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Asma bronkial merupakan salah satu penyakit

alergi dan masih menjadi masalah kesehatan baik di


negara maju maupun di negara berkembang.1,2
Prevalensi dan angka rawat inap penyakit asma
bronkial di negara maju dari tahun ke tahun
cenderung meningkat.3 Di Indonesia belum ada data
epidemiologi yang pasti namun diperkirakan
berkisar 3-8%.4 Beberapa Faktor risiko untuk
timbulnya asma bronkial telah diketahui secara
pasti, antara lain: riwayat keluarga, tingkat sosial
ekonomi rendah, etnis, daerah perkotaan, letak
geografi tempat tinggal, memelihara anjing atau
kucing dalam rumah, terpapar asap rokok.5,6 Asma
bronkial dikelompokkan menjadi dua subtipe
intrinsik dan ekstrinsik, namun terminologi ini telah
ditinggalkan dan saat ini dikenal sebagai asma
bronkial atopi dan non atopi berdasarkan adanya tes
kulit yang positif terhadap alergen dan ditemukan
adanya peningkatan imunoglobulin (Ig) E dalam
darah.7 Sekitar 80% penderita asma bronkial adalah
Grenberger PA Asthma. In: Petterson R,
Grammer LC, Grenberger PA, editors. 5th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997.p.467-8.
2. Peat JK, Li J. Reversing the trend: reducing the
prevalence of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol
1999;103:1-11.
3. Sear MR. Epidemilogical trenda in asthma
bronchial. In: Kaliner MA, Barnes PJ, Persson
CGA, editors. Asthma, its pathology and
treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1991.p.137.
4. Suryanto E. Diagnosis dan klasifikasi asma.
Proseding Temu Ilmiah Respirologi; 2001,
Surakarta.
5. Cuijpers C, Wesseling GJ, Swaen GMH,
Sturmans F, Wouters EFM. Asthma-related
symptoms and lung function in primary school
children. J Asthma 1994;31:301-12.
6. Rodriquez MA, Winkleby MA, Ahn D,
Sundquist J, Kraemer HC. Identification of
population subgroups of children and
adolescents with high asthma prevalence:
finding from The Third National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med 2002;156:269-75.

7. Kelley CF, Mannino DM, Homa DM, SavageBrown A, Holguin F. Asthma Phenotypes, risk
factors, and measures of severity in a national
sample of US children. Pediatrics
2005:115;726-31.
8. Zimmerman B. Dose relationship of allergy to
severity of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin
Immunol 1998;81:63-6.
9. Global Inititive for Asthma (GINA). Global
strategy for asthma management and prevention.
2006
10. Desiree FJ, Ricjken B, Schouten JP, et al. The
relation of skin test positivity, high serum total
IgE level, and peripheral blood eosinophilia to
symptomatic and asymptomatic airway
hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care
Med 1999;159:924-31.
11. Lombardi C, Gani F, Landi M, Boner A,
Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. Clinical and
therapeutic aspects of allergic asthma in
adolescents. Pediatr Allergy Immunol
2003;14:4537.
12. Tim Kelompok Kerja Asma. Asma: pedoman
diagnosis & penatalaksanaan di Indonesia.
Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI; 2004.p.12-5.
13. Mavale-Manuel S, Joaquim O, Macome C, et
al.. Asthma and allergies in schoolchildren of
Maputo. Allergy 2007;62:265-71.
14. O'Connell EJ. The burden of atopy and asthma
in children. Allergy 2004;59:(Suppl 78): 7-11.
15. Bjorksten B, Clayton T, Ellwood P, Stewart A,
Strachan D and the ISAAC Phase III Study
Group. Worldwide time trends for symptoms of
rhinitis and conjunctivitis: phase III of the
International Study of Asthma and Allergies in
childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol
2008;19:110-24.
16. Hamelmann N. The rationale for treating
allergic asthma with anti-IgE. Eur Respir Rev
2007;16:61-6.
17. Romanet-Manent S, Charpin D, Magnan A,
Lanteaume A, Vervloet D. Allergic vs
nonallergic asthma: what makes the difference?
Allergy 2002;57:607-13.
18. Court CS, Cook DG, Strachan DP. Comparative

epidemiology of atopic and nonatopic wheeze


and diagnosed asthma in a national sample of
English adults. Thorax 2002;57:951-7.
19. Garcia-Marcos L, Garcia-Hernandez G, Morales
Suarez-Varela M, Batlles Garrido J, CastroRodriguez JA. Asthma attributable to atopy:
does it depend on the allergen supply? Pediatr
Allergy Immunol 2007;18:181-7.
20. Martinez FD. Complexities of the genetics of
asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med
1997;156:S117-22.