Anda di halaman 1dari 52

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Lecture 3
2 D motion and The Laws
of Motion

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Outlines
1. Free fall or Freely Falling
Object.
2. Projectile motion
3. Force
4. Newtons first law
5. Newtons second law

PHYSICS
1.0

CHAPTER 2

Freely falling bodies

is defined as the vertical motion of a body at constant


acceleration, g under gravitational field without air
resistance.
In the earths gravitational field, the constant acceleration
known as acceleration due to gravity or free-fall
acceleration or gravitational acceleration.
the value is g = 9.81 m s2
the direction is towards the centre of the earth
(downward).
Note:
In solving any problem involves freely falling bodies or free
fall motion, the assumption made is ignore the air
resistance.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Sign convention:

+
From the sign convention
thus,
+

a g

Value of s, u and v may be (+) or (-)


depending on the direction of motion.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Lets view several cases.


(a) An object is dropped

(b) An object thrown


downward

Initial
velocity is
zero; vo= 0

vo= -ve
Use
the
kinematic
equations.

a = -g

a = -g

a = g = -9.80
m/s2.
Initial velocity
0.
With upward
being positive,
initial velocity
will be negative

use y instead
of x since
vertical

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

(c) Object thrown upward

As the ball rises,


velocity decreases
until it reach max
height, stops and
began to fall.
Instantaneous
velocity at max height
is zero

For the ball to move


upwards, its initial
velocity > 0

As the ball falls, its


speed increases,
accelerating

The motion may be


symmetrical.
Then tup = tdown and v
= -vo
The motion may not
be symmetrical.
Break the motion into
6
various parts

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 1 :
A certain freely falling object, released from rest, requires 1.50 s to
travel the last 30.0 m before it hits the ground.
a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30.0 m above the
ground.
b) Find the total distance the object travels during the fall.

(Given g = 9.81 m s2)


uy = 0 m s1

30 m

t= 1.5 s

Solution :

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

(a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30.0 m above


the ground.

1 2
s2 y u 2 y t a y t
2
1
30.0 u y (1.50) (9.80)(1.50) 2
2
u2 y 12.7 ms 1 v1 y

(b) Find the total distance the object travels during the fall.

v1 y u y 2 2a y s1 y
2

(12.7)2 2(9.80)s1 y

s1 y 8.23 m
s y s1 y s2 y 38.2 m

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 2 :
A ball is thrown from the top of a building with an initial velocity of
B
20.0 m/s straight upward, at an initial height of 50.0 m above the
ground. The ball just misses the edge of the roof on its way down,
as shown in Figure. Determine
u =20.0 m s1
C
A
(a) the time needed for the ball to reach its maximum height,
(b) the maximum height,
(c) the time needed for the ball to return to the height from which it
was thrown and the velocity of the ball at that instant,
50.0 m
(d) the time needed for the ball to reach the ground, and
(e) the velocity and position of the ball at t = 5.00 s. Neglect air
drag.
(Given g = 9.81 m s2)

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Solution :
(a)
the time needed for the ball to reach its
maximum height,

Assume upward is positive

u =20.0 m

s1
C

v
v at v0 t 0 v 0
a
20.0
t
2.04 s
9.80

(b) the maximum height,

50.0 m

y v0t 12 at 2

ymax 20.02.04 12 9.802.04

20.4 m
D
10
10

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Solution :
(c) the time needed for the ball to return to the
height from which it was thrown and the
velocity of the ball at that instant,

u =20.0 m s1
C

50.0 m

y v0t 12 at 2 , where y 0
2v0 220.0
t

4.08 s
a
9.80
v 20.0 9.804.08 20.0 m/s
(d) the time needed for the ball to reach the
ground, and

when y 50.0 m
50.0 20.0t 12 9.80t 2
t 5.83 s
11
11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Solution :
(e) the velocity and position of the ball at t =
5.00 s. Neglect air drag.

u =20.0 m s1
C

when t 5.00s
v 20.0 9.805.00
29.0 m/s
y 20.05.00 12 9.805.00

22.5 m
50.0 m

D
12
12

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 3 :
A rocket moves straight upward, starting
from rest with an acceleration of 29.4 m/s2.
It runs out of fuel at the end of 4.00 s and
continues to coast upward, reaching a
maximum height before falling back to
Earth.
(a) Find the rockets velocity and position at
the end of 4.00 s.

(b) Find the maximum height the rocket


reaches.
(c) Find the velocity the instant before the
rocket crashes on the ground.
(Given g = 9.81 m s2)
13

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Solution :
(a) Find the rockets velocity and position at the end of 4.00 s.

Assume upward is positive


v at v0
v 29.44.00 0 118m/s

y v0t 12 at 2

y 0 12 29.44.00 235 m
2

(b) Find the maximum height the rocket reaches.

v at v0 , where v 0, v0 118m/s & a 9.80 m/s2


0 9.80t 118 t 12.0 s
y v0t 12 at 2 , where y0 235m & t 12.0 s

ymax 235 11812.0 12 9.8012.0 945 m


2

14

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Solution :
(c) Find the velocity the instant before the rocket crashes on the
ground.

y v0t 12 at 2 , where y0 235m & y 0


0 235 118t 12 9.80t 2 t 25.9 s
v 9.8025.9 118 136 m/s

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

REST!

16

PHYSICS
2.0

CHAPTER 2
Projectile motion

An object may move in both x and y direction simultaneously.


It moves in 2D (use two components to specify position, velocity
and acceleration)

Important Assumptions of Projectile Motion:


Ignore air friction
Ignore rotation of the earth
With these assumptions, an object undergo projectile motion

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

18

PHYSICS
2.0

CHAPTER 2
Projectile motion

A projectile motion consists of two components:


vertical component (y-comp.)
motion under constant acceleration, ay= g
horizontal component (x-comp.)

motion with constant velocity thus ax= 0


The path followed by a projectile is called trajectory is shown in
y
Figure.

v1

v1y
P

uy
A

1
v1x

sy=H

Q v
2x

v2y

ux

v2
C

t1

sx= R

t2

19

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
From Figure,
The x-component of velocity along AC (horizontal) at any
point is constant,

vx v0 cos

The y-component (vertical) of velocity varies from one


point to another point along AC.
but the y-component of the initial velocity is given by

v y v0 sin

20

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

X-direction:

1 2
x v0 xt axt
2
0

1
x x0 v0 xt axt 2
2
x v0 cost

1 02
vx v0 x axt
2
vx v0 cos

v0 x v0 cos
(1)

v0 x v0 cos
(2)

21

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

y-direction:

1 2
y v0 y t a y t
2
g

1
y y0 v0 y t a y t 2
2
1 2
y y0 v0 y sin t gt
2

1 g
v y v0 y a y t
2
1
v y v0 sin gt
2

v0 y v0 sin
(3)

v0 y v0 sin
(4)
22

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Projectile Motion at Various Initial


Angles

Complementary values of the initial angle result in the same range.


The heights will be different
The maximum range occurs at a projection angle of 45o.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Velocity of the Projectile

The velocity of the projectile at any point of its motion is the


vector sum of its x and y components at that point.

Remember to be careful about the angles quadrant.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Projectile Motion Summary

Provided air resistance is negligible, the horizontal component of the


velocity remains constant (Since ax = 0)

The vertical component of the acceleration is equal to the free fall


acceleration g.

The acceleration in the y-direction is not zero at the top of the


projectiles trajectory

The vertical component of the velocity vy and the displacement in the ydirection are identical to those of a freely falling body

Projectile motion can be described as a superposition of two


independent motions in the x- and y-directions

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Problem-Solving Strategy

Select a coordinate system and sketch the path of the projectile.


Include initial and final positions, velocities, and accelerations

Resolve the initial velocity into x- and y-components.

Treat the horizontal and vertical motions independently.

Follow the techniques for solving problems with constant velocity to


analyze the horizontal motion of the projectile.

Follow the techniques for solving problems with constant acceleration to


analyze the vertical motion of the projectile.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Special Equations

The motion equations can be combined algebraically and solved for


the range and maximum height

Only apply on symmetrical projectile motion.


- symmetrical back to initial height

PHYSICS
Example 4 :
An Alaskan rescue plane drops a package
of emergency rations to stranded hikers, as
shown in figure below. The plane is
traveling horizontally at 40.0 m/s at a
height of 1.00102 m above the ground.
a)Where does the package strike the
ground relative to the point at which it was
released?
b)What are the horizontal and vertical
components of the velocity of the package
just before it hits the ground?
c)Find the angle of the impact.

CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
(a) Where does the package strike the ground
relative to the point at which it was released?
Assume upward is positive
find the time taken to reach the ground first.

y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
1.00 102 m 0 12 9.80t 2
t 4.52s
Find the x-displacement.

x x x0 v0t
x 40.04.52 181m
x

29

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
(b) What are the horizontal and vertical
components of the velocity of the package just
before it hits the ground?

vx v0 x cos 40.0cos 0 40.0 m/s


v y v0 y sin at
v y v0 y sin 90 9.804.52
v y 44.3 m/s

30

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
(c) Find the angle of the impact.

44.3
(c) tan
1.11
vx
40.0
vy

tan 1 1.11 48.0

31

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 5 :
A long jumper leaves the ground at an angle of 20.0 to the horizontal and at
a speed of 11.0 m/s.
a) How long does it take for him to reach maximum height?
b) What is the maximum height?
c) How far does he jump? (Assume his motion is equivalent to that of a
particle, disregarding the motion of his arms and legs.)

PHYSICS
a)

CHAPTER 2

How long does it take for him to reach maximum height?


At the maximum height, the velocity in y-direction is zero.

v y v0 y a y t , where v y 0
v0 sin 11.0sin 20.0
t max

0.384s
g
9.80
b)

What is the maximum height?

y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
2
ymax v0 sin tmax 12 gtmax

ymax 11.0 sin 20.0 0.384 12 9.800.384

ymax 0.722 m
33

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

c) How far does he jump? (Assume his motion is equivalent to that of a particle,
disregarding the motion of his arms and legs.)

t 2t max 20.384 0.768s

x v x t v0 cos t

x 11.0 cos 20.0 0.768 7.94 m

34

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 6 :
A ball is thrown upward from the top of a building at an angle of 30.0 to the
horizontal and with an initial speed of 20.0 m/s, as in figure. The point of
release is 45.0 m above the ground.
a)How long does it take for the
ball to hit the ground?
b)Find the balls speed at impact.
c)Find the horizontal range
of the stone.
Neglect air resistance.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
a)

How long does it take for the ball to hit the ground?
Assume upward is positive.
Find the x- and y- compnents of the velocity.

v0 x v0 cos

v0 x 20.0 cos 30.0


v0 x 17.3 m/s

v0 y v0 sin
v0 y 20.0sin 30.0
v0 y 10.0 m/s
y v0 y t 12 a y t 2
45.0 10.0t 12 9.80t 2
t 4.22s
36

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
b)

Find the balls speed at impact.

v y v0 y a y t

v y 10.0 9.804.22
v y 31.4 m/s

v vx2 v y2
v

17.32 31.42

v 35.9 m/s

37

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
c) Find the horizontal range of the stone. Neglect
air resistance.

x v0 xt

x 17.34.22
x 73.0 m

38

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

REST!

39

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Forces

Commonly imagined as a push or pull on some object.


Vector quantity.
May be a contact force or a field force.
Contact forces result from physical contact between two objects
Field forces act between disconnected objects

PHYSICS
Newtons First Law

CHAPTER 2

An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and


direction, unless acted on by a nonzero net force

Fnett F 0

oThe

net force is defined as the vector sum of all the external forces
exerted on the object.
oExternal force
oAny force that results from the interaction between the object and its
environment.
oInternal forces.
oForces that originate within the object itself.They cannot change the
objects velocity

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

42

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Newtons first law is often called the law of inertia.

Inertia is the tendency of an object to continue in its original motion.


In the absence of a force

Mass: A measure of the resistance of an object to changes in its


motion due to a force.
The larger the mass, the less it accelerates under the action of a
given force

SI units for mass is kg.


Mass is a scalar quantity.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Newtons Second Law


The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force
acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.

Can

also be applied three-dimensionally.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 7:
An airboat with mass 3.50102 kg, including the passenger, has an engine
that produces a net horizontal force of 7.70102 N, after accounting for
forces of resistance.
(a) Find the acceleration of the airboat.
(b) Starting from rest, how long does it take the airboat to reach a speed
of 12.0 m/s?
(c) After reaching that speed, the pilot turns off the engine and drifts to a
stop over a distance of 50.0 m. Find the resistance force, assuming
its constant.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Fnet
(a) Fnet ma a
m
7.70 102
2
a

2
.
20
m/s
3.50 102
(b) v v0 at

12.0 0 2.20t
t 5.45s

(c) v 2 v0 2ax
2

0 12.0 2a50.0
2

a 1.44 m/s 2

Fresist ma 3.50 102 1.44 504 N

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Example 8:

Two horses are pulling a barge with mass 2.00103 kg along a canal, as
shown in figure. The cable connected to the first horse makes an angle of
1 = 30.0 with respect to the direction of the canal, while the cable
connected to the second horse makes an angle of 2 = -45.0. Find the
initial acceleration of the barge, starting at rest, if each horse exerts a force
of magnitude 6.00102 N on the barge. Ignore forces of resistance on the
barge.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

F1x F1 cos1 6.00 102 cos30.0 5.20 102 N

F2 x F2 cos 2 6.00 102 cos 45.0 4.24 102 N


Fx F1x F2 x 5.20 102 N 4.24 102 N 9.44102 N

6.00 10 sin 45.0 4.24 10

F1 y F1 cos1 6.00 102 sin 30.0 3.00 102 N


F2 y F2 sin 2

Fy F1 y F2 y 3.00 102 N 4.24 102 N -1.24102 N

Fx 9.44 102
2
ax

0
.
472
m/s
m 2.00 103
Fy 1.24 102
2
ay

0
.
0620
m/s
m
2.00 103
a a x2 a y2

0.4722 0.06202

0.0620
tan

7.46
a
0.472
ay

0.476 m/s 2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Some Notes About Forces

Forces cause changes in motion.


Motion can occur in the absence of forces
All the forces acting on an object are added as vectors to find the
net force acting on the object.
Newtons Second Law is a vector equation.
SI unit of force is a Newton (N).

US Customary unit of force is a pound (lb).


1 N = 0.225 lb

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Gravitational Force

Mutual force of attraction between any two objects.

Expressed by Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation:


Every particle in the Universe attracts every other particle
with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the
masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Weight

The magnitude of the gravitational force acting on an object of mass m


near the Earths surface is called the weight w of the object.
w = m g is a special case of Newtons Second Law
g is the acceleration due to gravity
g can also be found from the Law of Universal Gravitation.
Weight is not an inherent property of an object.
Mass is an inherent property
Weight depends upon location.