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My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

Soil type
Alluvial
(45.6%)

REGIONS
Indo-Gigantic plains
Coastal areas-sea waves
PNJ to WB
Deltaic Alluvium-Mahanadi,
Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery
Coastal Alluvium
Some in Narmada and Tapi
valleys

ORIGIN/FORMATION
River sediments
Parent materialTransported rock
weathering
Rice, wheat, sugarcane,
Jute, Soyabeans

South India
Lava spreading
Black
(Regur/Cotton) In the region of High Temp
and low rainfall
Mostly derived from 2
-16.6%
types of rocks-Decaan
and Rajmahal trap

Red -10.6%

Whole TN, parts of Krntk, S-E From Weathering of


of MH, Eastern AP and MP, ancient crystalline and
Chhatisgarh,
Orissa, metamorphic rocks
Chhotanagpur in Jharkhand
Parent rock-Acid
South Bihar
Granites and gneisses,
Virbhum district of WB
Quartzite, Feldspar
Jhansi (UP)
RJ-Arawalis and East RJ
Assam, Naga, Mani, Mizo,
Tripura and Meghalaya

PECULARITY /
CONTENTS
Immature
Weak profiles
Low nitrogen,
Adequate Potash,
phosphoric acid and
alkalies
Varying lime and Iron
oxide

INFO

Largest occurring
One of the most fertile in the world
Good drainage
Recurrent river floods
Older-Bhangar soil-dark,kankary
Younger Khadar soil-every year

flood-less kankary-rich
Bhabar
Tarai-Nitrogen rich, high organic
matter, Phosphate deficient Cracks in hot season. Hence
Titaniferous Magnetite,
oxygenated till great depth,
Iron-so Black colour
extraordinary fertility, so less
Low Phospate, Nitrogen
fertilizers needed
and humus
Sticky in rainy season
Cotton, wheat, Jowar, Linseed,
Tobacco, Millets, Sunflower
Red colour due to Wide Cotton, Wheat, rice, pulses,
diffusion rather than higher
millets, tobacco, oilseeds, fruits
% of Iron content
Upland-poor, thin, stony, porous
Poor in lime, magnesia, Lowlands-rich, fertile
phosphate, nitrogen and
humus
Rich in Potash

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

Laterite and
Lateritic soil

Forest and
Mountain soil
8.67%

Arid & Desert


4.32%

Summits of Western Ghat at High Temp, heavy


1000-1500m above sea level
rainfall (200cm) with
alternate wet and dry
Hills
of-Eastern
Ghat, periods
Rajmahal hills, Vindyas
Satpuda,Malwa plateau
Poor in Lime and
Magnesia
Low level-South MH, krntk, Nitrogen, Potash
AP, Orissa, WB, Kerala, JH, deficient
Assam and Meghalaya
High Phosphate, humus
(sometimes)

Leaching of soil due to


high rain.
Lime and silica are leached
away. Soil rich in oxides
of Iron and Alluminium
compouds is left behind

Paddy in low areas


Grazing grounds and scrub forests
in some areas

Valley basins, depressions, Deposition of organic


steeply inclined slopes in matter derived from
Himalaya
forest growth
Western and Eastern Ghats
Some part of Peninsula

Very rich in Humus


Deficient in Potash,
Phosphorus and Lime. So,
fertilizers needed

RJ
Some areas of Punjab,
Haryana i.e. between Indus
and Arawalis

Covered by mantle of
sands which inhibit soil
growth

Originated from
disintegration of ground
rocks or is blown from
Indus Basin and coast by
prevailing S-W Monsoon
winds

Lack fertility
Little useful for crops
If manure+Irrigation->plantation
crops
Tea coffee, rubber, Chinchona,
Coconut

High content of soluble


salts
Alkaline
Poor in organic matter
High Phosphate

Get hardened when exposed to air


because it is End product of
Weathering.
Heterogeneous in nature
Character changes with Parent rocks,
climate
Tea, coffee, spices-Krtk,Kerala,Tn
Wheat, Maize, Barley-J&K, Himachal
and Uttaranchal
Rann of Kuchha is an extension of
this desert
Desert soil consists of Aeolian
sand (90-95%) and clay (5-10%).
Fertile because of presence of
Phosphate and Nitrate wherever
moisture is available
Barley, Rape, Cotton,
millets, maize, pulses

wheat,

My Notes-Pranav Sontakke

Saline and
Alkaline

AP, Krntk
Dry part of Bihar,
Haryana, PNJ, RJ, MH

UP,

Gulf of Khambhat area in GJ


Estuaries of Narmada, Tapi,
Mahi and Sabarmati-infertile
area

Peaty and
Marshy

Sundarban (WB)
Coastal Orissa and TN
Bihar

Originate in Humid
region as a result of
accumulation of large
amount of organic matter
in the soil

In canal irrigated area and in


area of high subsoil water
table, the Injurious salts are
transported from below to the
top soil by capillary action as
a result of evaporation in dry
season. The accumulation of
these salts make the soil
infertile and so unfit for
Agriculture
Soluble salts
10-40% organic matter
Deficient in Potash,
Phosphate

Known by different names-Reh,


kallar, Usar,thur, Rakar, Karl, Chopan

Black, heavy and highly acidic


Rice cutivation

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