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ABSTRACT

One of the most rapidly developing areas of communications is Smart Antenna


systems. This paper deals with the principle and working of smart antennas and the
elegance of their applications in various fields such a 4G telephony system, best
suitability
of
multi
carrier
modulations
such
as
OFDMA
etc..,
This paper mainly concentrates on use of smart antennas in mobile communications
that enhances the capabilities of the mobile and cellular system such a faster bit
rate, multi use interference, space division multiplexing (SDMA),increase in range,
Multi path Mitigation, reduction of errors due to multi path fading and with one great
advantage that is a very high security. The signal that is been transmitted by a
smart antenna cannot tracked or received any other antenna thus ensuring a very
high security of the data transmitted. This paper also deals the required algorithms
that
are
need
for
the
beam
forming
in
the
antenna
patters.
The applications of smart antennas such as in WI-FI transmitter, Discrete Multi Tone
modulation (DMT), OFDMA and TD-SCDMA is already in real world use is also
incorporatd.

Table of Content
Chapter 1:- Introduction
Chapter 2:- Antenna and Antenna Systems
2.1:-Antenna
2.1.1:- Omnidirectional Antenna
2.1.2:- Directional Antenna
2.2:- Antenna System
2.2.1:-Sectorised System
2.2.2:-Diversity System
2.2.2.1:- Switched Divesity
2.2.2.2:- Diversity Combining
Chapter 3:-Smart Antenna.
3.1:- Introduction of Smart Antenna
3.2:- History of Smart Antenna
3.3:- Types of Smart Antenna
3.4:- Working of Smart Antenna
3.5:- Categories of Smart Antenna.
3.6- Function of Smart Antenna
3.6.1:- Beamforming
3.6.2:- Direction of Arrival(DOA)
3.7:- Parameters affecting Antenna performance
2

3.8:- Applications of Smart Antenna.


3.9:- Advantages and Disadvantages of
Antenna.

Smart

3.10:- Features and Benefit of Smart Antenna


Chapter 4:- Summary
References

Chapter 1
Introduction
Wireless Communication is growing with a very rapid rate for several years.
The progress in radio technology enables new and improved services.
Current wireless services include transmission of voice, fax and low-speed
data. More bandwidth consuming interactive multimedia services like videoon demand and internet access will be supported in the future.

Wireless systems that enable higher data rates and higher capacities are a
pressing need. Wireless networks must provide these services in a wide
range of environments, dense urban, suburban, and rural areas.
Because the available broadcast spectrum is limited, attempts to increase
traffic within a fixed bandwidth create more interference in the system and
degrade the signal quality.

The solution to this problem is SMART ANTENNA. Today's modern wireless


mobile communications depend on adaptive "smart" antennas to provide
maximum range and clarity. With the recent explosive growth of wireless
applications,

smart

antenna

technology

has

achieved

widespread

commercial and military applications.

There is an ever-increasing demand on mobile wireless operators to provide


voice and high-speed data services. At the same time, operators want to
support more users per basestation in order to reduce overall network cost
and make the services affordable to subscribers. As a result, wireless
systems that enable higher data rates and higher capacities have become
the need of the hour.

Chapter 2
Antenna and Antenna System
2.1 Antenna
An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer designed to transmit or receive
electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic
waves into electrical currents and vice versa. Antennas are used in systems
such

as

radio

and

television

broadcasting,

point-to-point

radio

communication, wireless LAN, radar, and space exploration. Antennas are


most commonly employed in air or outer space, but can also be operated
under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short
distances.
Physically, an antenna is simply an arrangement of one or more conductors,
usually called elements in this context. . In transmission, an alternating
current is created in the elements by applying a voltage at the antenna
terminals, causing the elements to radiate an electromagnetic field. In
reception, the inverse occurs: an electromagnetic field from another source
induces an alternating current in the elements and a corresponding voltage
at the antenna's terminals. Some receiving antennas (such as parabolic
types) incorporate shaped reflective surfaces to collect EM waves from free
space and direct or focus them onto the actual conductive elements.
There are two fundamental types of antenna directional patterns, which,
with reference to a specific three dimensional (usually horizontal or vertical)
plane are either:

1 Omni-directional (radiates equally in all directions), such as a vertical


rod.
2 Directional (radiates more in one direction than in the other).

2.1.1- Omnidirectional Antenna


Omni-directional usually refers to all horizontal directions with reception
above and below the antenna being reduced in favor of better reception (and
thus range) near the horizon .
Since the early days of wireless communications, there has been the simple
dipole antenna, which radiates and receives equally well in all directions. To
find its users, this single-element design broadcasts omnidirectionally in a
pattern resembling ripples radiating outward in a pool of water. While
adequate for simple RF environments where no specific knowledge of the
users' whereabouts is available, this unfocused approach scatters signals,
reaching desired users with only a small percentage of the overall energy
sent

out

into

the

environment.

Figure 2.1:- Omnidirectional Antenna and Coverage Patterns

Given this limitation, omnidirectional strategies attempt to overcome


environmental challenges by simply boosting the power level of the signals
broadcast. In a setting of numerous users (and interferers), this makes a
bad situation worse in that the signals that miss the intended user become
interference for those in the same or adjoining cells.
In uplink applications (user to base station), omnidirectional antennas offer
no preferential gain for the signals of served users. In other words, users
have to shout over competing signal energy. Also, this single-element
approach cannot selectively reject signals interfering with those of served
users and has no spatial multipath mitigation or equalization capabilities.

2.1.2- Directional Antenna


A "directional" antenna usually refers to one focusing a narrow beam in a
single specific direction. A single antenna can also be constructed to have
certain fixed preferential transmission and reception directions. As an
alternative to the brute force method of adding new transmitter sites, many
conventional antenna towers today split, or sectorize cells. A 360 area is
often split into three 120 subdivisions, each of which is covered by a
slightly less broadcast method of transmission.

All else being equal, sector antennas provide increased gain over a restricted
range of azimuths as compared to an omnidirectional antenna. This is
commonly referred to as antenna element gain and should not be confused
with the processing gains associated with smart antenna systems.

While sectorized antennas multiply the use of channels, they do not


overcome the major disadvantages of standard omnidirectional antenna
broadcast such as co-channel interference.

Figure 2.2 -Directional Antenna and Coverage Pattern

Chapter 3
Smart Antenna
3.1- Introduction of Smart Antenna
Contrary to the name smart antennas consist of more than an antenna. A
Smart Antenna is an antenna system which dynamically reacts to its
environment to provide better signals and frequency usage for wireless
communications. There are a variety of smart antennas which utilize
different methods to provide improvements in various wireless applications.
This report aims to explain the main types of smart antennas and there
advantages and disadvantages.
The concept of using multiple antennas and innovative signal processing to
serve cells more intelligently has existed for many years. In fact, varying
degrees of relatively costly smart antenna systems have already been applied
in defense systems. Until recent years, cost barriers have prevented their use
8

in commercial systems. The advent of powerful low-cost digital signal


processors (DSPs), general-purpose processors (and ASICs), as well as
innovative software-based signal-processing

techniques (algorithms) have

made intelligent antennas


practical for cellular communications systems.
Today, when spectrally efficient solutions are increasingly a business
imperative, these systems are providing greater coverage area for each cell
site, higher rejection of interference, and substantial capacity improvements.

Fig 3.1:- Smart Antenna System

Figure 3.2- Block Diagram of Smart Antenna

3.2- History of Smart Antenna


Early smart antennas were designed for governmental use in military
applications, which used directed beams to hide transmissions from an
enemy. Implementation required very large antenna structures and timeintensive processing and calculation.
As personal wireless communications began to emerge, it was evident that
interference in wireless networks was limiting the total number of
simultaneous users the network could handle before unacceptable call
quality and blocking occurred. Since the narrow beams of the early
governmental smart antennas created less overall interference, researchers
began to explore the possibility of extending the use of smart antennas to
reduce overall network interference in commercial wireless networks, thus

10

increasing the total number of users a wireless system could handle in a


given block of spectrum. But the hardware and processing technologies
required to perform the complex calculations in the very small spaces of
time available in personal wireless communications would prove to be a
hurdle that was extremely difficult to overcome. A few select companies have
successfully developed and introduced smart antenna technologies into
commercial wireless networks.
Antennas were used in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) to prove the
existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James Clerk
Maxwell. Hertz placed the emitter dipole in the focal point of a parabolic
reflector.
The origin of the word antenna relative to wireless apparatus is attributed to
Guglielmo Marconi. In 1895, while testing early radio apparatus in the Swiss
Alps ,Marconi experimented with early wireless equipment.
A 2.5 meter long pole, along which was carried a wire, was used as a
radiating and receiving aerial element . Until then wireless radiating
transmitting and receiving elements were known simply as aerials or
terminals. Marconi's use of the word antenna (Italian for pole) would become
a popular term for what today is uniformly known as the antenna.
Smart Antennas Today
Today, smart antennas have been widely deployed in many of the top
wireless networks worldwide to address wireless network capacity and
performance challenges.
Several different versions of smart antennas are either in development or
available on the market today. Appliqu smart antenna systems can be
11

added to existing cell sites, enabling software-controlled pattern changes or


software-optimized antenna patterns that have produced capacity increases
of up to 35-94% in some deployments. Appliqu smart antenna systems
provide greater flexibility in controlling and customizing sector antenna
pattern beamwidth and azimuthal orientation over that of standard sector
antennas.
A second approach, embedded smart antennas, uses adaptive array
processing within the channel elements of a base station. The smart
antenna processing takes place in the base station signal path, using a
custom, narrow beam to track each mobile in the network. Embedded smart
antenna system trials have been proven to deliver 2.5-3 times the capacity of
current 2-2.5G base stations.

3.3- Types of Smart Antenna


The following are distinctions between the two major categories of smart
antennas regarding the choices in transmit strategy:
1).Adaptive array - an infinite number of patterns (scenario-based) that are
adjusted in real time .
2).Switched beam - a finite number of fixed, predefined patterns or
combining strategies (sectors).

3.4-Working of Smart Antenna


Traditional switched beam and adaptive array systems enable a base station
to customize the beams they generate for each remote user effectively by
means of internal feedback control. Generally speaking, each approach
forms a main lobe toward individual users and attempts to reject
interference or noise from outside of the main lobe.
12

Listening to the Cell (Uplink Processing)


It is assumed here that a smart antenna is only employed at the base
station and not at the handset or subscriber unit. Such remote radio
terminals transmit using omnidirectional antennas, leaving it to the base
station to separate the desired signals from interference selectively.
Typically, the received signal from the spatially distributed antenna elements
is multiplied by a weight, a complex adjustment of an amplitude and a
phase. These signals are combined to yield the array output. An adaptive
algorithm controls the weights according to predefined objectives. For a
switched beam system, this may be primarily maximum gain; for an
adaptive array system, other factors may receive equal consideration. These
dynamic calculations enable the system to change its radiation pattern for
optimized signal reception.

Speaking to the Users (Downlink Processing)


The task of transmitting in a spatially selective manner is the major basis
for differentiating between switched beam and adaptive array systems. As
described below, switched beam systems communicate with users by
changing between preset directional patterns, largely on the basis of signal
strength. In comparison, adaptive arrays attempt to understand the RF
environment more comprehensively and transmit more selectively.
The

type

of

downlink

processing

used

depends

on

whether

the

communication system uses time division duplex (TDD), which transmits


and receives on the same frequency (e.g., PHS and DECT) or frequency
division duplex (FDD), which uses separate frequencies for transmit and
receiving (e.g., GSM). In most FDD systems, the uplink and downlink fading
and other propagation characteristics

13

may be considered independent, whereas in TDD systems the uplink and


downlink channels can be considered reciprocal. Hence, in TDD systems
uplink channel information may be used to achieve spatially selective
transmission. In FDD systems, the uplink channel information cannot be
used directly and other types of downlink processing must be considered.

3.5- Categories of Smart Antenna


A smart antenna is a digital wireless communications antenna system that
takes advantage of diversity effect at the source (transmitter), the
destination (receiver), or both. Diversity effect involves the transmission
and/or reception of multiple radio frequency (RF) waves to increase data
speed and reduce the error rate.
In conventional wireless communications, a single antenna is used at the
source, and another single antenna is used at the destination. This is called
SISO (single input, single output). Such systems are vulnerable to problems
caused by multipath effects. When an electromagnetic field (EM field) is met
with obstructions such as hills, canyons, buildings, and utility wires, the
wavefronts are scattered, and thus they take many paths to reach the
destination. The late arrival of scattered portions of the signal causes
problems such as fading, cut-out (cliff effect), and intermittent reception
(picket fencing). In a digital communications system like the Internet, it can
cause a reduction in data speed and an increase in the number of errors.
The use of smart antennas can reduce or eliminate the trouble caused by
multipath wave propagation.
Smart antennas fall into three major categories:-1). SIMO (single input, multiple output)
14

2). MISO (multiple input, single output)


3). MIMO (multiple input, multiple output).

SIMO
SIMO (single input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless
communications in which multiple antennas are used at the destination
(receiver). The antennas are combined to minimize errors and optimize data
speed. The source (transmitter) has only one antenna. SIMO is one of several
forms of smart antenna technology, the others being MIMO (multiple input,
multiple output) and MISO (multiple input, single output).
In digital communications systems such as wireless Internet, it can cause a
reduction in data speed and an increase in the number of errors. The use of
two or more antennas at the destination can reduce the trouble caused by
multipath wave propagation.
SIMO technology has widespread applications in digital television (DTV),
wireless local area networks (WLANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs),
and mobile communications. An early form of SIMO, known as diversity
reception, has been used by military, commercial, amateur, and shortwave
radio operators at frequencies below 30 MHz since the First World War.

MISO
MISO (multiple input, single output) is an antenna technology for wireless
communications in which multiple antennas are used at the source
(transmitter). The antennas are combined to minimize errors and optimize
data speed. The destination (receiver) has only one antenna. MISO is one of
several forms of smart antenna technology, the others being MIMO (multiple
input, multiple output) and SIMO (single input, multiple output).
15

In digital communications systems such as wireless Internet, it can cause a


reduction in data speed and an increase in the number of errors. The use of
two or more antennas, along with the transmission of multiple signals (one
for each antenna) at the source, can reduce the trouble caused by multipath
wave propagation.
MISO technology has widespread applications in digital television (DTV),
wireless local area networks (WLANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs),
and mobile communications.

MIMO
MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless
communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source
(transmitter) and the destination (receiver). The antennas at each end of the
communications circuit are combined to minimize errors and optimize data
speed. MIMO is one of several forms of smart antenna technology, the others
being MISO (multiple input, single output) and SIMO (single input, multiple
output).
In digital communications systems such as wireless Internet, it can cause a
reduction in data speed and an increase in the number of errors. The use of
two or more antennas, along with the transmission of multiple signals (one
for each antenna) at the source and the destination, eliminates the trouble
caused by multipath wave propagation, and can even take advantage of this
effect.
MIMO technology has aroused interest because of its possible applications
in

digital

television

(DTV),

wireless

local

area

networks

(WLANs),

metropolitan area networks (MANs), and mobile communications.

16

3.6- Function of Smart Antenna


Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, multiple antennas
and recently MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing
algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of
arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to
track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target.
Smart

antennas

have

two

main

functions:

DOA

estimation

and

Beamforming.

3.6.1- Beamforming
Beamforming is a signal processing technique used with arrays of
transmitting or receiving transducers that control the directionality of, or
sensitivity to, a radiation pattern. When receiving a signal, beamforming can
increase the receiver sensitivity in the direction of wanted signals and
decrease the sensitivity in the direction of interference and noise. When
transmitting a signal, beamforming can increase the power in the direction
the signal is to be sent. The change compared with an omnidirectional
receiving pattern is known as the receive gain (or loss). The change
compared

with

an

omnidirectional

transmission

is

known

as

the

transmission gain. These changes are done by creating beams and nulls in
the radiation pattern.

In electronics, gain is usually taken as the mean

ratio of the signal output of a system to the signal input of the system.

Beamforming can be done with either radio or sound waves, and can also be
thought of as spatial filtering. As an everyday analogy, the human brain
uses a form of signal processing on its two sound transducers (ears) and
determines where the sound came from (sound localization). In the
17

comparable beamforming analogy, digital computers use signal processing


on an array of two (or generally more) electromagnetic sound transducers
(microphones) to determine the direction of maximum signal strength, and
thus the likely origin of the sound. A microphone with a cord A microphone,
sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound
into an electrical signal. In telecommunications, and particularly in radio,
signal strength is the measure of how strongly a transmitted signal is being
received, measured, or predicted, at a reference point that is a significant
distance from the transmitting antenna.

Beamforming takes advantage of interference to change the directionality of


the array. When transmitting, a beamformer controls the phase and relative
amplitude of the signal at each transmitter, in order to create a pattern of
constructive and destructive interference in the wavefront. When receiving,
information from different sensors is combined in such a way that the
expected pattern of radiation is preferentially observed. Interference of two
circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers
distance (increasing to the right).
In the receive beamfomer the signal from each antenna may be amplified by
a different "weight." Different weighting patterns (eg Dolph-Chebyshev) can
be used to achieve the desired sensitivity patterns. . A main lobe is produced
together with nulls and sidelobes. As well as controlling the main lobe width
(the beam) and the sidelobe levels, the position of a null can be controlled.
This is useful to ignore noise or jammers in one particular direction, while
listening for events in other directions. A similar result can be obtained on
transmission. Jammer can refer to: A device used in electronic warfare to
inhibit or halt the transmission of signals.

18

Figure3.5:- BeamForming Lobe.

Figure3.6:- Figure show pattern of Beamforming

Beamforming techniques can be broadly divided into two categories:


A).Conventional

(fixed)

beamformers

or

switched

beam

smart

antennas.
B).Adaptive beamformers or adaptive array smart antennas

Conventional beamformers use a fixed set of weightings and time-delays (or


phasings) to combine the signals from the sensors in the array, primarily
using only information about the location of the sensors in space and the
wave directions of interest. In contrast, adaptive beamforming techniques,
19

generally combine this information with properties of the signals actually


received by the array, typically to improve rejection of unwanted signals from
other directions. This process may be carried out in the time or frequency
domains. Smart Antenna refers to a system of antenna arrays with smart
signal processing algorithms that are used to identify the direction of arrival
(DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track
and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. ... Smart Antenna refers
to a system of antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms that
are used to identify the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to
calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the
mobile/target. ...

As the name indicates, an adaptive beamformer is able to adapt


automatically its response to different situations. Some criterion has to be
set up to allow the adaption to proceed such as minimising the total noise
output. Because of the variation of noise with frequency, in wide band
systems it may be desirable to carry out the process in the frequency
domain. An adaptive beamformer is signal processing system often used
with an array of radar antennae (or phased array) in order to transmit or
receive signals in different directions without having to mechanically steer
the array. ... Frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of
mathematical functions with respect to frequency.

3.6.2- Direction of Arrival(DOA)

Direction of arrival(DOA) denotes the direction from which usually a


propagating wave arrives at a point, where usually a set of sensors are
located. This set of sensors forms what is called a sensor array. Often there
20

is the associated technique of beamforming which is estimating the signal


from a given direction. Various engineering problems addressed in the
associated literature are as follows: A wave crashing against the shore A
wave is a disturbance that propagates.

Beamforming is the process of

delaying the outputs of the sensors in an arrays aperture and adding these
together, to rein
force the signal with respect to noise or waves propagating in different
directions.
Find the direction relative to the array where the underwater sound
source is located.
Direction of different sound sources around you are also located by
you using a process similar to those used by the algorithms in the
literature.
Radio telescopes use these techniques to look at a certain location in
the sky.
Recently beamforming has also been used in RF applications such as
wireless communication. Compared with the spatial diversity techniques,
beamforming is preferred in terms of complexity. On the other hand
beamforming in general has much lower data rates.In multiple access
channel(CDMA,FDMA,TDMA) beamforming is necessary & sufficient.
The smart antenna system estimates the direction of arrival of the signal,
using any of the techniques like MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) or
ESPRIT

(Estimation

of

Signal

Parameters

via

Rotational

Invariant

Techniques) algorithms,Matrix Pencil method or their derivatives. They


involve finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and
calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spectrum. MUSIC involves
calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an autocorrelation matrix of
the input vectors from the receiving antenna array. These calculations are
computationally intensive. Matrix Pencil is very efficient in case of real time
21

systems, and under the correlated sources. In mathematics, a number is


called an eigenvalue of a matrix if there exists a nonzero vector such that the
matrix times the vector is equal to the same vector multiplied by the
eigenvalue.In linear algebra, the eigenvectors (from the German eigen
meaning own) of a linear operator are non-zero vectors which, when
operated on by the operator, result in a scalar multiple of themselves.

3.7- Parameters affecting Antenna performance


There are several critical parameters affecting an antenna's performance
that can be adjusted during the design process. These are resonant
frequency, impedance, gain, aperture or radiation pattern, polarization,
efficiency and bandwidth. Transmit antennas may also have a maximum
power rating, and receive antennas differ in their noise rejection properties.
All of these parameters can be measured through various means.

3.7.1- Resonant frequency


The "resonant frequency" and "electrical resonance" is related to the electrical
length of an antenna. The electrical length is usually the physical length of
the wire divided by its velocity factor (the ratio of the speed of wave
propagation in the wire to c0, the speed of light in a vacuum). Typically an
antenna is tuned for a specific frequency, and is effective for a range of
frequencies that are usually centered on that resonant frequency. However,
other properties of an antenna change with frequency, in particular the
radiation pattern and impedance, so the antenna's resonant frequency may
merely be close to the center frequency of these other more important
properties.
Antennas can be made resonant on harmonic frequencies with lengths that
are fractions of the target wavelength. Some antenna designs have multiple
22

resonant frequencies, and some are relatively effective over a very broad
range of frequencies. The most commonly known type of wide band aerial is
the logarithmic or log periodic, but its gain is usually much lower than that
of a specific or narrower band aerial.

3.7.2- Gain
Gain as a parameter measures the efficiency of a given antenna with respect
to a given norm, usually achieved by modification of its directionality. An
antenna with a low gain emits radiation with about the same power in all
directions, whereas a high-gain antenna will preferentially radiate in
particular directions. Specifically, the Gain, Directive gain or Power gain of
an antenna is defined as the ratio of the intensity (power per unit surface)
radiated by the antenna in a given direction at an arbitrary distance divided
by the intensity radiated at the same distance by a hypothetical isotropic
antenna.
The gain of an antenna is a passive phenomenon - power is not added by the
antenna, but simply redistributed to provide more radiated power in a
certain direction than would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna. If an
antenna has a gain greater than one in some directions, it must have a gain
less than one in other directions, since energy is conserved by the antenna.
An antenna designer must take into account the application for the antenna
when determining the gain. High-gain antennas have the advantage of
longer range and better signal quality, but must be aimed carefully in a
particular direction. Low-gain antennas have shorter range, but the
orientation of the antenna is relatively inconsequential. For example, a dish
antenna on a spacecraft is a high-gain device that must be pointed at the
planet to be effective, whereas a typical Wi-Fi antenna in a laptop computer
is low-gain, and as long as the base station is within range, the antenna can

23

be in any orientation in space. It makes sense to improve horizontal range at


the expense of reception above or below the antenna. Thus most antennas
labelled "omnidirectional" really have some gain.

3.7.3- Radiation pattern


The radiation pattern of an antenna is the geometric pattern of the relative
field strengths of the field emitted by the antenna. For the ideal isotropic
antenna, this would be a sphere. For a typical dipole, this would be a toroid.
The radiation pattern of an antenna is typically represented by a three
dimensional graph, or polar plots of the horizontal and vertical cross
sections. The graph should show sidelobes and backlobes, where the
antenna's gain is at a minima or maxima.

3.7.4- Impedance
As an electro-magnetic wave travels through the different parts of the
antenna system (radio, feed line, antenna, free space) it may encounter
differences in impedance (E/H, V/I, etc). At each interface, depending on the
impedance match, some fraction of the wave's energy will reflect back to the
source[5], forming a standing wave in the feed line. The ratio of maximum
power to minimum power in the wave can be measured and is called the
standing wave ratio (SWR). A SWR of 1:1 is ideal. A SWR of 1.5:1 is
considered to be marginally acceptable in low power applications where
power loss is more critical, although an SWR as high as 6:1 may still be
usable with the right equipment. Minimizing impedance differences at each
interface (impedance matching) will reduce SWR and maximize power
transfer through each part of the antenna system.
Complex impedance of an antenna is related to the electrical length of the
antenna at the wavelength in use. The impedance of an antenna can be
24

matched to the feed line and radio by adjusting the impedance of the feed
line, using the feed line as an impedance transformer. More commonly, the
impedance is adjusted at the load (see below) with an antenna tuner, a
balun, a matching transformer, matching networks composed of inductors
and capacitors, or matching sections such as the gamma match.

3.7.5- Efficiency
Efficiency is the ratio of power actually radiated to the power put into the
antenna terminals. A dummy load may have an SWR of 1:1 but an efficiency
of 0, as it absorbs all power and radiates heat but not RF energy, showing
that SWR alone is not an effective measure of an antenna's efficiency.
Radiation in an antenna is caused by radiation resistance which can only be
measured as part of total resistance including loss resistance. Loss
resistance usually results in heat generation rather than radiation, and
reduces efficiency. Mathematically, efficiency is calculated as radiation
resistance divided by total resistance.

3.7.6- Bandwidth
The bandwidth of an antenna is the range of frequencies over which it is
effective, usually centered on the resonant frequency. The bandwidth of an
antenna may be increased by several techniques, including using thicker
wires, replacing wires with cages to simulate a thicker wire, tapering
antenna components (like in a feed horn), and combining multiple antennas
into a single assembly and allowing the natural impedance to select the
correct antenna. Small antennas are usually preferred for convenience, but
there is a fundamental limit relating bandwidth, size and efficiency.

3.7.7- Polarization

25

The polarization of an antenna is the orientation of the electric field (Eplane) of the radio wave with respect to the Earth's surface and is
determined by the physical structure of the antenna and by its orientation.
It has nothing in common with antenna directionality terms: "horizontal",
"vertical" and "circular". Thus, a simple straight wire antenna will have one
polarization when mounted vertically, and a different polarization when
mounted

horizontally.

"Electromagnetic

wave

polarization

filters"

are

structures which can be employed to act directly on the electromagnetic


wave to filter out wave energy of an undesired polarization and to pass wave
energy of a desired polarization.
Reflections generally affect polarization. For radio waves the most important
reflector is the ionosphere - signals which reflect from it will have their
polarization changed unpredictably. For signals which are reflected by the
ionosphere,

polarization

cannot

be

relied

upon.

For

line-of-sight

communications for which polarization can be relied upon, it can make a


large difference in signal quality to have the transmitter and receiver using
the same polarization; many tens of dB difference are commonly seen and
this is more than enough to make the difference between reasonable
communication and a broken link.

3.7.8- Transmission and reception


All of the antenna parameters are expressed in terms of a transmission
antenna, but are identically applicable to a receiving antenna, due to
reciprocity. Impedance, however, is not applied in an obvious way; for
impedance, the impedance at the load (where the power is consumed) is
most critical. For a transmitting antenna, this is the antenna itself. For a
receiving antenna, this is at the (radio) receiver rather than at the antenna.
26

Tuning is done by adjusting the length of an electrically long linear antenna


to alter the electrical resonance of the antenna.
Antenna tuning is done by adjusting an inductance or capacitance
combined with the active antenna (but distinct and separate from the active
antenna). The inductance or capacitance provides the reactance which
combines with the inherent reactance of the active antenna to establish a
resonance in a circuit including the active antenna. The established
resonance being at a frequency other than the natural electrical resonant
frequency of the active antenna. Adjustment of the inductance or
capacitance changes this resonance.
Antennas used for transmission have a maximum power rating, beyond
which heating, arcing or sparking may occur in the components, which may
cause them to be damaged or destroyed. Raising this maximum power rating
usually requires larger and heavier components, which may require larger
and heavier supporting structures. This is a concern only for transmitting
antennas, as the power received by an antenna rarely exceeds the microwatt
range.
Antennas designed specifically for reception might be optimized for noise
rejection capabilities. An antenna shield is a conductive or low reluctance
structure (such as a wire, plate or grid) which is adapted to be placed in the
vicinity of an antenna to reduce, as by dissipation through a resistance or by
conduction to ground, undesired electromagnetic radiation, or electric or
magnetic fields, which are directed toward the active antenna from an
external source or which emanate from the active antenna. Other methods
to optimize for noise rejection can be done by selecting a narrow bandwidth
so that noise from other frequencies is rejected, or selecting a specific
radiation pattern to reject noise from a specific direction, or by selecting a
27

polarization different from the noise polarization, or by selecting an antenna


that favors either the electric or magnetic field.
For instance, an antenna to be used for reception of low frequencies (below
about ten megahertz) will be subject to both man-made noise from motors
and other machinery, and from natural sources such as lightning.
Successfully rejecting these forms of noise is an important antenna feature.
A small coil of wire with many turns is more able to reject such noise than a
vertical antenna. However, the vertical will radiate much more effectively on
transmit, where extraneous signals are not a concern.

3.8- Application of Smart Antenna


Smart Antenna is used in number of fields. It has number of Applications.
Here are some of the fields where Smart Antenna used:1). MOBILE COMMUNICAION.
2).WIRELESS COMMUNICATION.
3). RADAR.
4).SONAR

APPLICATION OF SMART
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

ANTENNAS

TO

MOBILE

Smart or adaptive antenna arrays can improve the performance of wireless


communication systems. An overview of strategies for achieving coverage,
capacity, and other improvements is presented, and relevant literature is
discussed. Multipath mitigation and direction finding applications of arrays
are briefly discussed, and potential paths of evolution for future wireless
systems are presented. Requirements and implementation issues for smart
antennas are also considered.

28

Smart antennas are most often realized with either switched-beam or fully
adaptive array antennas. An array consists of two or more antennas (the
elements of the array) spatially arranged and electrically interconnected to
produce a directional radiation pattern. In a phased array the phases of the
exciting currents in each element antenna of the array are adjusted to
change the pattern of the array, typically to scan a pattern maximum or null
to a desired direction.

A smart antenna system consists of an antenna array, associated RF


hardware, and a computer controller that changes the array pattern in
response to the radio frequency environment, in order to improve the
performance of a communication or radar system.
Switched-beam antenna systems are the simplest form of smart antenna. By
selecting among several different fixed phase shifts in the array feed, several
fixed antenna patterns can be formed using the same array. The appropriate
pattern is selected for any given set of conditions. An adaptive array controls
its own pattern dynamically, using feedback to vary the phase and/or
amplitude of the exciting current at each element to optimize the received
signal.
Smart or adaptive antennas are being considered for use in wireless
communication systems. Smart antennas can increase the coverage and
capacity of a system. In multipath channels they can increase the maximum
data rate and mitigate fading due to cancellation of multipath components.
Adaptive antennas can also be used for direction finding, with applications
including emergency services and vehicular traffic
monitoring. All these enhancements have been proposed in the literature
and are discussed in this paper. In addition, possible paths of evolution,
incorporating adaptive antennas into North American cellular systems, are

29

presented and discussed. Finally, requirements for future adaptive antenna


systems and implementation issues that will
influence their design are outlined.

Range extension
In sparsely populated areas, extending coverage is often more important
than increasing capacity. In such areas, the gain provided by adaptive
antennas can extend the range of a cell to cover a larger area and more
users than would be possible with omnidirectional or sector antennas.

Interference reduction and rejection


In populated areas, increasing capacity is of prime importance. Two related
strategies for increasing capacity are interference reduction on the downlink
and interference rejection on the uplink. To reduce interference, directional
beams are steered toward the mobiles. Interference to co-channel mobiles
occurs only if they are within the narrow beamwidth of the directional beam.
This reduces the probability of co-channel interference compared with a
system using omnidirectional base station antennas.
Interference can be rejected using directional beams and/or by forming nulls
in the base station receive antenna pattern in the direction of interfering cochannel users.
Interference reduction and rejection can allow N c (which is dictated by cochannel interference) to be reduced, increasing the capacity of the system.
Interference reduction can be implemented using an array with steered or
switched beams. By using directional beams to communicate with mobiles
on the downlink, a base station is less likely to interfere with nearby cochannel base stations than if it used an omnidirectional antenna.

30

There will be a small percentage of time during which co-channel


interference is strong, e.g., when a mobile is within the main beam of a
nearby co-channel base station.
This can be overcome by handing off the mobile within its current cell to
another channel that is not experiencing strong co-channel interference.

3.9- Advantages and Disadvantages of Smart

Antenna.

Advantages
Increased number of users
Due to the targeted nature of smart antennas frequencies can be reused
allowing an increased number of users. More users on the same frequency
space means that the network provider has lower operating costs in terms of
purchasing frequency space.
Increased Range
As the smart antenna focuses gain on the communicating device, the range
of operation increases. This allows the area serviced by a smart antenna to
increase. This can provide a cost saving to network providers as they will not
require as many antennas/base stations to provide coverage.

Geographic Information
As smart antennas use targeted signals the direction in which the antenna
is transmitting and the gain required to communicate with a device can be
used to determine the location of a device relatively accurately. This allows
31

network providers to offer new services to devices. Some services include,


guiding emergency services to your location, location based games and
locality information.
Security
Smart antennas naturally provide increased security, as the signals are not
radiated in all directions as in a traditional omni-directional antenna. This
means that if someone wished to intercept transmissions they would need to
be at the same location or between the two communicating devices.
Reduced Interference
Interference which is usually caused by transmissions which radiate in all
directions are less likely to occur due to the directionality introduced by the
smart antenna. This aids both the ability to reuse frequencies and achieve
greater range.
Increased bandwidth
The bandwidth available increases form the reuse of frequencies and also in
adaptive arrays as they can utilize the many paths which a signal may follow
to reach a device.
Easily integrated
Smart antennas are not a new protocol or standard so the antennas can be
easily implemented with existing non smart antennas and devices.

Disadvantages
Complex

32

A disadvantage of smart antennas is that they are far more complicated


than traditional antennas. This means that faults or problems may be
harder to diagnose and more likely to occur.
More Expensive
As smart antennas are extremely complex, utilizing the latest in processing
technology they are far more expensive than traditional antennas. However
this cost must be weighed against the cost of frequency space.
Larger Size
Due to the antenna arrays which are utilized by smart antenna systems,
they are much larger in size than traditional systems. This can be a problem
in a social context as antennas can be seen as ugly or unsightly.
Location
The location of smart antennas needs to be considered for optimal operation.
Due to the directional beam that swings from a smart antenna locations
which are optimal for a traditional antenna are not for a smart antenna. For
example in a road context, smart antennas are better situated away from the
road, unlike normal antennas which are best situated along the road.

3.11- Features and Benefit of Smart Antenna


Feature of Smart Antenna
1).Signal gain - Inputs from multiple antennas are combined to optimize
available power required to establish given level of coverage.

33

2).Interference Rejection - Antenna pattern can be generated toward


cochannel interference sources, improving the signal-to-interference ratio of
the received signals.

3).Spatial diversity-Composite information from the array is used to


minimize fading and other undesirable effects of multipath propagation.

4).Power efficiency- Combines the inputs to multiple elements to optimize


available processing gain in the downlink (toward the user)

Benefit of Smart Antenna


1).Better range/coverage- Focusing the energy sent out into the cell
increases base station range and coverage. Lower power requirements also
enable a greater battery life and smaller/lighter handset size.

2).Increased capacity- Precise control of signal nulls quality and mitigation


of interference combine to frequency reuse reduce distance (or cluster size),
improving capacity. Certain adaptive technologies (such as space division
multiple access) support the reuse of frequencies within the same cell.
3).Multipath rejection- Can reduce the effective delay spread of the
channel, allowing higher bit rates to be supported without the use of an
equalizer.

4).Reduced expense- Lower amplifier costs, power consumption, and higher


reliability will result.

34

Chapter 4
Summary
This report aims to explain the basic concept of Smart Antenna and some of
its Application.
First Question arises What is Smart Antenna?
A smart antenna combines an antenna array with a digital signal-processing
capability to transmit and receive in an adaptive, spatially sensitive manner.
Or In other words Smart Antenna is an Array of antenna which is used to
optimize its reception and transmit pattern.
There are two types of Smart Antenna:1). Switched Beam- Switched beam antenna systems form multiple fixed beams
with heightened sensitivity in particular directions. These antenna systems detect
signal strength, choose from one of several predetermined, fixed beams, and switch
from one beam to another as the mobile moves throughout the sector.

2). Adaptive Array- Adaptive antenna technology represents the most


advanced smart antenna approach to date. the adaptive system takes
35

advantage of its ability to effectively locate and track various types of signals
to dynamically minimize interference and maximize intended signal
reception.
Both systems attempt to increase gain according to the location of the user;
however, only the adaptive system provides optimal gain while
simultaneously identifying, tracking, and minimizing interfering signals.
Smart antenna works in two processes . First one is Uplinking and second
one is Downlinking
There are 2 categories of Smart Antenna:1). SIMO(Single Input Multiple Output)
2). MISO(Multiple Input Single Output)
3).MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)
Basically Smart antenna has two functions :1).Beamforming2).Dirrection of Arrival
Smart antenna is used in various fields the most important is named
below:1). Mobile Communication
2). Wireless Communication
3). RADAR
4).SONAR
There are some of the factors which affects the performance of Smart
Antenna . These factors reduces the Quality of Smart Antenna.Factors are:1).Resonant Frequency
2).Gain
3).Impedance

36

4).Bandwidth
5).Polarization
6).Transmission and Reception

Merits of Smart Antenna


1). Increased number of users.
2). Increased Range
3). Security
4). Reduced Interference.
Demerits of Smart Antenna:1). Complex
2). Expensive
3). Large Size
4). Location

37

References
1).www.wikipedia.com
2).www.statemaster.com
3).www.iec.org
4).http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/smart_ant/
5).W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna theory and Design,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981.
6). D. Johnson and D. Dudgeon, Array Signal Processing,
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cli_s, NJ, 1993
7). http://www.smartanteenas.googlepages.com

8). Michael Chryssomallis Smart antennas IEEE antenna and


propagation magazine Vol 42 No 3 pp 129-138, June 2000.
9). D. Johnson and D. Dudgeon, Array Signal Processing,
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cli_s, NJ, 1993
10). Special issue on blind identi_cation and estimation," IEEE
Proceedings, mid-1998 .
11).

Kronberger,H

Lindermerier,J

applications on vehicles

Hopf

Smart

antenna

with low profile array antenna Proc

IEEE Vol 53 pp1-3 September 2003.

38

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