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WT2054 LAN Switching and Wireless

Eero Väisänen 13.1.2010

Exercise 1

Material: CCNA Exploration 4.0 (3 LAN Switching and Wireless)

Chapter 1: LAN Design

Here are the questions and tasks from chapter 1, LAN Design. Submit the
answers in one document to me by e-mail.

1) Describe the 3-layer hierarchical network model:

- layers and their tasks:

The 3 hierarchical models are:

- access layer:

To provide a means of connecting devices to the network and controlling

which devices are allowed to communicate on the network. We can find
here in this layer, PCs, routers, switches, printers, bridges, hubs, and
wireless access points.

- distributions layer:

The distribution layer aggregates the data received from the access layer
switches before it is transmitted to the core layer for routing to its final

- core layer:

The core aggregates the traffic from all the distribution layer devices, so
it must be capable of forwarding large amounts of data quickly. The core
layer has to be highly available and redundant.

- physical implementations:

The physical implementation is different from the logical. If we design a small

business network, the layers are mostly stay in different places or levels. We
should install these layers in the wiring closets to these layers can
communicate with each other.

- benefits:
We can separate these benefits for five sections.

- Scalability

- Redundancy

- Performance

- Security

- Manageability

- Maintainability

- application

2) Describe the following concepts and why they are important.

- network diameter

Network diameter is the number of devices that a packet has to cross

before it reaches its destination. If we want to build a well working
network system we should keeping the network diameter low ensures low
and predictable latency between devices.

- bandwidth aggregation

Bandwidth aggregation is the practice of considering the specific

bandwidth requirements of each part of the hierarchy. Bandwidth
aggregation is increasing the stability and the bandwidth of our network.
We use this method, when we connect 2 switches with several parallel

- redundant links

The redundancy is very important when we want to make a network. It has

got many ways to do this method. When we connect two different
hierarchical networks level with each other our network will be redundant.
But it is not the best way to connect every device with another hierarchical
network switches, because it is a very expensive proceeding. To make our
network well-managed we should use redundant links beetween
hierarchical network layers in order to ensure our network availability.

3) Why is convergence a “hot topic” nowadays in enterprise networks?

One of the most reason, to this is a “hot topic” today is the manageability
and of course the costs. For example we have got a medium sized
business with approximately 300 employees. Our employees want transfer
data, voice and video communications with each other. In an old fashioned
network has got three separate networks for this communications. The
aim in nowdays to merge it one hierarchical networks, and we spare the
costs we need less people, and our network will be simple.

4) Perform the activity (no documentation needed, just tell if it went

It was OK.

5) What kind of analysis gear (equipment, software) are used in LAN design?
What kind of information can be gathered from network with these?

Many traffic flow analysis tools exist what we can use for network analysis.
One of these automatically record traffic flow data to a database and
perform a trend analysis are available. When we have got a larger network
we should use a software package, is it much more comfortable to analyze
the data. The figure displays sample output from Solarwinds Orion 8.1
NetFlow Analysis, which monitors traffic flow on a network. While the
software is collecting data, you can see just how every interface is
performing at any given point in time on the network. When we evaluate
theese information we can impove the performance and the speed of out
network, or we can change our devices better. If our network works slow
or working bad, not necessary to buy a better one maybe we should
rearrange our system.

6) Why are user community and data storage analyses important in LAN

When we design a new network it is not necessary where located the

devices. We find 2 types of method, the server-server communication and
the client-server communication. The server-server communication is
generated between data storage devices on the network, and the client is
different. To optimize server-server traffic, servers needing frequent
access to certain resources should be located in close proximity to each
other so that the traffic they generate does not affect the performance of
the rest of the network Client-server traffic typically go throw multiple
switches to reach its destination. Bandwidth aggregation and switch
forwarding rates are important factors to consider when attempting to
eliminate bottlenecks for this type of traffic. If we have no bottlenecks our
network system, it can be working fluently, and we can improve our

7) What does switch factor mean?

It means not necessary to witch device we choose, when we planning a
network system, we must to consider the upgrading when we implement
more devices to our network, expand our company maybe a new
department. 3 different types of switch exist, the fixed, the modular, and
the stackable. Every kind of devices is good for something and it has got
pro and contras, so we must consider witch type is good for us.

8) Describe briefly the following switch features:

- port density:

Port density is the number of ports available on a single switch. The fixed
switches has got 24, or 48 ports, but in the modular types we can find
1000 ports version.

- forwarding rate:

Forwarding rates define the processing capabilities of a switch by rating

how much data the switch can process per second. We can find
differences of these switches, because an entry-layer switches have lower
forwarding rates than enterprise-layer switches, and not necessary the
capability of the switch, because if we have a 48 port Gigabit switch and
we want to generate 48Gb/s, we can’t if the switch max speed is just

- link aggregation:

Link aggregation is very important when we analyze the bandwidth. When

we need full speed between two switches we must connect these switches
more than one cable, because our bottleneck will be that one cable. Link
aggregation is when we connected our devices with several links so
improve our bandwidth.

- PoE:

It means Power over Ethernet what is allows the switch to deliver power to
a device over the existing Ethernet cabling. It is very useful nowadays
when we design a network because we don’t need extra power cables our
devices and we just need to install the Ethernet network. Our network will
be very flexible, we just need the proper switch type what is support the
PoE port.

- layer three functions:

- advanced security policy

- control how traffic flows through the network

Layer 3 refers to the Network layer of the commonly-referenced
multilayered communication model, Open Systems Interconnection. The
Network layer is concerned with knowing the address of the neighboring
nodes in the network, selecting routes and quality of service, and
recognizing and forwarding to the Transport layer incoming messages for
local host domains.

For example the router is a layer 3 device, although some newer switches
also perform layer 3 functions.

9) Read through the Cisco descriptions of different layer switches (items 1.2.3 –
1.2.4). No documentation needed for me. Perform the activity OK?

It was ok but I had 3 mistakes of app. 16.

10) Perform the packet tracer activity and practice using the tracer tool.
Packet tracer is a virtual lab environment, where you can do most of the lab
exercises. It is installed in the student PC in the class room. You can also
download it from my network folder \\Apollo\ope\Vaisanene and install it on
your home computer. Do not distribute the software.