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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Lecture 3
2 D motion and The Laws
of Motion

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Outlines
1. Free fall or Freely Falling
Object.
2. Projectile motion
3. Force
4. Newtons first law
5. Newtons second law

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1.0

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is defined as the vertical motion of a body at constant

acceleration, g under gravitational field without air
resistance.
In the earths gravitational field, the constant acceleration
known as acceleration due to gravity or free-fall
acceleration or gravitational acceleration.
the value is g = 9.81 m s2
the direction is towards the centre of the earth
(downward).
Note:
In solving any problem involves freely falling bodies or free
fall motion, the assumption made is ignore the air
resistance.

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Sign convention:

+
From the sign convention
thus,
+

a g

Value of s, u and v may be (+) or (-)

depending on the direction of motion.

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Lets view several cases.

(a) An object is dropped

downward

Initial
velocity is
zero; vo= 0

vo= -ve
Use
the
kinematic
equations.

a = -g

a = -g

a = g = -9.80
m/s2.
Initial velocity
0.
With upward
being positive,
initial velocity
will be negative

of x since
vertical

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As the ball rises,

velocity decreases
until it reach max
height, stops and
began to fall.
Instantaneous
velocity at max height
is zero

For the ball to move

upwards, its initial
velocity > 0

speed increases,
accelerating

The motion may be

symmetrical.
Then tup = tdown and v
= -vo
The motion may not
be symmetrical.
Break the motion into
6
various parts

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Example 1 :
A certain freely falling object, released from rest, requires 1.50 s to
travel the last 30.0 m before it hits the ground.
a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30.0 m above the
ground.
b) Find the total distance the object travels during the fall.

uy = 0 m s1

30 m

t= 1.5 s

Solution :

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(a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30.0 m above

the ground.

1 2
s2 y u 2 y t a y t
2
1
30.0 u y (1.50) (9.80)(1.50) 2
2
u2 y 12.7 ms 1 v1 y

(b) Find the total distance the object travels during the fall.

v1 y u y 2 2a y s1 y
2

(12.7)2 2(9.80)s1 y

s1 y 8.23 m
s y s1 y s2 y 38.2 m

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Example 2 :
A ball is thrown from the top of a building with an initial velocity of
B
20.0 m/s straight upward, at an initial height of 50.0 m above the
ground. The ball just misses the edge of the roof on its way down,
as shown in Figure. Determine
u =20.0 m s1
C
A
(a) the time needed for the ball to reach its maximum height,
(b) the maximum height,
(c) the time needed for the ball to return to the height from which it
was thrown and the velocity of the ball at that instant,
50.0 m
(d) the time needed for the ball to reach the ground, and
(e) the velocity and position of the ball at t = 5.00 s. Neglect air
drag.
(Given g = 9.81 m s2)

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Solution :
(a)
the time needed for the ball to reach its
maximum height,

u =20.0 m

s1
C

v
v at v0 t 0 v 0
a
20.0
t
2.04 s
9.80

50.0 m

y v0t 12 at 2

ymax 20.02.04 12 9.802.04

20.4 m
D
10
10

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Solution :
(c) the time needed for the ball to return to the
height from which it was thrown and the
velocity of the ball at that instant,

u =20.0 m s1
C

50.0 m

y v0t 12 at 2 , where y 0
2v0 220.0
t

4.08 s
a
9.80
v 20.0 9.804.08 20.0 m/s
(d) the time needed for the ball to reach the
ground, and

when y 50.0 m
50.0 20.0t 12 9.80t 2
t 5.83 s
11
11

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Solution :
(e) the velocity and position of the ball at t =
5.00 s. Neglect air drag.

u =20.0 m s1
C

when t 5.00s
v 20.0 9.805.00
29.0 m/s
y 20.05.00 12 9.805.00

22.5 m
50.0 m

D
12
12

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Example 3 :
A rocket moves straight upward, starting
from rest with an acceleration of 29.4 m/s2.
It runs out of fuel at the end of 4.00 s and
continues to coast upward, reaching a
maximum height before falling back to
Earth.
(a) Find the rockets velocity and position at
the end of 4.00 s.

(b) Find the maximum height the rocket

reaches.
(c) Find the velocity the instant before the
rocket crashes on the ground.
(Given g = 9.81 m s2)
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Solution :
(a) Find the rockets velocity and position at the end of 4.00 s.

Assume upward is positive

v at v0
v 29.44.00 0 118m/s

y v0t 12 at 2

y 0 12 29.44.00 235 m
2

v at v0 , where v 0, v0 118m/s & a 9.80 m/s2

0 9.80t 118 t 12.0 s
y v0t 12 at 2 , where y0 235m & t 12.0 s

ymax 235 11812.0 12 9.8012.0 945 m

2

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Solution :
(c) Find the velocity the instant before the rocket crashes on the
ground.

y v0t 12 at 2 , where y0 235m & y 0

0 235 118t 12 9.80t 2 t 25.9 s
v 9.8025.9 118 136 m/s

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REST!

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2.0

CHAPTER 2
Projectile motion

An object may move in both x and y direction simultaneously.

It moves in 2D (use two components to specify position, velocity
and acceleration)

Important Assumptions of Projectile Motion:

Ignore air friction
Ignore rotation of the earth
With these assumptions, an object undergo projectile motion

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CHAPTER 2
Projectile motion

A projectile motion consists of two components:

vertical component (y-comp.)
motion under constant acceleration, ay= g
horizontal component (x-comp.)

motion with constant velocity thus ax= 0

The path followed by a projectile is called trajectory is shown in
y
Figure.

v1

v1y
P

uy
A

1
v1x

sy=H

Q v
2x

v2y

ux

v2
C

t1

sx= R

t2

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From Figure,
The x-component of velocity along AC (horizontal) at any
point is constant,

vx v0 cos

The y-component (vertical) of velocity varies from one

point to another point along AC.
but the y-component of the initial velocity is given by

v y v0 sin

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X-direction:

1 2
x v0 xt axt
2
0

1
x x0 v0 xt axt 2
2
x v0 cost

1 02
vx v0 x axt
2
vx v0 cos

v0 x v0 cos
(1)

v0 x v0 cos
(2)

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y-direction:

1 2
y v0 y t a y t
2
g

1
y y0 v0 y t a y t 2
2
1 2
y y0 v0 y sin t gt
2

1 g
v y v0 y a y t
2
1
v y v0 sin gt
2

v0 y v0 sin
(3)

v0 y v0 sin
(4)
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Angles

Complementary values of the initial angle result in the same range.

The heights will be different
The maximum range occurs at a projection angle of 45o.

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The velocity of the projectile at any point of its motion is the

vector sum of its x and y components at that point.

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Provided air resistance is negligible, the horizontal component of the

velocity remains constant (Since ax = 0)

acceleration g.

The acceleration in the y-direction is not zero at the top of the

projectiles trajectory

The vertical component of the velocity vy and the displacement in the ydirection are identical to those of a freely falling body

Projectile motion can be described as a superposition of two

independent motions in the x- and y-directions

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Problem-Solving Strategy

Select a coordinate system and sketch the path of the projectile.

Include initial and final positions, velocities, and accelerations

Follow the techniques for solving problems with constant velocity to

analyze the horizontal motion of the projectile.

Follow the techniques for solving problems with constant acceleration to

analyze the vertical motion of the projectile.

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Special Equations

The motion equations can be combined algebraically and solved for

the range and maximum height

Only apply on symmetrical projectile motion.

- symmetrical back to initial height

PHYSICS
Example 4 :
An Alaskan rescue plane drops a package
of emergency rations to stranded hikers, as
shown in figure below. The plane is
traveling horizontally at 40.0 m/s at a
height of 1.00102 m above the ground.
a)Where does the package strike the
ground relative to the point at which it was
released?
b)What are the horizontal and vertical
components of the velocity of the package
just before it hits the ground?
c)Find the angle of the impact.

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(a) Where does the package strike the ground
relative to the point at which it was released?
Assume upward is positive
find the time taken to reach the ground first.

y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
1.00 102 m 0 12 9.80t 2
t 4.52s
Find the x-displacement.

x x x0 v0t
x 40.04.52 181m
x

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(b) What are the horizontal and vertical
components of the velocity of the package just
before it hits the ground?

vx v0 x cos 40.0cos 0 40.0 m/s

v y v0 y sin at
v y v0 y sin 90 9.804.52
v y 44.3 m/s

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(c) Find the angle of the impact.

44.3
(c) tan
1.11
vx
40.0
vy

tan 1 1.11 48.0

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Example 5 :
A long jumper leaves the ground at an angle of 20.0 to the horizontal and at
a speed of 11.0 m/s.
a) How long does it take for him to reach maximum height?
b) What is the maximum height?
c) How far does he jump? (Assume his motion is equivalent to that of a
particle, disregarding the motion of his arms and legs.)

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a)

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How long does it take for him to reach maximum height?

At the maximum height, the velocity in y-direction is zero.

v y v0 y a y t , where v y 0
v0 sin 11.0sin 20.0
t max

0.384s
g
9.80
b)

What is the maximum height?

y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
2
ymax v0 sin tmax 12 gtmax

ymax 11.0 sin 20.0 0.384 12 9.800.384

ymax 0.722 m
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c) How far does he jump? (Assume his motion is equivalent to that of a particle,
disregarding the motion of his arms and legs.)

x v x t v0 cos t

x 11.0 cos 20.0 0.768 7.94 m

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Example 6 :
A ball is thrown upward from the top of a building at an angle of 30.0 to the
horizontal and with an initial speed of 20.0 m/s, as in figure. The point of
release is 45.0 m above the ground.
a)How long does it take for the
ball to hit the ground?
b)Find the balls speed at impact.
c)Find the horizontal range
of the stone.
Neglect air resistance.

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a)

How long does it take for the ball to hit the ground?
Assume upward is positive.
Find the x- and y- compnents of the velocity.

v0 x v0 cos

v0 x 20.0 cos 30.0

v0 x 17.3 m/s

v0 y v0 sin
v0 y 20.0sin 30.0
v0 y 10.0 m/s
y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
45.0 10.0t 12 9.80t 2
t 4.22s
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b)

Find the balls speed at impact.

v y v0 y a y t

v y 10.0 9.804.22
v y 31.4 m/s

v vx2 v y2
v

17.32 31.42

v 35.9 m/s

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c) Find the horizontal range of the stone. Neglect
air resistance.

x v0 xt

x 17.34.22
x 73.0 m

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REST!

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Forces

Commonly imagined as a push or pull on some object.

Vector quantity.
May be a contact force or a field force.
Contact forces result from physical contact between two objects
Field forces act between disconnected objects

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Newtons First Law

CHAPTER 2

An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and

direction, unless acted on by a nonzero net force

Fnett F 0

oThe

net force is defined as the vector sum of all the external forces
exerted on the object.
oExternal force
oAny force that results from the interaction between the object and its
environment.
oInternal forces.
oForces that originate within the object itself.They cannot change the
objects velocity

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Inertia is the tendency of an object to continue in its original motion.

In the absence of a force

Mass: A measure of the resistance of an object to changes in its

motion due to a force.
The larger the mass, the less it accelerates under the action of a
given force

SI units for mass is kg.

Mass is a scalar quantity.

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Newtons Second Law

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force
acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.

Can

also be applied three-dimensionally.

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Example 7:
An airboat with mass 3.50102 kg, including the passenger, has an engine
that produces a net horizontal force of 7.70102 N, after accounting for
forces of resistance.
(a) Find the acceleration of the airboat.
(b) Starting from rest, how long does it take the airboat to reach a speed
of 12.0 m/s?
(c) After reaching that speed, the pilot turns off the engine and drifts to a
stop over a distance of 50.0 m. Find the resistance force, assuming
its constant.

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Fnet
(a) Fnet ma a
m
7.70 102
2
a

2
.
20
m/s
3.50 102
(b) v v0 at

12.0 0 2.20t
t 5.45s

(c) v 2 v0 2ax
2

0 12.0 2a50.0
2

a 1.44 m/s 2

Fresist ma 3.50 102 1.44 504 N

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Example 8:

Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00103 kg along a canal, as
shown in figure. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of
1 = 30.0 with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable
connected to the second horse makes an angle of 2 = -45.0. Find the
initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force
of magnitude 6.00102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the
barge.

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F2 x F2 cos 2 6.00 102 cos 45.0 4.24 102 N

Fx F1x F2 x 5.20 102 N 4.24 102 N 9.44102 N

F2 y F2 sin 2

Fx 9.44 102
2
ax

0
.
472
m/s
m 2.00 103
Fy 1.24 102
2
ay

0
.
0620
m/s
m
2.00 103
a a x2 a y2

0.4722 0.06202

0.0620
tan

7.46
a
0.472
ay

0.476 m/s 2

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Forces cause changes in motion.

Motion can occur in the absence of forces
All the forces acting on an object are added as vectors to find the
net force acting on the object.
Newtons Second Law is a vector equation.
SI unit of force is a Newton (N).

US Customary unit of force is a pound (lb).

1 N = 0.225 lb

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Gravitational Force

Expressed by Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation:

Every particle in the Universe attracts every other particle
with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the
masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them

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Weight

The magnitude of the gravitational force acting on an object of mass m

near the Earths surface is called the weight w of the object.
w = m g is a special case of Newtons Second Law
g is the acceleration due to gravity
g can also be found from the Law of Universal Gravitation.
Weight is not an inherent property of an object.
Mass is an inherent property
Weight depends upon location.