4,746 shots), volley drive (FHVDV) (446 of 4,746 shots), volley
cross-court drive (FHVXCDV) (312 of 4,746 shots) and the drop (FHDP) (307 of 4,746
shots). Four forehand shots have marked significant difference between groups, which
are FHDV (F=4.769, p0.030), FHXCDV (F=4.950,0.027
p
), cross-court drop
(FHXCDP) (F=5.028, p0.026) and the back mirror (FHBM) (F=4.292, p 0.039). This
study had shown that the total number of shots and shots selection are influenced by
players level of performance and experiences. It was proved that players played mainly
at the back of the court using drive shots (FHDV, FHXCDV, FHVDV and FHVXCDV).
The outcome of study could aid coaches and players to enhance their tactical strategy
and performance.
Conclusion: The stroke frequencies and choices of shots have implied the importance
of experiences and gaining skills of forehand shots to win a rally.
Keywords: forehand stroke; squash; notational analyses; professional elite; beginner

16

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 8

The Effect of 8 Weeks of Water-Based Exercise on the Lower


Limb Muscles Strength in Patients with Parkinson
*1Kargarfard, M., 1Azizi, S., 1Azizi, R., 2Shariat, A.
1

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Faculty of Educational Studies, Department of Sport Studies, University Putra Malaysia,
Serdang, Malaysia

*Kargar_m46@yahoo.com

Introduction: Muscular weakness, particularly weakness of lower limb muscles is a


symptom of Parkinson disease, which, together with other symptoms, will result in a
variety of movement disorders. This research is designed to assess the effectiveness of a
water-based exercise program on the lower limb muscles strength of Parkinson patients'
knee joints.
Methodology: In a semi-experimental study, 20 patients who referred to neurologist
offices in the city of Isfahan volunteered for this study, and then randomly selected an
exercise (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. Subjects of exercise group completed a
eight-week water-based exercise training program consisted of three sessions per week,
each session lasting 45 to 60 minutes, while the control group were followed and during
this period they did not experience any exercise. Peak torque of the knee flexors and
extensors using isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) during eccentric and
concentric contractions at velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s before and after 8 weeks of
water-based exercise program were measured.
Results & Discussion: The exercise group demonstrated significant increases in peak
torque of the knee flexors and extensors at velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s before and
after 8 weeks of water-based exercise program (p<0.05). The percentage change
confirmed the positive effect of water-based exercise training, the change in peak torque
of the knee flexors and extensors at velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s after study being
significantly different between the groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: We conclude that water-exercise can be a useful and effective treatment
method for improvement strengthening the muscles in Parkinson patients.
Keywords: Parkinson; water-exercise; muscular strength

17

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 9

Assessing The Attitude Of Public Towards Involvement Of


People With Disability In Physical Activity
*1
1

Aida Roha, A.R., 1Ong, T.F., 1Wahidah, T.

Faculty of Sport Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi Mara


*senoritaaida87@gmail.com

Introduction: Involvement in physical activity regularly for people with disability has
been shown to positively contribute to physical fitness, psychological health, personal
development and quality of life. However, people with disability often faced many
obstacles in their involvement in physical activity. Societal attitude has been identified
as one of the pertinent factor that could hinder the active participation of people with
disability in physical activity. Negative societal attitude would decrease the opportunity
and chances for successful integration into community for the disabled individuals.
Further understanding of the attitude of public towards people with disability
involvement in physical activity is essential to promote community participation and
social inclusion in building a better community for the disabled. Hence, the purpose of
this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the attitude of public towards people
with disability involvement in physical activity, based on the tri-component model of
attitude.
Methodology: The instrument was developed with reference to the Multidimensional
Scale towards Persons with Disability by Findler, Vilchinsky, and Werner (2007). This
instrument consists of three components: affective, cognitive and behavioural
component. To assess the validity and reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was
conducted at the Taman Tasik Recreation Park in Shah Alam, Selangor. The volunteer
respondents involved were general public visiting the park, aged 20 years old and above.
The questionnaire was distributed to 50 respondents.
Results & Discussion: The Cronbachs alpha reliability value for the attitude
measurement was r = 0.868, indicating a high reliability for the instrument. The
Cronbachs alpha reliability value for each of the component was: affective (r = 0.703),
cognitive (r = 0.772) and behavioural (r = 0.882).
Conclusion: The developed instrument could be used as an assessment tool for further
study in evaluating the attitude of public towards people with disability involvement in
physical activity. This assessment would provide valuable information for related
government agencies to promote programs facilitating community participation and
social inclusion, minimizing the constraints for the involvement of people with
disability in physical activity.
Keywords: attitude; people with disabilities; physical activity

18

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 10

Influence of Twelve Weeks Combined Aerobic Exercise And


Milk Supplementation On Blood Lipids In Female Students
*1Sedigheh, M., 1H A. Hashim, 1M N. Jawis, 2M R. Abdullah.
1

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains
Malaysia

*moghaddam.usm@gmail.com

Introduction: Lack of physical activity and healthy diet are adversely associated with
cardiovascular disease risk factors. Therefore, to support cardiovascular health, regular
physical activity and appropriate diet are needed to promote a healthy lifestyle in
adolescents. The purpose of this study was to approach to examine the influence of
combined aerobic exercise and milk supplementation on blood lipids in female students.
Methodology: Subjects consisted of 83 female students aged 16 years who were
randomly assigned into the four experimental groups: Milk, exercise, combination of
milk and exercise and control groups. Milk supplementation was supplied to the
students during school time and aerobic exercise was conducted twice/week for 12
weeks. Anthropometric characteristic and blood analysis (Total cholesterol,
triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C), were performed in all participants before and after
the 12 week intervention.
Results & Discussion: Results by two-way ANOVA revealed that the participants in
the combined group had greater increase in HDL-C (p< 0.05) compared to the control
group, whereas, no significant differences were detected between the experimental
groups for triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.
Conclusion: It was concluded that regular physical activity and healthy diet are integral
component in health of adolescents that particularly contribute to increase of good
cholesterol as a protective factor against coronary heart disease in the future.
Keywords: aerobic exercise; milk; blood lipids

19

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 11

Determination of Exercise Intensity And Affective Response


On Selected Traditional games
*1
1

Adam, A.M., 1H A. Hashim., 1M N, Jawis.

Sport Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia

*adm_sportz@yahoo.com
Introduction: Physical inactivity has been associated with increased of risks factor and
can contribute to the development of many diseases such non communicable and
became a major consequence prevalence of overweight and obesity in children.
Moreover, there were a number of children who did not meet the recommendation of
moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to gain the health benefits. Traditional
games could be attractive alternative activities for the children. Hence, this study aims to
determine the physical activity intensity and enjoyment in children for the selected
traditional games
Methodology: 600 healthy subjects aged 9 to 11 years old were recruited in this study.
Parameter measured for the intensity determination were Metabolic Equivalent Task
(METs), Activity Count Per Minute (CPM) calculated by using accelerometer GTX3+
and Percentage of Maximal Heart Rate (%HRmax) recorded by Polar Heart Monitor
(H7). Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) questionnaire was used to determine
the enjoyment in children towards the selected traditional games in response for
psychological parameter.
Results & Discussion: Results revealed all five selected traditional games involved
(Bola Beracun, Baling Tin, Galah Panjang, Belalang Belatuk and Police and
Thieves) fall within MVPA level across all the parameter measured. Turning to the
value, METs with respective traditional games for Bola Beracun (4.861.06), Baling
Tin (4.510.77), Galah Panjang (4.220.63), Belalang Belatuk (4.100.63) and Police
and Thieves (3.830.76). Next, CPM has showed Bola Beracun (1070295), Baling
Tin (975164), Galah Panjang (952191), Belalang Belatuk (967181) and Police
and Thieves (925182) respectively. Percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax)
showed moderate level of physical activity for all five selected traditional games with
Bola Beracun (68.15%), Baling Tin (65.62%), Galah Panjang (64.30%), Belalang
Belatuk (62.75%) and Police and Thieves (60.68%). In PACES scores, significant
difference have found between the three selected traditional games (Bola Beracun,
Baling Tin, and Galah Panjang) with p<0.05. However, Belalang Belatuk and
Police and Thieves found no significant difference with p=0.12 and p=0.15 respectively.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study found that all five selected traditional games
exhibit MVPA type of activity with three selected traditional games (Bola Beracun,
Baling Tin and Galah Panjang) found to be more fun according to the children
involvement
Keywords: physical activity; traditional games; exercise intensity; enjoyment
20

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 12

Low-Impact Dance-Based Physical Activity: Is It Intense


Enough To Provide Cardiovascular Benefits?
*1

Peneyra, R., 1Cagas. J.Y., 1Aguilar, M.R., 1Sanggalang-Aseron, M., 1Brebante,


Z.R.
1

University of the Philippines Diliman

*rupeneyra@yahoo.com

Introduction: Levels of physical activity among Filipinos are reportedly low while
incidence of other non-communicable diseases such as obesity and hypertension are
increasing. Promoting physical activity as a low-cost intervention program is important
to address these health issues. This study is part of a larger study investigating health
and fitness benefits of different dance-based physical activity programs among Filipino
university students.
Methodology: In this component of the study, exercise intensity of a 40-minute lowimpact dance routine was examined using a heart rate (HR) monitor. Seventy-six (n =
76; 10 males and 66 females) students were instructed to wear a heart rate monitor and
to press a button at the beginning and at the end of the routine. Data on exercise
duration (DUR), average HR, and total caloric expenditure (kcal) were collected from
the HR monitors.
Results & Discussion: Mean of DUR was 34.53 9.95 minutes; mean of average HR
was 146 21.02 beats per minute (bpm); and mean of caloric expenditure was 273.76
95.78 kcal. According to exercise prescription guidelines, intensity of aerobic-like
exercises should reach a minimum of 60 percent of an individuals age-predicted
maximum heart rate (APMHR) to provide some cardiovascular benefits (American
College of Sports Medicine, 2008). Results showed that average HR was 29.50 14.48
bpm above the target 60 percent APMHR suggesting that the 40-minute low-impact
dance routine may provide enough challenge to the cardiovascular system to elicit some
positive response.
Conclusion: Low-impact dance routines which consist mostly of walking and
marching movements may encourage sedentary individuals or those with
musculoskeletal difficulties to start exercising. Further studies, however, need to
examine long-term benefits of performing this 40-minute low-impact dance routine on a
regular basis.
Keywords: heart rate monitoring; low-impact; dance; physical activity; health benefits

21

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 13

Effect of Post Exercise Active Recovery and Cryotherapy


Recovery on Heart Rate Among Road Cycling Race Athletes
*1

Khairal Afiq Jamal, A.H., 1Anuar, S., 1Wahidah, T.

Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

*khairal8686@gmail.com
Introduction: Active recovery (ACT) and cryotherapy recovery (CRYO) intervention
have become a popular means of enhancing recovery from different forms of exercise.
However, there is minimal scientific information on the effects of both recovery
methods on heart rate following road cycling race among road cycling athletes.
Methodology: The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of heart rate
change and the difference effect of post exercises active recovery and cryotherapy
recovery on road cycling athletes heart rate. Ten (10) well trained junior road cycling
race athletes aged between 15 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants
have completed two sessions of 90 km cycling, which each session was separated by a
week (7 days). Each session has a different implementation of post exercise recovery
method (either ACT or CRYO). After completing each race session, the post race heart
rate was taken and recorded, followed by 15 minutes of post exercise recovery session.
Heart rate was taken and recorded again after the next 30 minutes of follow up phase.
Results & Discussion: Both recovery methods have effectively reduced post exercise
heart rate among road cycling race athletes. However, the CRYO group (Post
intervention: 14.83%; Follow up: 24.48%) shown a higher percentage of reducing heart
rate compared to ACT group (Post intervention: 9.33%; Follow up: 13.33%). Results
shown there were significant difference of effect of post exercise heart rate between
both groups [X (5, n = 10) = 30.82, p < 0.05)] among road cycling race athletes.
Conclusion: This finding indicates that CRYO is an effective recovery method for
reducing post exercise heart rate among road cycling race athletes compared to ACT.
Keywords: active recovery; cryotherapy recovery; heart rate; road cycling

22

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 14

The Effect of Sports Massage on Lactic Acid Level Among


National Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
*1

Siti Sakinah, I., 2Anuar, S.

Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

*sharkina_11@yahoo.com

Introduction: The impressive performance of Paralympics athletes at the international


level had been shine as Olympic athletes. Most of them are the wheelchair user from
vary sports; wheelchair basketball, power lifting, and fencing. Biomechanically, the
repetitive injuries on the upper extremities, like shoulder, wrist, neck, and lower back
were the common injuries that profiling to the wheelchair user. It reflects the upper
extremities muscle had been used at the high intensity repetitively and leads to
accumulation of lactic acid. As result; decrease the range of motion, muscle pain,
fatigue and decrease the performance. The muscle recovery modalities seriously need
here to enhance and maintain the performance at the competitive level. Sports massage
is one of the modalities that had been applied widely to overcome the muscle fatigue
and other recovery phase problems. Physiologically, sports massage will enhance the
muscle blood flow and skin blood circulation where theoretically can facilitate the lactic
acid clearance and it become the absolute suitable modalities for muscle recovery.
Methodology: By using purposive sampling as sampling method and lactic acid (LA) as
indicator to muscle recovery, ten (10) male National Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
aged 20-35 years old in their training phase, randomly divide into control group (n=5)
and treatment group (n=5) equally. After the training session, the control group
undergoes passive sitting recovery and the treatment group undergoes twenty (20)
minutes of sports massage; at the back and arms by five (5) sports massage experts with
the video guidance practice to standardise their strokes and rhythm. The blood lactate
level had been taken before the training, after training, and after 20 minutes recovery to
all participants.
Results & Discussion: A paired sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the effect of
sports massage on lactic acid (LA) level in blood as indicator to muscle recovery. There
was significant decrease of LA (p < .05). It shows sports massage will facilitate the LA
clearance.
Conclusion: Sports massage will reduce LA level in blood and facilitate the recovery.
Keywords: paralympics athletes; sports massage; muscle recovery

23

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 15

Analysis Of Selected Hematological Variables


During Menstrual Cycle Phases
Between Sedentary And Sports Women
*1
1

Vasanthi, G.

Pondicherry Central University

*drvasanthipu@gmail.com
Introduction: Over the years women participation in some competitive games and
sports has increased tremendously. One of the factors associated with women sports is
menstrual cycle The most prominent features of this cycle are a monthly flow of blood
from the uterus. This is called menstruation or menses. The purpose of the study was to
analyze the red blood cells and white blood cells during three different menstrual phases
between sedentary and sports women
Methodology: Fifteen female sedentary post graduate students (M.A., M.Sc.,) and
fifteen students of Master of physical education and sports (M.P.Ed) women who
regularly involved
in vigorous sports training and participated in sports competition on different games
were selected by adopting random sampling method. All the students were hostlers and
the age group was 20 to 22 years. The blood sample was collected during the mid-period
of the three different phases namely menstrual, proliferative and secretary to calculate
the RBC and WBC. The data collected were treated statistically by using Analysis of
Variance.
Results & Discussion: The results reveal that the RBC was found to be slightly higher
during secretary phase irrespective of groups and WBC was found to be slightly higher
during menstrual irrespective of groups.
Conclusion: In general cultural and social attitude rural sports women especially the
novice have misconceptions with regard to participation in sports training and
competition during menstrual phases. Since the selected hematological variables are
significant irrespective of groups, the girls who avoid sports during menstrual phase
may be advised to participate in sports and games without any hesitation.
Keywords: red blood cells (RBC); white blood cells (WBC); menstrual; proliferative;
secretary; sports women

24

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 16

The Effects of Single Bout of Sub-maximal Exercise During


Ramadan Fasting among Sedentary University Students
*1

Eman Ahmed, A.K., 1 Hairul Anuar, H., 2Soumendra, S.


1

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia

*emankaarud@yahoo.com
Introduction: Ramadan is the fasting month in the Islamic calendar when consumption
of water and foods are abstained. Exercising during Ramadan has shown mixed effects.
The aim of this study was to determine effects of a single bout of sub-maximal exercise
during the ritual fasting of Ramadan among physically inactive university students.
Methodology: Thirteen healthy male university students in Kelantan, with a mean age
of 23.54 3.41 years, height 170 7.02 cm, weight (66.95 7.40) kg, and body mass
index (BMI) (23.33 (1.74) kg.m). Data on psychological (mood states and rate of
perceived exertion (RPE)), cognitive (short term memory, and sustained attention) and
physiological (heart rate (HR), and oxygen consumption (VO2) parameters were
collected. All of the participants were subjected to perform the same prescribed
experimental procedures, starting a week before Ramadan, 1st and 4th week of Ramadan,
and 2 weeks after Ramadan. The measurements were conducted before and after
participants performed submaximal exercise cycling at 45% VO 2max, followed by 60%
VO 2max, and 75% VO 2max for 30 minutes. Furthermore, RPE, HR, and VO2 were
recorded at the end of each session of 10 minutes cycling interval.
Results & Discussion: The results of mixed factorial ANOVA revealed a significant
(P< 0.05) interaction between trials across time for sustained attention (DVT2). No
other significant interactions were observed.
Conclusion: Exercise during Ramadan fasting exhibited effects on certain cognitive
performance, but neither change in psychological nor physiological parameters were
observed.
Keywords: exercise performance; Ramadan fasting; university students

25

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 17

Challenges And Implementation Of Aerobic Fitness Training


Among Malaysian Tennis Coaches: A Preliminary Study
*1

Syahrul Ridhwan, M., 1Zainal Abidin, Z.


1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

*p-syahrul@utm.my

Introduction: Due to high demand of energy during the match, it is essential for the
players to have a good aerobic fitness to endure the match and still able to perform well
in the next match. Emphasis on aerobic fitness training should be taken into
consideration. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the challenges and
implementation of aerobic fitness training among Malaysian tennis players.
Methodology: Seven certified tennis coaches with average 15.3 9.3 years of
experience were interviewed. Their average age is 40.3 11.0 years. All of them are
coaching at the state-level, national and international tennis players.
Results & Discussion: All coaches conduct aerobic fitness training in their program.
However, the training seems to be less specific in which the duration, frequency, and
intensity could be inadequate or inappropriate. In addition, some coaches conducts the
aerobic fitness training with combination of drills training which could be more
technically and tactically oriented. Time constrains and levels of players participation
in tennis have been suggested to be the main factors that limiting the implementation of
the aerobic fitness training.
Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that there is a necessity to develop a specific
aerobic fitness training model to help the coaches to conduct specific aerobic fitness
training in their program.
Keywords: aerobic fitness; training; tennis

26

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 18

Intra-Team Communication In Mixed-Gender Sport: Do Male


And Female Athletes Communicate Differently?
*1

Cagas, J.

Department of Sports Science, University of the Philippines Diliman


*jonathan.cagas@gmail.com

Introduction: Effective communication in team sports is an important factor in athletes


satisfaction, team functioning, and cohesion. Sullivan and Short (2011) proposed that
effective communication in team sports consists of four dimensions: acceptance of each
other, distinctiveness from other social units, positive conflict within the team, and
negative conflict. Literature remains unclear whether male and female athletes have
similar perception of the communication patterns within their team. Moreover, gender
differences in intra-team communication within mixed-gender sports have not been
considered in previous studies.
Methodology: This study aimed to determine if male and female mixed-gender sports
athletes perceive effective intra-team communication differently. It also explored the
relationship between intra-team communication and cohesion in mixed-gender sports.
Data was collected from one mixed-gender collegiate cheerleading team (n = 52: 22
males, 30 female) using the revised Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports
(SECTS-2: Sullivan & Short, 2011) and Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ:
Widmeyer, Brawley, & Carron, 1985).
Results & Discussion: Results indicated gender differences in intra-team
communication, F(4,47) = 3.23, p < .05. Specifically, male athletes perceived that their
team uses more acceptance (e.g, messages conveying trust) while female athletes
perceived that distinctiveness (e.g., messages pertaining to inclusive team identity) are
more frequently used within their team. Additionally, correlation analyses suggest that
when athletes communicate with trust and support, as well as when they are able to
openly discuss interpersonal differences in a constructive and emotionally-controlled
manner, team cohesion is enhanced.
Conclusion: These findings add to the existing body of knowledge supporting the
presence of gender differences in intra-team communication, and that frequent
exchanges of certain communication resources contributes to the development of team
cohesion. Including communication skills training in team-building programs appears
important in enhancing cohesion in mixed-gender sport. Strategies to improve
communication skills in sports will be discussed.
Keywords: intra-team communication, team sports, group cohesion, gender differences

27

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 19

The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance Of


Malaysian Judokas
*1Mohd Nazri, A., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M.H., 1Noor
Maizura, Z.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

*mlktbs@gmail.com
Introduction: At the 2013 Southeast Asian Games, Malaysian team got 6 bronze at the
competition. Nowadays judo is a new combat sports that getting popular in Malaysia
with average performance at international level. This report presents the result of special
judo fitness test (SJFT) that has been done by different state and national judo athlete.
Methodology: The test is performed in 3 series of 15, 30 and 30 sec with 10 sec rest
interval between them. During these series, the athlete throws two other judoists (6-m
apart from each other) as many times as possible using the Ippon-seoi-nage technique.
Heart rate (HR) immediately and after 1 min. after the cessation of the test was
measured by Sport-tester device and an index was calculated (Index = HR after + HR 1
min / total number of throws). Thus, a lower index indicates a better performance.
Results & Discussion: The results showed the different performance results which is
the athlete from Brazil and Poland elite team with 27.7 total throws, HR after ( beats.
Min-1) 180.1, HR 1 min (beats. Min-1) 151.9 and the index in SJFT with 12.1.
Conclusion: The Malaysia national athlete showed the better result with total of throws
32.3, HR after (beats. Min-1) 174.3, HR 1 min (beats. Min-1) 155.2 and the index in
SJFT 10.2. Thus, a lower index indicates a better performance
Keywords: special judo fitness test; Malaysia judokas performance

28

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 20

Effect of Lezium Training Programme on


Physical Fitness of Boys
1

Pargaonkar G. V., *1Asai K. K., 1Dhakne R. R.


1

University of Mumbai

*asaikailas@gmail.com

Introduction: Lezium, which has a physical and cultural background since Indias
ancient times, was also restructured to suit the modern need and in turn it became a part
of physical activities in physical education. Lezium, being a traditional Indian activity,
has not so far been considered on scientific lines. Due to lack of scientific investigation
less attention has been given to this activity. To revive this activity in the light high
values, several scientific research activities are the need of the day. In a first attempt, the
researchers undertaken the present study
Methodology: Related measure design with one control group and one experimental
group was used in the present study. 60 students of age 11 to 13 years of Sahakar Nagar
Municipal School Wadala, Mumbai 400031(India). AAHPER Youth Fitness Test was
administered in the beginning on both the groups to collect the pre-post test data. The
test is intended to measure the ability of the individuals to perform fundamental physical
skills such as pull ups, bent knee sit ups, shuttle run, standing long jump, 50 yard dash
and 1.5 mile run, which involve the basic elements of strength, endurance, agility,
power, speed and cardiovascular endurance respectively.
Results & Discussion: The findings of the study were, Experimental group showed
significant superiority over the control group in Pull up test (CD=0.45, p<0.05),
Experimental group showed significant superiority over the control group in Sit up test
(CD=5.90, p<0.05), Although the experimental group did not show significant
improvement within group comparison, however, it maintained its superiority over the
control group in Standing Broad Jump test (CD=0.40, p<0.05), Experimental group
could not show significant superiority over the control group in 50 M Run test,
Experimental group could show significant superiority over the control group in 600 M
Run test (CD=2.10, p<0.01), Experimental group could show significant superiority
over the control group in Shuttle Run test (CD=3.86, p<0.01) & Experimental group
could show significant superiority over the control group in 1.5 Mile Run test
(CD=2.08, p<0.01).
Conclusion: A proper schedule of Lezium Exercises can effectively improve physical
fitness level within a very short period of 6 weeks.
Keywords: physical exercise; traditional activity; fitness ability; school students

29

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 21

The Effects Of Two Months Psychological Training On


Electroencephalogram (EEG) Among Athletes
*1

Tahereh, B., 2Hairul Anuar, H., 3Sumendera, S.


1

Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran


Sport Science unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
3
Exercise and sport Science Program, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
2

*bagherpoor_ta@yahoo.com
Introduction: It has been suggested that when athletes reach to the optimal mind
relaxation the Alpha brain increase. However the effects of progressive muscle
relaxation after two months are unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to
examine the effects of two months progressive muscle relaxation on
Electroencephalogram (EEG) among adolescent male taekwondo athletes in Malaysia.
Methodology: The subjects consisted of twenty players (mean age= 12.23; SD= 1.23).
They were randomly categorized to progressive muscle relaxation (N = 10) and control
group (N = 10). A pre-recorded Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) compact disc
was used for the administration of the relaxation training. The 25-minute CD version for
children contained instruction for systematic tensing and relaxing of a muscle group and
suggestion for general relaxation. The Biopac Student Lab (BSL PRO; Version 3.6.7
and Model MP30B-CE) was used to measure the EEG parameter after 16th sessions of
intervention.
Results & Discussion: T test analysis showed that the participants of PMR could
significantly increase alpha wave compared with participant in the control groups.
Conclusion: The progressive muscle relaxation may effect on central nervous system
and increases the relaxation.
Keywords: psychological training; EEG

30

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 22

Coping And Emotions Among Malaysian National Youth


Tenpin Bowlers: Do They Cope Effectively?
*1

How, P.N., 1Rebecca Wong, S.K.

National Sport Institute of Malaysia

*howpeckngor@gmail.com

Introduction: This study aimed to examine the stressors that Malaysian youth tenpin
bowlers encountered at pre- (PRE) and during competition (COMP), coping strategies
employed, their effectiveness and emotion reactions. This is an extension study from
previous investigation on Malaysian elite tenpin bowlers in stress, coping and emotions.
Methodology: Eight youth bowlers completed a diary pack from PRE until end of
COMP period. Bowlers were asked to report the stressors, coping strategies and
effectiveness of these strategies on daily basis in total of 8 days. Analyses were done
using Chi-square and One-way ANOVA for different variables.
Results & Discussion: Results showed that bowlers experienced a limited number
(n=5) of stressors over time. The type of stressors and the coping responses by the
bowlers were not dissimilar to those of elite counterparts. Bowlers also found to employ
different coping strategies over time, however not all were perceived effective. Bowlers
were reported equally balance in emotions at PRE and COMP. This point to potential
cultural differences in emotional expression in sport, compared to previous Caucasian
studies.
Conclusion: In conclusion, these findings provide evidence to that of Malaysian elite
counterparts. It showed that the context (pre-competition training vs. competitions) has
influence on stress and coping process. Findings suggest a need to further examine
cultural similarities and differences in the stress, coping and emotion process in athletes.
Practitioners should consider the findings in developing specific interventions for
different contexts in preparing the team.
Keywords: coping; emotion; national bowlers

31

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 23

The Relationship Between Mental Toughness, Anxiety And


Action Anticipation
*1, 2

Analuie, H., 2Faruque, M., 3Saha, S., 1,2Muzaimi, M.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Centre for Neurosciences Research and Service (P3Neuro), Universiti Sains Malaysia
3
Exercise & Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains
Malaysia

*analoie.hossein@gmail.com

Introduction: Mental toughness has been identified as an important component of


optimal performance in sport environments. However, role of the anxiety on sporting
performance has been documented by sport psychologists but its effects on action
anticipation remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the
relationship between mental toughness, anxiety and action anticipation among
university student athletes.
Methodology: A sample of 23 men (M age = 27.2 years, s= 6.28) and 28 women (M
age = 25.3 years, s= 5.67) participated in a variety of sports in an action anticipation
task. Participants gave informed consent before completing questionnaires to assess
mental toughness and level of anxiety. All subjects were blinded to study aim and
stimuli properties. The MTQ48 was the first questionnaire completed by all participants.
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure trait and state anxiety.
Visual Stimuli shown to the subjects were 40 color video clips of matches in world
tournaments. A total of 20 IN and 20 OUT clips were used but outcomes of the shots
were not revealed. Subjects were requested to anticipate trajectory of the ball as either
Goal or No-Goal. Stimulus-presentation and randomization was controlled by using
E-prime software.
Results & Discussion: The STAI score differed significantly between the two groups
(low mental toughness and High mental toughness). Results of Pearson correlations and
linear regression analyses revealed that after the stress task, level of state anxiety
reliably increased. The increase of state anxiety after, relative to before, revealed that
the task was stressful enough. Accurate rate for anticipation were analyzed. High mental
toughness group exhibited better anticipation abilities than low group.
Conclusion: Our limited data suggest that anxiety level, even when provoked by visual
perceptions of goals outcome, differed significantly between athletes with high and low
MTQ48 scores. Further studies would be necessary to demonstrate their relationship.
Keywords: mental toughness; anxiety; action anticipation

32

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 24

Forced And Voluntary Exercises Equally Improve Spatial


Learning, Memory And Hippocampal BDNF Levels
*1Mahmoud, A. A., 1Omar, F. K., 1Karem, H. A., 1Mohammad, A. A.
1

Jordan University of Science and Technology

*alomari@just.edu.jo

Introduction: Multiple evidence suggest the importance of exercise for cognitive and
brain functions. Few studies however, compared the behavioral and neural adaptations
to force versus voluntary exercise training.
Methodology: Spatial learning and memory formation and brain-derived neurotrophic
factor (BDNF) were examined in Wister male rats after 6 weeks of either daily forced
swimming, voluntary running exercises, or sedentary.
Results & Discussion: Learning capabilities and short, 5-hour, and long term memories
improved (p<0.05) similarly in the exercise groups, without changes (p>0.05) in the
sedentary. Likewise, both exercises resulted in increased (p<0.05) hippocampal BDNF
level. The results suggest that forced and voluntary exercises can similarly enhance
cognitive- and brain-related tasks, seemingly vie the BDNF pathway.
Conclusion: These data further confirm the health benefits of exercise and advocate
both exercise modalities to enhance behavioral and neural functions.
Keywords: exercise; spatial learning; memory; BDNF

33

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 25

The Effects of Kaloba Supplementation on The Leukocytes


and Salivary IgA in Response to Prolonged Exercise
*1Ayu, M., 2Michael, G.
1

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
School of Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

*ayu_suzailiana@yahoo.com
Introduction: To date, the effectiveness of Kaloba supplementation in enhancing
athletes immune function is very scarce in the literature. It is well known that athletes,
who engage in heavy training and competition, are vulnerable to infections due to
impaired immune function. This was explained by the open window and J curve
theories. Exercise-induced immune dysfunction (especially prolonged, high intensity
exercise) is associated with the alteration in stress hormone and cytokine secretion.
Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kaloba supplementation
on immune responses to prolonged exercise.
Methodology: Nine healthy male recreational athletes (age: 21 5 years; weight: 73.7
5.6 kg; BMI: 22.4 1.5 kg/m2) were recruited in this study. Participants cycled for 90
min at 60% VO2max on two occasions (two trials separated at least by 7 days).
Participants came to the laboratory in the morning after an overnight fast during each
trial. The second trial was performed after 7 days Kaloba supplementation. Kaloba was
taken as 1 tablet 3 times daily. Blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected
pre-, post-, and 1 h post-exercise. Blood samples were measured for total leukocytes and
differential counts while saliva samples were analysed for S-IgA level by ELISA. In
addition, participants also completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom
Survey-21 for 7 days after each trial.
Results & Discussion: The main findings of this study were that prolonged moderate
intensity exercise significantly decreased S-IgA concentration and secretion rate postexercise but did not affect the saliva flow rate. However, the values returned to baseline
by 1 h post-exercise. Total leukocyte count was significantly increased post-exercise,
and was further increased 1 h post-exercise. This was mainly due to a rise in the
neutrophil count. Nevertheless, results from the questionnaires found that there was no
significant difference between control and Kaloba on numbers of sickness days, number
of sickness symptoms and severity of sickness symptoms.
Conclusion: Seven days Kaloba supplementation had no effect on any of the parameters
measured however prolonged exercise induced a rise in circulating leukocyte counts
post-exercise and further increased them 1 h post-exercise.
Keywords: kaloba; leukocyte; neutrophil; S-IgA; immune function; WURSS-21

34

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 26

Effects of Chocolate Malt Drink Consumption Combined


With Aerobic Dance Exercise on Blood Bone Turnover
Markers And Antioxidant Enzymes In Young Females
*1

Nur Atiqah Wadiah, A., 1Ooi, F. K., 1Chen C. K., 1Wan Nudri, W. D.
1

Universiti Sains Malaysia

*atieqahdiedie@gmail.com

Introduction: Combined effects of physical activity with nutritional supplements to


maintain and enhance bone health have been established, however information on the
effectiveness of combination of aerobic dance exercise with consumption of chocolate
malt drink on bone turnover markers and antioxidant enzymes in young females is still
lacking
Methodology: 44 physically healthy females (19-25 years old) were age and body-mass
matched and subsequently being assigned into four groups with n=11 per group: Control
group (C), chocolate malt drink group (Cmd), aerobic dance exercise group (Ex) and
combined aerobic dance exercise and chocolate malt drink group (CmdEx). Aerobic
dance exercise sessions were carried out for 1 hour per session, three times per week for
eight weeks. Chocolate malt drink was consumed by the subjects in Cmd and CmdEx
groups in a dosage of 45g of chocolate malt powder mixed with 300 ml of plain water,
seven days per week for 8 weeks. Subjects in CmdEx group consumed chocolate malt
drink 30 minutes before performing aerobic dance exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of
the intervention period, subjects anthropometry was measured. Blood samples were
taken to determine the concentrations of serum total calcium, serum osteocalcin and
serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (bone formation markers), serum C-terminal
telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP) (bone resorption marker) and antioxidant enzyme
activities, i.e. glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Results & Discussion: At the end of 8 weeks of the intervention period, the percentage
of increment in serum osteocalcin was the highest in CmdEx group compared to the
other experimental groups. Significant increase in glutathione peroxidase were observed
in Ex (p<0.05) and CmdEx (p<0.01) groups after 8 weeks of intervention period. The
percentage changes in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were
the highest in CmdEx group compared to other groups.
Conclusion: Aerobic dance exercise alone and aerobic dance exercise combined with
the consumption of chocolate malt drink elicited more beneficial effects on bone
turnover and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to chocolate malt drink
consumption alone or sedentary without chocolate malt drink consumption in young
females.
Keywords: bone metabolism markers; antioxidant enzyme activities; aerobic dance
exercise; chocolate malt drink

35

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 27

We Are What We Eat = Taurine; Component Of Functional


Food & Nutraceuticals - Elevated Level In Exercise: From
Energy Booster To Alleviation Of Ageing
*1

Gupta, R. C.

Nagaland University, India

*guptaramesh994@gmail.com

Introduction: There is increasing evidences that sulfur amino acids (SAA) play an
important metabolic and functional role in human health and decease prevention. It is
further observed that SAA also provide elemental Sulfur require for growth and
development, and in general, it is source of energy and nutrient needs of various life
processes. Taurine has long been placed under such category. To add little more the
best-known functional food until now is mothers milk of which taurine is component. It
is possible and feasible to modulate target functions via food supplemented with such
agents. Taurine supplemented food and formula have provided long range of beneficial
effects, almost covering the entire life activities, from vision to brain and smoking to
drinking. It has anti diabetic to anti ageing properties.
Methodology: It is further observed that in exercise exchange of amino acids also takes
place resulting increase level of taurine. A pre-exercise taurine containing energy drink
consumed 10 minutes before resistance exercise can enhance acute exercise
performance by increasing the number of repetitions performed and the total volume of
exercise.
Results & Discussion: The enhanced exercise performance resulted in a significantly
greater increase in both growth hormone and insulin concentrations, indicating an
augmented anabolic hormone response to this pre-exercise taurine containing drink
supplementation. Taurine is also involved in verities of ways to improve the quality of
life to make it happier and healthier .Some of the taurine analogues also exhibit
similarly.
Conclusion: Hence taurine such potential require further extension and enlargement but
with logistic support.
Keywords: taurine; exercise

36

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 28

Effect of 8-Week Bee Bread Supplementation on Running


Time Trial Performance
*1

Fadzel Wong, C.P., 1Chen, C.K., 2Mahaneem, M., 1Ooi, F.K.

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia


2
Department of Physiology, Universiti Sains Malaysia

*fadzel@ums.edu.my

Introduction: Nutritional ergogenic aids are substances which enhance athletic


performance by influencing physiological as well as psychological process. Bee bread is
rich in essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, multi vitamins and minerals.
Hence, bee bread could possibly serve as an ergogenic aid due to its nutritional contents.
To our knowledge, there is scanty information on effects of honey products on sports
performance. To date- no study has been done on effects of short term supplementation
of bee bread on running performance.
Methodology: Twelve male recreational runners (age: 24.01.8 years old; weight:
67.46.2 kg; height: 173.76.1 cm; BMI: 22.3 1.3 kg.m-2; VO2max: 52.0 2.8 ml.kg1
.min-1) were recruited in this randomised double blind placebo controlled cross-over
study. Bee bread was consumed by the participants at a dosage of 20 g per day for 8
weeks prior to the bee bread trial, and for the placebo trial, participants consumed
capsules containing malto dextrin for 8 weeks. On the day of the experiment trial,
participant were required to run at 60% of their respective VO2max on a treadmill for 90
minutes and immediately followed by a 20 minutes running time trial performance in a
controlled thermo neutral environment laboratory. Heart rate, tympanic temperature,
rate of perceived exertion (RPE), room temperature and relative room humidity were
recorded at intervals of 10 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured at intervals of
20 minutes. Three ml of cooled water per kg of body weight was given to the participant
every 20 minutes during the trials to prevent them from dehydration. Statistical
analyses were performed using ANOVA with repeated measures and paired t test.
Results & Discussion: Distance covered in the time trial for bee bread trial was
significantly longer (p=0.02) in comparison with the placebo trial (3.41 +0.2 km vs. 3.28
+ 0.2 km, bee bread and placebo respectively). Heart rate, tympanic temperature and
oxygen consumption in bee bread trial were not significantly different from the placebo
trial (p>0.05). Nevertheless, heart rate, tympanic temperature, oxygen consumption and
RPE increased significantly during exercise from their respective resting values in all
trials (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Supplementation of bee bread for 8 weeks at a dosage of 20 g daily elicited
an ergogenic effect on running time trial performance among recreational runners in a
thermo neutral laboratory environment.
Keywords: bee bread; time trial; running performance

37

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 29

Effects of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack Supplementation


Combined With Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular
Strength and Wingate Anaerobic Power in Young Males
*1

Nurul Ain, A. K., 1Chen, C. K., 1Ooi, F. K., 1Mohd Asnizam, A.


1

Universiti Sains Malaysia

*my_september_29@yahoo.com
Introduction: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ) supplementation has been shown to
increase muscular strength and resistance training also has been well established in
improving in muscle fitness. However, little is known about the effectiveness of
combination of ELJ supplementation and resistance training on muscular strength and
Wingate anaerobic power in young males. This study investigated the combined effects
of an 8 week resistance training programme and ELJ supplementation on isokinetic
muscular strength and power, Wingate anaerobic power, capacity and peak power in
young males.
Methodology: In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, forty young male
participants were weight matched and assigned into four groups with 10 participants per
group: Control group with placebo supplementation (C), Eurycoma Longifolia Jack
supplemented group (ELJ), Resistance Training group (RT) and combined Eurycoma
Longifolia Jack supplementation and resistance training (ELJ&RT) group. Participants
in ELJ and ELJ&RT groups consumed ELJ supplementation in a dosage of 200mg.day-1
while participants in the C and RT groups consumed placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks.
Resistance training programme consisted of 10 different types of the upper and lower
limbs exercises conducted three times per week using dumbbells and elastic bands.
Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, Wingate anaerobic
power, capacity and peak power were collected before and after the 8 week intervention
period.
Results & Discussion: Mean average power of knee flexion at 300.s -1 in the RT and
ELJ&RT groups was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the post test compared to pre test.
Wingate anaerobic power in the RT group increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to
respective pre test value. Wingate peak power in the combined ELJ&RT group was also
significantly (p<0.05) higher in post test compared to pre test.
Conclusion: The prescribed resistance training programme, either with or without ELJ
supplementation may be beneficial to improve isokinetic power of the lower limb.
Resistance training alone may be beneficial to improve Wingate anaerobic power,
combined Eurycoma Longifolia Jack and resistance training may have potential benefit
to improve Wingate peak power.
Keywords: Eurycoma Longifolia Jack; resistance training; isokinetic strength, Wingate
power.
38

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 30

Enriching Psychological Skill Training To Enhance


Concentration In Archers
*1

Nik Azma Hanin, N. I.

National Sport Institute of Malaysia

*nikazma86@gmail.com

Introduction: Archery is a closed-skill sport that requires a fine motor control. It needs
a great deal of psychological skills, especially the ability to relax and concentrate. A
great mental concentration is required for them to sustain psychologically and perform
at their best with less error. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of
continuous concentration exercises on the mental concentration of elite archery athletes.
Methodology: Malaysian national elite archers (n=13, mean age of 19.85) were given a
continuous concentration exercises for 21 weeks. The exercises consisted of original and
modified grid exercises, selective attention, visual search tasks and maze concentration
exercises. The effect of the interventions was determined and monitored for consistency,
percentage of error rate, net capacity (concentration capacity) and percentage of
concentration using d2 test of attention. The tests were done three times: before the
intervention (baseline), 10 weeks after interventions and on the week 21. Friedman Test
and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used in the analysis.
Results & Discussion: The findings indicated significant improvement in athletes
percentage of error rate (x = 16.22), net capacity (x = 18.00), consistency (x = 10.89)
and percentage of concentration (x = 14.60) with p < 0.005; df = 2. Significant changes
were observed after 10 weeks in all of the variables. Percentage of error rate further
decreased and net capacity increased by week 21.
Conclusion: The findings highlight the potential of continuous concentration exercises
leading towards an improvement in athletes consistency, concentration capacity, and
reduction in error proneness and increase the overall concentration percentage. The
results also indicate that intervention to enhance concentration has greater effect during
the first 10 weeks.
Keywords: archery; applied sport psychology; concentration

39

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 31

Relationships Between Physical Education Enjoyment And


Exercise Habit Strength Among Selected Secondary Islamic
Religious School In Johor
*1

Nur Hasanah, R., 1Norain, S., 1Hairiyah, M., 1Muhammad, N.


1

Universiti Teknologi MARA, Jengka Pahang

*nur_hasanahruslan@yahoo.com
Introduction: Physical education (PE) is a part of Malaysian secondary schools
curriculum. PE may offer opportunities to students to participate in physical activity
(PA), enhance their sports skills and gain knowledge needed to maintain the active
lifestyle. Islamic religious school (IRS) is different from daily schools because it strictly
applying the Islamic dress code. Since a number of PE activities require specific
clothing, it is at greater risk than most other subjects in meeting Islamic requirements.
Methodology: A total of 380 (191 boys and 189 girls) students aged between 13 and 16
years old were selected from four religious school in Johor. Measurement were carried
out by administrating two sets of questionnaire; Physical Education Enjoyment Process
Questionnaire (PEEPQ) and Exercise Habit Strength with six and four subscales
respectively. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics were used for primary measure
and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was performed to examine the correlation.
Results & Discussion: There were highly significant correlation between PE enjoyment
with all the exercise habit strength subscales (P<0.001). These results indicate that PE
enjoyment could increase exercise habit strength among adolescents. This present study
also found that Peer Interaction (PI) is the strongest influence for enjoyment. However,
further study should be conducted in various areas of IRS in Malaysia in order to
identify the actual strongest predictor of PE enjoyment in Malaysian Islamic Religious
School. The PE enjoyment becomes an important element for determine and designing
the activities for PE class in order to promote PE enjoyment among adolescents while
meeting the Islamic compliance. An effective PE class expected to be an effective
preventive measure and promote healthy life style.
Conclusion: As a conclusion this research finding found that PE enjoyment is positively
correlation with exercise habit among the selected secondary student of Islamic religious
school in Malaysia.
Keywords: physical education; enjoyment; exercise habit; islamic school

40

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 32

The Effect Of Gum Chewing And Progressive Muscle


Relaxation On Psychophysiological Parameters And Bowling
Performance
*1
1

Juliana, J. J.

Universiti Sains Malaysia

*julianajj@acd.tarc.edu.my
Introduction: The present study was undertaken with an objective to determine the
effects of progressive muscle relaxation and gum chewing on heart rate, anxiety and
bowling performance.
Methodology: University students (N = 31) age ranging from 19 to 23 years old were
randomly assigned into 3 groups (gum chewing, relaxation and control). Baseline
measures bowling performance (average scores), competitive state anxiety and heart
rate. Intervention such as gum chewing and Progressive Muscle Relaxation exercise
were given to the specific groups. The control group was not required to do any specific
task. The experimental treatments were conducted in 6 sessions. After the completion of
the intervention, bowling scores, competitive state anxiety and heart rates were again
measured.
Results & Discussion: Descriptive statistics and two-way repeated measure ANOVA
were used. There were no differences in bowling performance score, anxiety scores and
GSR scores among the 3 groups after the intervention was given. It is found that levels
of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence increases among the
intervention groups (Gum Chewing and Relaxation) meanwhile for the control groups
shows a decrement. However, from the result it was also observed that gum chewing
had increase self-confidence. Noted that the GSR level of the control group remain
stable, it appears that the GSR levels of both the intervention group reduced after 6
sessions of training. This decrease despite the insignificant difference suggests that
relaxation training and gum chewing were able to reduce the GSR level, which is
reflective of participants arousal state.
Conclusion: It is found that there are no differences found on the effect of gum chewing
and progressive muscle relaxation on bowling performance between the three groups
(Gum Chewing, Relaxation and Control) due to some limitations in the study. However
there are positive patterns that are worth of further discussions.
Keywords: anxiety; gum chewing; Progressive Muscle Relaxation; Galvanic Skin
Respond

41

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 33

Predicting Competitiveness Of Women Basketball Players


Using Profile Of Mood States And Sports Orientation
Attitude
*1

Rajeswaran, S.T.N., 1Manju Pushpa, P.


1

Bharathiar University, India

*stn.rajes@yahoo.com
Introduction: Competiveness is psychological states of player that determine the
outcome of competition which positively challenging the issues arises. In this
competitive world, success in sports is articulated by individual approach towards
participating sport and his/her ability of perceiving and managing the competitive
situations. Perception towards sports competition though requires the positive approach,
which has to be decided by the innate psychological state of an individual. Such a mood
state influencing the competitiveness of player which is the most needed quality for the
success in sports. In the field of physical education and sports before placing the
individual in sport, it is a need to determine the competiveness so as to predict the
players role in high level competitive situations. With this purpose the present study
was formed to predict the competitiveness of inter-collegiate level women basketball
players based on their mood states and sports orientation attitudes.
Methodology: For which the women players participated in the intercollegiate
tournament were selected as samples in the age group of 18-25. The selected samples
were tested by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Sports Orientation Questionnaire
to assess the mood states (competitiveness, tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue,
and confusion) and attitudes towards participating sport (win orientation, goal
orientation, and sports confidence). The data were collected in the competitive situations
so as to get the accuracy of data. The collected data were treated with Multiple Linear
Regression (MLR) analysis.
Results & Discussion: The obtained result of R2 = 0.81 explained that the independent
factors of mood states and attitude toward participating in sport accounting 81 percent in
the total variance in predicting the competiveness of players.
Conclusion: The mood states and attitude toward participating in sport accounting 81
percent in the total variance in predicting the competiveness of players.
Keywords: competitiveness; mood; perception

42

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 34

Effects of Two Types Progressive Muscle Relaxation on


Selected Psychophysiological and Psychomotor Parameters
Following Repeated Sub-Maximal Intensity Exercise
*1

Sharifah Maimunah, S. M. P., 1Hairul Anuar, H., 2Soumendra, S.

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia


Exercise and Sports Science Program, School of Health Science, Universiti Sains
Malaysia.

*sherypah88@gmail.com

Introduction: Fatigue regulation is important in sport performance. One of the recovery


modalities used by sport practitioners is Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR).
Research in sports psychology suggests that PMR can have positive effects on athletes
performance by reducing wasted muscle activity and calming the physiology. Despite
the increased attention given to this technique, there are no concrete guidelines on the
PMR training (duration, frequency) need to be conducted before relaxation response is
activated. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two types PMR of
different training durations (15 and 25 minutes) on selected psychophysiological and
psychomotor parameters following repeated sub-maximal intensity exercise.
Methodology: Twenty six physically active young males were randomly assigned to the
control group and two intervention groups: 15 and 25 minutes PMR. The experimental
session consisted of two sessions with a long-term four-week PMR training in between.
Each experimental session involved 4 bouts of intermittent exercise, consisting of
running at 60% VO2max for 10 minutes followed by 90% VO2max for 2 minutes. In
between each bout of running, a 3 minutes rest was given when choice reaction time
(CRT) and concentration grid test was conducted. RPE, heart rate and VO2 were
measured at the last minutes of each running bout.
Results & Discussion: The results of two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a
significant (p < 0.05) interaction between groups across the experimental sessions in
heart rate, CRT and concentration grid test. Pair wise comparison analysis revealed a
significant improvement in heart rate and concentration grid test for both intervention
groups compare to control group. After 12 sessions of PMR training, 25 minutes PMR
group showed a significant improvement in CRT compare to control group. However,
the results revealed a non significant (p > 0.05) interaction between the groups across
the experimental sessions in other parameters.
Conclusion: In conclusion, 12 sessions of 25 minutes PMR training lead to significant
improvements in heart rate, CRT and concentration ability, following repeated submaximal intensity exercise.
Keywords: Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)

43

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 35

Effects of 12 Weeks of Combined Exercise Training on


Adipocytokines and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in
Obese Women Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
*1

Ardalan, S., 2Mehdi, K., 3Rakhshan, E.


1

University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia


University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3
Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
*Ardalan_sh2002@yahoo.com
2

Introduction: Many studies have recommended aerobic exercises such as walking,


jogging, swimming and yoga for preventing multiple sclerosis (MS). However, recent
studies have demonstrated that combined exercise (aerobic plus resistance) can be more
effective in improving metabolic control, inflammatory markers, adipocytokines. The
purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise
training on adipocytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and
physiological factors in obese women with multiple sclerosis.
Methodology: Forty-two obese women patients with MS were randomly assigned to
either a combined (aerobic and resistance) group (n=20) and aerobic group (n= 22). The
combined training group exercised for 60 min/day, 3 days per week during the 12 week
supervised training program. The training program included 3 sets of 10 repetition
maximum (10RM) resistance exercise as well as aerobic exercise at an intensity of 4070% of their heart rate reserve (HRR). The control group was asked to maintain their
normal daily activities. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (% fat),
waist hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP),
Vo2 peak, blood lipids, fasting glucose level, adipocytokines (adiponectin and visfatin,)
levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured at baseline
and at the end of the study.
Results & Discussion: After 12 weeks of body weight, BMI, %fat, WHR, SBP, fasting
glucose level, triglyceride levels (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and
visfatin levels of the patients decreased while the Vo2 peak, high density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C) and adiponectin levels increased significantly in the exercise group
compared to baseline (p < 0.05); however, this changes were different between groups
(p>0.05).
Conclusion: The 12 week combined resistance and aerobic training program favorably
affects adipocytokines parameters, lipid profile, blood pressure, and hs-CRP in patients
MS.
Keywords: visfatin; adiponectin; hs-CRP; multiple sclerosis

44

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 36

Endurance Performance Between Follicular And Luteal Phase


Among Eumenorrheic Females
*1Nabila Adha, H.
1

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

*nabila.adha.hasan@gmail.com

Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the menstrual cycle
phases (follicular phase and luteal phase) on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max).
Methodology: Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate concentration, energy
expenditure (EE), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale as well as maximum heart
rate (MHR) were also monitored to determine the attainment of maximal oxygen
consumption (VO2max). 32-eumenorrheic female students (21.63 1.07 years; 54.42
9.27 kg; 158.54 5.53 cm) performed 80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)
on two different phases of the menstrual cycle.
Results & Discussion: Data revealed that there was no significant difference at P > 0.05
on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) between the phases.
Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the hormonal fluctuations due to
menstrual cycle phases did not affect the endurance performance as well as
physiological and metabolic responses in such exercise.
Keywords: maximal oxygen consumption; follicular phase; luteal phase; eumenorrheic

45

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 37

Step Test And Heart Rate


*1

Nur Hidayah, I., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M.H.
1

Univesiti Teknologi Malaysia

* lovedyaa8@gmail.com

Introduction: Abstract There are many Steps Test protocols were widely used in order
to measure cardio-respiratory fitness. This is due to the economically advantages
mechanical simplicity and administrative easily. The varieties of Step Test protocols had
made coaches or athletic trainer had difficulty to choose for their athletes. Thus, this
study was conducted to explore the recovery heart rate pattern of subjects after
performing four different step test protocols.
Methodology: Twenty Malaysian young adult (10 male, 10 female) aged (male = 23.2
years 1.14, female = 23 years 1.05) involved in this study. The average height, body
mass and the body mass index (BMI) as followed: height (male = 171.7 cm 7.09,
female = 161.3 cm 6.22); body mass (male = 72.8 kg 11.26, female = 56.7 kg
6.85) and BMI (male = 24.2 kg/m2 2.86, female = 21.40 kg/m2 3.10). All subjects
were assigned to perform four Step Test protocols: Tecumseh Step Test, YMCA Step
Test, Queen Step Test and Harvard Step Tests. Subjects performed each test randomly
with at least two days rest apart. The one-minute recovery heart rates were recorded.
Results & Discussion: Results shows that the Harvard Step Test had the highest mean
heart rate recovery pattern (male = 51.513.39, female = 51.99.83) compared to other
three Step Test protocols: Tecumseh Step Test(male = 279.68, female = 28.911.24),
the YMCA Step Test(male = 26.68.11, female = 26.67.2) and the Queen Step Test
(male = 30.39.85, female = 32.36.93). This indicated that, Malaysian young adult had
greater recovery heart rate pattern when performing Harvard Step Test compared to
other three Steps Test protocols. This may due to the protocols of the Harvard Steps
Test that required higher height of steps.
Conclusion: The heart rate recovery patterns influence performance. Therefore, coaches
/athletic trainer need to carefully reconsider the appropriate Steps Test protocols
according to individual physical characteristics and nature of sports especially to
Malaysia young adult athletes.
Keywords: step test; heart rate; cardio-respiratory; fitness; performance

46

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 38

The Effects of 2-weeks Exponential Taper On Selected


Physiological and Biochemical Parameters
Among Junior Cyclists
*1

Asmadi, I., 1Hairul Anuar, H., 1Oleksandr, K.


1

Universiti Sains Malaysia

*wak_ss@hotmail.com
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2-weeks using
exponential taper on selected physiological and biochemical parameters among junior
cyclists.
Methodology: Twenty seven male junior cyclists (Age= 16.90.8 years, Height=
165.66.1 cm, Weight=54.28.1 kg, BMI= 19.82.5) were assigned into 3 groups either
by the control group (n=9), exponential taper (n=9), or modified exponential taper
(n=9). Both experimental groups followed a 12-week progressive endurance training
program followed by a 2-week tapering phase. A simulated 20km time trials
performance and a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer was performed before and
after tapering. Blood samples were taken before and after tapering and analyzed for
blood lactate and serum creatine kinase (CK).
Results & Discussion: The results showed significant increase (p< .04) in VO2max for
both experimental groups. Also there was a significant increment (p< .03) in Power
Output (watt) in both experimental groups. A significant (p< .00) interaction between
experimental groups across experimental time was found for hemoglobin. Haematocrit
also significantly (p< .00) increased in normal exponential taper and modified
exponential taper. Blood lactate was also found to increase significantly (p< .02) after
tapering in both experimental groups. There was a significant (p< .05) decrease in serum
creatine kinase in both experimental groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that physiological adaptations and biochemical changes in
junior cyclists are exhibited from the type of taper that were performed. Both
exponential taper and modified exponential taper can induce physiological adaptation
with reduce volume of training and maintain in intensity of training during tapering
phase.
Keywords: cycling; exponential taper; blood lactate; creatine kinase

47

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 39

The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic


and Anaerobic Indices in Soccer Players
*1

Nima, G., 2Ehsan, A.

University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran

*Nima2014@gmail.com
Introduction: The present study investigated the effects of high intensity interval
training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic performances in young soccer players
Methodology: 18 soccer players volunteered and were randomly assigned to three
experimental groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (Vo2max, 47/8 6/87 m , age 23/9 3/21
height 176/1 7/64 cm, body mass 73/3 9/79 kg). Subjects performed 90 minutes in
each session and 2sessions per week for overall 4 weeks. Subjects, before and after
training performed: 1) a progressive test to determine Vo2max and maximum power in
Vo2max (Pmax), 2) time to exhaustion test (Tmax), and 3) the Wingate test. High
intensity interval training for group 1 consisted of 3 sets of 6 * 40 m running (maximum
speed), group 2 consisted of 4 sets of 4 minutes, with intensity (90 to 95 percent of
maximum heart rate) and with 3 minutes active recovery with (40 to 50% maximum
heart rate) among sets and group 3 includes Soccer technical training (as control group).
Data were analyzed by Independent t-tests, paired t-test and ANOVA for repeated
measures showed a significant level (p 0/05).
Results & Discussion: The results showed that after training in both groups (1 and 2)
VO2max, Pmax, Tmax, aerobic power were significantly increased. The difference
between the two groups was not observed in any of the variables.
Conclusion: The present findings suggest that a period of high intensity interval
training due to the low volume (on average, 2 to 4 minutes per session) can lead to
improve aerobic and anaerobic performances. So, to increase the HIIT load in active
people does not need to increase the intensity of exercise, but both intensity and volume
HIT can increase exercise efficiency.
Keywords: soccer players; high intensity interval training; aerobic power; anaerobic
power

48

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 40

Baby Wearing dan Penggunaan Oksigen (VO2)


*1

Nurul Aimy, K., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M. H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia(UTM)

*nurulaimybintikamal@gmail.com

Pengenalan: Baby Carrier merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk mengendong bayi.
Babywearing merupakan perbuatan memegang atau mengendong bayi dengan
menggunakan alat pengendong bayi atau baby carrier. Babywearer adalah individu
yang melakukan Babywearing. Penggunaan oksigen (VO2) amat diperlukan untuk
memastikan otot-otot badan mendapat bekalan oksigen yang secukupnya bagi
melakukan aktiviti harian, termasuklah aktiviti semasa menggunakan babywearing.
Kaedah: Terdapat dua cara babywearing yang digunakan dalam kajian ini iaitu
penggunaan baby carrier jenis Soft-Structured Carrier (SSC) yang diperbuat daripada
kain wrap Zen Emerald (Bebe Sachi, Malaysia) oleh Snugg Studio, Malaysia dan tanpa
menggunakan baby carrier (in arm). Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti
jumlah penggunaan oksigen (VO2) bagi kedua-dua cara babywearing tersebut. Ujian
eksperimental yang dilakukan adalah berdasarkan prosedur ujian rockport iaitu berjalan
di atas treadmill sejauh 1.6 km dengan menggunakan kedua-dua cara tersebut. Semasa
menjalankan ujian ini, patung seberat 5 kg digunakan sebagai pengganti. bayi untuk
dikendong. Seramai 22 orang wanita yang berumur diantara 20 hingga 30 tahun (24.73
1.91) telah dipilih untuk menjalani ujian ini.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Hasil kajian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan yang
signifikan di antara penggunaan SSC dengan kaedah in arm (p=0.908) dari aspek
penggunaan oksigen (VO2). Namun begitu, keputusan purata menunjukkan penggunaan
SSC adalah lebih rendah(10.160.59) berbanding in arm iaitu (10.220.69).
Rumusan: Ini menunjukkan penggunaan SSC mampu mengurangkan penggunaan
oksigen (VO2) dan secara tidak langsung mengurangkan tahap keletihan ketika
mengendong bayi.
Keywords: Babywearing; Baby Carrier; Babywearer; penggunaan oksigen (VO2)

49

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 41

Norma Rujukan Prestasi Kecergasan Fizikal Pengadil Ragbi


Berasaskan Bateri Ujian Prudential FITNESSGRAM
*1
1

Junaidy, M.H., 2Norlena, S.

IPG Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

*bulerts@hotmail.com

Pengenalan: Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membina norma ujian kecergasan fizikal bagi
mengukur tahap kecergasan fizikal berasaskan komponen kesihatan pengadil-pengadil
ragbi Kejohanan Ragbi 10 Sebelah Sekolah Berasrama Penuh (SBP 10s). Dua tujuan
utama kajian ini dijalankan ialah untuk membina norma ujian kecergasan fizikal
pengadil-pengadil, memastikan sama ada terdapatnya perbezaan kecergasan antara
peringkat umur dari segi tahap komponen Daya Tahan Kardiovaskular, Daya Tahan
Otot, Kekuatan Otot, Fleksibiliti dan Indeks Jisim Tubuh.
Kaedah: Sampel kajian adalah seramai 39 orang pengadil yang akan mengadili
perlawanan pada Kejohanan Ragbi 10 Sebelah Sekolah Berasrama Penuh (SBP 10s)
yang terdiri daripada peringkat umur antara 20 tahun hingga 45 tahun. Bateri ujian
Prudential FITNESSGRAM yang dikeluarkan oleh Cooper Institute for Aerobic
Research (1992) iaitu PACER 20 meter Multistage, push up, curl up, trunk lift dan body
mass index (bmi) telah digunakan sebagai instrumen kajian.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Analisis diskriptif menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang
signifikan terhadap tahap kecergasan fizikal setiap komponen kecergasan fizikal
berasaskan kesihatan pada setiap peringkat umur. Dapatan ini juga diharap dapat
membantu Jawatankuasa Kepengadilan Kejohanan untuk memastikan pengadil yang
bertugas memiliki tahap kecergasan yang tinggi bagi mengelakkan mereka membuat
keputusan yang boleh menimbulkan ketegangan pemain dan pegawai semasa
perlawanan berlangsung.
Rumusan: Analisis ini juga memberi kesedaran kepada para pengadil pentingnya tahap
kecergasan fizikal yang baik kerana mampu memberi kesan yang positif kepada mutu
kepengadilan yang lebih efektif, berkualiti dan berkesan.
Keywords: norma rujukan; kecergasan fizikal; Prudential FITNESSGRAM

50

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 42

Mengenal Pasti Bakat Sukan Bola Sepak Dalam Kalangan


Pelajar Lelaki Berumur 14 Dan 15 Tahun
*1Muhamad Hafiz, I., 2Ahmad, H., 2Nelfianty, M. R.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
*hafiz@utm.my

Pengenalan: Tujuan utama kajian ini dilakukan adalah untuk mengenal pasti bakat
sukan bola sepak dalam kalangan pelajar lelaki berumur 14 dan 15 tahun. Kajian ini
juga dilakukan bagi mendapatkan kesahan Ujian Spesifik Sukan Bola Sepak yang
digunakan.
Kaedah: Kajian yang dilaksanakan ini melibatkan dua fasa. Fasa pertama kajian adalah
untuk mendapat kesahan Ujian Spesifik Sukan Bola Sepak yang melibatkan ujian
menimang bola, ujian hantaran dekat, ujian hantaran jauh, ujian menggelecek dan ujian
menjaring. Manakala fasa kedua kajian ialah mengenal pasti bakat sukan bola sepak dan
melihat kesan pengaruh faktor fizikal, faktor kecergasan dan faktor psikologi ke atas
bakat sukan bola sepak. Dalam fasa pertama, seramai 40 orang pemain bola sepak telah
dipilih sebagai sampel dalam kajian ini. Kaedah persampelan rawak mudah digunakan
untuk mendapatkan sampel kajian bagi kumpulan pemain bola sepak bukan elit iaitu
seramai 20 orang. Manakala bagi kumpulan pemain bola sepak elit kaedah persampelan
bertujuan digunakan yang turut melibatkan 20 orang pemain. Dalam fasa kedua kajian,
seramai 108 orang pemain telah dipilih sebagai sampel kajian dengan menggunakan
kaedah persampelan rawak berlapis.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Data dianalisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif,
korelasi, analisis kebolehpercayaan, ujian-t, dan analisis regrasi pelbagai. Dapatan
kajian menunjukkan bahawa Ujian Spesifik Sukan Bola Sepak sah digunakan dalam
kalangan pemain bola sepak lelaki berumur 14 dan 15 tahun Hasil analisis turut
menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dalam Ujian Spesifik Sukan Bola
Sepak secara keseluruhan bagi kumpulan pemain bola sepak elit dengan kumpulan
pemain bola sepak bukan elit dengan nilai t (38) = 2.910, p = .000. Seterusnya hasil
kajian mendapati enam daripada 13 pemboleh ubah peramal bakat dalam sukan bola
sepak iaitu fleksibiliti, kekuatan otot, daya tahan otot, daya tahan kardiovaskular,
keyakinan diri dan orientasi ego merupakan peramal bagi bakat dalam sukan bola sepak
dalam kalangan pemain berumur 14 dan 15 tahun. Kombinasi keenam-enam pemboleh
ubah menambah sebanyak 2.8 peratus kepada varians (R2 = .967) dan pemboleh ubah
kriterion bakat sukan bola sepak [F(6,101)=495.947, p .05)].
Rumusan: Kajian ini menunjukkan kesahan Ujian Spesifik Sukan Bola Sepak yang
digunakan.
Keywords: kenal pasti bakat; bola sepak
51

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 43

Comparison of the Effect of Single Bout of 15 Minutes Cold


Water Immersion and EMG Biofeedback on Delayed-Onset
Muscle Soreness (DOMS) Indicators
*1
1

Nurul Hidayah, A., 1Hairul Anuar, H.

Sport Science Unit, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia


*nurulamir3@gmail.com

Introduction: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is pain or feeling of discomfort


commonly experienced by individual who performed any unacquainted exercise or high
intensity eccentric exercise. The study was undertaken with an objective to investigate
the effectiveness of a single bout of 15 minutes Cold Water Immersion (CWI) and
Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback to alleviate DOMS symptoms following
plyometric exercise protocol.
Methodology: Thirty two physically healthy young males with the mean age of 21.6
2.3 years old, weight 65.7 13.1 kg, height 170.5 6.9 cm, BMI 22.4 3.3 kg.m-1 and
fat percentage 20.5 6.2 % participated in this study. Each participant completed 10 x
10 counter-movement jumps to induce muscle damage. They were randomly assigned to
the control group (n = 8) and three intervention groups: CWI (n = 8), EMG biofeedback
(n = 8) and Combined group who received both CWI and EMG interventions (n = 8).
CWI group was given a single bout of 15 minutes lower limb of CWI therapy at 15C
following damage-inducing exercise with room temperature at 16C. EMG biofeedback
group was given 15 minutes of EMG biofeedback with 15 seconds of isometric exercise
for 3 sets. Indicators of DOMS such as perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary
contraction, range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference, creatine kinase (CK) and
lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed prior commencement of CMJ, immediately
after the jumps and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post CMJ.
Results & Discussion: The results of mixed-factorial ANOVA revealed a significant (p
< 0.05) interaction between groups across the experimental sessions in perceived muscle
soreness, ROM, CK and LDH. Pair wise comparison revealed a significant
improvement in muscle soreness, CK (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) and LDH (48 and
72 hours) for participants in the CWI group, whereas the EMG biofeedback group and
the combined group showed a significant improvement in ROM pronouncedly after the
24 hours mark compared to the CWI group and control group. The result revealed a
non-significant (p > 0.05) interaction between group across the experimental sessions in
other indicators such as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and thigh circumference.
Conclusion: A single bout of cold water immersion (CWI) at 15C for 15 minutes and
electromyography (EMG) biofeedback for 15 minutes are equally effective as both
interventions elicits beneficial effects in some DOMS indicators.
Keywords: DOMS; cold water immersion; EMG biofeedback
52

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 44

Dysmenorrhea: A Pilot Study In Female Malaysian Athletes


*1Nur Hafizah, K.
1

National Sport Institute of Malaysia

*nurhafizah@isn.gov.my

Introduction: Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for painful menstruation. Studies in


sedentary Malaysian adolescents had shown the prevalence to be more than 60%. The
most pronounce impact of dysmenorrhea was school absenteeism, and the rate increased
directly with the degree of pain. Researchers had proposed that female who exercise
had reduced risk of dysmenorrhea, thus a study was conducted to determine the
prevalence in athletic population in Malaysia.
Methodology: The objective of the study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact and
management strategy of dysmenorrhea among female adolescent athletes in Malaysia. A
questionnaire pertaining to frequency, severity, impacts and management strategy to
treat dysmenorrhea was administered to participants who were competing in various
individual and team events during a national sports competition.
Results & Discussion: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was reported in 71.7% (n=38)
of participants. Thirty-four point two one percent (34.21%) participants classified their
pain as severe, 44.74% as moderate and 21.05% as mild. Menarche age was found to
have significant negative relationship with the severity of dysmenorrhea (p<0.05). The
most reported impacts of dysmenorrhea on participants sports performance were
difficulty to concentrate (47.37%) and difficulty to execute the correct techniques
(34.21%). Most participants chose medication (24.49%) and rest (20.41%) as their
management strategies to overcome dysmenorrhea. It is interesting to note that physical
activity (jumping around) is the least favored by participants (2.04%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in current study is high and comparable
to sedentary females in Malaysia. Participants reported that dysmenorrhea is a
disturbance to their sports training and performance. It is suggested that future studies
should utilized larger sample (n>500) and adopt clinical assessment on the degree of
dysmenorrhea before promoting exercise as an effective management strategy to combat
dysmenorrhea.
Keywords: dysmenorrheal; menstrual pain; female athletes

53

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 45

Reviewing Agility Testing Instruments: Proposal For


Producing Reactive Agility Test For Netball Game
*1

Nur Ezzaini, M.N., 1Halijah, I.


1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

*tazz_gurl08@yahoo.com

Introduction: Possessing a high quality agility component reduces the potential for
injuries and increases the performance of an athlete. There are various types of agility
instruments namely Illinois Agility Test, Test 505, T Test, Zig-Zag Test and Pro-agility
test, but most of these testing instruments focus on planned movement and the athletes
able to predict future movement skills. These testing less reflect the actual situation of
the game, especially netball that requires response to stimulation.
Methodology: Therefore, this article presented to review scientifically on existing
instruments and propose necessary component to produce Reactive Agility Test for
netball. The Reactive Agility Test is a form of movement that cannot be pre-planned, as
reactive require subjects to change position in response to external stimuli derived from
sensory input system. Reactive agility involves cognitive component such as visual
scanning technique, visual speed scanner, prediction and decision making.
Results & Discussion: Proposed Reactive Agility Test for netball involves reaction of
movement based on beeps sound and lights as well as stimulus movement from an
interactive video. Netball skills require change of movement in various directions and
involve many decisions making process.
Conclusion: Therefore developing specific reactive agility tests for netball will assist
athletes and coaches for improvement and excellent achievement.
Keywords: agility; reactive agility; netball

54

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 46

Translation And Validation Of The Malay Version Of SJWS


And CSEQ: A Review Of Psychometric Properties
*1

Yuin Yi, L., 1Selina, K., 1Eng Wah, T., 2Tony, M.


*1

Sports Center, University of Malaya


College of Sports and Exercise Science, Victoria University

*joeynyi90@siswa.um.edu.my
Introduction: Smoking tobacco is a major concern in Malaysia, with 23.1% of
Malaysian adults smoking tobacco in 2012. Withdrawal symptoms and self-efficacy to
quit smoking have been shown to have significant effects on the outcomes of smoking
cessation. The Shiffman-Jarvik Withdrawal Scale (SJWS; Shiffman & Jarvik, 1976) and
the Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (CSEQ; DiClemente, 1981) are two
questionnaires that have been widely used in various smoking cessation research. The
short SJWS consists of 15-items with five subscales: physical symptoms, psychological
symptoms, stimulation/sedation, appetite, and cravings. The CSEQ is a 12-item
questionnaire that assesses participants self-efficacy to avoid smoking in various
situations described in each item. The aim of this study is to examine the reliability and
validity of the Malay language version of the SJWS and the CSEQ.
Methodology: The SJWS and CSEQ were translated based on the back translation
method. A total of 146 participants answered the translated questionnaires (M = 29.92
9.59 years). Psychometrics properties such as reliability (Cronbachs alpha and testretest),validity (content validity, construct validity) and face validity were examined.
Results & Discussion: Both questionnaires showed good test-retest reliabilities; SJWS
(r= 0.76) and the CSEQ (r=0.80). Cronbachs alpha for SJWS (=0.75) and CSEQ
(=0.96) suggested high internal consistency. The SJWS (= 101.01, GFI=0.91,
CFI=0.93, RMSEA=0.119, Chisq/df=3.061) and the CSEQ (= 218.5, GFI= 0.79,
CFI=0.90, RMSEA=0.145, Chisq/df=4.05) also showed good construct validity.
Content validity was established by experts in the field of psychology, culture and
language whereas face validity was confirmed by ex-smokers and health staff.
Conclusion: The translated Malay version of the CSEQ and the SJWS are reliable and
valid for the Malaysian population, with some minor modifications. Further studies are
needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for these questionnaires.
Keywords: smoking; cessation; translation; validation; Shiffman-Jarvik; withdrawal;
self-efficacy

55

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 47

The Measurement Of Attitude, Subjective Norms, And


Perceived Behavioural Control In Predicting Physical Activity
Among Bank Working Women
*1

Nur Zieta Syaidatul Akma, A., 1Ong, T.F., 1Abdul Rahim, M.M.

Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

*zieta89azizi@yahoo.com.my
Introduction: Regular physical activity has been linked to improved health and
reduction in chronic diseases. In terms of developing and increasing physical activity,
research has focused on understanding how particular social cognitive constructs might
predict the behaviour (physical activity). Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is one of
the social cognition models which widely applied in the domain of exercise and physical
activity. To further understand the issue, it is essential to quantify and identify the
determinants (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control) in
predicting physical activity participation among bank working women. In view of this,
the present study attempt to develop an instrument to assess the attitude, subjective
norms and perceived behavioural control among Malaysian bank working women in
predicting physical activity.
Methodology: A set of questionnaire was developed with reference to Blanchard et al.,
(2008). This instrument includes items that measured three components of determinants
in predicting physical activity among working women. The three components were
attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. The pilot study was
conducted on four financial institutions in Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire was filled
up by 52 respondents (N=52) aged from 24-55 years old.
Results & Discussion: Cronbachs alpha reliability value for the instrument was
=0.803 and quite consistent with Blanchard et al., (2008). The reliability for attitudes
was =0.78 and it is measured by their anxiety toward physical activity. Subjective
norms reliability was =0.73 and the mean value showed that the respondents need
support from peers and family in order to perform physical activity. Lastly, perceived
behavioural control reliability value is =0.70. Present study showed that the
respondents can overcome the control probably due to increases of chronic diseases
patients and dietary lifestyle.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this developed instrument for the measurement of attitude,
subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in predicting physical activity
among working women was found to be reliable. This instrument could be useful tool
for the evaluation of social cognitive among working women in physical activity.
Keywords: attitudes; subjective norms; perceived behavioural control; physical activity

56

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 48

Developing A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test:


Identifying Construct, Elements And Selection Of Items
*1

Siti Khadijah, L., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M. H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

*ctkadeja71@gmail.com
Introduction: Current researches agree that cultural differences in child-rearing
resulting in different rates of motor milestone development. Therefore, developing a
culturally-appropriate Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) testing instrument is
relevant for Malaysian children. The purpose of this paper is to analyses popular and
updated FMS testing instrument, identifying the constructs and listing the items of each
instrument. Besides, this paper also reported the testing procedures, scoring and grading
system as well as current research related to FMS instrument.
Methodology: Review of FMS testing instrument and current research were used in
developing the new FMS instrument framework. Relevant articles were searched via
online databases such as Midline, SportDiscus and ERIC. Based on cultural background
and from systematic review suggested three constructs with various elements and
consist of 15 items with applicable scoring and grading techniques were appropriate to
be included in the new instrument.
Results & Discussion: The suggested constructs were gross motor, fine motor and
manipulative skills comprise of five items of each constructs. The elements of
manipulative skills construct are motor plan, speed and precision, coordination,
manipulative, kinaesthetic, perceptual motor and balancing. The elements for fine motor
skills construct are finger dexterity, manual dexterity, finger thumb coordination,
coordinated use of both hand and perceptual motor integration. The element for
construct of gross motor skills are balance of the whole body while immobile, control of
locomotion, control of jumping, rhythmic ability, gross motor functioning, dynamic
balance, integrated kinaesthetic cues and perceptual motor integration. The items for
fine motor construct are mari menabung, mari menggunting,butang besar butang kecil,
gelang melalui pembaris and mari menjahit, the items for gross motor are lompat
setempat sebelah kaki, lompat jauh berdiri, imbangan satu kaki 30 saat, lari sisi and
lari 15 meter and the items for manipulative construct are meleret bola,lantun dan
tangkap, lambung dan tangkap, menyepak bola ke sasaran and menyepak bola ke
dinding.
Conclusion: Pilot study on the usability of new instruments indicated that the propose
constructs, items and grading technique are satisfactory for the development of the new
FMS instrument.
Keywords: fundamental movement skill; manipulative skill; motor skill

57

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 49

Development Of Test Measuring Muscular And


Speed Endurance Of athletes
*1Puneet Nivrutti Aute
1

Vibgyor High,Pune, India

*Puneetaute04@gmail.com

Introduction: The field of measurement and evaluation in Physical Education and


sports is exciting as it is ever evolving. The involvement of technology makes it more
systematic. With this view in mind, we intended to conduct an exploratory research
study, which employed standard procedure of test contractions to develop a test to
measure speed endurance and muscular endurance of athletes.
Methodology: A subject has to perform maximum number of shuffles (front back
jumps) over a tyre (1000/20 size) placed on a flat surface. Pilot study on constructed on
20 subjects revealed that the test procedure will be suited to train athletic, hence the
researcher finalized to sample to be 250 males athletic (aged 21-25) training at CACPE,
Pune.
Results & Discussion: The descriptive analysis shows the mean performance to be
126.88 and standard deviation 17.37 was conducted thrice and the data was analysis for
reliability. The analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the three
performance (f= 3.265, p=0.05), hence the procedure of the test is reliable. The test is
founded to be valid, reliable, and objective. The researcher future intents to modify the
test by installing PHOTO SENSOR for accurate measurement and also cross validate
the test with standardized test measuring same component.
Conclusion: The presently develop test looks promising for measuring speed endurance
and muscular endurance of an athletics.
Keywords: speed endurance; muscular Endurance; Tyre test

58

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 50

Habitual Participation On Physical Activities Among


Postgraduate Sports Science Students Of
Universiti Sains Malaysia
*1Mazuin, A., 1M N, Jawis., 1H A. Hashim.
Universiti Sains Malaysia

*mazuinadnan@yahoo.com
Introduction: Habitual participation in physical activity affects sporting lifestyle among
students which is lack of restless and full of academia activity. Pattern of lifestyle will
affect the lifestyle of students; to derive the benefits of health and improve the
confidence of life. This research is focused on habitual participation and activity pattern
among postgraduate USM sports science students.
Methodology: Participants consisted of seven students of age between 27 - 41 years
old. Step count was used for habitual participation observation. Activity patterns using
vertical axis, horizontal axis and perpendicular axis activity acceleration were recorded.
All participants used accelerometer for four days (two days on weekdays and two days
on weekend). Participants continued their own lifestyle without any changing in their
physical activity by researcher.
Results & Discussion: The analysis using repeated measure paired sample t-test
showed a significant differences for step count day one and day four (p<0.05). Whereas,
no significant differences were observed between days 1-2, days 2-3 and days 34.Furthermore, activity patterns showed significant differences for days 1-4
(p<0.05),and days 2-3 (p< 0.05), in vertical axis and for day 2-3 (p<0.05), and day 2-4
(p<0.05),in horizontal axis. Whereas, no significant differences were found on
perpendicular axis between weekdays and weekend.
Conclusion: It was concluded that sports science postgraduate students are more active
during the weekdays than weekend.
Keywords: physical activity; students

59

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 51

Measuring The Determinants Of Online Shopping Intention


Among Malaysian Football Fans
*1
1

Rozaliana, J., 1Ong, T. F.

Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

*liana_okt82@yahoo.com.my

Introduction: Todays internet is not only a networking media, but also as a transaction
medium for consumer at global market. This trend has sparkled tremendous growth of
online shopping among global consumer. However previous study showed that many
people browse internet for informational matters rather than buying online. Hence, it is
pertinent to further explore and identify the determinants that influence the online
shopping intention among consumers, especially in the sport industry. The purpose of
the study was to develop an instrument that would produce a valid and reliable estimate
to measure the determinants of online shopping intention among Malaysian football
fans.
Methodology: A set of questionnaire was develop with reference of Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM) Weng March Lim et al., (2012) and Theory Reasoned Action
(TRA) by Mohammad Hossien at el,. (2012). The developed instrument included items
that measured five components in relation with online shopping intention of football
fans. The components were perceive usefulness, perceive ease of use, subjective norms,
attitude and online shopping intention. A pilot study was conducted to examine the
validity and reliability of the instrument. It involved 50 football fans from UiTM Shah
Alam and one government agency in Klang.
Results & Discussion: Cronbachs alpha reliability value for the instruments was 0.961
and quite consistent with previous study. The reliability for perceive ease usefulness was
=.962 and perceive ease of use was =.947, social norms was =.885, attitude was
=.893 and online shopping intention was =.942.
Conclusion: This developed instrument for the measurement of online shopping
intention among football fans revealed to fairly high reliability. This instrument could be
a reference and useful tool for evaluation of online shopping among other sport fans.
Keywords: online shopping; perceive usefulness; perceive ease of use; subjective norms

60

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 52

Determination Of Intensity Level Between Selected


Traditional Games Among Z Generation
*1Choo, M. L., 1Nur Fasya, I., 2Adam, M., 2Mazuin, A., 2M N. Jawis.
1

School of Health Sciences, USM, Kelantan, Malaysia


School of Medical Sciences, USM, Kelantan, Malaysia

*morleyliza76@yahoo.com

Introduction: Physical inactivity can be associated with an increased variety of


diseases, especially non communicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular,
hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this could lead to a major consequence
prevalence of overweight and obesity in Z generation (members of the generation of
people born after 1995 or 2000s, who are confident user of new technology such as
smartphones, tablets and wireless internet). Besides, there were numbers of Z generation
whom did not meet the recommendation of moderate to vigorous physical activity
(MVPA) to gain the health benefit. Traditional games could be an attractive alternative
activitiy for the Z generations. Therefore, this study aims to determine the physical
activity intensity in Z generation for the selected traditional games.
Methodology: The data set gathered from primary school students (n=240), with (120
boys and 120 girls) aged 9 to 11 years old were recruited in this study. Parameter
measured for the intensity determination was activity count per minute (CPM) by using
accelerometer GTX3+. In addition to identify axes orientation involved in every
traditional game using the same gadgets.
Results & Discussion: Based on the two selected traditional games which were Baling
Tin and Police and Thieves have found within moderate to vigorous physical activity
(MVPA) level across the parameter measured. As for the activity count per minute
(CPM) found that Baling Tin (944.59 193.88) and Police and Thieves (952.48
191.04). There was no significant difference of mean activity count per minute (CPM)
between two games with p value = 0.751. Axis orientation showed that axis 1 in Baling
Tin (51673.69 13002.93) while Police and Thieves (42043.12 12415.06) and there
was significant difference of mean axis 1 between two games with p value < 0.001. In
axis 2 was 53437.12 11396.60 (Baling Tin) and 50430.45 12146.55 (Police and
Thieves). There was a significant difference of mean axis 2 between two games with p
value = 0.049. Axis 3, Baling Tin (58785.59 11109.20) and Police and Thieves
(54060.79 12238.46) also showed there was significant difference of mean axis 3
between two games with p value = 0.002.
Conclusion: this study found that all the two selected traditional games exhibit MVPA
type of activity and axis 3 of both traditional games reached the highest value, followed
by axis 2 and axis 1 had the lowest value.
Keyword: physical activity; traditional games; youth

61

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 53

Prevalence of Fear of Falling and its Correlation with Balance


and Quality of Life Among Older Adults
*1Kargarfard, M., 2Bordbar, M.R.F., 1Mokhtari, M., 1Boroujeni, E.R., 3Shariat, A.
1

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2
University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3
Faculty of Educational Studies, Department of Sport Studies, University Putra Malaysia,
Serdang, Malaysia

*Kargar_m46@yahoo.com

Introduction: Fear of falling in elderly major cause of loss of independence and loss of
physical function, psychological and their social. Because the elderly with fear of falling
often caused changes in their gait patterns and reduce their daily activities. The purpose
of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fear of falling among a population of
older adults and its correlation with balance and quality of life.
Methodology: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 92 older adults aged 60 and
older [85.87% women, 14.13% men; SD: 66.586.73 yrs], Chahar Mahal and
Bakhtiari Province participated in the study in 2012. Sampling method used in this study
was a random multistage cluster method. Fear of falling (FES) was assessed by the
Persian version of the Fear of falling (FES) questionnaire. Balance Functional Reach
Test was measured using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Five Times-Sit-to-Stand
test, 10- Meter Walk test and Six Minute Walk test (6MWT). Also, The HRQoL was
assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version
16.0, using independent t test and Pearson correlation test.
Results & Discussion: The study showed that fear of falling scores 97.83 and 2.17
percent of participants were in the range not confident at all to fairly confident and fairly
confident to completely confident, respectively; that no significant difference between
males and females were observed. There was a significant relationship between fear of
falling and balance (timed up and go (TUG) test) and quality of life (physical health,
mental health and social health). However, no significant differences between groups
were observed in the timed up and go (TUG) test. The physical dimension of quality of
life between the both groups was statistically significant, while the other dimensions of
quality of life this difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of fear of falling in elderly of
present study was small and had a direct relationship with the balance and quality of
life. Therefore, it is necessary to use methods of promoting the level of fear, and reduce
its negative effects on the health and future activities to prevent the elderly.
Keywords: falling; fear of falling; elderly; balance; quality of life

62

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 54

Vascular Effects of Religious-Related Physical Activities


In The Elderly
1

Mahmoud, A. A., 1Dana, M. S., 1,2Khaldoon, A., 1Omar, F. K., 1,2Mahmoud, E. N.,
1
Monsef, A. S.
1

Jordan University of Science and Technology


2
King Abdulla Hospital

*alomari@just.edu.jo

Introduction: Muslims are obligated to pray 5 times daily. Each prayer is a number of
rakaa completed with a set of physical movements, preferably in the neighborhood
masjid. The vascular effects of religious-related physical activities (RRPA) are not
known, despite the well-known cardiovascular benefits of regular physical activity.
Therefore, the current study examined the relationships of RRPA with vascular
measures.
Methodology: Arterial and venous indices at rest and after 5 of arterial occlusion were
examined in 192 healthy participants (age: 19-85 years) using strain gauge
plethysmography. The participants RRPA were collected in a 1-to-1 interview,
including prayer (PN) and rakaa number (RN) performed, distance (DW) and time (TW)
required to walk to the masjid, and the daily (DA) and weekly (WA) attendance to the
masjid.
Results & Discussion: Resting blood flow correlated significantly with DW, TW, DA,
and WA (r=0.2-0.4; p<0.01). Resting vascular resistance correlated with DW, TW, DA,
and WA (r=-0.14-0.2; p<0.05). Resting venous capacitance correlated with DW, TW,
DA, and WA (r=0.14-0.17; p<0.05). Resting outflow correlated with DW, TW, DA, and
WA (r=0.15-0.2; p<0.05). Occlusion blood flow correlated with DW (r=0.17; p=0.02).
Occlusion outflow correlated with DW and DA (r=0.16-0.17; p<0.05). Additionally,
arterial and venous indices were greater (p<0.05) in the participants regularly prayed in
the masjid.
Conclusion: The results confirm the importance of physical activities for the circulatory
system. Uniquely, the data shows that RRPA might contribute to the maintenance of
vascular function.
Keywords: red blood cells (RBC); white blood cells (WBC); menstrual; proliferative;
secretary; sports women

63

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 55

Perkembangan Kemahiran Lokomotor Kanak-Kanak Awal


Persekolahan Di Negeri Pulau Pinang
*1Masri, B., 2Ahmad, H., 2Mahaliza, M.
IPG Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim Sg.Petani, Kedah
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim Perak
*masribaharom2002@yahoo.com

Pengenalan: Kajian perkembangan kemahiran lokomotor kanak-kanak telah dijalankan


terhadap kanak-kanak umur 7 hingga 9 tahun menggunakan Instrumen Test Gross
Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) yang telah diterima pakai di peringkat
antarabangsa. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan kanak-kanak manakah dalam
kumpulan umur 7, 8 dan 9 tahun yang mengalami kelewatan dalam perkembangan
kemahiran lokomotor dan umur kesetaraan lokomotor.
Kaedah: Seramai n= 210 orang, kanak-kanak 7 tahun (7.17 .297), 8 tahun (8.53
.430) dan 9 tahun (9.30 .431) di Sekolah kebangsaaan dalam daerah Barat Daya di
Pulau Pinang terlibat sebagai subjek kajian. Data perkembangan kemahiran lokomotor
diperoleh melalui rakaman video.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Hasil analisis ANOVA menunjukkan, kanak-kanak
umur 9 tahun mengalami kelewatan Skor Umur Kesetaraan Lokomotor (SUKL) (4.61
.69), berbanding kanak-kanak umur 7 tahun SUKL (5.62 .69), dan kanak-kanak umur
8 tahun SUKL (5.83.63).
Rumusan: Kajian menunjukkan subjek umur 9 tahun mengalami masalah yang sangat
ketara dalam pemboleh ubah utama kajian.
Keywords: kemahiran lokomotor; skor umur kesetaraan lokomotor; kanak-kanak

64

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 56

Kesahan Dan Kebolehpercayaan Item Bagi Instrumen Sikap


Terhadap Pendidikan Jasmani Berdasarkan Model
Pengukuran Rasch Aplikasi Winsteps
*Siti Ajar, M. N., Anuar, D.
IPGM Kampus Gaya
Universiti Malaysia Sabah

*sitimdnoh@yahoo.com
Pengenalan: Kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen yang digunakan bagi mengukur
konstruk dalam kajian amat penting. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan bagi membuktikan
secara empirikal kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan item berdasarkan Model Pengukuran
Rasch aplikasi Winsteps 3.69.1.11. Objektif kajian adalah untuk mengenal pasti
kebolehpercayaan instrumen sikap, mengenal pasti item-item dalam julat kesepadanan,
dan keseragaman dimensi (Unidimensionality).
Kaedah: Instrumen sikap mengandungi sepuluh item dan ditadbirkan kepada 114
pelajar major dan elektif pendidikan Jasmani Institut Pendidikan Guru Zon Sabah.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Dapatan kajian menunjukkan konsistensi dalaman bagi
instrumen sikap ialah 0.94 (separation 3.81), nilai julat kesepadanan item infit MNSQ
ialah 0.59 hingga 1.87, outfit MNSQ ialah 0.55 hingga 1.76, dan keseragaman dimensi
dinilai daripada raw variance explained by measures adalah 66.6%.
Rumusan: Berdasarkan dapatan empirikal, instrumen sikap mempunyai keseragaman
dimensi yang baik dalam mengukur sikap dan satu item S1digugurkan kerana melebihi
julat infitMNSQ dan outfitMNSQ.
Keywords: Model Pengukuran Rasch; instrumen sikap; kebolehpercayaan; kesahan
item; pelajar IPGM

65

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 57

Babywearing Dan Penggunaan Tenaga


1

Shamierul Afieda, M. G., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M. H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)


*siput_sedot91@yahoo.com

Pengenalan: Babywearing adalah merupakan amalan membawa bayi dari satu tempat
ke tempat yang lain dengan menggunakan baby carrier. Istilah baby carrier pula
merupakan satu bentuk alat untuk membawa bayi manakala babywearer pula merujuk
kepada individu yang mengendong bayi. Kajian-kajian terdahulu menunjukkan bahawa
apabila berat badan individu di tambah dengan beban, penggunaan tenaga individu
tersebut akan bertambah. Hal ini akan menyebabkan individu tersebut akan mudah
berasa penat kerana penggunaan tenaga yang tinggi. Mengendong bayi dengan
menggunakan baby carrier atau tanpa menggunakan baby carrier memerlukan individu
menggunakan tenaga mereka. Bagi mengelakkan babywearer kehilangan tenaga dengan
cepat, mereka perlu memilih kaedah babywearing yang sesuai. Tujuan kajian ini
dijalankan adalah untuk mengenalpasti penggunaan tenaga di antara kaedah
babywearing iaitu front wrap cross carrier (FWCC) yang menggunakan kain wrap
jenis Zen Emerald (Bebe Sachi, Malaysia) dan tanpa menggunakan baby carrier (in
arm).
Kaedah: Kajian yang di jalankan berbentuk eksperimental dengan menggunakan
prosedur ujian Rockport (berjalan sejauh 1.6 km). Seramai 22 orang subjek wanita yang
berusia antara 20 hingga 30 tahun (24.731.91) terlibat dalam kajian ini. Setiap subjek
dikehendaki berjalan di atas treadmill sejauh 1.6 km dengan membawa patung bayi
seberat 5 kg menggunakan FWCC dan tanpa menggunakan baby carrier (in arm).
Keputusan & Pengenalan: Kajian yang dilakukan ini akan memberikan gambaran
awal tentang jumlah penggunaan tenaga ketika mengendong bayi dengan menggunakan
FWCC dan tanpa menggunakan baby carrier (in arm). Hasil awal dapatan kajian
mendapati tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan di antara kaedah FWCC dan tanpa
menggunakan baby carrier (in arm) dengan nilai p=0.966. Walaupun begitu, purata
penggunaan tenaga bagi kaedah FWCC adalah lebih rendah (15.892.51) berbanding
tanpa menggunakan baby carrier (in arm) iaitu (16.082.47).
Rumusan: Ini menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan baby carrier jenis FWCC
mengurangkan penggunaan tenaga ketika mengendong bayi berbanding tanpa
menggunakan baby carrier (in arm).
Keywords: babywearing; babywearer; baby carrier; penggunaan tenaga

66

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Oral 58

Comparing The Effect Of Attributional Feedback On Fine


And Gross Tasks Under Pressure
*1Farzaneh, N., 1Narjes, Y., 1Masoumeh, S., 1Afkham, D.
Alzahra University, Iran

*farzanehnarmenji@yahoo.com
Introduction: The major reason to investigate the role of causal attributions in
motivation and emotion is the large impact of causal attributions on achievement and
performance. Attributions are the specific causes that people use to explain a behavior.
Attributional training programs have beneficial effects on sport performance The
purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of attributional feedback on
performance of fine and gross tasks under pressure.
Methodology: Participants were 18 healthy novice female physical education students
of Alzahra University with mean age 22.61.8 yr. The participants dominant
hemisphere was left. They performed free throw in basketball and aiming and clicking
in computer in a within-subjects design. The order and carryover effects were controlled
by counterbalancing. Participants performed 72 trials at the 3 phase (2 blocks of 12 trials
in each phase). At the first and second phases, they performed both of tasks without and
with pressure, respectively. At the third phase, they competed together in both tasks
with attributional feedback based on Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Data were
analyzed by 2 one-way repeated measures analyses of variance.
Results & Discussion: Comparing the performance of fine task in different conditions
indicated the significant differences between first and second phases (P=0.002) and
between first and third phases (P=0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant difference
between performance of gross task in first and third phases (P=0.002). According to the
comparison of the means of 3 phases in fine and gross tasks, attributional feedback had
positive effect on performance of gross task, but had negative effect on performance of
fine task. The fine task of the present study was a motor-cognitive skill and this result
was probably due to the cognitive overload of attributional feedback on fine task.
Conclusion: The present study indicated that the attributional feedback has different
effects on motor performance based on type of task.
Keywords: attributional feedback; fine tasks; gross task; pressure

67

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Oral 59

The Feasibility and Acceptability of A School-Based, Peer-Led


Educational Program Aiming at Improving Nutritional Intake
and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Adolescents in
Northern Jordan
*1

Nihaya, A.S., 1Mahmoud, A., 2Smita, S., 2Robyn, G.

Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan


2
University of Sydney, Australia

*nasheyab@just.edu.jo

Introduction: Despite efforts, adolescents are still growing fat and unfit in many parts
of the world including Jordan. Peer-led education has emerged recently as more
effective to disseminate information to adolescents than adult-led, especially to control
obesity and enhances physical activity. Students as Lifestyle Activists (SALSA) is an
Australian peer-led education program aimed at modifying adolescents lifestyle,
particularly physical activity and diet. However this program has not been evaluated in
other countries, namely Jordan.
Methodology: This is a pilot study which aimed to evaluate the acceptability,
feasibility, and necessity of modifying SALSA according to cultural needs. These
aspects were examined after obtaining baseline measures of SALSA survey in 1 girl and
1 boy high schools to establish the needs for the program in Jordan. The pilot study
included a survey to assess students knowledge, attitude, perception, and practice
toward healthy lifestyle. The SALSA educational DVD and peer-led training manual
were used to implement the program, while the SALSA survey measured behavioral
changes among the students. The program was implemented in a chain of personnel that
include the SALSA champion, peer educators, peer-leaders, and then to younger peers.
Results & Discussion: There was a great need for the program as students showed poor
knowledge, negative attitudes and perception toward healthy lifestyle behaviors
especially those related to food and exercise. After implementing SALSA, the students
improved their knowledge, attitude, perception, and practice toward healthy lifestyle as
well as body image perception. Also, the program content and activities have been
accepted and was feasible in schools in Jordan and they were translated into Arabic
language by a professional translator.
Conclusion: Improving these variables is certainly important to help modifying diet and
physical activity, subsequently control obesity. Additionally successfully modifying
health-related behaviors will set that stage for future implementations of the program at
the national level.
Keywords: physical activity; nutrition; healthy lifestyle; peer-led education; schools

68

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 60

Effects of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Glycemic


Control, Body Mass and Body Mass Index in Coronary
Artery Disease Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
*1

Emadi, R., 2Kargarfard, M., 3Sadeghi, M., 4Shariat, A.


1

Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran


2
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
3
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4
University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

*emadi@gmail.com

Introduction: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been associated with


positive effects on coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, including improvements in
quality of life, exercise capacity, syndrome metabolic and reduces the rate of heart
attack recurrence and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of
aerobic exercise training based CR on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight
and body mass index in CAD patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methodology: Fifty-six CAD patients [32 male/24 female, mean age: 64.26+7.60 years;
body weight: 88.3210.28 kg; body mass index: 32.156.75 kg/m2] with type 2 diabetes
were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups: exercise training based CR
(n=28) or control (n=30). Patients in the study exercise group participated in an 8-week
aerobic exercise based cardiac rehabilitation program 3 times a week for a period of 8
weeks., while the control received standard medical care and follow-up. A treadmill
exercise testing was conducted in all patients by using a modified Naughton protocol
before and 8 weeks after exercise-based CR. Changes in body weight, body mass index,
heart rate, functional capacity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed.
Medication and diet remained unchanged in both groups during the study period.
Results & Discussion: After 2 months period, HbA1c was lower in the exercise groups
compared with the control groups (P<.05). The exercise group showed significant
changes in functional capacity and resting heart rate (P<.05). The difference in body
mass and body mass index between exercise and control groups was not significant after
exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program (P>.05).
Conclusion: Exercise based CR in CAD patients with type 2 diabetes improves exercise
capacity, decreases HbA1c and resting heart rate. Exercise training may lead to
additional benefit beyond optimal medical treat treatment and should be a cornerstone in
the management of all CAD patients.
Keywords: Exercise-Based CR; HbA1c; Body Mass; Body Mass Index; CAD Patients;
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

69

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 61

The Effect of AHA-ACSM Exercise Training Prescription On


Hematological, Immunological And Coagulation Parameters
In Young Sedentary Men
*1

Hashemvarzi, S.A., 2Ranjbar, K., 1Yeylaghi, M.R., 3Amir, N.


1

Islamic Azad University


Bu-Ali Sina University
3
Mazandaran University
2

*hashemvarzi_tkd@yahoo.com
Introduction: Regular exercise reduces the risk of various diseases. This has led to
many official recommendations of exercise to promote optimal health. The American
College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and American Heart Association (AHA) has issued
guidelines to exercise for young people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
investigate on the effect of AHA-ACSM exercise training prescription on
hematological, immunological and coagulation parameters in young sedentary men.
Methodology: This experimental research held at Bu-Ali Sina University in autumn.
The study was performed on 26 healthy men (21.5 1.6 years old) who were randomly
divided into control (n= 13) and experimental (n=13) groups. The training group did 12
weeks of AHA-ACSM exercise prescription at 8 A.M. and the control group continued
their normal activities at that time. Fasting blood (5ml) was collected at before and 72
hrs after exercise training. Hematological, Immunological and coagulation factors were
measure by cell counter and ELISA methods. The data was analyzed via independent
samples t- test and paired samples t-tests in significant level p 0.05.
Results & Discussion: Exercise training decrease MID (Minimum Inhibitory Dilution)
and Platelets significantly (P 0.05). But had no effect on MCV (Mean corpuscular
volume), MCH (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
concentration), Leukocytes, Prothrombin Time, Clotting Time and Bleeding Time
Conclusion: Generally, results of the study showed that 12 weeks AHA-ACSM
exercise prescription maintains hematological, immunology and coagulation parameters
in physiological normal range and Leads to the creation of optimal adjustment of blood
factors.
Keywords: AHA-ACSM; hematology; immunology

70

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 62

Primary Physical Education Students Problem Solving


Ability in Games with TGfU Approach
*1

Malathi, B.

Institute of Teacher Education, Technical Education Campus


Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
*

malathibalakrishnan@ymail.com

Introduction: The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of teaching games
for understanding (TGfU) approach to improve students problem solving ability in
game performance.
Methodology: This study employed a quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretestposttest control group design whereby 72 10-year-old primary school pupils were
randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental and
control groups were exposed to TGfU approach and the Traditional Skill approach of
handball game respectively. Focus group interview technique was also used to collect
qualitative data on pupil experiences of problem solving after 3 versus 3 game situations
of each game session. The data was then analysed using comparative cross case
analyses.
Results & Discussion: The findings show that when pupils under TGfU approach
participated in the game, their game performance such as tactical understanding,
decision making, problem solving improved. The results also reveal that pupils that
were taught using the TGfU approach had more learning experience of problem solving
in games than those using the Traditional Skill approach
Conclusion: From the findings, it can be concluded that the TGfU approach is an
effective approach to improve pupils problem solving ability in primary physical
education programme. Therefore, primary school physical education teachers may have
more success using the TGfU approach in teaching games in schools.
Keywords: primary physical education; Teaching Games for Understanding; problem
solving; game performance

71

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 63

Promoting Social Inclusion Among Adolescents Through


Community Soccer
*1

Asrenee, A. R., 2Rudie, Y.

Department of Psychiatry, Universiti Sains Malaysia


ARBY Teguh Training and Consultancy, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

*asrenee@usm.my
Introduction: Soccer is one of the favorite sports for adolescents in Malaysia. There
are many soccer programs organized for the adolescents nationally. Yet, it is only
benefited to a small portion of selected ones, commonly those who have extra
talents/skills. Majority of adolescent were left out, where some of them may form their
own soccer group while others might engage with electronic gadgets or online games. It
is not surprising that these groups increasingly grow up without guidance and support
hence subjected them to some mental health risks and unhealthy lifestyle.
Methodology: This is a case study on a community soccer program. The program is
adopted from the Australian model, adapted to the local environment. It is a weekly one
hour session conducted by a volunteer for 12 weeks duration. The volunteer is a
certified junior coach who also an adolescent counselor. The participants were recruited
through snowball sampling technique, open to interested yet unskilled male adolescents
aged between 13-year-old to 17-year-old. Parental consent was sought before the
program. The focus of this program is not only to improve the participants soccer skills
but to improve their social skills such as communication skills, leadership and
teamwork. Psycho-education on adolescent mental health and social problems was also
incorporated in the program. At the end of 12 weeks program, a focus group discussion
was conducted with the participants focusing on their personal improvement. Data was
then analyzed through a thematic analysis.
Results & Discussion: Four major themes emerged from the data: increase sense of
belonging and acceptance; increase networking; equality and increase self esteem.
Participants agreed that they were no longer felt left out and want to incorporate the
program is as part of their routine weekend activity. Apart from the improvement in
their soccer skills, majority of the participants reported the improvement of their
relationship with the parents, siblings and peers group.
Conclusion: The concept of community sport activity should involve the marginalized
group such as untalented and unskilled adolescents. With proper guidance and support
from government and community organization, community soccer is not only promoting
equal opportunity and participation but also community integration.
Keywords: adolescents; belonging; social inclusion; community soccer

72

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 64

Physical Fitness Profile among Aviation Cadets In Malaysia: A


Preliminary Report
*1

Wan Mohd Norsyam, W. N., 1Syed Muhamad Syakir, T. M. Z.

Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Pahang)

*norsyam@pahang.uitm.edu.my
Introduction: Pilot profession requires a strict periodic medical examination in order to
obtain flight safety. However physical fitness status among aircraft pilot also need to be
considered as a contributing factor to aviation safety. Therefore the purpose of the study
is to describe the physical fitness profile among aviation cadets in Malaysia.
Methodology: This cross-sectioned study recruited twenty-eight aviation cadets from an
aviation academy in Kelantan. Each aviation cadets performed seven physical fitness
test batteries which were body mass index test, waist hip ratio test, modified sit and
reach test, curl up test, hand grip test, standing long jump test and bleep test.
Results & Discussion: All test batteries were shown at least good and normal mean
score for all test batteries [BMI = 22.73.40 kg/m2; WHR = 0.90.04; sit and reach test
= 32.31.0 cm; curl up test = 37.311.11; hand grip test =42.85.88 kg] except for
standing long jump test (196.525.66 cm) and bleep test (estimated VO2max = 34.2 4.86
ml/kg/min) among aviation cadets. Poor aerobic fitness and lower body strength should
be closely monitored by authority seems these factors may contribute to early onset of
fatigue among aviation cadets.
Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that aviation cadets demonstrated good lower
back and hamstring flexibility, upper and abdominal strength but poor aerobic
endurance and lower body strength. Therefore several programs and proper exercise
might increase physical fitness gradually.
Keywords: physical fitness; aviation cadet; Malaysia

73

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 65

Perception of Public Recreational Park Accessibilities among


People with Physical Disabilities
*1
1

Norfaezah, M.R., 1Ong, T.F., 1Kee, K.M.

Faculty of Sport Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi Mara

*faezah_rosli22@hotmail.co.uk
Introduction: Accessibility of public recreation parks is important to people with
disabilities, as it may influence their physical activity participation, health benefit and
quality of life. In order to promote the participation of recreational activities among
people with disability, detail understanding of the accessibility needs of different
disabled groups is critical. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify and compare
the physical facilities that are pertinent to the accessibility of public recreational park
between wheelchair users and amputees.
Methodology: An instrument was developed with reference to The Accessibility
Instruments Measuring Fitness and Recreation Environments (AIMFREE) by Rimmer,
Riley, Wang and Rauworth (2004) and, Malaysian Standard MS 1331:2003 - Code of
practice for access of disabled people outside buildings. Self administered questionnaire
survey was conducted at Taman Tasik Titiwangsa Recreation Park, Kuala Lumpur,
involving people with different disabilities, which include wheelchair users (n = 111)
and amputees (n = 56). The volunteer respondents were visitors to the public recreation
park, aged 18 years old and above.
Results & Discussion: Nine physical facilities were identified to be important to the
disabled groups, which include parking, pedestrian crossing, toilet, lighting, seating,
footpath, access routes, equipment and signage. Both wheelchair users and amputees
considered parking as the most important accessibility factor and signage as the least
important factor. Comparing the importance of all the nine public recreational park
accessibilities examined, there were no significant differences between both the groups,
except pedestrian crossing factor. The finding revealed that there was significant
difference of importance for pedestrian crossing factor between wheelchair users and
amputees (p=.039, p<0.05). This result has verified that people with different types of
impairments indeed have different needs for environmental accommodation.
Conclusion: Ease of access to public recreational park facilities can influence the
participation of people with disabilities in recreational, leisure and physical activities.
The present study highlighted that service providers in recreational parks should be
aware of the different needs of various disability groups while preparing facilities and/or
conducting programs for the disabled population.
Keywords: accessibility; people with disabilities; public recreational park

74

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Oral 66

The Aerobic Capacity And Its Relationship With


Anthropometric Measurements And Heart Rate Reserve For
Second Stage Student Of Sport Science College
*1

Fadhel Kamel, M.

Mustansiriya University
*dr.fadhel.k.mathkor@gmail.com

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare estimated VO2max with
anthropometric measurements and heart rate reserve for second stage student of sport
sciences college to identify the role of the subjects in college and its impact to the
development of the fitness level.
Methodology: Two groups of seventeen males and sixteen females university student at
the second stage of sport sciences college, thirty of them were completed the study, the
characteristics of males (age 21.4 1.57 years; mass 65.5 6.16kg; height 176.8 5.97
cm) and the characteristics of females (age 20.42 1.39 years; mass 60.42 2.63 kg;
height 164.28 4.85 cm). Measurements were made of VO2max, somatotype (SPE),
heart rate reserve (HRR), body mass (BM), body fat (BF), and energy consumption by
calorie (CAL). This study was performed according to the guidelines set by the single
stage treadmill walking test is a sub maximal aerobic fitness test.
Results & Discussion: There are no significant differences between males and females
in all the study variables except (BF) that found greater in females than in males at level
(P < 0.05). However, VO2max was not correlated in this study between each of the SPE
and HRR, BM, BF and CAL. While VO2max was not correlated in male with another
variables, but there are many positively correlated in this study between SPE with (HRR
and BM) and BM with BF.
Conclusion: There were significant differences between the male and female of BF
measures. Furthermore, it has been identified that mesomorphy is positively correlated
with level of ability. We found that VO2max related with the amount of calorie
spending during the physical effort in female.
Keywords: VO2max; body mass; heart rate reserve

75

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 1

Kinematical Analysis Of Arm Swing And Ball Velocity


Of Spikers In Volleyball
*1Amritpal Singh, S., 1Shamsher Jung, B.
1

Chaudary Devi Lal, University Sirsa, Haryana, India

*amritrana77@gmail.com
Introduction: The game of Volleyball is played all over the world. Spiking is the key to
get score in the present scenario. Attackers attempt to impart maximal kinetic energy to
the ball while maintaining accuracy. The high kinetic energies and subsequent ball
velocities attained are achieved through the transfer of energy from the distal part of the
upper extremity to the ball. The purpose of this study is to analysis the relationship of
arm swing and ball speed of spikers in volleyball from bio-mechanically point of view.
Methodology: Eight subjects with an average age of 21 years, height of 1.89
meters, weight of 82.635 kilograms Average years spent at the elite level were
8.2.The cinematography technique was use.. All data is videotaped with 100 frames/sec.
The subject were video graphed continues from approach to landing. Video camera was
placed 8mt from counter spikers and 5 mt from short spikers After obtaining the video,
the arm swing and ball velocity are calculated by software motion pro.
Results & Discussion: The results revealed that the correlation between arm swing and
ball velocity was .999, which is greater than the tabulated value of correlation at .05
level of significant. As a result the result show the highest arm swing is 325 degree/sec
and highest ball velocity is 2.72m/sec or 85km/hr. The study conducted on 8 male
players their average arm swing is 306.1 degree/sec and their ball velocity is
18.44m/sec.
Conclusion: There was highly relationship between arm swing and ball velocity. The
players who have more angular velocity in arm swing have better ball speed.
Keywords: volleyball; bell velocity; arm swing

76

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 2

Assessment Of Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain In


Response To Moderate Exercises: A Systematic Review
*1

Ardalan, S., 1Shamsul Bahri, M. T., 2Mehdi, K.


1

Universiti Putra Malaysia


University of Isfahan, Iran

*Ardalan_sh2002@yahoo.com
Introduction: Nowadays, nonspecific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) is one of the
most common problems in the world and most people in their lives have had this
experience. There is no fracture and no evidence about injuries in their MRI.
More than 34 million (17%) adults in USA reported NCLBP and the occurrence in UK
was 59%.They feel it after wake up in the morning, after long walking and after sitting
in long duration. It is as an epidemic among people in different age. It leads to reduce
the ability to do activities in their life and they feel tired.
Methodology: This systematic review explores and analyzes the published article with
different treatment methods from 1990 till 2013 with attention to the selected criteria..
Results & Discussion: One of the important reasons about this issue is inactivity.
Different methods such as hydrotherapy, aerobic training, resistance training and
flexibility exercises are suggested as non-pharmacological treatment.
Conclusion: This systematic review explores and analyzes the published article with
different treatment methods from 1990 till 2013 with attention to the selected criteria.
Keywords: low back pain; moderate exercise

77

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 3

Effects of a 14-strain Probiotic Supplement on Salivary


Antimicrobial Proteins at Rest and in Response to an Acute
Bout of Prolonged Exercise
*1Ayu, M., 2Michael, G.
1

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, University Sains
Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
School of Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

*ayu_suzailiana@yahoo.com
Introduction: Probiotics are live micro-organisms which when administered in
adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The efficacy of single strains of
probiotics on immune function in both healthy individuals and clinical patients has been
widely investigated. Nevertheless, studies on the effects of mixtures of probiotic strains
are far fewer compared to those that have examined single strain probiotic supplements.
Some have reported that probiotic mixtures are more effective in modifying immune
function and preventing respiratory tract infection. Thus, this study aims to determine
the effects of 14-strain probiotic supplementation on salivary antimicrobial proteins
(AMPs) at rest and in response to an acute bout of prolonged exercise in recreationally
active, healthy adults.
Methodology: In this study, 11 participants (age: 22 1 years, weight: 69.5 12.2 kg,
BMI: 23.0 1.8 kg/m2) cycled for 2 h at 60% VO2max on two occasions (two trials
separated by 30 days). During each trial, participants came to the lab in the morning, 2 h
after having their breakfast. They were asked to have a similar breakfast before each
trial. The second trial was performed after 30 days of supplementation with a 14-strain
probiotic. The probiotic was in capsule form and taken as 1 capsule 3 times daily
(morning, midday, and evening). Timed, unstimulated saliva samples were collected
pre-, post-, 1 h post-, and 2 h post-exercise. Saliva samples were analysed for secretory
immunoglobulin A, -amylase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme concentrations.
Results & Discussion: Results showed that 30 days of supplementation with the 14strain probiotic did not alter salivary AMPs at rest and in response to an acute bout of
prolonged exercise. However, prolonged exercise significantly increased lactoferrin
concentration and -amylase activity post-exercise. It was speculated that the
supplementation period and/or the dose/concentration of the 14-strain probiotic used in
this study were insufficient to induce any beneficial effects on athletes salivary
antimicrobial proteins at rest and in response to an acute bout of prolonged exercise.
Conclusion: In conclusion, 30 days of 14-strain probiotic supplementation, have no
effects on salivary AMPs at rest and in response to an acute bout of prolonged exercise.
Keywords: multi-strain probiotic; S-IgA; lactoferrin; lysozyme; -amylase; prolonged
exercise
78

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 4

The Effects of Stimulant Dose on Whole Blood Culture


Cytokine Production
*1Ayu, M., 2Michael, G.
1

Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, University Sains
Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
School of Sports, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

*ayu_suzailiana@usm.my
Introduction: One informative measure of immune function is the production of
cytokines in response to an antigen challenge. Diseases, infections, psychological stress,
and exercise are among those factors that cause immunodepression, and in this situation,
cytokine production from activated white blood cells is lower than normal. Choosing an
effective dose is important because at a suitable dose (somewhere in the mid-range of
the dose response curve) the effects of an intervention (either positive or negative) can
be observed. Thus, aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of cytokines produced
by stimulated whole blood culture (with a multi-antigen Pediacel vaccine) with 7
different doses of vaccine in order to establish the most suitable effective dose.
Methodology: Six male and 6 female healthy participants (age: 26 3 years; weight:
66.7 11.2 kg; BMI: 22.7 2.4 kg/m2) were recruited in this study. Following an
overnight fast from 21:00 and with no vigorous physical activity during the preceding
24 h, participants came to the laboratory between 09:00 and 10:00. A resting blood
sample was collected and incubated with appropriate volumes of RPMI-1640 medium
and Pediacel vaccine for 20 h (5% CO2, 37C). Supernatants were subsequently
removed for analysis of multiple cytokine production (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-,
IFN-, and IL-1) using an Evidence Investigator biochip array. Blood samples were
also analysed for haematological parameters: haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit,
red blood cells count, and total and differential leukocyte counts.
Results & Discussion: It was found that effective dose for most of the measured
cytokines in this study is ranging between dose 4 and 6 (corresponding to a 1,000-4,000
fold range of dilution of the original Pediacel vaccine). An absolute value of effective
dose cannot be determined because different cytokines give different range of dose
active response. The most suitable dose (effective dose) was defined as the dose that
induced at least a 3-fold increase above the unstimulated (dose 1) cytokine production
but less than 50% of the maximal response.
Conclusion: It appears that the effective dose range for most of the measured cytokines
is between dose 4 and 6 (corresponding to a 1,000-4,000 fold range of dilution of the
original Pediacel vaccine), hence providing a reference for the future studies.
Keywords: effective dose; Pediacel vaccine; cytokines; Evidence Investigator; whole
blood culture
79

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SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 5

Music and Mindfulness Imagery: The Psycho-Physiological


Perspectives
*1, 2Kuan, G., 2Morris, T, 3Terry, P.
Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
2
Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
3
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia

*garry@usm.my
Introduction: Imagery is widely used in performance enhancement in sport. Although
music has recently been incorporated into imagery, there is little investigation of the
way in which types of music affect the performance of the imager. Recent findings
provide strong evidence indicating that carefully selected right music played just
before or during performance can be facilitative or debilitative to performance output
and mood. The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach, which has
been introduced in the applied sport psychology field, suggests that mindfulness is a key
step in the management of thoughts, feelings, and behaviour. The purpose of this study
was to explore psycho-physiological changes related to mindfulness imagery with music
and shooting performance among elite air-pistol shooters.
Methodology: Psycho-physiological measures, including galvanic skin response (GSR),
peripheral temperature (PT), electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate variability (HRV)
were monitored. Participants were 12 male elite air-pistol shooters, who were randomly
assigned to two groups: relaxing music with imagery or arousing music with imagery of
shooting performance. A pre-test-intervention-post-test design was used in two
simulated competitions, shooting 60 shots on a 10-meter air-pistol shooting range before
and after the imagery with music intervention. The imagery intervention lasted for 7
minutes, with 12 sessions over a 4-week period between the pre- and post-test.
Results & Discussion: Results from MANOVA analysis showed that the differences
across type of music used with imagery were significant for the gain-score for
competition performance F(1,11) = 8.85, p < .05, 2 = .36, with a significantly larger
increase in performance for relaxing music than arousing music. Psycho-physiological
profiles indicated that relaxing music enhanced the positive effect of imagery more than
arousing music because lower GSR, higher PT, linear EMG and lower HRV were
detected when the shooters were performing mindfulness imagery with relaxing music.
Further, in-depth interviews provided insight that mindfulness imagery is important for
maintaining a high state of positive thoughts about performance, relaxing the mind, and
being in the optimal zone.
Conclusion: Results of the study throw light on the role of mindfulness in the MAC
approach to relaxation and performance enhancement related to sport imagery.
Keywords: Mindfulness Imagery; Music; Psycho-physiological measures

80

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 6

Effects Of Range Of Motion And Physical Performance


On Quality Of Life Among People Aged 65 Years Or Older
*1

Hungu, J., 1Masahiro, Y.

Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences,


Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan

*harazu_21@yahoo.co.jp
Introduction: Aging is commonly linked to a reduction in joint range of motion (ROM)
and physical function. Although decreased physical function among people aged 65
years or older contributes to a reduced quality of life (QOL), it is unclear how ROM
affects quality of life among them. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence
of ROM and physical performance on QOL among people aged 65 years or older.
Methodology: One hundred and twenty-seven community-dwelling people aged 65
years or older (56 men and 71 women; mean SD; age, 72.3 5.2 years; height, 1.57
8.6 m; mass, 56.1 9.9 kg) were recruited for this study. Active ROM (hip flexion, hip
extension, and knee flexion), physical performance (grip strength, side steps, and 10 m
walking with obstacles), and the Health Related QOL (HRQOL) including physical
component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were measured.
Results & Discussion: Among elderly women, hip extension and 10 m walking with
obstacles were independent predictors of PCS of HRQOL, but not MCS of HRQOL. On
the other hand, among elderly men, ROM and physical performance variables were not
found to be significant independent predictors among both the PCS and MCS of
HRQOL.
Conclusion: It was concluded that decreased hip extension ROM and 10 m walking
with obstacles among elderly women were significantly associated with the PCS of
HRQOL.
Keywords: HRQOL; range of motion; elderly; physical performance

81

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 7

Development Of The Japanese Version Of Sport


Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale
*1

Kazuaki, M., 1Kazushi, T., 2Kohei, S.


1

Kobe University, Japan


Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Japan

*motida_63@yahoo.co.jp
Introduction: Aoyagi et al. (2008) have demonstrated positive correlations between
organizational citizenship behavior in sport settings and group cohesiveness, as well as
the effect of each members behaviors on teamwork. In Japan, to date, organizational
citizenship behavior in sport settings has not been investigated. This study developed the
Japanese version of the Sport Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, for assessing
behavior of members that was related with cohesiveness and efficacy of team sports.
Methodology: First, a preliminary survey was conducted with male university football
club members (N=301,age19.98,SD1.02) belonging to five teams, by using a
questionnaire. The questionnaire included 60 items and evaluation was conducted using
a four-point scale. Items in the survey questionnaire were selected by applying existing
scales to sport settings and practical experience of coaches. Next, the main survey was
conducted by administering the newly developed questionnaire to male university
football club members (N=545,age19.76,SD1.11) belonging to eight teams. The
questionnaire included 41 items selected through the preliminary survey as well as new
items. Participants responded by using a four-point scale ranging between 1 (not at all)
and 4 (very true). The test-retest reliability of the new scale was assessed by again
administering the scale to 66 participants selected from the main survey.
Results & Discussion: Exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal
factor method and promax rotation. The result identified 20 items and five factors:
Sacrificing behavior, Effective communication, Interpersonal support, Sincerity, and
Cleanliness. In order to examine the internal consistency of the scale, Cronbachs
coefficient alpha of each subscale was calculated and result indicated values of .63~.85.
Correlation between factors was .21~.54 (p<.01). The test-retest reliability coefficient of
the scale was r=.67 (p<.01).
Conclusion: The results indicated that the new scale had sufficient reliability. The scale
developed in this study was named the Japanese version of Sport Organizational
Citizenship Behavior Scale, for measuring members behavior contributed to their team.
Keywords: teamwork; collective efficacy; group cohesion

82

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 8

Effects Of Weight And Plyometric Training On Leg Muscle


Power In Female Thai National Volleyball Players
*1

Kesinee, S., 1Saksayam, S., 2Noppadol, M., 1Sukit, P., 2Tavorn, K.


1

Sports Science Centre, Sports Authority of Thailand (SAT)


College of Sports Science and Technology (CSST), Mahidol University

*Kesinee.lao@gmail.com

Introduction: The volleyball players have different category of movement for example,
spike ball, jump and block, powerful serving, backward running, sprint, and turn. The
athlete must have power and muscle strength as the most important part of sport. The
purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short term weight and plyometric
training on leg muscle power in female Thai national volleyball players.
Methodology: Twenty female Thai national volleyball players were divided in 2
groups. Group 1 (N=10; age=18.7+ 0.48 years) and group 2 (N=10; age=16.90 + 0.32
years) the training program used during the experiment was the same for both groups.
For 4 weeks, the subjects performed weight and plyometric training 3 times per week.
All subjects were tested leg muscle power by force platform and quadriceps muscle
strength by isokinetic system (Cybex 6000). This experiment was approved by the Ethic
Committee for Human Experiment of Mahidol University, MU-IRB 2013/070.2506
Individual informed consent form was signed prior to the test. The obtained data were
analyzed statistically with the use of SPSS (SPSS INC). The results were presented as
arithmetic means and standard deviations (SD). To determine significant differences in
values of leg muscle power and muscle strength between the pre and post session, the
t-test for paired samples was applied. The level of statistical significance was set at
p < 0.05
Results & Discussion: The average pre and post leg muscle power of group 1 was
2,576.24 + 358.14 watts and 2,926.05 + 551.76 watts respectively, and group 2 was
2,465.70 + 475.68 watts and 2,932.66 + 638.76 watts respectively. For average pre and
post quadriceps muscle strength of group 1 was 1.733 + 0.247 Nm/kg and 1.787 + 0.275
Nm/kg, respectively, and group 2 was 1.79 + 0.187 Nm/kg and 1.80 + 0.126 Nm/kg,
respectively. These finding showed that 4 weeks weight and plyometric training are
not a sufficient stimulus to enhance muscle power and muscle strength in female Thai
national volleyball players. However the average leg muscle power was showed a
tendency to increase but not significantly difference in both groups.
Conclusion: The 4 weeks weight and plyometric training failed to develop muscle
performance in both groups. Future research should focus on specific muscle training
for elicit muscle power and muscle strength in term of training volume before
competition.
Keywords: weight and plyometric training; leg muscle power, volleyball

83

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 9

The Health Benefits Of Tai Chi On Patients With Heart


Failure: A Systematic Review
*1Kor, P. P. K.
1

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

*patrick.kor@polyu.edu.hk

Introduction: Patients with heart failure (HF) are characterized with exercise
intolerance. Tai chi is a low intensity traditional Chinese exercise that includes a
meditational component and beneficial effects were shown in cardio-respiratory
function, fall prevention, and mental state. Our study is to review current studies on
health benefits of Tai Chi in patients with HF.
Methodology: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO Host and the
Cochrane Collection databases for papers related to heart failure and Tai Chi from 2000
to 2014. Key-words used for searching were Tai Chi, Heart Failure, Tai Ji, Chi
Chuan, heart disease, and exercise.
Results & Discussion: A total of 110 papers were screened and 9 experimental studies
were selected to the systematic review. Tai Chi appears to be safe in patients with HF
and no adverse effect was reported in all these studies. There is strong evidence to
support the effectiveness of Tai Chi in improving quality of life (out of 7 studies showed
significant effect) of patients with HF. Also Tai Chi alleviates depression level (out of 3
studies showed significant effect) and improves sleep quality (2 studies showed
significant effect) of patients with HF. Inconsistent results were reported in the
enhancement of exercise capacity (5 out of 7 studies showed significant effect) and Btype natriuretic peptide level (3 out of 6 studies showed significant effect).
Conclusion: Tai Chi is safe and effective in improving quality of life in patients with
HF. Existing empirical evidence supporting health benefits of patients with HF is scant.
Larger randomized controlled trials are needed before more-definitive conclusions can
be drawn.
Keywords: Tai Chi; Chi Chuan; heart failure; heart disease

84

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 10

Determination Of The Opinions Of Some Sports Members On


Defining The Success Level Of Turkish Sports
1
1

Tosun Tun, G., *1Salman, M. N.

Aksaray University School of Physical Education and Sports, Turkey

*amritrana77@gmail.com
Introduction: Sportsmen, trainers, sports managers, sports journalists, physical
education teachers and academics who are essential elements of sports lead Turkish
sports with their knowledge and experience. Purpose of this study is to determine the
vision and approach of sports members who are basic elements of sports about
advantageous and disadvantageous subjects affecting the rise of the success level of
Turkish sports and how they see the successful and lacking parts of our sports system.
Methodology: Universe of this study consists of 1063 sports members (494 sportsmen,
276 trainers, 82 sports managers, 20 sports journalists, 143 physical education teachers
and 48 academics) who participate in this study voluntarily. The data of this study were
obtained by using a 5 point Likert scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was made up
of two parts. First part consists of 10 questions specifying the qualifications of sports
members and the second part in order to determine specifying the successful and lacking
sides, the sports members consider, of our sports system. In order to determine Turkey's
current sports system structure, the position of coaches, perspective of sports managers
in sport, the current structuring of sports federations, adequacy of sports facilities, levels
of family approach to sport was developed a questionnaire which consists of 6 subchapters and 40 questions. Validity and reliability study of the questionnaire were made
by applying pre-test and final test on 100 people and the alpha value was acquired as .89
Results & Discussion: As a result of this study, it is found that there are some problems
such as schooling sufficient number of qualified and wise sportsmen, internationally
accepted trainers and sports managers, and lack of those in Turkey.
In the study of this issue by the education and status variables there is no difference of
perspectives of sports managers in sport with about the adequacy of sports facilities
(P>0.05), for the other four sub-chapters were determined as the difference between
groups (P<0.05). In addition, according to age and gender variable all sub-chapters were
found to be differences between groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: This information was based on raising the level of achievement of Turkish
sports of all groups involved a new concept of sports management has concluded that
need to be discussed.
Keywords: sport; success

85

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 11

Mathematical Classification in Kendo


*1

Hirota, M., 1Yukimori, S., 1Taketani, M.


1

College of Industrial Technology, Japan

*hirota@cit.sangitan.ac.jp
Introduction: Kendo is one of Japanese traditional martial arts. Kendo had been
translated with Japanese fencing or swordsmanship in English before. In recent years,
however, the word Kendo is widespread with increase in number of practitioners of
Kendo. On the other hand, when we enjoy some sport, it is very interesting to know the
ranking of the contestant / player.
Methodology: Some ranking system is already established in several sports, e.g.
professional boxers or professional tennis players, and update of ranking is performed in
each umbrella organization. It would be also important to understand the each
contestants ranking from an aspect of coaching. In other words, to rate suitably each
contestant equals to evaluate their abilities sufficiently. It is also able to know the
difference of capability between the contestants. But, some competitions do not have
the ranking system. Kendo also does not have it. We therefore have proposed a
mathematical classification method which can be applied for various sports.
Results & Discussion: It has already been indicated that this mathematical
classification method is useful for a series of elimination tournaments of Judo and
doubles of tennis in our previous papers. In this paper, mathematical classification
principles will be shown to be also useful for a round robin tournament with accurate
estimates.
Conclusion: A rating estimator for Kendo will be proposed and applied to a round robin
tournament of Kendo in our college.
Keywords: mathematical classification; ranking; rating; kendo

86

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 12

Intervensi Meningkatkan Penglibatan Orang Dewasa Dalam


Aktiviti Fizikal
*1

Mazlina, M., 2Denise Koh, C. L., 3Norlena, S.

Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

*mazlinamahmood@yahoo.com

Pengenalan: 70% orang dewasa di Malaysia adalah sedentari dan kurang aktif. Kajian
ini berasaskan kepada penggunaan teori kognitif sosial sebagai asas intervensi aktiviti
fizikal. Tujuan kajian bagi meningkatkan penglibatan orang dewasa dalam aktiviti
fizikal dengan menekankan elemen pembelajaran.
Kaedah: Kajian kuasi eksperimental selama 12 minggu ujian pra-pos siri masa dengan
subjek tunggal. Seramai 22 peserta kajian (5 lelaki dan 17 wanita) staf institut
pendidikan secara sukarela melengkapkan kajian. Kriteria kelayakan adalah sedentari,
kurang aktif, umur 20 hingga 60 tahun dan bekerja sepenuh masa. Strategi intervensi
terdiri daripada buku panduan pelan senaman individu, pertemuan bersemuka, sesi
kaunseling dan beberapa siri panggilan telefon. Secara individu, pemakaian
accelerometer selama 7 hari, dan soal selidik tingkah laku sedentari.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Seramai 22 orang peserta sukarela (5 lelaki dan 17
wanita) telah melengkapkan kajian dengan min (SP) umur = 44.73 (8.51). Pengukuran
berulang menunjukkan accelerometer secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan min jumlah
langkah/hari (SP) (dari 3920.40 (1466.87) kepada 8434.42 (661.10), p < 0.00).
Manakala terdapat pengurangan tingkah laku sedentari secara signifikan pada hari kerja
[F(21) = 1038.21, p=0.00, p> 0.050 dan hari minggu [F (21)= 111.87, p=0.00, p>0.05]
selepas pos intervensi.
Rumusan: Kejayaan intervensi untuk meningkatkan penglibatan orang dewasa dalam
aktiviti fizikal adalah sederhana berkesan. Strategi yang menekankan kepada individu
perlu ditingkatkan untuk berlaku perubahan tingkah laku. Kajian selanjutnya
menekankan elemen pembelajaran kepada pelbagai populasi lain. Cadangan ini sebagai
satu strategi untuk mengalakkan orang dewasa melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti fizikal dan
mengurangkan risiko penyakit.
Keywords: orang dewasa; sedentari; elemen pembelajaran; aktiviti fizikal

87

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 13

Mathematical Classification in Grand Sumo


*1

Taketani, M., 1Yukimori, S., 1Hirota, M.


1

College of Industrial Technology, Japan

*taketani@cit.sangitan.ac.jp
Introduction: The origin of Sumo is an old divine service and a festival in ancient
Japan, meanwhile, Sumo is military arts and martial arts, too. Sumo is a competitive
contact sport like wrestling or Judo. Therefore, Sumo is often called Sumo-wrestling
in English. Furthermore, professional Sumo is known and described as Grand Sumo
and sometimes distinguished from the Sumo wrestling of the amateur. On the other
hand, the ranking system has an important meaning in knowing athlete's ability.
Methodology: Mathematical classification principles in sports which has been used in
the international tennis classification by the international Association of Tennis
Professionals (ATP) since 1979, is known to be useful for a series of elimination
tournaments. We have also proposed a mathematical classification method which can
be applied for various sports.
Results & Discussion: Our previous papers showed that this mathematical
classification method could be applied to Judo and doubles of tennis. In these examples,
new classification was estimated under the assumption that all the differences between
successive two ranks were equal. In this paper treating with a ranking of Grand Sumo,
mathematical classification principle will be applied to a case where some differences
between successive two ranks are not equal.
Conclusion: A rating estimator for Grand Sumo will be proposed and applied to grand
tournament held in March 2003.
Keywords: mathematical classification; ranking; rating; sumo

88

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 14

The Impact Velocities Varied Training Method On Some


Physical Abilities And Functional Indicators Have Players
Handball
*1Nabhan Hameed, A., 1Fatima, A. M.
1

University of Anbar
*nabhanhamed56@yahoo.com

Introduction: That the game of handball requires practitioners to be available to many


of the capabilities they have special physical and functional indicators. Here we find
numerous sports training methods and techniques to improve the physical and functional
capacity and skilled performance, and through the number of training courses to suit the
capabilities of the players. With this in mind the researchers went to all that is new in
the science of sports training to improve and develop physical abilities and functional
indicators, such as speed-strength of the Parties to the upper and lower, being a
significant capacity for the game Handball. So is the importance of research interest in
the ability of the Parties to the muscle top and bottom, as well as some functional
indicators that help the player to continue to skilled performance with high efficiency
the length of the game without feeling tired. The research aims to develop training
curriculum in a manner velocities varied to suit the requirements of the handball game
Methodology: The experimental method used on players club girl Baghdad handball
and of their number (12) to deliberate, the way player, and the sample was divided
randomly into two groups, the researchers conducted a homogeneity and parity, in the
tribal tests. The training was conducted for 9 weeks, 3 times per week.
Results & Discussion: After the end of the experimental curriculum and testing a
posteriori processing the results were statistically significant, the researchers concluded
that the fastest diverse exercises have a positive effect in the development of some
physical abilities and functional indicators to the handball players.
Conclusion: After the end of the experimental curriculum and testing a posteriori
processing the results were statistically significant, the researchers concluded that the
fastest diverse exercises have a positive effect in the development of some physical
abilities and functional indicators to the handball players .
Keywords: training; handball

89

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 15

Selected Traditional Games Create Enjoyment Among


Children
*1Nur Fasya, I., 1Choo Morley, L., 2Adam, M., 2Mazuin, A., 2M.N, Jawis.
1

School of Health Sciences, USM, Kelantan, Malaysia


School of Medical Sciences, USM, Kelantan, Malaysia

*n.fasya@gmail.com
Introduction: Physical activity should be a normal part of daily living habits for young
people. Throughout the lifespan, physical activity plays a key part in young peoples
physical, social and mental development. Physical inactivity has been associated with
increased of risk factor and can contribute to the development of many disease such non
communicable diseases (i.e. cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus) and became a
major consequence prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. Physical activity
reduces morbidity and mortality from many of the leading causes of ill health, notably
coronary heart disease, as well as having positive effects on aspects of health including
body fat and weight control, and depression and anxiety. Traditional games should be
attractive alternative activities for the children.
Methodology: This study aims to determine the effects of selected traditional games on
enjoyment among 9 to 11 years old children. 600 healthy subjects aged 9 to 11 years old
were recruited in this study. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was used to
determine the enjoyment in children towards the selected traditional games. Paired
sample T-test was used to analyze this data.
Results & Discussion: Based on five selected traditional games i.e. Bola Beracun,
Baling Tin, Galah Panjang, Belalang Belatuk and Police & Thieves, the three selected
traditional games i.e. Bola Beracun, Baling Tin and Galah Panjang showed with p
<0.05 in the PACES score. However, Belalang Belatuk and Police & Thieves found no
significant difference with p=0.12 and p= 0.15. One way to make physical activity
enticing and desirable is to increase exercisers enjoyment level of the player. In fact,
enjoyment is a commonly cited reason for participating in exercise.
Conclusion: This study found that three selected traditional games found to be more
enjoy and fun according to their children enjoyment level before and after playing the
traditional games.
Keyword: traditional games; enjoyment; children; physical activity

90

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 16

An Analysis Of Bowling Scores


*1

Nur Syafika, M.S., 1Shamsul Rijal, M.S.

School of Mathematical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

*nursyafikams@gmail.com

Introduction: Ten pin bowling is a sport requiring complex motion to generate specific
rotation of the bowl in the lane. Ten pin bowling is understudied and more information
is needed to promote bowling as a sport. There are not many specific research connected
to ten pin bowling. The purpose of this study was to find individual performance score
follows any distribution and developed a model of score based on the individual
performance.
Methodology: The data set of bowling scores in this study comes from an actual tenpin
bowling competition in Sukan Institut Pengajian Tinggi 2014 (SUKIPT). The scoring
sheets were provided from the web (http://sukipt.com.my/). This scoring sheet
represents an individual bowler in the competition of Mens and Womens Master
Bowler. For each individual the scoring sheet provides with the name, code,
university/college, score for each game, total score and average score for 10 games. The
score sheet shows that the ranking of 16 men bowlers and 16 women bowlers. The
players in this study vary in age and experience.
Results & Discussion: The modified Anderson-Darling statistics test was used to test
the normality of bowling scores. The p-value is 0.258 which is greater than rejection
area p-value is 0.05. Therefore, reject the null hypothesis that the bowling score are
approximately normally distributed. There are 10 frames in each game. Assumed that
the score of the frames is independent one another, the tree diagram of the score is
simply formed with probability a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, c1, c2 and c3 where a1+a2+a3=1,
b1+b2+b3=1, c1+c2+c3=1 respectively. The sample space of the score is given
as
. S-plus programming
6
was used and 4096 (4 ) outcome of a set from a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, c1, c2 and c3 were
obtained. The outcomes were used to develop a simulation study. Note that in the worst
case the average of stimulating bowling scores is 169 which is low compared to the
averages of the actual data. However, it is still not clear which value of the parameter a1,
a2, a3, b1, b2, b3, c1, c2 and c3 lead to a good approximation. It has been observed with QQ plot and also the expected value and variance of S1 are
and
respectively. The
simplified model may vary to obtain a low score.
Conclusion: Although, the proposed model is parallel with the simulation study,
another factor should be reconsidered to get the best model. Factors such as angle of
hand swing, physical fitness, ball velocity and also individual experience may contribute
big result towards the score.
Keywords: simulation study; bowling score; individual performance
91

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 17

Integrating Visual Analysis System Into Fundamental


Movement Assessment Instrument: Preliminary Development
Of CEKAP Visual
*1Nurfadilah, D., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

*nurfadilahdarmansah@gmail.com
Introduction: The emerging of human image analysis system has improved manmachine interaction which promising positive application. A research is designed to
develop a visual analysis system to be integrated in the fundamental movement
assessment instrument (CEKAP FMS Test) focusing in the fine motor skills. The
purpose of this study is to identify suitable range of norm of fine motor skills movement
among preschool children aged 4 to 6 years old.
Methodology: At preliminary investigation in order to integrate the system, simulation
data were estimated based on the range of movement data, collected from 20 preschool
subjects.
Results & Discussion: The simulation of the range of movement data will be used to
develop formula related to the movement and integrate into the system. In the
development of CEKAP visual, the system will integrate software such as Autodesk3D
max 2014, 3D motion sensor, Microsoft offices access, and related movement criterion
formula of the CEKAP fine motor skills item.
Conclusion: This system projected to be able to perceive, extract, process and analyse
the information of fine motor skills movement.
Keywords: CEKAP visual; fine motor skills movement; preschool

92

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 18

Rekacipta Alat Teng Teng Board Untuk


Kanak-kanak Sindrom Down
*1Nurul Rafeeda, S., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Halijah, I.,
1
Asha Hasnimy, M. H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)


*feda.saarani@ymail.com

Pengenalan: Pemulihan kemahiran motor kanak-kanak Sindrom Down (SD) adalah


terbatas kerana kekurangan peralatan dan instrumen ujian bagi menilai kebolehan serta
keupayaan kanak-kanak SD. Salah satu aspek yang penting dalam kemahiran motor
adalah melangkah, berjalan dan melompat. Teng Teng adalah permainan tradisional
yang melibatkan elemen tersebut.
Kaedah: Alat Teng Teng Board (TTB) ini dibangunkan dengan menggunakan beberapa
papan suis elektronik dan lampu berwarna untuk proses pemulihan kanak-kanak SD
melangkah, berjalan dan melompat. 20 orang responden dalam kalangan guru-guru, ibu
bapa dan penjaga kepada kanak-kanak SD dari Sekolah Kanak-kanak Istimewa, Johor
Bahru dipilih secara rawak untuk menjawab soal selidik yang diedarkan. Soal selidik
direkabentuk untuk menilai keberkesanan
alat dan kesesuaian inovasi lampu
menggunakan skala likert dan soalan terbuka (open ended question) mengenai pendapat
dan cadangan pembaikan alat. Responden menjawab soal selidik setelah melihat
perlaksanaan pengujian alat yang dilakukan ke atas 5 orang kanak-kanak SD.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Dapatan dari soal selidik dinilai berdasarkan purata,
sisihan piawai dan peratusan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan TTB
mendapat sambutan yang positif 40% daripada responden yang di pilih. Analisis soalan
terbuka juga mendapati TTB secara keseluruhannya membantu dalam pemulihan kanakkanak SD melangkah, berjalan dan melompat. Alat ini juga diakui ringkas dan mudah
digunakan.
Rumusan: Sebagai kesimpulan, alat ini berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai alternatif
kepada rawatan pemulihan kanak SD untuk berjalan melangkah dan melompat.
Walaubagaimanapun masih terdapat beberapa elemen yang perlu dipertingkatkan
supaya lebih menarik serta mendapat tempat di pasaran.
Keywords: Teng Teng Board (TTB); kemahiran motor

93

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 19

Cost Analysis Between Conventional Turfing And Synthetic


Turfing For Football Field
1
1

Putri Haryati, I., *1Roziha, C. H.

Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design,


International Islamic University Malaysia
*roziharon@iium.edu.my

Introduction: Malaysia is among the countries that have been successful in using sports
as a platform to strengthen national integration as sports are highly effective agent for
the unity of all. Joint Committee of the Ministry of Youth and Sports (KBS), Ministry of
Education (MOE) and the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) has listed football as
one of the core in High Performance Sport in the Sport Development Program apart
from aquatics, athletics, badminton, bowling, gymnastics, hockey and squash. In the
first meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Sports on 25th September 2004, an agreement
was made to set up a Steering Committee to oversee the implementation of this core
sports development at the grassroots level.
Methodology: This study builds on to contribute to the realization of the Governments
effort to improve the sports infrastructure at the international level in encouraging the
construction football field using synthetic turf. Although numerous studies have
examined the advantages of synthetic turf over conventional grass, little attention has
been given to the aspect of cost and maintenance. As such, this study provides
additional insight into the cost benefit analysis associated with synthetic turf over
conventional grass for football field. Interviews were conducted with government
officers and turf specialist to gather information about the problems involved in the
aspect of costing, management and maintenance of football fields.
Results & Discussion: The analysis of this study focuses on the aspect of cost
considered for installation, operating and maintenance for football field using synthetic
turf compared to the conventional grass. This study also analyzes the species of grass
considered suitable and cost efficient for football field.
Conclusion: This study found that although synthetic turf requires high cost for
installation purposes, it is more durable and requires average maintenance costs
compared to conventional grass.
Keywords: cost analysis; turf; football

94

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 20

Determinants Of Online Shopping Intention Among


Malaysian Football Malaysian Fans
*1

Rozaliana, J., Ong, T. F.

Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


*liana_okt28@yahoo.com.my

Introduction: Today, internet is not only a networking media, but also as a transaction
medium for consumers at the global market. Statistics have shown that there were more
than 1 billion internet users in the world by the year 2006. This trend has spark a
tremendous growth of online shopping consumers and attracted the attention from both
academic researchers and industrial practitioners in diverse industries.
Methodology: Though various approaches have been taken to investigate the
determinants that relates to consumers online purchase intention, researchers seem to
take different perspectives and focus on variety of factors in different ways. There is
also no consensus on the theoretical models employed to describe and predict online
shopping attitudes and behaviour among consumers, especially in the sport industry.
This lack of common theoretical models suggests the need to develop an integrative
model of the phenomenon in order to promote systematic investigation of its
components and the online shopping process. In responses to this gap, the present study
aims to incorporate two theories, which are the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to examine the determinants of online shopping
intention among Malaysian football fans.
Results & Discussion: This study will utilize selected variables in the above models
which includes ease of use, website design, attitude of consumers, social norms,
demographic and related factors that influence customer to purchase sport goods online.
Conclusion: It is hope that the integration and synthesis of relevant models could
identify common variables and developing an appropriate model for better
understanding of the online purchasing intention among sports enthusiasts, specifically
football fans. The findings could provide useful information for marketers to promote
and enhance their strategies towards the intended market segment.
Keywords: online shopping; attitudes; subjective norms; football fans

95

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 21

Status Fisiologi Babywearer: Kajian Eksploratori


*1Siti Rabiatul Adawiyah, M., 1Asha Hasnimy M.H., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

*hoodabin@gmail.com

Pengenalan: Babywearer adalah individu yang menggendong bayi menggunakan baby


carrier atau alat penggendong bayi. Amalan babywearing adalah satu kebiasaan untuk
membawa bayi dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain. Kajian-kajian terdahulu telah
menunjukkan amalan babywearing banyak membantu perkembangan fisiologi dan
psikologi bayi seperti tumbesaran, ikatan emosi, dan memudahkan bayi tidur dengan
lena. Selain itu, babywearing memberi ruang kepada babywearer untuk memantau
keselamatan bayi dengan lebih dekat, mengurangkan kadar tangisan bayi dan
merapatkan hubungan kemesraan di antara mereka. Namun begitu, kebanyakan kajian
terdahulu banyak mengkaji kesan babywearing dari aspek bayi dan tidak banyak kajian
yang dilaksanakan terhadap babywearer
Kaedah: Sehubungan itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti status fisiologi
babywearer berdasarkan core muscle activation, jumlah penggunaan oksigen
maksimum (VO2 max), penggunaan tenaga (energy expenditure) dan postur badan.
Elemen-elemen tersebut diuji menggunakan 3 cara babywearing iaitu tanpa carrier,
penggunaan wrap carrier dan penggunaan soft structured carrier (ssc). Ujian yang
dilaksanakan adalah Ujian Berdiri 3 Minit dan Ujian Rockport.
Keputusan & Perbincangan: Diharap, hasil kajian yang diperolehi dapat memberi
gambaran sebenar mengenai kesan babywearing terhadap status fisiologi babywearer.
Secara tidak langsung ia dapat membantu menerangkan ketidakselesaan seperti kelesuan
otot, kepenatan, kesakitan yang sering dinyatakan oleh babywearer baru berdasarkan
sistem fisiologi yang bertindakbalas semasa babywearing.
Rumusan: Diharap, hasil kajian yang diperolehi dapat memberi gambaran sebenar
mengenai kesan babywearing terhadap status fisiologi babywearer. Secara tidak
langsung ia dapat membantu menerangkan ketidakselesaan seperti kelesuan otot,
kepenatan, kesakitan yang sering dinyatakan oleh babywearer baru berdasarkan sistem
fisiologi yang bertindakbalas semasa babywearing.
Keywords: babywearer; status fisiologi; babywearing

96

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 22

Concurrent Validity During Test Development: Steps Taken


In Selecting Appropriate Standard Fundamental Movement
Skills Instruments
*1Siti Sri Dalimah, S., 1Halijah, I., 1Zainal Abidin, Z., 1Asha Hasnimy, M.H.
1

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)


*ssdalimah@gmail.com

Introduction: Validity is essential to be determined in developing a new instrument.


Investigating the similarity of the target measure and another measure establish the
tests usefulness. As dozen of established fundamental movement skills (FMS)
instruments are available, important elements should be decided in selecting the most
appropriate instrument. The purpose of this paper is to describe the steps taken and
identify important elements in selecting established instrument.
Methodology: Popular and updated (within 20 years) of FMS instruments were
searched through academic databases and listed. Two instrument will were identified
and tasks analysis was conducted.
Results & Discussion: Through thoroughly reading, 5 elements were identified: i.
underlying component, ii. items classification and list of items, iii. testing procedures,
iv. scoring and grading procedures, and 5. findings of current research. These elements
have been used in identifying the similarity and differences of selected popular
instrument with the new proposed instrument.
Conclusion: Steps taken in selecting appropriate established testing instrument assisting
researcher to conduct the concurrent validity research.
Keywords: pre-school; CEKAP instrument; fine motor skill; gross motor skill

97

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 23

Effect of Traditional Malay Music, Western Classical


Music and No Music during Imagery on
Novices Archery Performance
*1Shahirah, M.F, 1Aida, N., 1Kuan, G.
1

Sports Science Unit, and Exercise and Sports Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

*garry@usm.my
Introduction: Imagery is widely used in performance enhancement in sport. Despite the
importance of imagery in sport performance, the mechanisms that facilitate imagery are
still ambiguous. One factor that could influence the efficacy of imagery is music. The
purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of traditional Malay classical music
and Western classical music on the subsequent performance of purportedly low-arousal
fine-motor task archery shooting. No music condition was added as control condition.
Method. The study included a pre-test intervention post-test design with simulated
competitions at pre-test and post-test. Participants were novice university student
archers (n = 42). All participants had moderate to high imagery ability measured by the
Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM; Watt, Morris, & Andersen, 2004). Participants
were randomly assigned three interventions group: Traditional Malay music during
imagery (TMMI), Western classical music during imagery (WCMI), and no music
during imagery (NMI). Archery performance was measured in a standard 10m distance
simulated competition. All participants completed 12 sessions of imagery over four
weeks before the post-test was conducted.
Results & Discussion: Results from the pair samples t-test showed the significant
different between pre-test and post-test archery performance on TMMI t(13) = 5.20, p =
.00, NMI t(13) = 3.28, p = .01, but no significance different for WCMI t(13) = 1.64, p =
.13. Gain scores for archery performance was highest for TMMI (22.93 16.50),
followed by NMI (16.38 18.03), and WCMI (11.21 25.51), however one-way
ANOVA test showed no significance different between the three intervention groups.
Conclusion: Imagery can enhance archery performance. But the use of right music
such as using the Malay traditional music could further enhance shooting performance
of the Malaysian novice archers. The implication for coaches and sport psychologists
were discussed.
Keywords: Music; Imagery; Sport performance

98

10th INTERNATIONAL SPORTS


SCIENCE CONFERENCE 2014

Poster 24

Relationship between Childhood Play Experience and


Current Exercise Habit among College Students
Kazushi TAKAMI.
Kobe University

ktakami@kobe-u.ac.jp
Introduction: Physical activity in childhood has long term impacts on physical activity
in adulthood. And maintaining physical fitness and physical activity through childhood
will have favorable health benefits in later years. Play experience is one source of
physical activity in childhood, and exercise is the major source of physical activity in
adulthood. Exploring the relationship between play experiences in childhood and
exercise behavior of young adults would facilitate understanding the formation of
exercise habit. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of childhood play
experiences on exercise behavior and habit of young adults.
Methodology: 200 college students in Japan participated (male=134, female=66;
age=19.5, SD=1.02). Three self-report inventories were administered to determine the
childhood play experience, exercise behavior and exercise habit strength. We measured
the childhood play experience using two methods. First the participants were required to
answer these frequencies of play for 30Traditional Outdoor Play and Games (TOPG) in
their childhood. The other method was a paired comparison of six play patterns in
childhood, video game, TV/DVD, stores/video arcades, indoor games, outdoor activity,
or no time to play. The childhood play pattern was defined by the highest score among
the six patterns. Exercise habit was estimated by days of a week, duration and the stages
of change. And exercise habit strength was measured by the exercise habit strength
scale.
Results & Discussion: The relationship between TOPG and the exercise habit strength
was weak. But cross-tabulation of the childhood play patterns with the stage of exercise
behavior showed a significant relationship. The majority of those in the outdoor activity
pattern belonged to school sports clubs and the maintenance stage. And the outdoor
activity group exercised for a longer time than other groups. The exercise habit strength
were larger in the outdoor activity group than in the other group.
Conclusion: The typical play patterns in childhood are associated with later exercise
behavior, sports club membership and habit strength. The findings suggest that
childhood play experiences have an effect on exercise behavior, and outdoor play and
games in childhood are primary factors inducing exercise habits in young adults.
Keywords: exercise; habit; childhood; play

99