3
4(A)
4(B)
5
6
7
8
9(A)
9(B)
10(A)
10(B)
11
12
13
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OBJECTIVES
i.
To become familiar with different arrangements of conductors of a three phase single and double
circuit transmission lines and to compute the GMD and GMR for different arrangements.
ii. To compute the series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase, per km of a three phase single
and double circuit overhead transmission lines with solid and bundled conductors.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
INDUCTANCE
The general formula for computing inductance per phase in mH per km of a transmission is given
by
L = 0.2 ln (Dm/Ds)
H/km
(1.1)
Where,
Dm = Geometric Mean Distance (GMD)
(1.2)
(1.3)
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GMD = D
GMR = re1/4 = r
Where, r = radius of conductor
(1.4)
(1.5)
3 D AB DBC DCA
(1.6)
GMR = re
= r
Where, r = radius of conductors
(1.7)
1/4
(1.8)
(1.9)
(1.10)
ra' ra e
The distance between elements are represented by D with respective subscripts and r a , rb and rn have
been replaced by Daa, Dbb and Dnn respectively for symmetry.
Stranded Conductors:
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Bundle Conductors:
(1.11)
where
GMRL is equivalent geometric mean radius and is given by
GMRL = (DSA DSB DSC)1/3
(1.12)
where
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DSA DSB and DSC are GMR of each phase group and given (refer 1.10) by
DSA = 4( Dsb Da1a2 )2 = [Dsb Da1a2]1/2
DSB = 4 (Dsb Db1b2 )2 = [Dsb Db1b2]1/2
(1.13)
(1.14)
where
DAB, DBC, & DCA are GMD between each phase group AB, BC, CA which are given by
DAB = [Da1b1 Da1b2 Da2b1 Da2b2]1/4
(1.15)
(1.16)
(1.17)
CAPACITANCE
A general formula for evaluating capacitance per phase in micro farad per km of a transmission
line is given by
C = 0.0556/ln (GMD/GMR) F/km
(1.18)
Where, GMD is the Geometric Mean Distance which is the same as that defined for inductance under
various cases.
GMR is the Geometric Mean Radius and is defined case by case below:
(i) Single phase two wires system (for diagram see inductance):
GMD = D
GMR = r (as against r in the case of L)
(ii) Three phase  symmetrical spacing (for diagram see inductance):
GMD = D
GMR = r in the case of solid conductor
=Ds in the case of stranded conductor to be obtained from manufacturers data.
(iii) Threephase Asymmetrical  transposed (for diagram see Inductance):
GMD = [DAB DBC DCA]1/3
(1.19)
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where
rb = [r*d]1/2 for 2 conductor bundle
rb = [r*d2]1/3 for 3 conductor bundle
(1.20)
(1.21)
where
rA, rB and rC are GMR of each phase group obtained as
rA = [rb Da1a2]1/2
rB = [rb Db1b2]1/2
rC = [rb Dc1c2]1/2
(1.22)
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EXERCISES:
1. A threephase transposed line composed of one ACSR, 1,43,000 cmil, 47/7 Bobolink
conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 11m between phases a and b and
between phases b and c. The conductors have a diameter of 3.625 cm and a GMR of 1.439
cm. The line is to be replaced by a three conductor bundle of ACSR 477,000cmil, 26/7
Hawk conductors having the same cross sectional area of aluminum as the singleconductor line. The conductors have a diameter of 2.1793 cm and a GMR of 0.8839 cm.
The new line will also have flat horizontal configurations, but it is to be operated at a
higher voltage and therefore the phase spacing is increased to 14m as measured from the
centre of the bundles. The spacing between the conductors in the bundle is 45 cm.
(a) Determine the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the above two
lines.
(b) Verify the results using the available program.
(c) Determine the percentage change in the inductance and capacitance in the bundle
conductor system. Which system is better and why?
2. A single circuit three phase transposed transmission line is composed of four ACSR
1,272,000 cmil conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 14 m between phases a
and b and between phases b and c. The bundle spacing is 45 cm. The conductor diameter
is 3.16 cm.
(a) Determine the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line.
(b) Verify the results using available program.
3. A 345 kV double circuit three phase transposed line is composed of two ACSR, 1,431,000
cmil, 45/7 bobolink conductors per phase with vertical conductor configuration as shown
in Fig. The conductors have a diameter of 1.427 in and the bundle spacing is 18 in.
(a) Find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line.
(b) Verify the results using the available program.
(c) If we change the relative phase position to abc  abc, determine the inductance and
capacitance per unit length using available program.
(d) Which relative phase position is better and why?
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OBJECTIVES
i.
To become familiar with per phase equivalent of a three phase short and medium lines and to
evaluate the performances for different load conditions.
ii. (a) To become familiar with the theory of long transmission line and study the effect of distributed
parameters on voltage and currents, along the line, (b) calculate the surge impedance and surge
impedance loading.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
The following nomenclature is adopted in modelling:
z = series impedance per unit length per phase
y = shunt admittance per unit length per phase to neutral.
L = inductance per unit length per phase
C = capacitance per unit length per phase
r = resistance per unit length per phase
l = length of the line
Z = zl = total series impedance
Y = yl = total shunt admittance per phase to neutral.
Short line Model and Equations (Lines Less than 80km)
The equivalent circuit of a short transmission line is shown in Fig.2.1
In this representation, the lumped resistance and inductance are used for modelling and the shunt
admittance is neglected. A transmission line may be represented by a two port network as shown in Fig 2.2
and current and voltage equations can be written in terms of generalised constants known as A B C D
constants. For the circuit in Fig.2.1 the voltage and currents relationships are given by
Vs = VR + Z IR
(2.1)
Is = IR
(2.2)
In terms of A B C D constants
VS A B VR
I C D I
R
S
(2.3)
Where, A = 1, B = Z, C = 0 D= 0
Percentageregulation
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VR ( NL ) VR ( FL )
VR ( FL )
100
(2.4)
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PR (3 )
PS (3 )
(2.5)
ZY
VS 1
VR ZI R
2
ZY
ZY
I S Y 1
VR 1
4
2
(2.6)
IR
(2.7)
VS A B VR
I C D I
R
S
ZY
ZY
where A 1
; B Z ; C Y 1
2
4
(2.8)
ZY
; D 1
V Z C I R x VR Z C I R x
V ( x) R
e
e
2
2
(2.10)
V Z I R x VR ZC I R x
I ( x) R C
e
e
2
2
(2.11)
(2.12)
(2.13)
zy
jL g jc
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(2.14)
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I(x)
(2.16)
For open circuited line IR = 0 and the no load receiving end voltage is given by
VR(nl) = Vs / cos l
For solid short circuit at the receiving end VR = 0, the equation (2.15) and (2.16) reduces to
Vs = jZc IR sinl
Is = IR cosl
For a lossless line the surge impedance (SIL) =
(2.17)
LC
The load corresponding to the surge impedance at rated voltage is known as surge impedance loading
(SIL) given by
SIL = 3 VR IR*
(2.18)
2
= 3 VR / Zc for lossless line Zc is purely resistive
(2.19)
SIL =
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(2.20)
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EXERCISES:
1. A 230 kV, 50 HZ three phase transmissions is 150 km long. The per phase resistance is 0.13 per km
and the reactance is 0.5 per km and the shunt admittance is 3.30 x 10 6 90o Siemens per km. It
delivers 40MW at 220 KV with 0.85 power factor lagging. Use medium line model.
(i) Determine the voltage and current at sending end and also compute voltage regulation and
efficiency.
(ii) Verify the results using the available program
2. A three phase transmission line has a per phase series impedance of z = 0.03 + j0.4 per km and a per
phase shunt admittance of y=j4.0 x 106 Siemens per km. The line is 200 km long. Obtain ABCD
parameters of the transmission line. The line is sending 407 MW and 7.833 MVAR at 350 kV. Use
medium model.
(i) Determine the voltage and current at receiving end and also compute voltage regulation and
efficiency.
(ii) Verify the results using the available program
3. A three phase 50 Hz, 400 kV transmission line is 250 km long. The line parameters per phase per unit
length are found to be
r = 0.032 /km L = 1.06mH/km C = 0.011F/km
Determine the following using the program available use long line model.
(a) The sending end voltage, current and efficiency when the load at the receiving end is 640 MW at
0.8 power factor logging at 400 kV.
(b) The receiving end voltage, current, efficiency and losses when 480 MW and 320 MVAR are being
transmitted at 400 kV from the sending end.
(c) The sending end voltage, current and efficiency and losses when the receiving end load impedance
is 230 at 400 kV.
(d) The receiving end voltage when the line is open circuited and is energized with 400 kV at the
sending end. Also, determine the reactance and MVAR of a three phase shunt reactor to be
installed at the receiving end in order to limit the no load receiving end voltage to 400 kV.
(e) The MVAR and capacitance to be installed at the receiving end for the loading condition in (a) to
keep the receiving end voltage at 400 kV when the line is energized with 400 kV at the sending
end.
(f) The line voltage profile along the line for the following cases: no load, rated load of 800 MW at
0.8 power factor at sending end at 400 kV, line terminated in the SIL and short circuited line.
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i.
To write a program to form bus admittance matrix Y, given the impedances of the
elements of a power network and their connectivity (mutual coupling between
elements neglected)
To modify the matrix Y to effect specified changes in the configuration of the
network.
ii.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
The meeting point of various components in a power system is called bus. The bus or bus bar is a
conductor made of Cu or Al having negligible resistance. Hence the bus bar will have zero voltage drop
when it conducts the rated current. Therefore the buses are considered as points of constant voltage in a
power system. When the power system is represented by impedance /reactance diagram it can be
considered as a circuit or network. The buses can be treated as nodes and the voltages of all buses (nodes)
can be solved by conventional node analysis technique.
Let N be the number of major or principal nodes in the circuit or network. Since the voltages of
node can be measured only with respect to reference point one of node is considered as reference node, the
network will have (N 1) independent voltages. In nodal analysis, the independent voltages are solved by
writing Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) equations. While writing KCL equations for (N 1) nodes in the
circuit, the voltage sources in the circuit should be converted to equivalent current sources.
Let V1,V2..Vn be the node voltages of nodes 1, 2, 3,..n respectively. I11,I22 ,I33
sum of current sources connected to nodes 1, 2, 3..n respectively.
..Inn be the
Let,
Yn1V1+Yn2V2+Yn3V3+..YnnVn= Inn
The above n number of equations can be arranged in the matrix form as shown in below.
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(3.1)
=
(3.2)
Where, Ibus is the vector of injected bus current (i.e., external current sources). The current is
positive when flowing towards the bus and it is negative if flowing away from the bus.
Vbus is the vector of bus voltages measured from the reference node (i.e., node voltages).
Ybus is the bus admittance matrix.
The diagonal element of each node is the sum of admittance connected to it. It is known as the
selfadmittance or driving point admittance, i.e.,
= = , i = 1,2,3n
(3.3)
The offdiagonal element is equal to the negative of all the admittance connected between the
node i and node j. It is known as mutual admittance or transfer admittance, i.e.,
= = , i, j = 1,2,3n, ij
(3.4)
When the bus currents are known, equation (3.2) can be solved for the n bus voltages.
Vbus= Y 1bus Ibus
(3.5)
The admittance matrix obtained with one of the buses as reference is nonsingular. Otherwise the
nodal matrix is singular.
Inspection of the bus admittance matrix reveals that the matrix is symmetric along the leading
diagonal, and we need to store the upper triangular nodal admittance matrix only. In a typical power
system network, each bus is connected to only a few nearby buses. Consequently, many offdiagonal
elements are zero. Such a matrix is called sparse, and efficient numerical techniques can be applied to
compute its inverse. By means of an appropriately ordered triangular decomposition, the inverse of a
sparse matrix can be expressed as a product of sparse matrix factors, thereby giving an advantage in
computational speed, storage and reduction of roundoff errors.
Note: If the transformer is present in the network, get the values for the transformer line
impendence and also off nominal turn ratio.
Addition of line:
Let Yb is the value of admittance added between the node i and node j. This affects the four
elements (i.e., , , , )of the existing Ybus . Thus, the new values for these four elements are
determined using the following formulas,
= +
(3.6)
=
(3.7)
=
(3.8)
= +
(3.9)
Removal of line:
Let Yb is the value of admittance removed between the node i and node j. This affects the four
elements (i.e., , , , )of the existing Ybus . Thus, the new values for these four elements are
determined using the following formulas,
=
(3.10)
= +
(3.11)
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= +
(3.12)
(3.13)
, i, j =1, 2, 3,.,n
(3.15)
ALGORITHM
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:
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= = , i, j = 1,2,3n, ij
Where, = Diagonal element of the bus admittance matrix.
= Off  diagonal element of the bus admittance matrix.
= Admittance of the line connected between the buses i and j
Form the bus admittance matrix [Ybus]
=
(3.16)
Print the resultant Ybus matrix.
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EXERCISES:
1. The parameters of a 4 bus system are as follows. Draw the network and find the Ybus
matrix.
Bus Code
Impedance(pu) Line Charging Admittance(pu)
12
0.2+j0.8
j0.02
23
0.3+j0.9
j0.03
24
0.25+j1
j0.04
34
0.2+j0.8
j0.02
13
0.1+j0.4
j0.01
2. Construct the bus admittance matrix for the given network by using inspection method.
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i.
To write a program to form bus impedance matrix Zbus(by inspection method), given
the impedances of the elements of a power network and their connectivity (mutual
coupling between elements neglected)
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Zbus matrix is an important matrix used in different kinds of power system study such as
short circuit study, load flow study etc. We know, from equation (3.2),
= and = =
=
(4.A.1)
Where, Ibus is the vector of injected bus current (i.e., external current sources). The current is
positive when flowing towards the bus and it is negative if flowing away from the bus.
Vbus is the vector of bus voltages measured from the reference node (i.e., node voltages).
Ybus is the bus admittance matrix.
is the positive sequence bus impedance matrix.
Since Ybus is symmetrical around the principal diagonal, Zbus must also be symmetrical.
The impedance elements of Zbus on the principal diagonal are called drivingpoint impedances of
the buses, and the offdiagonal elements are called the transfer impedances of the buses.
ALGORITHM
Step 1:Get the total number of buses n and number of lines l.
Step 2: Get the values of line impedances say from bus i to j for all buses in the
network.
Step 3:Get the line charging admittance value given in the network.
Step 4: Find the diagonal and off diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix using
following formulas.
= = , i = 1,2,3n and = = , i, j = 1,2,3n, ij
Step 6: Find the bus impedance matrix [Zbus] using the relation,
=
Step 7:
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EXERCISES:
1. The parameters of a 4 bus system are as follows. Draw the network and find the Zbus
matrix.
Bus Code
12
23
24
34
13
Impedance(pu)
0.2+j0.8
0.3+j0.9
0.25+j1
0.2+j0.8
0.1+j0.4
2. Construct the bus impedance matrix for the given network by using inspection
method.
3. Determine bus impedance matrix for the network shown in fig., by the method of
inspection.
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i.
ii.
To write a program to form bus impedance matrix Zbus(by bus building algorithm),
given the impedances of the elements of a power network and their connectivity
(mutual coupling between elements neglected)
To modify the matrix Zbus to effect specified changes in the configuration of the
network.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Zbus building algorithm is a stepbystep procedure which proceeds branch by branch.
Main advantage of this that, any modification of the network elements does not require complete
rebuilding of Zbus matrix.
Case 1: Adding Zb from a new bus p to the reference node
The addition of the new bus p connected to the reference node through Zb without a
connection to any of the buses of the original network cannot alter the original bus voltages when
a current Ip is injected at the new bus.
The voltage Vp at the new bus is equal to IpZb, then ,
(4.B.1)
We note that the column vector of currents multiplied by the new Zbus will not alter the
voltages of the original network and will result in the correct voltage at the new bus p.
Case 2: Adding Zb from a new bus p to an existing bus k
The addition of a new bus p connected through Zb to an existing bus k with Ip injected
at bus p will cause the current entering the original network at bus k to become the sum of Ik
injected at bus k plus the current Ip coming through Zb, as shown in fig.(4.B.2).
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The current Ip flowing into the network at bus k will increase the original voltage 0 by
the voltage Ip Zkk, i.e., Vk = 0 + Ip Zkk
(4.B.2)
and Vp will be larger than the new Vk by the voltage IpZb . So,
Vp = 0 + Ip Zkk + IpZb
(4.B.3)
0
And substituting for , we obtain
Vp = I1 Zk1 + I2 Zk2 + I3 Zk3 +..+ IN ZkN + Ip (Zkk + Zb )
(4.B.4)
Since Zbus must be a square matrix around the principal diagonal, we must add a new
column which is the transpose of the new row. The new column accounts for the increase of all
bus voltages due to Ip. The matrix equation is,
Note that the first N elements of the new row are the elements of row k of Zorig
elements of the new column are the elements of column k of Zorig.
(4.B.5)
and the first N
(4.B.6)
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The change in voltage at each bus h caused by the injection Ib at bus j and  Ib at bus
kis given by, Vh = (Zhj Zhk) Ib
(4.B.7)
Which means that the vector V of bus voltage changes is found by subtracting column
k from column j of Zorig and by multiplying the result by Ib .
Let, V1= 10 +V1
(4.B.8)
V1 = I1 Z11 + I2 Z12 + I3 Z13 +.++ Ij Z1j + Ik Z1k ..+ IN Z1N + Ib (Z1j Z1k )
(4.B.9)
Similarly, at buses j and k,
Vj = I1 Zj1 + I2 Zj2 + I3 Zj3 +.++ Ij Zjj + Ik Zjk...+ IN ZjN + Ib (Zjj Zjk )
(4.B.10)
Vk = I1 Zk1 + I2 Zk2 +.++ Ij Zkj + Ik Zkk ..+ IN ZkN + Ib (Zkj Zkk )
(4.B.11)
0
0
and, 0 =  + (Zth,jk + Zb )Ib
(4.B.12)
From equations (4.B.10), (4.B.11) and (4.B.12), we get
(4.B.13)
In matrix form,
(4.B.14)
In which the coefficient of Ib in the last row is denoted by
Zbb = Zth,jk +Zb = Zjj + Zkk  2Zjk + Zb
(4.B.15)
The new column is column j minus column k of Zorig with Zbb in the (N+1) row. The
new row is the transpose of the new column. Eliminating the (N+1) row and (N+1) column of the
square matrix of equation (4.B.16) using the Kron reduction technique using the formula given by
equation (4.B.6). =
REMOVING A BRANCH
A single branch of impedance Zb between two nodes can be removed from the network by
adding the negative of Zb between the same terminating nodes. The reason is, of course, that the
parallel combination of the existing branch (Zb) and the added branch (Zb) amounts to an
effective open circuit.
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EXERCISES:
1. Construct the bus impedance matrix for the given network by using bus building
algorithm.
2. Using the method of building algorithm, find the bus impedance matrix for the network
shown in fig.
3. The bus impedance matrix for the network shown in fig is given by
0.300 0.200
0.275
= 0.200 0.400
0.250
0.275 0.250 0.41875
There is a line outage and the line from bus 1 to
2 is removed. Using the method of building
algorithm, determine the new bus impedance
matrix.
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transmission losses. It should be noted that there are many generation schedules available to
match the given system demand and one such schedule is chosen for load flow analysis.
The Ideal Load Flow problem is stated as follows:
Given: The network configuration (bus admittance matrix), and all the bus power injections (bus
injection refers to bus generation minus bus demand).
To determine: The complex voltages at all the buses.
The steady state of the system is given by the state vector X defined as
X = (1 2 N V1 V2 .VN)T = (T VT)T
Once the state of the system is known, all the other quantities of interest in the power
network can be computed.
The above statement of Load Flow problem will be modified later after taking into
account certain practical constraints.
Development of Load Flow Model
The Load Flow model in complex form is obtained by writing one complex power
matching equation at each bus.
Referring to Fig 5.1 (b) the complex power injection (generation minus demand) at the kth
bus is equal to the complex power flowing into the network at that bus which is given by
PIk + jQIk = Pk + jQk
(5.1)
In expanded form
(PGk  PDk) + j (QGk  QDk) = VkIk*
(5.2)
The network equation relating bus voltage vector V with bus current vector I is
YV = I
(5.3)
Taking the kth component of I from (5.3) and substituting for Ik* in (5.2) we get the
power flow model in complex form as
(5.4)
In (5.4) there are N complex variable equations from which the N unknown complex
variables, V1,VN can be determined.
Classification of Buses
From the Load Flow model in equation (5.4) and from the definition of complex bus
voltage, Vk as
Vk = Vk k
(5.5)
one can observe that there are four variables, PI, QI, and V associated with each bus. Any two
of these four may be treated as independent variables (that is specified) while the other two may
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be computed by solving power flow equations. The buses are classified based on the variables
specified. Three types of buses classified based on practical requirements are given below:
Slack bus: While specifying a generation schedule for a given system demand, one can
fix up the generation setting of all the generation buses except one bus because of the limitation
of not knowing the transmission loss in advance. This leaves us with the only alternative of
specifying two variables s and Vs pertaining to a generator bus (usually a large capacity
generation bus is chosen and this is called as slack bus) and solving for the remaining (N1)
complex bus voltages from the respective (N1) complex load flow equations. Incidentally the
specification of Vs helps us to fix the voltage level of the system and the specification of s as
zero, makes Vs as reference phasor. Thus for the slack bus, both and V are specified and PG
and QG are to be computed only after the iterative solution of bus voltages is completed.
PV buses: In order to maintain a good voltage profile over the system, it is customary to
maintain the bus voltage magnitude of each of the generator buses at a desired level. This can be
achieved in practice by proper Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) settings. These generator
buses and other Voltagecontrolled buses with controllable reactive power source such as SVC
buses are classified as PV buses since PG and V are specified at these buses. Only one state
variable, is to be computed at this bus. The reactive power generation QG at this bus which is a
dependent variable is also to be computed to check whether it lies within its operating limits.
PQ buses: All other buses where both PI and QI are specified are termed as PQ buses
and at these buses both and V are to be computed.
Hence the Practical Load Flow problem may be stated as:
Given: The network configuration (bus admittance matrix), all the complex bus power demands,
MW generation schedules and voltage magnitudes of all the PV buses, and voltage magnitude of
the slack bus,
To determine: The bus voltage phase angles of all buses except the slack bus and bus voltage
magnitudes of all the PQ buses.
Hence the state vector to be solved from the Load Flow model is
X = (12 NP V1V2 ..VNQ) T
Where,
NP = N1
NQ = NNV 1
and the NV number of PV buses and the slack bus are arranged at the end.
(5.6)
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the voltage solution of all the buses simultaneously in each iteration and hence have faster
convergence rate.
Taking the complex conjugate of equation (5.4) and transferring Vk to the left hand side,
we obtain
(5.7)
Where,
k = 1,2, ..(N1) (Slack bus excluded)
Define Ak = (PIk jQIk) / Ykk
(5.8)
Bkm = Ykm / Ykk
(5.9)
th
The voltage equation to be solved during the h iteration of G.S method is obtained from (5.7),
(5.8) and (5.9) as
(5.10)
Gauss Seidel Load Flow Algorithm
The algorithm for GSLF is given in the flow chart Fig 5.3
Convergence Check:
Referring to Flow chart Fig 5.3, during every iteration h, the maximum change in bus voltage
that has occurred is stored in VMAX as given below
(5.11)
(h+1)
(h+1)
(h+1)
(h+1)
(h)
where Vk
ek
+ j fk
= Vk
 Vk
The convergence is checked by comparing VMAX with the specified tolerance .
Additional Computation for PV Bus
The flow chart in Fig.5.3 does not have provision for voltage controlled buses.
However, if the link between X and Y in Fig.5.3 is removed and the PV bus module in Fig.5.4 is
introduced, then PV buses can be handled.
Referring to Fig.5.3 and Fig.5.4, for each PV bus during the hth iteration, before updating
bus voltage, the following computations are made:
Step 1: Adjusting the complex voltage Vk(h) ek (h) +j fk(h) to correct the voltage magnitude to the
scheduled value, Vksch as follows:
k(h) = arc tan(fk(h) / ek(h))
(5.12)
(h)
j (h)
V k(new) =  Vksch e k
(5.13)
(h)
Step 2: Compute the reactive power generation using the V k(new) as
QG k (h) = QDk + Q k (h) (V(h))
(5.14)
If the inequality QGkmin QGk(h) QGk max is satisfied, then Vk(h) is set as V(h) k(new). Go to
step 3.
If QGk(h) > QGkmax , then set QGk(h) = QGkmax, go to step 3.
(5.15)
(h)
min
(h)
min
If QGk < QGk , then set QGk = QGk , go to step 3.
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Flow Chart for loadflow solution using Gauss Seidal Method:(When PV buses are absent)
Start
Yes
Test for
Slack bus
No
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No
C
Is in
Yes
Determine the largest absolute value
of change in voltage using the
formula Vmax =  Vik+1  Vik  for
i=2,3,n
No
Is
Vmax
Set K = K+1
Yes
Calculate the line flows, total line
losses, slack bus power
Stop
Fig. 5.3 Flow chart for GSLF (PV buses not present)
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Start
im
B
PQ bus
PV bus , i>m
Compute Qik+1using the formula
Qik+1 = Img{(Vik)*[ j=1 i1 YijVjk+1 + j=i+1 n Yij Vjk]
Qi
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Qi
Is
<Qimin
k+1
Is
>Qimax
k+1
Set Qik+1<Qimin
Set Qik+1<Qimax
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B
k+1
Vi
Replace Vik by Vik+1
k+1
Yes
Is in
No
Test For
convergence
 Vik+1  Vik 
Yes
Calculate the line flows,
transmission loss, slack bus power and print the
results
Stop
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EXERCISES:
1. A simple three bus system is shown in fig. The bus power and voltage specifications are
given below:
Generator
Load
0.75
0.225
Slack Bus
1.04
0.5
PV Bus
2.0
1.25
PQ Bus
Bus
No.
Voltage
(pu)
(deg)
1.05
2
3
Bus
Specification
Calculate the slack bus power and line flow using Gauss Seidel iteration technique.
2. Figure shows the one line diagram of a simple threebus power system with generators at
buses 1 and 3. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 pu. Voltage
magnitude at bus 3 is fixed at 1.04 pu with a real power generation of 200 MW. A load
consisting of 400 MW and 250 Mvar is taken from bus 2. Line impedances are marked in
per unit on a 100 MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected. Obtain the
power flow solution by the GaussSeidel method including line flows and line losses.
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(i) To understand, the basic aspects of steady state analysis of power systems that is required
for effective planning and operation of power systems.
(ii) To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex
form and a simple method of solving load flow problems of small sized system using
NewtonRaphson iterative algorithm
OBJECTIVES
i. To investigate the convergence characteristics of load flow solutions using NRLF
algorithm for different sized systems and compare the same with that of GSLF algorithm.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
In general, a nonlinear algebraic equation set may not be able to solve with a direct way. It
may be only possible to be solved some numerical method. That is, it may be possible to arrange
the equations so that the unknowns can be equated to a finite number of functional operations on
known values. Solving the power flow problems require to use iterative techniques. The main
idea in such methods is that it is possible to write a program to compute the next estimates from
the current estimates. The one of the techniques used for the iterative solution of nonlinear
algebraic equations is NewtonRaphson method.
NEWTONRAPHSON POWER FLOW SOLUTION
Let the current injected at bus i is given by,
Ii =
=1
(6.1)
=1
< ( + )
(6.2)
(6.3)
=1
< ( + )
(6.4)
=1
( + )
=1
( + )
EE 2404 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION
LABORATORY
(6.5)
(6.6)
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Equations (6.5) and (6.6) constitute a set of non linear algebraic equations in terms of the
independent variables, voltage magnitude in per unit, and phase angle in radians. We have two
equations for each load bus, given by equation (6.5) and (6.6), and one equation for each voltage
controlled bus, given by equation (6.5).
Expanding equation (6.5) and (6.6) in Taylors series about the initial estimate and
neglecting all higher order terms results in the following set of linear equations.
(6.7)
In the above equation, bus 1 is assumed to be the slack bus. The Jacobian matrix gives the
linearized relationship between small changes in voltage angle i(k)and voltage magnitude
()
with the small changes in real and reactive power Pi(k) and Qi(k) . Elements of the
Jacobian matrix are the partial derivatives of (6.5) and (6.6), evaluated at i(k)and
()
. In
1
3
2
4
(6.8)
For voltagecontrolled buses, the voltage magnitudes are known. Therefore, if m buses of
the system arc voltagecontrolled, m equations involving Q and V and the corresponding
columns of the Jacobian matrix are eliminated. Accordingly, there are (n 1) real power
constraints and (n  1 m) reactive power constraints, and the Jacobian matrix is of order (2n  2 m) x (2n  2  m). J1 is of the order (n  1) x (n  I). J2 is of the order (n  1) x (n  1  m), J3 is of
the order (n  1  m) x (n  I), and J4 is of the order (n 1 m) x (n 1 m).
The diagonal and the offdiagonal elements of J1 are
( + )
= Vi ( + )
(6.9)
,
(6.10)
= 2 +
( + )
= Vi ( + ) ,
(6.11)
(6.12)
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( + )
(6.13)
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= Vi ( + )
(6.14)
( + )
(6.15)
= 2
= Vi ( + )
(6.16)
The terms Pi(k) and Qi(k) are the difference between the scheduled and calculated values, known
as the power residuals, given by
Pi(k) = Pisch  Pi(k)
(6.17)
(6.18)
(+1)
()
(6.19)
()
(6.20)
The procedure for power flow solution by the Newton  Raphson method is as follows:
1. For load buses, where Pisch and Qisch are specified, voltage magnitudes and phase angles
are set equal to the slack bus values, or 1.0 and 0.0, i.e.,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(0)
voltageregulated buses, where Vi and Pisch are specified, phase angles are set equal to the
slack bus angle, or 0, i.e., i(0) = 0.
For load buses, Pi(k) and Qi(k) are calculated from (6.5) and (6.6) and Pi(k) and Qi(k) are
calculated from (6.17) and (6.18).
For voltagecontrolled buses, Pi(k) and Pi(k)are calculated from (6.5) and (6.17),
respectively.
The elements of the Jacobian matrix (J1, J2 ,J3 , and J4 ) are calculated from (6.9)  (6.16).
The linear simultaneous equation (6.8) is solved directly by optimally ordered triangular
factorization and Gaussian elimination.
The new voltage magnitudes and phase angles are computed from (6.19) and (6.20).
The process is continued until the residuals Pi(k) and Qi(k) are less than the specified
accuracy, i.e.
()
()
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(6.21)
(6.22)
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EXERCISES:
1. A simple three bus system is shown in fig. The bus power and voltage specifications are
given below:
Bus
No.
1
2
3
Voltage
(pu)
1.05
1.04
(deg)
0

Generator
P
Q
0.5
0
0
Load
P
0.75
0
2.0
Q
0.225
0
1.25
Bus
Specification
Slack Bus
PV Bus
PQ Bus
Calculate the slack bus power and line flow using NewtonRaphson method.
2. Figure shows the oneline diagram of a simple threebus power system with generation at
bus 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 per unit: The scheduled loads
at buses 2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram. Line impedances are marked in per unit on
a l00MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected. Using the Newton
Raphson method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses 2 and 3
accurate to four decimal places.
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(i) To understand, the basic aspects of steady state analysis of power systems that is required
for effective planning and operation of power systems.
(ii) To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex
form and a simple method of solving load flow problems of small sized system using Fast
decoupled iterative algorithm
OBJECTIVES
i.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
changes P are less sensitive to changes in the voltage magnitude and are most sensitive to
changes in phase angle . Similarly, reactive power is less sensitive to changes in angle and is
mainly dependent on changes in voltage magnitude. Therefore it is reasonable to set elements J2
and J3 of the Jacobian matrix to zero. Thus, (6.8) becomes
1
0
0
4
(7.1)
Or
P = J1 =
Q = J4 =
(7.2)
(7.3)
Equations (7.2) and (7.3) show that the matrix equation is separated into two decoupled
equations requiring considerably less time to solve compared to the time required for the solution
or (6.8). Furthermore, considerable simplification can be made to eliminate the need for recomputing J1 and J4 during each iteration. This procedure results in the decoupled power flow
equations developed by Stott and Alsac.
The diagonal and off diagonal elements of J1 are
From equation (6.9),
=1
( + )
( + )
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=Qi
=1
(7.4)
( + ), the equation
(7.5)
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=Qi 2 B
(7.6)
= B
(7.7)
= Vi ( + )
= Vi B
(7.8)
= Vi B
(7.9)
=1
( + )
(7.10)
= +
(7.11)
= B
(7.12)
= B
(7.13)
With these assumptions, equations (7.2) and (7.3) take the following form
(7.14)
(7.15)
Here, B and B are the imaginary part of the bus admittance matrix Ybus. Since the
elements of this matrix are constant, they need to be triangularized and inverted only once at the
beginning of the iteration. B' is of order of (n  1). For voltagecontrolled buses where and Pi
are specified and Qi is not specified, the corresponding row and column of Ybus are eliminated.
Thus, B" is of order of (n  1  m), where m is the number of voltageregulated buses.
Therefore, in the fast decoupled power flow algorithm, the successive voltage magnitude and
phase angle changes are
1
1
"
(7.16)
(7.17)
The fast decoupled power flow solution requires more iterations than the NewtonRaphson method, but requires considerably less time per iteration, and a power flow solution is
obtained very rapidly. This technique is very useful in contingency analysis where numerous
outages are to be simulated or a power flow solution required for online control.
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EXERCISES:
1. A simple three bus system is shown in fig. The bus power and voltage specifications are
given below:
Bus
No.
1
2
3
Voltage
(pu)
1.05
1.04
(deg)
0

Generator
P
Q
0.5
0
0
Load
P
0.75
0
2.0
Q
0.225
0
1.25
Bus
Specification
Slack Bus
PV Bus
PQ Bus
Calculate the slack bus power and line flow using Fast decoupled Load Flow method.
2. Figure shows the oneline diagram of a simple threebus power system with generation at
bus 1. The magnitude of voltage at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05 per unit: The scheduled loads
at buses 2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram. Line impedances are marked in per unit on
a l00MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected. Using the Fast
decoupled Load Flow method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses
2 and 3 accurate to four decimal places.
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FAULT ANALYSIS
AIM
To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition
and to compute the fault level, postfault voltages and currents for different types of faults, both
symmetric and unsymmetric.
OBJECTIVES
i. To carryout fault analysis for symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults in small systems
using the Thevenins equivalent circuit in the sequence and phase domains at the faulted
bus.
ii. To obtain fault analysis report with fault level and current at the faulted point and postfault voltages and currents in the network for the following faults
(a) Threephaseto ground
(b) Linetoground
(c) LinetoLine
(d) Doublelinetoground
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Faults can be defined as the flow of a massive current through an improper path which
could cause enormous equipment damage which will lead to interruption of power, personal
injury, or death. In addition, the voltage level will alternate which can affect the equipment
insulation in case of an increase or could cause a failure of equipment startup if the voltage is
below a minimum level. As a result, the electrical potential difference of the system neutral will
increase. Hence, People and equipment will be exposed to the danger of electricity which is not
accepted.
In order to prevent such an event, power system fault analysis was introduced. The
process of evaluating the system voltages and currents under various types of short circuits is
called fault analysis which can determine the necessary safety measures & the required protection
system. It is essential to guarantee the safety of public. The analysis of faults leads to appropriate
protection settings which can be computed in order to select suitable fuse, circuit breaker size and
type of relay.
The severity of the fault depends on the shortcircuit location, the path taken by fault
current, the system impedance and its voltage level. In order to maintain the continuation of
power supply to all customers which is the core purpose of the power system existence, all faulted
parts must be isolated from the system temporary by the protection schemes. When a fault exists
within the relay protection zone at any transmission line, a signal will trip or open the circuit
breaker isolating the faulted line. To complete this task successfully, fault analysis has to be
conducted in every location assuming several fault conditions. The goal is to determine the
optimum protection scheme by determining the fault currents & voltages.
The main objectives of fault analysis may be stated as follows:
(i) To determine maximum and minimum three phase short circuit currents.
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(ii) To determine the unsymmetrical fault current for single linetoground faults, linetoline
faults, and double linetoground faults, and sometimes for opencircuit faults.
(iii) Investigation of the operation of protective relays.
(iv) Determination of rated rupturing capacity of circuit breakers.
(v) To determine fault current distribution and busbar voltage levels during fault conditions.
Type of Faults
There are two types of faults which can occur on any transmission lines; balanced faults
and unbalanced faults also known as symmetrical and asymmetrical faults respectively. Most of
the faults that occur on power systems are not the balanced threephase faults, but the unbalances
faults. In addition, faults can be categorized as the shunt faults, series faults and simultaneous
faults. In the analysis of power system under fault conditions, it is necessary to make a distinction
between the types of fault to ensure the best results possible in the analysis.
Series Faults
Series faults represent open conductor and take place when unbalanced series impedance
conditions of the lines are present. Two examples of series fault are when the system holds one or
two broken lines, or impedance inserted in one or two lines. In the real world a series faults takes
place, for example, when circuit breakers controls the lines and do not open all three phases, in
this case, one or two phases of the line may be open while the other/s is closed. Series faults are
characterized by increase of voltage and frequency and fall in current in the faulted phases.
Shunt Faults
The shunt faults are the most common type of fault taking place in the field. They involve
power conductors or conductortoground or short circuits between conductors. One of the most
important characteristics of shunt faults is the increment the current suffers and fall in voltage and
frequency. Shunt faults cab be classified into four categories.
1. Linetoground fault: This type of fault exists when one phase of any transmission
lines establishes a connection with the ground either by ice, wind, falling tree or any
other incident. 70% of all transmission lines faults are classified under this category.
2. Linetoline fault: As a result of high winds, one phase could touch anther phase &
linetoline fault takes place. 15% of all transmission lines faults are considered linetoline faults.
3. Double linetoground: Falling tree where two phases become in contact with the
ground could lead to this type of fault. In addition, two phases will be involved instead
of one at the linetoground faults scenarios. 10% of all transmission lines faults are
under this type of faults.
4. Three phase fault: In this case, falling tower, failure of equipment or even a line
breaking and touching the remaining phases can cause three phase faults. In reality,
this type of fault not often exists which can be seen from its share of 5% of all
transmission lines faults.
The first three of these faults are known as asymmetrical faults.
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Positive Sequence
Components
Va1
Negative Sequence
Components
Va2
Vc2
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illustrated in Fig 8.3. Under an asymmetrical fault condition, this sequence symbolizes the
residual electricity in the system in terms of voltages and currents where a ground or a fourth wire
exists. It happens when ground currents return to the power system through any grounding point
in the electrical system. In this type of faults, the positive and the negative components are also
present. This sequence is known by the symbol 0.
Zero Sequence
Components
Vb0
Va0
The following are three sets of components to represent threephase system voltages as
positive, negative and zero components:
Va1 Vb1 Vc1
Positive:
Negative:
Zero:
The addition of all symmetrical components will present the original system phase
components Va, Vb and Vc as seen below:
Va Va 0 Va1 Va 2
Vb Vb 0 Vb1 Vb 2
Vc Vc 0 Vc1 Vc 2
(8.1)
The a operator is defined below:
a 10
(8.2)
a 2 1 120
a3 10
From the above definition and using the a operator, it can be translated into a set of
equations to represents each sequence:
a) Zero sequence components:
Va 0 Vb 0 Vc 0
(8.3)
b) Positive sequence components:
Vb1 a 2Va1
(8.4)
Vc1 aVa1
c) Negative sequence components:
Vb 2 aVa 2
(8.5)
Vc 2 a 2Va 2
Now, the original system phasors Va, Vb and Vc can be expressed in terms of phase a
components only. Equation (8.1) can be written as follows:
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Va Va 0 Va1 Va 2
Vb Va 0 a 2Va1 aVa 2
(8.6)
Vc Va 0 aVa1 a 2Va 2
Writing the above equations can be accomplished in a matrix form:
Va 1 1
V 1 a 2
b
Vc 1 a
1 Va 0
a Va1
a 2 Va 2
(8.7)
Defining A as:
1 1
A 1 a 2
1 a
1
a
a 2
Equation (8.7) can be written as:
(8.8)
Va 0
Va
V A V
(8.9)
a1
b
Va 2
Vc
This equation can be reversed in order to obtain the positive, negative and zero sequences
from the system phasors:
Va 0
Va
1
Va1 A Vb
Va 2
Vc
(8.10)
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ThreePhase Fault
By definition a threephase fault is a symmetrical fault. Even though it is the least frequent
fault, it is the most dangerous. Some of the characteristics of a threephase fault are a very large
fault current and usually a voltage level equals to zero at the site where the fault takes place.
A general representation of a balanced threephase fault is shown in Figure 8.4 where F is
the fault point with impedances Zf and Zg . Figure 8.5 shows the sequences networks
interconnection diagram.
From Figure 8.5, it can be noticed that the only one that has an internal voltage source is the
positivesequence network. Therefore, the corresponding currents for each of the sequences can
be expressed as
Ia0 0
Ia2 0
I a1
(8.12)
1.00
Z1 Z f
(8.13)
1 0
a I a1
a 2 0
(8.14)
I bf a 2 I a1
I cf aI a1
1.0240
,
Z1 Z f
(8.15)
1.0120
Z1 Z f
Since the sequence networks are shortcircuited over their own fault impedance
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Va 0 0
Va1 Z f I a1
(8.16)
Va 2 0
1 0
a Va1
a 2 0
(8.17)
(8.18)
Therefore,
Vaf Va1 Z f I a1
(8.19)
I bf
1.0240
,
Z1
I cf
1.0120
Z1
(8.20)
(8.21)
Vcf 0
Va1 0
(8.22)
Va 2 0
Single LinetoGround Fault
The single linetoground fault is usually referred as short circuit fault and occurs when
one conductor falls to ground or makes contact with the neutral wire. The general representation
of a single linetoground fault is shown in Figure 8.6 where F is the fault point with impedances
Zf. Figure 8.7 shows the sequences network diagram. Phase a is usually assumed to be the faulted
phase, this is for simplicity in the fault analysis calculations.
Since the zero, positive, and negativesequence currents are equals as it can be observed
in Figure 8.7. Therefore,
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I a 0 I a1 I a 2
1.00
Z 0 Z1 Z 2 3Z f
(8.23)
I af 1 1
2
I bf 1 a
I cf 1 a
1 Ia0
a I a1
a 2 I a 2
(8.24)
Since
(8.26)
(8.27)
The voltage at faulted phase a can be obtained by substituting Equation (8.24) into
Equation (8.27). Therefore, Vaf 3Z f I a1
(8.28)
but, Vaf Va 0 Va1 Va 2
(8.29)
Therefore,
Va 0 Va1 Va 2 3Z f I a1
(8.30)
With the results obtained for sequence currents, the sequence voltages can be obtained
from
Va 0 0 1 1
V 1.00 1 a 2
b1
Vc 2 0 1 a
1 Ia0
a I a1
a 2 I a 2
(8.31)
Va1 1.0 Z1 I a1
(8.32)
Va 2 Z 2 I a 2
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If the single linetoground fault occurs on phase b or c, the voltages can be found by the
relation that exists to the known phase voltage components,
Vaf 1 1
2
Vbf 1 a
Vcf 1 a
1 Va 0
a Va1
a 2 Va 2
(8.33)
(8.34)
LinetoLine Fault
A linetoline fault may take place either on an overhead and/or underground transmission
system and occurs when two conductors are shortcircuited. One of the characteristic of this type
of fault is that its fault impedance magnitude could vary over a wide range making very hard to
predict its upper and lower limits. It is when the fault impedance is zero that the highest
asymmetry at the linetoline fault occurs.
The general representation of a linetoline fault is shown in Figure 8.8 where F is the
fault point with impedances Zf. Figure 8.9 shows the sequences network diagram. Phase b and c
are usually assumed to be the faulted phases; this is for simplicity in the fault analysis
calculations.
(8.35)
Vbc Z f I bf
(8.36)
1.00
Z1 Z 2 Z f
(8.37)
1.00
Z1 Z2
(8.38)
If Zf = 0,
I a1 I a 2
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The fault currents for phase b and c can be obtained by substituting Equations (8.36) and
(8.37) into Equation (8.24),
Ibf Icf 3 I a1 90
(8.39)
The sequence voltages can be found similarly by substituting Equations (8.36) and (8.37)
into Equation (8.31)
Va 0 0
Va1 1.0  Z1 I a1
(8.40)
Va 2 Z 2 I a 2 Z 2 I a1
Also substituting Equation (8.40) into Equation (8.33)
Vaf Va1 Va 2 1.0 Ia1( Z 2  Z 1)
Vbf a 2Va1 aVa 2 a 2 Ia1(aZ 2  a 2 Z 1)
Vcf aVa1 a 2Va 2 a Ia1(a 2 Z 2  aZ 1)
(8.41)
(8.42)
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(8.43)
1.00
( Z 2 Zf )( Z 0 Zf 3Zg )
( Z 1 Zf )
( Z 2 Zf ) ( Z 0 Zf 3Zg )
Ia 2 [
( Z 0 Zf 3Zg )
]Ia1
( Z 2 Zf ) ( Z 0 Zf 3Zg )
( Z 2 Zf )
]Ia1
( Z 2 Zf ) ( Z 0 Zf 3Zg )
An alternative method is,
Iaf 0 Ia 0 Ia1 Ia 2
Ia 0 ( Ia1 Ia 2)
(8.44)
Ia 0 [
(8.45)
If Zf and Zg are both equal to zero, then the positive, negative, and zerosequences can be
obtained from
1.00
Ia1
( Z 2)( Z 0)
( Z 1)
( Z 2 Z 0)
Ia 2 [
( Z 0)
]Ia1
( Z 2 Z 0)
Ia 0 [
( Z 2)
]Ia1
( Z 2 Z 0)
(8.46)
(8.47)
Now, substituting Equations (8.46) into Equation (8.24) to obtain phase b and c fault
currents
I bf I a 0 a 2 I a1 aI a 2
I cf I a 0 aI a1 a 2 I a 2
(8.48)
(8.49)
(8.50)
(8.51)
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(8.52)
If Zf = 0 and Zg = 0 then the sequence voltages become, and the positivesequence current
is found by using Equation 8.46
(8.53)
Va0 Va1 Va 2 1.0 Z1Ia1
Now the negative and zerosequence currents can be obtained from
Va 2
Ia 2
Z2
(8.54)
Va 0
Ia 0
Z0
The resultant phase voltages from the relationship given in Equation (8.53) can be
expressed as
Vaf Va 0 Va1 Va 2 3Va1
(8.56)
Vbf Vcf 0
And the linetoline voltages are
Vabf Vaf Vbf Vaf
Vbcf Vbf Vcf 0
Vcaf Vcf Vaf Vaf
(8.57)
(8.58)
Where the line to line voltage is expressed in kilovolts and Ik(F) is expressed in
amperes. The symmetrical threephase fault current in per unit is given by
(). =
(0)
(8.59)
Where (0) is the per unit prefault bus voltage, and Xkk is the per unit reactance to the
point of fault. System resistance is neglected and only the inductive reactance of the system is
allowed for. This gives minimum system impedance and maximum fault current and a pessimistic
answer. The base current is given by
=
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10 3
3
(8.60)
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Where, SB is the base MVA and VB is the line to line base voltage in kilovolts. Thus the
fault current in amperes is,
= ().
(0)
10 3
3
SCC =
(8.61)
(8.62)
(0)
(8.63)
The prefault bus voltage is usually assumed to be 1.0 p.u., and we therefore obtain from
equation (8.63) the following approximate formula for the shortcircuit capacity or the shortcircuit MVA.
SCC
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(8.64)
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EXERCISES:
1. The oneline diagram of a simple power system is shown in fig. The neutral of each generator
is grounded through a currentlimiting reactor of 0.25/3 per unit on a 100 MVA base. The
system data expressed in per unit on a common 100 MVA base is tabulated below. The
generators are running on noload at their rated voltage and rated frequency with their emfs in
phase. Determine the fault current and fault MVA when
(a) A balanced threephase fault at bus 3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.10 p.u.
(b) A single linetoground fault occurs at bus 3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.10 p.u.
(c) A linetoline fault occurs at bus 3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.10 p.u.
(d) A double linetoground fault occurs at bus 3 through a fault impedance Zf = j0.10 p.u.
VOLTAGE
ITEM
BASE MVA
X1
X2
X0
RATING
100
20 kV
0.15
0.15
0.05
G1
100
20 kV
0.15
0.15
0.05
G2
100
20/200 kV
0.10
0.10
0.10
T1
100
20/200 kV
0.10
0.10
0.10
T2
100
220 kV
0.125
0.125
0.30
L12
100
220 kV
0.15
0.15
0.35
L13
100
220 kV
0.25
0.25
0.7125
L23
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Active power control is one of the important control actions to be performed during
normal operation of the system to match the system generation with the continuously changing
system load in order to maintain the constancy of system frequency to a fine tolerance level. This
is one of the foremost requirements in providing quality power supply. A change in system load
causes a change in the speed of all rotating masses (Turbine generator rotor systems) of the
system leading to change in system frequency. The speed change from synchronous speed
initiates the governor control (Primary control) action resulting in the entire participating
generator turbine units taking up the change in load, stabilizing the system frequency.
Restoration of frequency to nominal value requires secondary control action which adjusts the
loadreference set points of selected (regulating) generator turbine units. The primary objectives
of automatic generation control (AGC) are to regulate system frequency to the set nominal value
and also to regulate the net interchange of each area to the scheduled value by adjusting the
outputs of the regulating units. This function is referred to as load frequency control (LFC). The
details of modelling and analysis of LFC are briefly presented in the following sections.
Model of Speed governor:
The output of a generating unit at a given system frequency can be varied only by changing its
load reference point which is integrated with the speed governing mechanism.
PV(s) = (KG/(1+sTG) (Pc(s)  f(s)/R)
(9.A.1)
The block diagram of a governor with the governor droop R, the time constant of hydraulic
amplifier TG and the load reference set point is shown in Fig. 9.A.1
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The adjustment of load reference set point is accomplished by operating the speed
changer motor. This in effect moves the speed droop characteristics up and down.
Turbine model
For the purpose of loadfrequency dynamics the turbine may be modelled by an approximate
model with a single time constant TT as given by equation
PG(s) = GT (s) Pv (s) = (KT / (1+sTT)) Pv(s)
(9.A.2)
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Fig 9.A.5 Block diagram of single area load frequency control under uncontrolled case
The steadystate frequency deviation fs can be determined by applying final value theorem in sdomain
f s lim sf s
(9.A.3)
s 0
G p (s)
1 1
PD (s)
(9.A.4)
(9.A.5)
(9.A.6)
Where,
= Area Frequency Response coefficient (AFRC)
= D+(1/R) Hz / p.u. MW
PD = Change in load demand in p.u. MW
The negative slope of the curve, R, is referred to as Percent speed regulation or droop and is expressed
as
Percent R = Percent speed or frequency change
Percent power output change
x 100
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(9.A.7)
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where
fNL = steadystate frequency at no load
fFL = steady state frequency at full load
f0 = nominal or rated frequency
In the above diagram, all powers are in per unit to area rated capacity and the frequency deviation
is in hertz.
Kp = 1/D Hz / p.u.MW
Tp = (2H/f0 D) sec
(9.A.8)
(9.A.9)
The load damping constant D is normally expressed in percent and typical values of D are 1 to 2
percent. A value of D = 1.5 means that 1.0 percent change in frequency would cause a 1.5 percent
change in load.
The dashed portion of the diagram marked as the secondary loop represents the integral controller whose
gain is KI. This controller actuates the load reference point until the frequency deviation becomes zero.
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EXERCISES:
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For successful operation of an interconnected power system the following operating principles
are to be strictly followed by the participating areas:
i. Under normal operating conditions each control area should strive to meet its own load from
its own spinning generators plus the contracted (scheduled) interchange (import / export)
between the neighboring areas.
ii. During emergency conditions such as sudden loss of generating unit, area under emergency
can draw energy as emergency support from the spinning reserves of all the neighboring areas
immediately after it is subjected to the disturbances but should bring into the grid the required
generation capacity from its hot and cold reserves to match the lost capacity and to
enforce operating principle (i)
Satisfaction of principle (i) during normal operation requires a loadfrequency controller for
each area which not only drives the area frequency deviation to zero but also the net
interchange of that area to zero under steady state condition. Net interchange of area i, NIi is
defined as the algebraic sum of the tie line flows between area i and other connected areas (Fig
9.B.1) with tieline flow out of area i taken as positive and is given by
NI i Pij
(9.B.1)
ji
H1 , D1 , R1 ,
P12
P21
H2 , D2 , R2 ,
TG1, TT1
TG2, TT2
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Pij = change in tieline flow Pij from area i to area j measured at area i.
Since the kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the speed or frequency and noting that the
predisturbance values of Ei and fi are E0i and f0i, we can write
Ei = E0i (fi / f0)2 = E0i ((f0 + fi) / f0)2 = Ei (1+fi / f0)2
Ei E0i (1+2fi / f0)
dEi / dt = (2E0i / f0) d/dt (fi)
(9.B.3)
Substituting equation (9.B.3) in equation (9.B.2), dividing equation (9.B.2) by rated area capacity
Pri and dropping the argument t, we get
PTi PDi = (2Hi / f0) d/dt (fi) + Di fi + Pij
p.u. MW
(9.B.4)
The Ps are now in per unit and D in per unit MW per hertz. Hi is called the per unit inertia
constant of area i and is defined as
Hi E0i / Pri MWs / MW (or sec)
(9.B.5)
Laplace transformation of equation (9.B.4) yields
PTi (s) PDi (s) = (2 Hi / f0)s fi(s) + Di fi (s) + Pij (s) p.u. MW ; i=1,2 (9.B.6)
Tie line flow model
In the twoarea system with the resistance of tie line neglected
P21 =  P12 MW
(9.B.7)
Hence it is enough we develop expression for P12 alone.
The active power flow in line ij (with negligible resistance) is given by
P12 = (V1 V2 / x12) sin (1 2) = Pmax12 sin 12
(9.B.8)
where V1, V2 = Voltage magnitude of buses 1 and 2
x12 = reactance of line 12
12 = line phase angle = 1 2
Pmax12 = tie line capacity
Assuming that the predisturbance line phase angle is 012, the tie line power derivation due to the
disturbance is given by
P12 = (P12 / 12)
12 = P0s12 12
MW
(9.B.9)
0
12
where
P0s12 = Pmax12 cos 012
= synchronizing coefficient of the line
The frequency deviation f is related to the reference angle by
f = (1/2) d/dt(0 + ) = (1/2) d/dt() Hz
or
t
= 2 f dt rad
(9.B.10)
Expressing tie line power deviation in terms of f , equation (9.B.9) becomes
t
t
0
P12 = 2 P s12 ( f1 dt  f2 dt )
MW
On Laplace transformation
P12 (s) = (2 Ps12 / s) (f1 (s) f2(s))
(9.B.11)
Equation (9.B.11) is in MW or p.u. MW depending on whether the parameter P0s12 is in MW or
p.u. MW (to a base of area 1 capacity)
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PD1(s)
1/R1
B1
+
KI1/s
PC1
+
ACE1
GG1
GT1
PT1(s)
+
Kp1
f 1(s)
1+sTp1
Ptie,12(s)
+
2P0s1
1/s
1
1
Ptie,12(s)
KI2 /s
ACE2
PC2
+
GG2
GT2
PT2(s)
+
Kp2
f 2(s)
1+sTp2
1/R2
B2
PD2(s)
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 PD1
=
a12
Ptie,12s
(9.B.18)
 PD2
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EXERCISES:
1. It is proposed to simulate the load frequency dynamics of a twoarea power system. Both
the areas are identical and has the system parameters are given below.
Rated capacity of the area
= 2000 MW
Normal operating load
= 1000 MW
Nominal frequency
= 50 Hz
Inertia constant of the area
= 5.0 s
Speed regulation (governor droop)
of all regulating generators
= 4 percent
Governor time constant
= 0.08 s
Turbine time constant
= 0.3 s
Assume that the tieline has a capacity of Pmax 12 = 200 MW and is operating at a power
angle of ( 01  20 ) = 300. Assume that both the areas do not have load frequency
controller. Area 2 is subjected to a load increase of 20 MW. Simulate the loadfrequency
dynamics of this system using available software and check the following:
(i) SteadyState frequency deviation fs in Hz and tieline flow deviation, P12,S in
p.u. MW. Compare them with handcalculated values using AFRCs.
(ii) Plot the time responses, f1(t), f2 (t), PT1(t) , PT2(t) and P12(t). Comment
on the peak overshoot of f1, and f2.
2. Consider a twoarea power system with unequal areas. A 2GW control area (1) is
interconnected with a 10 GW area (2). The 2GW area has the system parameters given in
exercise Q.1. The 10 GW area has the following data:
Nominal operating load = 5000 MW ;
H = 5 sec ; D = 1.0 % ; R = 4% ; TG = 0.08 sec ; TT = 0.3 sec.
Design an integral load frequency controller for the system by considering a disturbance
of 20 MW load increase in area 1.
Determine the best controller parameters KI1, KI2, B1 and B2 after checking the time
responses of f1 (t), f2 (t) and P12 (t) for different values of the controller parameters.
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The method of solution involves computing using equation (10.A.12) and then
computing the economic schedules PGi ; i=1,2, .N using equation (10.A.11). In order to satisfy
the operating limits (10.A.4) the following iterative algorithm is to be used.
ALGORITHM
Step 1: Compute using the following equation
N
N
= PD + (bi / 2ai) / (1/2ai)
i=1
i=1
Step 2: Compute the generation of individual units using the following equation
PGi = (bi) / 2ai ;
i =1,2, .N
Step 3: If the computed PGi satisfy the operating limits
PGi,min PGi PGi,max
then the solution is reached and goto step 7. Otherwise proceed to step 4.
Step 4: Fix the schedule of the NV number of violating units whose generation PGi violates the
operating limits at the respective limit, either PGi,max or PGi,min
Step 5: Distribute the remaining system load PD minus the sum of the fixed generation schedules
to the remaining units numbering NR (= N  NV) by computing using equation
(10.A.12) and the PGi ; i NR using equation (10.A.11) where NR is the set of
remaining units.
Step 6: Check whether optimality condition (10.A.9) is satisfied.
If yes, goto Step 7. Otherwise, release the generation schedule fixed at PGi,max or PGi,min
of those generators not satisfying optimality condition (10.A.9), include these units in the
remaining units, modify the sets NV, NR and the remaining load. Go to step 5
Step 7: Print the results and stop the program.
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EXERCISES:
1. The system load in a power system varies from 250 MW to 1250 MW. Two thermal units are
operating at all times and meeting the system load. Incremental fuel cost in hundreds of
rupees per Megawatt hour for the units are
dF1 / dP1 = 0.0056 P1 + 5.6 ;
P1 in MW
dF2/ dP2 = 0.0067 P2 + 4.5 ;
P2 in MW
The operating limits of both the units are given by
100 P1, P2 625 MW
Assume that the transmission loss is negligible.
(a) Determine using the economic (minimum fuel cost) generation schedule of each unit, the
incremental fuel cost of each unit and the incremental cost of received power for different
load levels from 250 to 1250 MW in steps of 100 MW.
(b) Determine the saving in fuel cost in hundreds of rupees per hour for the economic
distribution of a total load of 550 MW between the two units compared with equal
distribution of that load between the two units.
2. In a power system with negligible transmission loss, the system load varies from a peak of
1200 MW to a valley of 500 MW. There are three thermal generating units which can be
committed to take the system load. The fuel cost data and generation operation limit data are
given below.
F1 = 392.7 + 5.544 P1 + 0.001093 P12 ;
P1 in MW
2
F2 = 217.0 + 5.495 P2 + 0.001358 P2 ;
P2 in MW
2
F3 = 65.5 + 6.695 P3 + 0.004049 P3 ;
P3 in MW
Generation limits:
150 P1 600 MW
100 P2 400 MW
50 P3 200 MW
There are no other constraints on system operation. Obtain an optimum (minimum fuel cost)
unit commitment table for each load level taken in steps of 100 MW from 1200 to 500. Adopt
brute force enumeration technique.
3. The system load in a power system varies from 250MW to 1250MW. Two thermal units are
operating at all times and meeting the system load. Incremental fuel cost in Rs/MWhr for the
units are
dF1/d P1 = 0.056P1 + 5.6 ; P1 in MW
dF2/d P2 = 0.067P2 + 4.5 ; P2 in MW
The operating limits of both the units are given by
100 (P1, P2) 625MW
Assume that the transmission loss is negligible. Determine the economic generation schedule
of each unit, the incremental fuel cost of each unit and the incremental cost of received
power for different load levels from 250 to 1250MW in steps of 100MW.
4. In Q3, determine the saving in fuel cost in hundreds of rupees per hour for the economic
distribution of a total load of 550MW between the two units compared with equal distribution
of that load between the two units.
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dF PGi
L
PL
0 i
; i 1,2, N
PGi
dPGi
PGi
N
L
0 PGi PD PL PG
i 1
(10.B.6)
(10.B.7)
dFi dPGi
;
1 PL PGi
i 1, 2...N
(10.B.8)
or
Li dFi dPGi ;
i 1,2, N
(10.B.9)
(10.B.10)
The term PL PGi is called the incremental transmission loss with reference to unit i
which can be interpreted as the change in transmission loss resulting due to the change in unit
generation in ith unit. The transmission loss can be represented by nonlinear function (vectormatrix formulation) of unit generations as
PL = PGt B PG + PGt B0 + B00
(10.B.11)
Rewriting equation (10.B.21) in scalar form we get
N
PL PG m B mnPG n B moPG m B 00
m 1 n 1
m 1
(10.B.12)
PL 2 PL1 PL0
The B terms are called Loss coefficients or BCoefficients and the NxN matrix B is always
symmetrical
Equation (10.B.11) may be rewritten to conform to industry practice, say for a 2 unit system, as
PL PG1
B
11
1 B21
B10 2
PG2
B12
B22
B20
B10 PG1
2
B20 PG 2
2
B00 1
(10.B.13)
N N
PG m B m n PG n PG i B in PG n PG m B m i PG i PG i B ii PG i
n 1
m1 n 1
m 1
i
i i
(10.B.14)
Noting that Bmn = Bnm and on simplification, equation (10.B.14) becomes
PL 2
PG i PG i
PL2
PG i 2 B ij PG j
(10.B.15)
j1
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PL
PG i 2 B ij PG j B i0
(10.B.16)
j1
Assuming a quadratic production cost function for generator the incremental cost is
dFi PGi dPGi 2a i PGi bi
(10.B.17)
Substituting equation (10.B.16) and (10.B.17) in equation (10.B.6) we get
N
(10.B.18)
N
1 Bi0 bi ; i=1,2,..N
ai
Bii PG i Bij PG j
2
2
j 1
(10.B.19)
j 1
B12
B1N
PG1
B21
a2 + B22
B2N
PG2
BN1
BN2
aN + BNN
(1B10) b1
2
2
=
PGN
(1B20) b2
2
2
(1BN0) bN
2
2
(10.B.20)
ALGORITHM
Step1: Specify the system load level PD
Step2: For the first iteration, choose initial value for the system . Or Find the value of using
the formula
N
N
= PD + (bi / 2ai) / (1/2ai)
(10.B.22)
i=1
i=1
Step 3: Substitute the value of in equation (10.B.20) and solve the resultant system of linear
simultaneous equations for the values of PGi ;i=1,2,N by some efficient means.
Step 4: Using the PGi ;i=1,2,N compute the transmission loss and then mismatch P from
equation (10.B.21)
Step 5: With the mismatch tolerance given as , check whether
 P <
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k k 1
N
PG
i 1
k
i
(10.B.23)
P
k
PG i
k 1
(10.B.24)
i 1
Step 7: Goto Step 3 and continue the calculations of steps 3,4,5 and 6 until final convergence is
achieved.
Inclusion of operating limits of generator units
The generator unit output is limited by
PG i, m in PG i PG i, m ax
(10.B.25)
In order to satisfy this inequality in the above algorithm, after getting the PGi ;
i=1,2,N from Step  3, check for operating limit violations and reset the schedule of the
generating unit hitting the upper limit / lower limit as P Gi,max / PGi,min and use these revised
schedules in step 4 to compute loss and mismatch P.
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EXERCISES:
1. The fuel cost function in Rs/hr of two thermal plants are
F1 = 300 + 6.4P1 +0.004P12
F2 = 250 + 6.1P2 +0.003P22
Where P1 and P2 are in MW. Plant outputs are subjects to the following limits.
25 MW P1 250 MW
25 MW P2 350 MW
The perunit system real power loss with generation expressed in per unit on a 100 MVA base
is given by
PL(p.u) = 0.125 P12(p.u) + 0.00625 P22(p.u)
The total load is 425 MW. Determine the optimal dispatch of generation. Start with an initial
estimate of = 6.5 Rs/MWhr.
2. The fuel cost in Rs/hr of three thermal plants of a power system are
F1 = 200 + 7.0P1 + 0.008P12 Rs/hr ;
10 MW 85 MW
2
F2 = 180 + 6.3P2 + 0.009P2 Rs/hr ;
10 MW 80MW
2
F3 = 140 + 6.8P3 + 0.007P3 Rs/hr ;
10 MW 70 MW
Where PI, P2, and P3 are in MW. Plant outputs are subject to the following limits
The B matrices of the loss formula for this system are given in per unit on a 100 MVA base as
follows:
Determine the optimal dispatch of generation when the total system load is 150 MW.
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removed, the protection system may act to isolate that portion of the system where the deviations
are excessive. The normal deviations from nominal values of voltages and frequency will activate
the controllers like the automatic voltage regulators and speed governors.
Classification of power system stability
o Rotor angle stability [ability to maintain synchronism; depends on input(turbine) output(generator) torque balance]
o Smallsignal stability [maintenance of stability under small disturbances]
i. Oscillatory (in)stability [instability due to insufficient damping torque/ unstable
control action]
o Local plant mode [unit(s) in a plant swinging with respect to the rest of the
system; typical frequency of oscillation: 1 2 Hz]
o Interarea mode [swinging of many machines in one area against those in
other(s);typical frequency of oscillation: 0.4 0.7 Hz ]
o Control mode [instability due to bad tuning of controllers: exciters, governors
etc.]
o Torsional mode [instability due to interaction between controllers and seriescapacitor compensated lines]
ii. Nonoscillatory(in)stability [instability due to insufficient synchronising torque]
o Largesignal or Transient stability [maintenance of synchronism under severe transient
disturbance]
o Frequency stability [large and sustained excursions in frequency due to severe upsets resulting
in system islanding]
o Longterm stability
o Voltage (in)stability [" instability stems from the attempt of load dynamics to restore power
consumption beyond the capability of combined transmission and generation system"]
o Shortterm
o Longterm
Characterisation of rotor angle stability
Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power
system to remain in synchronism. It is characterised by
o Electromechanical oscillations involving exchange of energy between network and generator
mechanical system at or close to power frequency.
o Synchronous machine and controller dynamics
Smallsignal (or smalldisturbance) stability can be best understood by a mechanical
analogy: the spring mass damper system hung from a fixed support. A gentle tug to the mass
triggers the oscillation in a plane perpendicular to the ground. Such a system can lose "stability" in
two ways. First, suppose that the spring is weak; that is, it cannot exert enough restoring force on the
mass. In such a case, each feeble attempt to restore the mass to its initial rest position is countered by
gravity to increase the downward displacement further. Ultimately, the mass settles in a new position
where the spring has lost the ability for restoration. In the case of a power system, synchronising
torque or power replaces the restoring force and the generator's inability to return to its "rest"
position is referred to as nonoscillatory instability. The second way in which the mechanical system
can lose stability is the lack of sufficient damping or, negative damping. In such a case, a gentle tug
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from the rest position sets up oscillations. Each upward and downward excursion of the mass is
accompanied by an increase in the peak. This is referred to as oscillatory instability in power
systems. The majority of problems encountered in power systems fall into this category.
The above concepts can be represented by a torque phasor diagram whose pair of
orthogonal axes are "small" changes in rotor angle and speed, and . Any torque component
along the axis is a synchronising torque and that along the axis is a damping torque. Recall
that the typical frequency of local mode of oscillation is 12 Hz. The generator opposing torque,
Te, can be thought of as a phasor at this frequency and plotted as shown in Fig.11.1 and
Fig.11.2, which also shows sketches of corresponding time domain response. The response
depends on initial operating conditions, transmission system strength, and generator excitation
controls. Smallsignal stability was referred to in the past as steadystate stability. Steadystate
stability with the influence of the generator controllers such as automatic voltage regulators and
speed governors, was referred to as dynamic stability.
Fig.11.1 Torque phasor diagram of a generator for stable operation; Td: damping torque,
Ts: synchronising torque
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Line 2
Generator
Et
Transformer
Infinite bus
EB
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(11.1)
(11.2)
(11.3)
(11.4)
(11.5)
(11.6)
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:
:
t
Tm
:
:
(11.7)
(11.8)
Te
:
Ta
:
p
:
Sign convention
Consider Fig.11.7, for generator action Tm and Te are considered positive. m is positive in the
direction of rotation shown.
Te
Tm
Tm
Te
(a)
(b)
Fig.11.7. Mechanical (primemover/ shaft load) and electrical (alternator) torques;
(a): motor action
(b): generator action
In Eq. (11.8) m is reckoned from a stationary reference axis and hence an absolute quantity. It keeps
on increasing as t increases even at constant speed. In stability studies rotor speed relative to
synchronous speed is of interest. Rotor angular position is measured with respect to a reference axis
that rotates synchronous speed.
m = sm t + m
(11.9)
where, sm is the synchronous speed of the machine in mechanical radians per second and m is the
angular displacement of the rotor from the synchronously rotating reference axis.
Hence,
pm = sm + pm
(11.10)
and
p2m = p2m
(11.11)
In Eq.(11.10), pm represents the deviation of rotor speed from synchronous speed.
From Eq. (11.8) and (11.11),
Jp2m = Ta = Tm  Te Nwm
(11.12)
Eq.(11.8) is the torque form of the acceleration equation. The power form of the equation is obtained
by multiplying both sides by m = pm
(Jm) p2m = Pa = Pm  Pe Watt
(11.13)
where,
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Pm
Pe
Pa
Jm
=
=
=
=
Therefore, M p2m
Note:
(i) In general M is not constant.
(ii) When the machine is stable, m sm
(iii) Since power is convenient in calculations, Eq. (11.14) is preferred.
In machine data supplied for stability studies, another inertiarelated constant is encountered. It is
called Hconstant and is defined as:
Stored kinetic energy (KE) in mega joules at synchronous speed
H =
seconds
Note:
(i) Both sides of the above equation are dimensionless quantities. They are valid on the
electrical side if the angle and the synchronous speed are expressed in electrical radians
and electrical radians per second.
(ii) Pm and Pe must be on the same base as H. We will use and s to denote angle and
synchronous speed on the electrical side.
With angle and speed on electrical side,
(2H / s) p2 = Pm Pe
If the system frequency is fs hertz,
s = 2 fs
and Eq. (11.19) becomes
(H / fs ) p2 = Pm  Pe
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(11.19)
(11.20)
(11.21)
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p2 = Pm  Pe
(11.22)
Equations (11.19), (11.21) and (11.22) are different forms of swing equation since it describes the
swing of the generator rotor with respect to a synchronously rotating reference frame. We can write
Eq.(11.19) as two first order equations:
(2H / s) p = Pm  Pe
(11.23)
p =  s = r
(11.24)
The graphical display of versus t is called the swing curve. The plot of swing curves of all
machines tells us information whether machines will remain in synchronism after a disturbance.
(iii) In system studies one common base MVA is chosen for the entire system, which may
consist of several machines whose Hconstants, will be on the base of respective
machines. To convert the Hconstant to the common system base, equate the total KE
stored, i.e, KE = H (system base) x Ssystem = H (machine rating base) x Smach
where,
Ssystem = common system base MVA
Hence,
H(system base) = H(machine rating base) x (Smach / Ssystem)
(11.25)
(iv)
M is rarely used since it varies over a wide range whereas, H has a much narrower
range when the machine rating is chosen as base. Typical values for H are 3  9
seconds for turbounits, 2  4 seconds for waterwheel generators.
Equation (11.21) can be rewritten as two first order equations in state variable form:
d (r) = ( fo /H) (Pm  Pmax sin )
(11.26)
dt
d
= r  o = r
dt
where, r is the deviation from synchronous speed in electrical radians per second.
Expressing deviation in rotor speed from synchronous speed in per unit of synchronous speed and
introducing damping torque, equation (11.26) becomes
d (r ) = 1 (Pm  Pmax sin  KD r )
(11.27)
dt
2H
d = o r
dt
where,
r = rotor speed deviation in p.u
Pm = mechanical input in p.u
KD = damping coefficient in p.u
Numerical Integration Techniques
The differential equations (11.27) are to be solved using numerical techniques. There are
several techniques available and two of them, modified Euler and fourth order Runge Kutta
methods, are illustrated taking a simple example of a first order equation in a single variable:
px = f [x(t),t]
(11.28)
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Assume that we have computed the solution up to time t and we want to compute the
solution at t + t. The computational steps required to advance integration from t to t + t
by the two methods are given below:
o Modified Euler Method
(i) Compute the derivative at t: px(t) = f[X(t), t]
(ii) Compute first estimate : x1(t+t) = x(t) + px(t) t
(iii) Compute the derivative : px(t+t) = f[x1(t+t), t+t]
(iv) Compute the average derivative : pxav(t) = [px(t) + px(t+t)]
(v) Compute the final estimate: x(t+t) = x(t) + pxav (t) t
o Fourth order RungeKutta Method
The expression for computing value of x for the (n+1)th step is given by
xn+1 = xn + 1/6 (K1+ 2K2 +2K3 + K4)
(11.29)
where,
K1 = f(Xn, tn) t
K2 = f(Xn + K1/2, tn+t/2) t
K3 = f(Xn + K2/2, tn + t/2) t
K4 = f (Xn + K3, tn+t) t
Determination of Critical Clearing Time
Critical clearing time is the maximum allowable time between the occurrence of a fault
and clearing of the fault for which the system will be stable. For a given load condition and
specified fault, the critical clearing time for a system is found out by trial and error method as
explained. Start with a fault clearing time which is stable. Increase the clearing time in steps till
instability results. The trial value of clearing time just before instability was detected is the
critical clearing time. This will give you the coarse value of the critical clearing time. By varying
the clearing time around this point in small steps till you find the clearing time which is just
critical. The clearing time margin for a fault may be defined as
Clearing time margin = critical clearing time clearing time specified
= tc (critical)  tclearing
(11.30)
where, tclearing is the specified clearing time.
Stability Margin in MW
Assume that the machine connected to infinite bus delivers Po MW (Fig. 11.3) and a fault
is specified at the end of line no. 1 with a clearing time tc = 0.07 seconds. Suppose the MW
output of the machine and the load power are increased in steps and stability is checked for each
step of load with the same fault clearing time. Let the system remain stable up to a maximum
loading of say PLmax and a small increase in load beyond P Lmax causes instability. Then the MW
stability margin is defined as Ps = PLmax  Po
Critical Clearing Time and Clearing Angle From Equal Area Criterion
This method is suitable for hand computations and is applicable only to single machine
connected to infinite bus system. Nonetheless, it gives a clear physical picture of the dynamics of
rotor motion when subjected to a disturbance. Consider the system shown in Fig. 11.3. and its
model in Fig 11.5. The powerangle relationship is given by equation 11.1 and the power angle
curves for various operating condition is given in Fig. 11.8.
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Fig. 11.9. Determination of critical clearing angle using equal area criterion
Critical Creating Angle and Time
With delayed fault clearing as shown in Fig. 11.9, the area A2 just equals to A1 at clearing
angle equal to cr. Any further delay in clearing causes area A2 above Pm to be less than A1
resulting in loss of synchronism. The angle cr for which A1 = A2 is called critical clearing angle.
An expression for critical clearing angle from Fig.11.9 can be derived as follows:
Applying equal area criterion,
cr
max
(11.31)
cr
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(11.32)
(11.33)
Te =
= EEB coso()
X
(11.34)
(11.35)
(11.36)
i.e,
Te = Ks
where, Ks is called the synchronising torque coefficient.
(11.37)
E EB cos o
X
The state equations (11.27) are rewritten as
(11.38)
(11.39)
Ks =
(11.40)
(11.41)
(11.42)
Ks
+
1/(2Hs)
Tm
o / s
_
KD
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(11.43)
(11.44)
n2 o
(s2 + 2 ns + n2)
(11.45)
(11.46)
Where,
= KD/(2Hn) is the damping ratio
n = Ks o / 2H rad/s is the undamped natural frequency.
The characteristic equation is given by
s2 + 2 ns + n2 = 0
The roots of the characteristic equation
s1 =  n + jd
s2 =  n jd
where d is the damped frequency of oscillation given by
d = n 1 2
Taking inverse Laplace transform of equation (11.45) and (11.46), we get
(t) = o e1 2
n t
sin (d t + )
(11.47)
(t) = n o e n t sin (d t)
1 2
where = cos 1
(11.48)
(11.49)
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EXERCISES:
1. A power system comprising a thermal generating plant with four 555 MVA, 24kV, 50HZ
units supplies power to an infinite bus through a transformer and two transmission lines (refer
Fig 11.10)
H.T
L.T
line 1
Transformer
Infinite Bus
Et
EB
P+jQ
line 2
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Case 3:
Threephasetoground fault at the midpoint of line 2 occurs at t=0 sec and is cleared at
t=0.07 sec by the simultaneous opening of two breakers in line 2.
Comment on the transient stability of the system under case 2 and case 3 and compare the
severity of the faults; cases 1,2 and 3 from the point of view of maximum rotor swing and also by
comparing the clearing time margin available.
3. Determine the steadystate stability margin (MW) available for the system under the given
operating condition in exercise  1. Also determine the transient stability margin (MW)
available for the operating condition given in exercise 1 for the three cases of fault, case 1,
case 2 and case 3. Can the severity of the fault be measured using this margin?
4. It is proposed to examine the smallsignal stability characteristics of the system given in
exercise  1. about the steadystate operating condition following the loss of line 2; Assume
the damping coefficient KD = 1.5 p.u torque / p.u speed deviation.
(a) Write the linearized swing equation of the system. Obtain the characteristic equation, its
roots, damped frequency of oscillation in Hz, damping ratio and undamped natural
frequency. Obtain also the forcefree time response, (t) for an initial condition
perturbation (0) = 5o and (0) = 0,using the available software.
5. Repeat the smallsignal stability analysis carried out using the software package in exercise 4 with the following parameters and comment on the relative stability of each case:
(a) KD = 0 p.u and 1.5 p.u
(b) KD = 1.5 p.u but with P = 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 p.u
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ii.
SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB
THEORETICAL BACK GROUND
Multimachine equations can be written similar to the onemachine system connected to
the infinite bus. The assumptions made in the transient stability analysis are as follows.
1. Each synchronous machine is represented by a constant voltage source behind the direct
axis transient reactance. This representation neglects the effect of saliency and assumes
constant flux linkages.
2. The governor's actions are neglected and the input powers are assumed to remain constant
during the entire period of simulation.
3. Using the prefault bus voltages, all loads are converted to equivalent admittances to
ground and are assumed to remain constant.
4. Damping or asynchronous powers are ignored.
5. The mechanical rotor angle of each machine coincides with the angle of the voltage
behind the machine reactance.
6. Machines belonging to the same station swing together and are said to be coherent. A
group of coherent machines is represented by one equivalent machine.
The first step in the transient stability analysis is to solve the initial load flow and to
determine the initial bus voltage magnitudes and phase angles. The machine currents prior
to disturbance are calculated from
= = , i = 1,2,3,,m
(12.1)
Where, m is the number of generators. Vi is the terminal voltage of the ith generator, Pi
and Qi are the generator real and reactive powers. All unknown values are determined from the
initial power flow solution. The generator armature resistances are usually neglected and the
voltages behind the transient reactances are then obtained.
= +
(12.2)
Next, all loads are converted to equivalent admittances by using the relation
= 2 = 2
(12.3)
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To include voltages behind transient reactances, m buses are added to the nbus power
system network. The equivalent network with all loads converted to admittances is shown in
Fig.12.1.
Nodes n + 1, n + 2,.., n + m are the internal machine buses, i.e., the buses behind the
transient reactances. The node voltage equation with node 0 as reference for this network is
given by,
Ibus = Ybus Vbus
(12.4)
(12.5)
Where, Ibus is the vector of the injected bus currents and Vbus is the vector of bus voltages
measured from the reference node. The diagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix are the
sum of admittances connected to it, and the offdiagonal elements are equal to the negative of the
admittance between the nodes.
To simplify the analysis, all nodes other than the generator internal nodes are eliminated
using the Kron reduction formula. To eliminate the load buses, the bus admittance matrix in
(12.5) is partitioned such that the n buses to be removed are represented in the upper n rows.
Since no current enters or leaves the load buses, currents in the n rows are zero. The generator
currents are denoted by the vector Im, and the generator and load voltages are represented by the
vector E'm and Vn respective1y. Then, Equation (12.5), in terms of submatrices, becomes
0
0 = YnnVn + Ynm
Im =
Vn + Ymm
From (12.7), we get
1
Vn =
Ynm
From (12.8) and (12.9), we get
Im =
Ynm
+ Ymm
= [Ymm
Ynm]
Im =
(12.6)
(12.7)
(12.8)
(12.9)
(12.10)
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= Ymm
Ynm
(12.11)
The reduced bus admittance matrix has the dimensions (m x m), where m is the number
of generators. The electrical power output of each machine can now be expressed in terms of the
machines internal voltages.
=
(12.12)
or, = [ ]
(12.13)
Where, Ii = =1
(12.14)
Expressing voltages and admittances in polar form, i.e., = < and = <
and substituting for Ii in equation (12.13), we get,
Pei =
(12.15)
=1 ( + )
Prior to disturbance, there is equilibrium between the mechanical power input and the
electrical power output, and hence, we have
Pmi =
(12.15)
=1 ( + )
=1
( + )
(12.16)
Where, Yij are the elements of the faulted reduced bus admittance matrix, and Hi is the
inertia constant of machine i expressed on the common MVA base S B. If HGi is the inertia
constant of machine i expressed on the machine rated MVA SGi, then Hi is given by,
=
(12.17)
Showing the electrical power of the ith generator by and transforming equation
(12.16) into state variable model yields,
= , i = 1,2,3,,m
(12.18)
( )
(12.19)
We have two state equations for each generator, with initial power angles o and = 0.
When the fault is cleared, which may involve the removal of the faulty line, the bus admittance
matrix is recomputed to reflect the change in the network. Next, the postfault reduced bus
admittance matrix is evaluated and the postfault electrical power of the ith generator shown by
is readily determined from (12.15). Using the postfault power , the simulation is
continued to determine the system stability, until the plots reveal a definite trend as to stability or
instability. Usually the slack generator is selected as the reference, and the phase angle difference
of all other generators with respect to the reference machine are plotted. Usually, the solution is
carried out for two swings to show that the second swing is not greater than the first one. If the
angle differences do not increase, the system is stable. If any of the angle differences increase
indefinitely, the system is unstable.
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The power system network of an electric utility company is shown in fig.12.2. The
load data and voltage magnitude, generation schedule, and the reactive power limits for the
regulated buses are tabulated below. Bus 1, whose voltage is specified as V1 = 1.06<0o, is
taken as the slack bus. The line data containing the series resistance and reactance in per
unit, and onehalf of the total capacitance in per unit susceptance on a 100 MVA base is also
tabulated as shown.
LOAD DATA
Bus No.
Load
MW MVAR
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
100
70
5
90
30
6
160
110
From Bus
No.
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
GENERATION SCHEDULE
Bus Voltage
Generation
MVAR
No. (p.u.)
(MW)
Limits
Min. Max.
1
1.06
2
1.04
150
0
140
3
1.03
100
0
90
LINE DATA
To Bus
R
No.
(p.u.)
4
0.035
5
0.025
6
0.040
4
0.000
5
0.000
6
0.028
6
0.026
X
(p.u.)
0.225
0.105
0.215
0.035
0.042
0.125
0.175
(1/2)B
(p.u.)
0.0065
0.0045
0.0055
0.0000
0.0000
0.0035
0.0300
The generators armature resistances and transient reactances in per unit, and the
inertia constants in seconds expressed on a 100 MVA base are given below:
MACHINE DATA
Generator Ra
1
0 0.20
2
0 0.15
3
0 0.25
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