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Wire Rope

Technical Manual

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Technical Manual
Wire Rope

Factory and sales


Av. Marechal Rondon, 1215
ZIP Code 06093-900 - Osasco - SP
Phone: 0800 709 3777
Fax: (0xx11) 2147-8555

www.cimaf.com.br
April 2013

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Presentation

1 Wires

The wire ropes presented in this catalogue are manufactured with raw material provided by
Belgo Bekaert Arames, a joint venture between ArcelorMittal world reference in the steel
industry and Bekaert world reference in the manufacture of wires.
The Cimaf rope was the first wire rope manufactured in Brazil and consolidated itself
as the one of greater volume in Latin America. The Cimaf line of wire rope is the most
complete one in the continent.
Their products became renowned as a symbol of quality and trust, full technical support
being a differential of the brand.
Its manufacture counts with the most modern technology, following the highest standards
of quality.

What was good became even better.


The Cimaf wire ropes integrate the Belgo Bekaert Arames line of products, with all its
technology acquired on the course of years of research. Belgo Bekaert Arames offers
a line products which is increasingly complete and with an excellent level of quality,
ensuring the achievement of designs with technological growth and evolution.
To use Cimaf wire ropes is an assurance of safety with protection of the greatest
asset: LIFE.

Quality Assurance
Cimaf maintains a dynamic Quality Assurance System, in continuous enhancement,
seeking product constant improvement, through the essential element which is man.
This system is detailed in the Quality Manual and defines the inspection plans which
accompany the entire production, from the raw matter until the product. This process
certified by the ISO 9001:2008, by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and by the
Instituto Nacional de Metrologia [National Metrology Institute], includes gauging and
calibrating all the metering instruments and tests, including the internals audits of the
system, according to the national and international rules and standards.

1.1

Quality in material............................................................................9

2 Wire ropes

13

2.1 Constructions and lay types...........................................................13


2.1.1 Number of strands and number of wires in each strand.......................13
2.1.2 Core type..........................................................................................16
2.1.3 Direction and Lay Type.......................................................................17
2.2 Rope lay length..............................................................................18
2.3 Lubrification ...............................................................................18
2.4 Preforming....................................................................................20
2.5 Wire rope strength.........................................................................21
2.6 How to make an order...................................................................22

3 Properties of the wire rope


3.1
3.2
3.3

Working loads limit and design factors...........................................23


Constructional Stretch of the wire ropes.........................................24
Diameter of a wire rope..................................................................26

4 Recommendations for using


4.1
4.2
4.3

31

How to handle...............................................................................31
Winding in smooth drum or reel.....................................................33

6 Wire rope splicing

27

Choice of construction as a function of the application...................27


Diameters of sheaves and drums...................................................27
Fleet angle.....................................................................................29

5 Handling
5.1
5.2

23

35

7 Inspection and replacement criteria

39

7.1 Number of broken wires.................................................................39


7.2 External wear.................................................................................39
7.3 Corrosion......................................................................................40
7.4 Unbalance of the wire ropes...........................................................40
7.5 Deformation*................................................................................40
7.6 Replacement criteria......................................................................42

8 Product characteristics
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14

Spiral strands................................................................................43
Wire rope - Class 6x7 e 8x7...........................................................44
Wire rope - Class 6x7....................................................................45
Wire rope - Class 6x19..................................................................46
Wire rope - Class 6x36..................................................................47
Wire rope - Class 6x61 .................................................................48
Wire rope - Class 8X19 ................................................................49
Wire rope - Class 18x7 and 35x7
(Rotation Resistant).......................................................................50
High Performance wire ropes ErgoFlex........................................51
High Performance wire ropes ErgoFlexPlus.................................52
Wire rope - Class 6x7 e 6x19 Galvanized.......................................53
High Performance wire ropes - ProPac...........................................54
High Performance wire ropes - PowerPac .....................................55
High Performance wire ropes MinePac........................................55

9 Tables
9.1
9.2
9.3

9.4
9.5
9.6

43

57

Spiral Strands 19 and 37 wires Electrification..............................57


Spiral Strands 7 and 19 wires - Automobile Industry......................58
Wire rope class 6x7 - steel core
Automobile Industry......................................................................58
Wire rope class 6x7 - Fibre core....................................................59
Wire rope class 6x7 steel core....................................................59
Wire rope class 6x19 - Fibre core..................................................60

9.7 Wire rope class 6x19 - Steel core..................................................61


9.8 Wire rope class 6x36 - Fibre core..................................................62
9.9 Wire rope class 6x36 - Steel core..................................................63
9.10 CWire rope class 6x36 - Steel core................................................64
9.11 Wire rope class 8x19 - Fibre core

Special for Passenger Elevators - Traction......................................65
9.12 Cabo de ao classe 8x19 - Alma de fibra

Especial para Elevadores de Passageiros - Limitador......................65
9.13 Wire rope class 18x7.....................................................................66
9.14 Wire rope class 6x19 - Fibre Core - Fishing....................................67
9.15 ProPac..........................................................................................68
9.16 PowerPac......................................................................................69
9.17 ErgoFlex........................................................................................70
9.18 ErgoFlex Plus.................................................................................71
9.19 MinePac........................................................................................72

10 Recommendations of wire ropes

74

10.1 Bulldozer.......................................................................................74
10.2 Bulldozer.......................................................................................75
10.3 Bulldozer.......................................................................................76
10.4 Crane on tracks.............................................................................77
10.5 Stationary crane............................................................................78
10.6 Overhead crane.............................................................................79
10.7 Suction dredge..............................................................................80
10.8 Transportation of wooden logs.......................................................81
10.9 Pile driver......................................................................................82
10.10 Mining - Inclined plane...................................................................83
10.11 Mining - Inclined well.....................................................................84
10.12 Vertical well...................................................................................84
10.13 Cableway .....................................................................................85
10.14 Blast furnace.................................................................................86
10.15 Passenger elevator........................................................................87
10.16 Work site winch - Work site elevator..............................................88
10.17 Percussion drilling.........................................................................89
10.18 Rotary drilling................................................................................90
10.19 Ropes for offshore.........................................................................91
7

10.20 Rope for navy................................................................................92


10.21 Ropes for fishing...........................................................................93
10.22 Suspension bridge.........................................................................94
10.23 Highway protection........................................................................95
10.24 Electricity......................................................................................96
10.25 Port crane.....................................................................................97
10.26 Tirfor.............................................................................................98
10.27 Suspended Fishing Tackle..............................................................98
10.28 Derrick..........................................................................................99
10.29 Rocker arm.................................................................................100
10.30 Tensostructure.............................................................................101
10.31 Hillo Winch..................................................................................102

Initial

1
1.1

Correspondence in N/mm2

PS
IPS
Wires
EIPS
EEIPS
QualitySHT
in material

1370 - 1770
1570 - 1960
1770 - 2160
1960 - 2160
2160 - 2350

The steel wires used in manufacturing a Cimaf rope are submitted to the strictest tests
corresponding to the most demanding specifications used in manufacturing wire ropes.
The materials approved by this testing ensure the safety and the good quality of the
finished product.
Conventionally, the wire ropes can be manufactured in some traction resistance
categories, namely:

Initial

Correspondence in N/mm2

PS
IPS
EIPS
EEIPS
SHT

1370 - 1770
1570 - 1960
1770 - 2160
1960 - 2160
2160 - 2350
Wire Strength Category

Wire Strength Category

SHT

EEIPS

EIPS

IPS

PS

Graph showing the wire strength variations as a function of their respective diameters.
9

The initials PS, IPS, EIPS and EEIPS refer to the first stages of development of the wire
ropes and remain until today. The Plow Steel resistance curve forms the basis for
calculating the wire strengths.
As it can be observed in the graph, the wire traction resistance for each category is not
constant, varying inversely to their diameter.
The categories are also characterized by the quality of elasticity, resistance to traction and
to abrasion, which importance will depend on the application of the wire ropes.
However, the modern trend in manufacturing wire ropes is to obtain a product which
gathers all these characteristics in the highest possible degree.
The wire ropes manufactured in the SHT category are manufactured with steel core
(IWRC), being recommended for special applications, where a great resistance to traction
is required, having limitations of mass and diameter. It is a rope of maximum duration,
resistance and responsibility.

Note: The bright wire ropes in the gauges between 6.4 mm and 52 mm, have the
Faixa Amarela [Yellow Stripe] identification (a strand lubricated with yellow grease)
except for specific uses, such as, for instance: ropes for passenger elevators, high
performance cables and others.
Another current manufacture product is the wire rope for elevators. The quality of the steel
for this product is special, gathering the characteristics required to withstand the stresses
which take place in the elevator facilities.

Main advantages of the SHT wire rope:

Galvanized ropes (Zinc coated)

1 - Rupture load 10% greater than the EEIPS category, enabling the increase of load
capacity, without increasing the diameter of the wire rope.

Wire ropes subject to aggressive environments or in contact with water, require an


additional protection against corrosion.

2 - Insurmountable resistance to abrasion, kneading and shock.

Cimaf manufactures the wire ropes galvanized with wires which have a uniform layer of
zinc, which can by applied by a process of fire or electrolytic zinc plating.

It is worthwhile to remember that resistance to traction is not the only factor to be taken
into account when specifying the ropes. Thus, Cimaf produces wire ropes especially
developed for such applications as: passenger elevator, overhead crane, oil rig, winch,
work site elevator, among others.

Galvanization of these wires can be done in the final gauge or in an intermediary gauge
and later, it is drawn again, providing an uniform zinc layer. The intermediary gauge
galvanized wires are called redrawn galvanized wires.
The Cimaf wire ropes produced with galvanized wires have the same resistance to traction
as the bright wire ropes on the strength range.

2.1/2 Wire ropes

EIPS
EEIPS
SHT
0

500

1000

1500

2000

10

2500
kN

3000

3500

4000

11

Main wire ropes and strands


The Cimaf wire ropes and strands are especially designed for the following segments:
Civil Construction, Foundations, Equipment, Sugar-alcohol, Mining, Siderurgy, Elevators,
Automobile Industry, Oil, Fishing and Electrification.

Note: The types of ropes which are not present in these tables we will manufacture
under consultation
12

2
2.1

Wire ropes
Constructions and lay types

Construction is a term employed to indicate the number of strands, the number of wires in
each strand and its composition, as we will see next:
Ribbon with
Manufacturer
ID

2.1.1 Number of strands and number of wires in each


strand

Core

(por exemplo: o cabo 6 X 19 possui 6 pernas com 19


strand

Centre Wire

(for instance: rope 6 X 19 has 6 strands com 19 wires


each).
Strand Wire
Strand

The strands for the wire ropes can be manufactured


in one, two or more operations, according to their
composition. In the early manufacturing of wire ropes,
the usual compositions of the wires in the strands were in
multiple operations, with wires of the diameter, such as: 1
+ 6/12 (2 operations) or 1 + 6/12/18 (3 operations).
So, at first, 6 wires were twisted around a central wire.
Later, in a new passage, the core (1 + 6) wires were
covered with 12 wires.

This new layer


comprises a pitch
which is different
from the core pitch,
which causes a
crossover with the
internal wires, and the same is repeated when providing a
new cover of the 12 wires with 18 more, for the case of manufacturing 37-wire strands.
Wire Rope

Strand pitch: Distance, measured in parallel to the rope axis, necessary so that a strand
makes a full turn around the rope axis.

1 operation

2 operation

Due to the wire positioning characteristic, the strands


manufactured in multiple operations present
disadvantages for, as the wires in the layers are not in the
same direction, the following shall take place:
Strict contact between the wires, promoting greater
abrasive wear;
Less flexibility, exposing the wire rope to greater
fatigue by bending;
Overload of a few wires, for the stress applied is not
uniformly divided between the same.
13

With the improvement of manufacturing techniques, machines and constructions of ropes


were developed which enabled us the confection of strands in a single operation, all the
layers being in the same pitch.

In single composition, all the wires have the same


diameter.

So the following compositions appeared Seale, Filler and Warrington, formed


by wires of different diameters. These compositions present great advantages over
the strands manufactured in multiple operations for they eliminate their advantages as
mentioned above.
Fatigue testing has shown that wire ropes with strands manufactured in a single operation
have greater durability to those of the wire ropes manufactured in multiple operations.
In the Seale composition there are at least two adjacent
layers with the same number of wires. All the wires of the
external layer in this composition have greater diameter to
increase the resistance to wear caused by friction.

The Filler composition has very thin wires between the


two layers. This condition increases the area of contact,
flexibility, resistance to kneading and reduces wear
between the wires.

Warrington is the composition where there is at least one


layer built of wires of two different and alternate diameters.
Wire ropes manufactured with this composition have a
good resistance to wear and a good resistance to fatigue.

On the other hand, there are still other kinds of


compositions which are formed by agglutinations of the
mentioned above, such as, for instance, the WarringtonSeale composition, which has the main characteristics of
each composition, providing the rope a high resistance
to abrasion conjugated with a high resistance to bending
fatigue.

14

15

2.1.2

2.1.3

Core type

Direction and Lay Type


When the strands are laid from left to right, it is
said that the wire rope is right lay (Z).

The core of a wire rope is a nucleus around which the strands are layed and are arranged in
a helix manner. Its main function is to make the strands be positioned in such a manner that
the stress applied in the wire rope is distributed uniformly between them. The core can be
comprised of either natural or synthetic fibre; it can also be formed by a single strand or by
an independent Wire rope.
Almas de fibra: Fibre cores in general provide greater flexibility to the wire rope. The Cimaf
wire ropes can have cores made of natural fibres (FC) or synthetic fibres (SFC). The natural
fibre cores are normally made of sisal, and the synthetic fibre cores are usually made of
polypropylene.

Rope with FC Fibre Core


(natural fibre core) or
SFC (Synthetic fibre core)

Rope with Steel Core formed


by Independent Wire Rope
Core IWRC

Rope with Steel Core formed by


a single WSC strand

Almas de ao: The steel cores ensure greater resistance to kneading and increase
resistance to traction. The wire rope can be formed by a single strand of rope (WSC) or by
an independent wire rope (IWRC), this latter mode being preferred when greater flexibility is
required from the rope, combined with high resistance to traction. Wire ropes with diameter
equal to or above 6.4 mm, when provided with steel core, are the IWRC type.

When the strands are laid from right to left, it is


said that the wire rope is left lay (S).
The use of the left lay rope is uncommon in the
majority of applications. All the characteristics
of the application must be considered before
specifying a left rope.
In the regular lay rope, the strand wires are
laid in the opposite direction to the lay of the
strands themselves. As a result, the wires
from the top of the strands are positioned
approximately parallel to the longitudinal axis
of the wire rope. These ropes are stable, have
a good resistance to internal wear and twisting and are easy to handle. They also have a
considerable resistance to kneading and warping due to short length of the exposed wires.
In the Lang lay rope, the strand wires are laid in the same direction to the lay of the
strands themselves. The external wires are positioned diagonally to the longitudinal axis
of the wire rope and with a greater exposure length than in the regular lay. Due to the
fact of the external wires having a greater area exposed, the Lang lay provides greater
resistance to abrasion to the wire rope. They are also more flexible and have greater
resistance to fatigue. They are also more subject to internal wear, distortion and warping
and have a low resistance to kneading. Moreover, the Lang lay wire rope must always have
their ends permanently attached to prevent their distortion and, on this account, are not
recommended to move loads with only a single line of rope.
Note: Except for special cases (such as, for instance, airlines tractor rope), Lang lay
ropes with fibre core must not be used on account of presenting poor stability and small
resistance to kneading.

A 6-strand rope with steel core presents approximately an increase of 7.5% in its load
capacity in the IPS category and approximately an increase of 12.5% in load capacity in the
EIPS category in relation to a rope with fibre core of the same diameter and construction.
Its mass also has an increase of approximately 10%.

Regular
right

16

Regular
left

Lang
right

17

Lang
left

2.2

Rope lay length

A lubricant which is adequate for wire rope must have the following characteristics:

It is defined as lay length of a wire rope the distance, measured parallel to the rope axis,
required so that a strand makes a full turn around the rope axis.

LAY LENGTH

To be chemically neutral;
To have good adherence;
To have viscosity capable of penetrating between the strands and other wires;
To be stable under operational conditions;
To protect against corrosion;
To be compatible with the original lubricant.
Before re-lubrication, the rope must be cleaned with a steel brush to remove the old
lubricant and crusts containing abrasive particles. Never use solvents, for they remove the
internal lubrication, in addition to deteriorating the fibre core.
The rope must be re-lubricated just after being cleaned.
Due to the small space between the strand wires and the strands in the wire rope, during
re-lubrication, the lubricant being applied will have difficulty in fully penetrating the wire
rope.

2.3

Lubrification

Rope lubrication is very important for its protection against corrosion and also to reduce
wear by friction by the relative movement of its strands, the wires and the wire rope
against the equipment parts, such as, for instance, sheaves and drums.
The Cimaf wire ropes are lubricated during the manufacturing process as a lubricant
composed especially for each kind of application.
This lubrication is adequate only for a storage period and operations start-up of the
wire rope.

As a general rule, the most efficient and cost-effective form of re-lubrication is through
a method which applies the lubricant continuously during the rope operation, such as:
immersion, dripping and spraying.
It is recommended that the lubricant application point is preferably where the wire rope
passes through sheaves or drums, for at this moment, an opening occurs between the
strands on the top part of the wire rope, favoring lubricant penetration.
In the table below we suggest a few lubricants, for field re-lubrication.
Application

Specification

Properties

Supplier

Overhead Crane

ROCOL RD-105
GCA-2

Calcium Soap with


molybdenium disulfide

ITW

Whinch
Work Site
Elevator

COSMOLUBE
HT 00 M3

Bentone Soap with


molybdenum disulfide

Houghton

The wires start to become brittle, due to the excess corrosion;

Rocker Arm

CHASSIS 1234

Calcium Soap

ESSO

As the wire rope wires move relatively against one another, during use, they are subject
to wear by friction. Lack of lubrication intensifies wear, causing loss of wire rope
capacity caused by loss of metal area;

Derrick

CHASSI Ca-2

Calcium Soap

Texaco

Loop

CHASSI 2

Calcium Soap

Ipiranga

Porosity also causes internal wear of the wires, resulting in loss of load capacity.

Cableway

2C

Calcium Soap

Manguinhos

Lubrication of a wire rope is just as important as lubrication of a machine.

Fishing

BIOFLUKE

Biodegradable

Fluke Tecnologia

Never use burnt oil to lubricate a Wire rope, for it contains small metal particles which will
cause friction with the rope, in addition to being an acid product and contain few of the
characteristics which a good lubricant must have.

Passenger
Elevator

QUIMATIC 20

Paraffinic mineral oil

TAPMATIC

For good rope conservation, it is recommended to lubricate it on a regular basis.


If an adequate lubrication plan is not carried out, the wire rope will be subject to:
The occurrence of oxidation with porosity causing loss of metal area and,
consequently, loss of load capacity;

Lubrax

notes:
The performance of the lubricants from the table was analyzed in the field. Other
similar specifications can be used.
These lubricants are not commercialized by Cimaf.
18

Please consult our technical assistance for further information.


19

2.4

Preforming

2.5

The Cimaf wire ropes can be provided both preforming and non preforming; however,
in the majority of applications, preformed is more recommended than non preformed.
The difference between a preformed and a non preformed rope consists in that when
manufacturing the former, an additional process is applied, which makes the strands
and the wires stay laid in helical shape, remaining placed inside the rope in their natural
position, with a minimum of internal tensions.
The main advantages of the preforming rope can be numbered as follows:
1. In the non preformed rope, the wires and the strands have the tendency to straighten,
and the force required to keep them in position causes internal tensions to which are
added the tensions caused in service when the rope is curved in a pulley or in a drum.

The aggregate breaking force of the wire rope is obtained by means of the wire strength
multiplied by the total section area of all the wires.
The minimum breaking force of the wire rope is obtained by means of its aggregate
breaking force, multiplied by the spinning loss factor. This factor varies according to the
various classes of wire ropes.
The measured breaking force is determined in laboratory, by means of wire rope traction.

The internal tensions cause pressure between the wires in the region of contact between
layers and between strands which move reciprocally the moment the rope is curved,
causing a sharp internal friction. In the preforming rope the internal tensions are minimum,
and therefore, friction and consequently rope wear is minimal.
The preformed wire ropes, on account of having minimum internal tensions, have greater
resistance to fatigue than the non preformed ropes.
2. Handling is made much easier by the absence of internal tensions.
3. Rope balanced is ensured, each strand having equal tension equal to the other, dividing
the load into equal parts between the strands.
4. Handing is safer, the rope being free from tensions, not having the tendency to escape
from your hand. Secondly, if a wire ruptures by wear, it will remain lying down in its
normal position, not bending outwards, which would make it dangerous to handle.

Preformed rope

Wire rope strength

Spinning loss factor

Rope class

0,96
0,94
0,86
0,825
0,80
0,73
0,72

Spiral Strand 3 and 7 wires


Spiral Strand 19 and 37wires
6x7
6x19, 8x19 and MinePac
PowerPac, 6x36
ErgoFlex and ErgoFlex Plus
18x7

.
The forces indicated on the tables of the Cimaf technical manual always
represent the ropes minimum breaking force.

Non preformed or semi preformed rope

20

21

2.6

How to make an order

The following must be pointed out when consulting or ordering wire ropes:
1. Diameter;
2. Construction (number of strands, wires e composition: Seale, Filler or other);
3. Core type (fibre or steel);
4. Lay (regular or Lang / right or left)
5. Preforming (preformed, non preformed or semi preformed);
6. Lubrication (with or without lubrication);
7. Category of resistance to traction of wires (PS, IPS, EIPS, EEIPS) or a Minimum
Breaking Force (Fmim);
8. Finishing (bright or galvanized);
9. Indication of application;
10. Length
Note: When the finish is not indicated, it is understood as bright.
Example of order:
Wire rope 19 mm, 6x41 Warrington-Seale + IWRC, Right Regular Lay, preformed,
lubricated, IPS resistance and length 500 m. Use in overhead crane.
In addition to the ABNT standards, our products fulfill the strictest international standards,
such as:
API - American Petroleum Institute
IRAM - Instituto Argentino de Racionalizacin de Materiales
FS - Federal Specification
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
BSI - British Standard Institution
CESA - Canadian Engineering Standard Association
DIN Deutsches Institut fr Normung
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
EN - European Standard
among others

22

3
3.1

Properties of the wire rope


Working loads limit and design factors

Note: The reference Minimum Breaking Force (Fmim) is also known as Minimum Breaking
Load (MBL).
Working load limit is the maximum load that the wire rope is authorized to support.
The design factor (DF) is the ratio between the minimum breaking load (MBL) of the rope
and the working load limit (WLL), i.e.:
An adequate design factor will ensure:
- Safety in load movement operation;
- Performance and durability of the wire rope and, consequently, cost effectiveness.
The table below recommends the minimum design factors (DF) for various applications:

Design Factors

Applications
Static ropes and spiral strands

3 to 4

Rope for pulling in the horizontal direction

4 to 5

Winches, cranes, bulldozers

Overhead cranes

6 to 8

Electric hoists

Stationary crane

6 to 8

Slings

Work site elevators

8 to 10

Passenger elevators

12

The values on the table are reference, being that each application has
normalized values.

23

Construction of the wire rope or strand

3.2

Constructional Stretch of the wire ropes

Pre-stretched Ropes
There are two kinds of longitudinal stretches in wire rope, i.e.: constructional and elastic.
Constructional Stretches
Constructional stretches is permanent and starts just after a load is applied to the wire
rope. It is motivated by the adjustment of the wires in the rope strands and by the settling
of the strands in relation to its core.
Constructional stretches occurs in the first days or weeks of service of the wire
rope, depending on the applied load. On the conventional wire ropes, its value varies
approximately from 0.50% to 0.75% of the length of the wire rope under load.
Constructional stretches can be almost totally removed through pre-stretching of the wire
rope. The pre-stretching operation is done by a special process and with a load which
must be greater than the ropes working load limit, and lower than the load corresponding
to its elastic limit.
In certain installations, such as, for instance, in Blast Furnace Skip, the elongation of
the wire rope can not exceed a certain limit; it must be pre-stretched. It s also usual to
pre-stretch the rope to be used in suspension bridges or similar services.
Cimaf is capacitated to pre-stretch wire ropes with diameters up to 58 mm.
Elastic Stretches
A deformao elstica diretamente proporcional carga aplicada e ao comprimento do
cabo de ao, e inversamente proporcional ao seu mdulo de elasticidade e rea metlica.
= elastic stretches

L=

PXL
E X Am

P = applied load
L = length of rope
E = modulus of elasticity
Am = metal area

The metal area of a wire rope varies as a function of the construction of the wire rope. It is
comprised by the sum of the cross-section areas of the individual wires which compose it,
except for filler wires.
The calculation of the metal area of a wire rope or strand can be done by means of the
formula below. Although this calculation is not exact, its result is very approximate.

8X19 Seale, 8x25 Filler


MinePac
6x7
6x19 M
6x31/ 6x36 / 6x41 Warrington Seale
6x19 Seale
6x25 Filler
18x7 Rotation Resistant
Spiral Strand 7 wires
Spiral Strand 37 wires
Spiral Strand 19 wires

A = metal area in mm2;


F = multiplication factor given in the following table;
d = nominal diameter of the wire rope or strand in millimeters.

24

0,359
0,374
0,395
0,396
0,410
0,416
0,418
0,426
0,589
0,595
0,600

Notes:
For ropes with 6 strands with IWRC add 15% to metal area; with WSC add 20% and for
ropes with 8 strands with IWRC add 20% to its metal area.
In general, the elastic stretch of a wire rope can be estimated on 0.25% to 0.50%,
when the same is submitted to a tension corresponding to 1/5 of its breaking force,
depending on its construction.
Note:
Elastic stretch is proportional to the applied load as long as it does not exceed the
elastic limit value of the rope. This limit for usual wire rope is approximately 55% a 60%
of its minimum breaking load.
Modulus of elasticity of wire ropes: the modulus of elasticity of a wire rope increases
during its service life, depending on its construction and the conditions under which it is
operated, such as intensity of the applied loads, constant or variable, bends and vibrations
to which it is submitted.
The modulus of elasticity is smaller on the new or unused ropes, being that for used or
new pre-stretched ropes, the modulus of elasticity increases approximately 20%.
Next we provide the approximate modulus of elasticity of the usual constructions of new
wire ropes.

Wire ropes fibre core

Where,

A = F x d2

F Factor

Wire ropes steel core

Spiral Strands

Class
E (Kgf/mm2)
6x7
9.000 a 10.000
6 x 19
8.500 a 9.500
6 x 36
7.500 a
8.500
8 x 19
6.500 a
7.500
6x7
10.500 a 11.500
6 x 19
10.000 a 11.000
6 x 36 9.500 a 10.500
7 wires
14.500 a 15.500
19 wires
13.000 a 14.000
37 wires
12.000 a 13.000
25

3.3

Diameter of a wire rope

The nominal diameter for the rope is the one by which it is designated.
The actual diameter for the rope must be obtained measuring in a straight part of rope,
in 2 positions with minimum spacing of 1 m. Two measurements must be taken in each
position, with a 90offset, of the circumscribed circle diameter. The average of these 4
measurements must be the actual diameter.

Errado

Certo

The actual diameter will be the average of four measured values..


Note:
Measuring close to the ends of the wire rope must be avoided (minimum 10 times the
rope diameter).
The tolerance of diameter for wire ropes must fulfill all the recommendation of standard
ABNT NBR ISO 2408, as below:
Nominal diameter of the
wire rope
d
mm
2d<4

Tolerance as percentage of the nominal diameter


Wire ropes with strands solely of wires which
incorporate solid polymer cores
+8
0
+7
0
+6
0
+5
0

4d<6
6d<8
8

Note:
Specific applications can have special tolerances of diameters, defined by the customer or
by Cimaf. In this case consult our technical assistance.
26

4
4.1

Recommendations for using


Choice of construction as a function of the application

The flexibility of a wire rope is inversely proportional to the diameter of its external
wires, while the resistance to abrasion is directly proportional to this diameter. As a
consequence, a composition with fine wires can be chosen when the bend fatigue stress
prevails, and a composition of thicker external wires when the work conditions require
great resistance to abrasion.
The table below stands as a general rule.
Maximum
flexibility

Minimum
flexibility

6 x 41 Warrington-Seale
6 x 36 Warrington-Seale
6 x 25 Filler
6 x 21 Filler
6 x 19 Seale
6x7

Minimum resistance
to abrasion

Maximum resistance
to abrasion

By the table above, the 6x41 WS construction wire rope is the most flexible one, thanks
to the smaller diameter of its external wires; however, it is the least resistant to abrasion,
while the contrary takes place with the 6x7 construction wire rope.

4.2

Diameters of sheaves and drums

There is a relation between the diameter of the wire rope and the diameter of the sheave or
drum which must be observed, so as to ensure a good wire rope performance.
The following table indicates the proportion recommended between the diameter of the
sheave or the drum and the diameter of the wire rope, for the various constructions.
Rope construction

Diameter of the Sheave or Drum


Recommended
Mnimum
72
42 x do cabo
51
34 x do cabo
51
34 x do cabo
39
26 x do cabo
39
26 x do cabo
34
23 x do cabo
31
20 x do cabo
31
20 x do cabo
31
18 x do cabo
21
14 x do cabo

6x7
6x19 S
19x7
6x25 F
8x19 S
6x36 WS, Propac
6x41 WS
PowerPac, MinePac
Ergoflex, Ergoflex Plus
6x71 WS

Note:
For some equipment, there is a regulating standard from the Ministry of Labor and
Employment which determines the diameter of the sheave or the drum
27

4.3

Diameters indicated for sheaves and drums per type of equipment

Tipe of equipment

Standard

ASME
B30.5

Crane

Derrick

ASME
B30.3

Bulldozer

ANSI
M11.1

According to the recommendations of the standards, the fleet angle of wire rope in the
segment between the sheave and the drum must not exceed;

D/d minimum

Application

Fleet angle

Drum

Sheave

Hoisting

18

18

Elevation of boom

15

15

Block

---

16

Hoisting

18

18

Hoisting

24

24

22

22

Rotating drill

API SPEC 9B

Drag
D
rilling

20

30

Offshore crane

API SPEC 9B

Hoisting

18

18

Passenger Elevator

ASME
A17.1

Traction

40

40

Compensation

32

a = 1 30 for conventional wire ropes (Classes: 6x7, 6x19, 6x36, 8x19, 8x36), with
winding in drums with no groove drums.
= 2 Rotation resistant wire ropes, with winding in drums with groove drums;
= 4 for conventional wire ropes (Classes: 6x7, 6x19, 6x36, 8x19, 8x36), with
winding in drums with grooved drums.
When a rope is coiling in multiple layers on the drum, the fleet angle at the flanges should
be greater than 0.5 to avoid rope pile-up.
These recommendations seek to prevent the wire rope from being damaged, for if the fleet
angle is greater that the maximum indicated, we will have two inconveniences:
The wire rope will maintain sharp
friction with the sheave flange
increasing the wear of both;
During o winding, the wire
rope will maintain sharp
friction with the adjacent turn
already wound in the drum
increasing its wear and
promoting damage which will
influence its service life, as well
as its safety.
Although a recommendation was
presented regarding the wire ropes
fleet angle on the sheave segment
with the smooth drum (with no
grooved drums), the standards
recommend that all the hoisting
equipment must be equipped with
a drum with grooved drums. This
recommendation is due to the
fact of the inconvenience of the
wire rope, when wound, it leaves
voids between the winding turns
on the drum, making the upper
layer go into these voids providing
a disordered winding and, as a
consequence, influencing its service
life and safety.

D = Diameter of the sheave or drum


d = Diameter of wire rope

(ISO 4308) Sheave groove For optimum rope life, the sheave groove profile should be
correctly matched to the rope diameter. The groove radius, should lie within the range
0,525d to 0,550d, with 0,537d, where d is the nominal rope diameter.

30 - 60
GROOVE OF THE NEW OR MACHINED SHEAVE
WIRE ROPE
OF THE WORN GROOVE

OF THE SHEAVE

OF THE GROOVE

WEAR OF THE SHEAVE GROOVE


MAKES MACHINING OR REPLACEMENT
OBLIGATORY

28

29

30

5
5.1

Handling
How to handle

The wire rope must be handled with care so as to avoid throttling (knot), causing a
harmful twist as show in the example below:
The wire rope must never be allowed to take the shape of a loop as shown in figure 1.
However, a knot can be avoided if the loop is promptly undone (opened).
As shown in figure 2, with the loop closed, the
damage is done and the load capacity of the wire
rope compromised, and the same being out of the
conditions for use.

Figure 3 shows the result of the knot, for, even if


the individual wires have not been damaged, the
wire rope loses its proper shape. With the wires
and the strands out of position, the wire rope is
subject to uneven tension, exposing it to rupture by
overload, in addition to causing excessive wear to
the displaced strands.
Caution: even if a knot is apparently straightened,
the wire rope can never provide maximum
performance, according to the assured capacity.
The use of a wire rope with this defect is
dangerous and can cause accidents.
To avoid a knot when unwinding the wire rope,
the reel must be placed in a horizontal axis on two
sawhorses, on which it turns around its axis, as
shown in figure 4.

31

It can also be unwound by means of a rotary table, as shown in figure 5. It is important


that when unwinding, the reel always turns around its axis and never the wire rope turns
around the reel axis, as shown in figure 6.

5.2

Winding in smooth drum or reel

It is important that the wire rope, to be well wound, is attached correctly during its
installation.
If this does not happen, the first winding layer can present faults, causing, consequently,
when the top layers are wound, kneading and warping in the wire rope, which will notably
reduce its service life.
The figures below present a practical rule for the correct attachment of the practical rule
for the correct attachment of the wire rope on smooth drums or reels.
Rope with lay direction to the right

Correct - Figure. 5

Top winding from


left to right

Bottom winding from


right to left

Rope with lay direction to the left

Wrong - Figure 6

32

Top winding from


right to left

Bottom winding
from left to right

33

34

Wire rope splicing

The confection of a splice requires careful and skilful work. The perfect settling and
positioning of the strands in the splice segment is important.
It is recommended that a splice length is between 1,000 to 1,500 times the diameter of
the wire rope.
The essential basis of the splicing process is show in the following example:
The example refers to splicing two wire ropes with a diameter 20 mm, with 6 strands,
fibre cores and preformed. A splice length of 20 mm x 1,200, i.e., 24 m was adopted in
this example.
Phase 1: Both wire ropes will be well tied a distance about 12 m from their ends
(2x12 m = 24 m of length required for the splice).

Phase 2: The strands from the two wire ropes will be separated at their ends up to the tie
point. The strands from one of the wire ropes will be named successively A-F and from
the other a-f. The strands B,D,F and the a,c,d, will be shortened and the fibre core
will be cut at the tie height.
c

b
e

c
a

d
B
D

C
A

35

A
E

Phase 3: The ends of the wire ropes will be pushed one against the other for the strand A
to stay beside strand a, strand B beside strand b, and so on.
b

c
a

ae

DB
F
D

F
f

EA

d be released. Strand a will be Ftwisted


Phase 4: The ties
outwards of the assembly
F
d will
in a length of 10 meters,
respective
empty space.
fand strand A
e be twisted into the E
f
E
e shall
C
Strands B and b shall
c proceed in the same manner.

B
b

B
dB

FD

B
f

E
F

e
f

Phase 5: Strands c and D shall twisted outwards from the ends of the respective wire
ropes,
counting from
e and F aclength of 2 meters,
a
b in a length ofd6 meters, and fstrands e
the point of joining the wire rope, and the respective strands will be twisted into the spaces
previously emptied.
b

d
Bd

Df

D
B

F
D

E
F

a C

C
E

A
C

Phase 6: The figure above shows the part corresponding to the splice when ready.
Care is required with the splices. A badly done splice represents a great hazard.

For more information, please consult our Technical Department.


36

37

38

Inspection and replacement criteria

Inspection in wire ropes is of the utmost importance for an adequate and safe service life.
The first inspection to be done in a wire rope is the Receival Inspection, which must
assure that the material is as requested and has a certificate of quality issued by the
manufacturer.
In addition to the Receival Inspection, two other inspections must be carried out, the
Visual Inspection and the Periodic Inspection.
The Visual Inspection must be performed on a daily basis on the wire ropes used in load
movement equipment and before each use for the loops. The purpose of this inspection is
a visual analysis to detect damages on the wire rope which can cause hazards during the
use. Any suspicion regarding the material safety conditions must be informed and the wire
rope inspected by a qualified person.
The frequency of the Periodic Inspection must be defined by factors such as: type of
equipment, environmental conditions, operating conditions, results of previous inspections
and time of service of the wire ropes. For the wire ropes slings, this inspection must
be done at intervals not in excess of six months, having to be more frequent when it
approaches the end of its service life. It is important that the results of the inspections are
recorded.
Whenever an incident occurs which may have caused damages to the rope or when it has
been out of service for a long time, it must be inspected before the beginning of the job.
On inspecting a wire rope, several factors which can affect its performance must be
considered. The factors to be checked for during the inspection are:

7.1

Number of broken wires

The broken of wires normally occurs by abrasion or by bending fatigue. It can occur both
in the external and internal wires, if the wire rope has a steel core. The external ruptures
can occur on top of the strands or in the region of contact between the strands (valley)
this one being, together with the ruptures of the core wires, the most critical.
The location of the rupture and the number of wires in a lay length must be recorded. It
must be observed that if the ruptures are distributed evenly or if they are concentrated in
just one or two strands. In this case, the danger exists of the strands breaking.

7.2

External wear

The abrasion of the external wires is caused by friction of the rope, under pressure,
with the channels of the sheavess and the drum and it can be sped up by lubrication
deficiencies.
Even if the wire does not break, it wear will promote the loss of the load capacity of the
wire rope by reducing the metal area, making its use dangerous.
A form of evaluating the wear of a wire rope is by measuring its diameter.

39

7.3

Corrosion

Corrosion decreases the load capacity by reducing the metal area of wire rope, in addition
to accelerating fatigue.

When this deformation is sharp, they can change the original geometry of the wire rope
causing imbalance of stresses between the strands and, consequently, its rupture.
The most common deformation are:

It can be detected visually, when it shows up on the external part of the wire rope.

a) Waviness

Detection of internal corrosion is more difficult; however, a few indications can point out
its existence:

Occurs when the longitudinal axis of the wire rope takes on the shape of a helix. In
situations where this anomaly is sharp, it can transmit a vibration on the wire rope which,
during work, will cause premature wear, as well as broken wires.

7.4

Variation in rope diameter: the decrease of diameter usually takes place in the
folding points of the wire rope. In wire ropes or strands for static use, the increase of
diameter is common due to the increase of oxidation.
Approximation between strands: frequently combined with broken wires in the
valleys

b) Crush
Crush on the wire rope is normally caused by the disorderly winding on the drum. In
situations where the disorderly winding can not be avoided, the use of wire rope with steel
core must be chosen.

Unbalance of the wire ropes

In conventional wire ropes, normally with 6 or 8 strands with fibre core, a typical damage
can happen which is a ripple of the wire rope cased by the sinking of 1 or 2 of its strands
and it can be caused by a few motives:
a) Poor attachment, which allows a few strands to slide, the remaining ones being
overtensioned.
b) Fibre core of reduced diameter.
c) Fibre core which deteriorate, giving no support to the strands of rope.
On ropes with several layers of strands, as in the resistant to rotation ropes and ropes
with steel core, the danger of birdcaging and raised core exists, defects which can be
caused by the following motives:

c) Birdcaging
This warping is typical in wire rope with steel core in situations where a sudden release of
tension takes place. This irregularity is critical and prevents the wire rope from continuing
to be used.

d) Poor handling and/or installation of rope, giving rise to torsions or distortions of


the same.
In case a the danger exists of the overtensioned strands breaking; in cases b and c,
there is no imminent danger, however, there will be an uneven wear in the wire rope and,
therefore, low efficiency.
Case d is more common for Non-Rotating ropes and with Steel Core, where the danger
of birdcaging and raised core exists. These defects are grave and require prompt
replacement of the wire rope.

7.5

Deformation*

Deformation in the wire ropes occurs mainly due to misuse or irregularities in the
equipment or, further, by inadequate methods of handling and attaching.

40

d) Core protusion
It is a characteristic also caused by the sudden release of tension of the wire rope, causing
an imbalance of tension between the strands, preventing it from continuing to be used.

41

e) Kink or knot (dog leg)


It is characterized by a discontinuity in the longitudinal direction of the wire rope which in
extreme cases reduces its load capacity. It is normally caused by improper handling or
installation.

7.6

Replacement criteria

Even if the wire rope works in optimum conditions, a moment comes in which, after
reaching the end of its service life, it needs to be replaced by virtue of its natural
degeneration.
In any installation, the problem consists in determining what is the maximum efficiency
which can be obtained from a wire rope before replacing it, to keep it working in complete
safety, since, in the greater portion of the installations, the breaking of a wire rope puts
human lives at risk.
There isnt a precise rule to determine the exact moment for replacing a wire rope. The
decision of a wire rope remaining in service will depend on the evaluation of a qualified
person, who must compare its conditions, carrying out an inspection based on disposal
criteria contemplated in standards. The following standards are recommended:
NBR ISO 4309, for equipment.
NBR 13541-2 for slings.

42

8
8.1

Product characteristics
Spiral strands

Construction

Characteristics

Used in stays, tie rods, messenger ropes and


similar uses.

Table
Page

57

19 wires
(1+6/12)
37 wires
(1+6/12/18)

Used in the automobile industry and similar


purposes.

58

7 wires
1+6

Used in the automobile industry to breaks,
clutches and other mechanical purposes.

58

19 wires
1+6/12

57
Used in the automobile industry and similar
purposes.
37 wires
(1+6/12/18 )

43

8.2

Wire rope - Class 6x7 e 8x7


Construction

8x7+AA
1+6

Characteristics

Used in the automobile industry, for raising


the window.

8.3
Table
Page

58

Wire rope - Class 6x7


Construction

6x7+AF
1+6

6x7+AA
or 7x7
1+6

6x7+AA
or 7x7
1+6

Characteristics

Wire ropes of 6 strands with 5 to 9 wires in


each strand.
They have excellent resistance to abrasion
and to pressure and low flexibility, its
application being limited. Normally, it is
manufactured with fibre core; it can be
manufactured with steel core.
Used in operations where it is subject to
friction during the operation and also for
static purposes, such as stays.

6x7+AACI
1+6

44

45

Table
Page

59

8.4

Wire rope - Class 6x19


Construction

8.5
Characteristics

Table
Page

Wire rope - Class 6x36


Construction

Characteristics

Table
Page

6x36+AF
Warrington-Seale
1+7+(7+7)+14

6x19+AF
Seale
1+9+9
Wire ropes of 6 strands with 15 to 26 wires in
each strand.
They have good resistance to bending and
good resistance to abrasion.
This class is one of the most used, offering
the most adequate constructions for the
greater portion of the applications in the most
common diameters.
Special care must be taken with
6x19 M construction wire ropes. They are
reccomended for static application only.
6x19+AACI
Seale
1+9+9

Wire ropes of 6 strands with 29 to 57 wires in


each strand.
The great number of wires of the ropes of this
class makes the rope highly flexible.
The ropes of this class, in the most common
diameters, adapt well in applications where they
have to work dynamically on drum and pulleys.
In larger diameters, this class has excellent
resistance to abrasion and to kneading, sufficient
for the most critical operations.

60
and
61

6 x 41+AF
Warrington-Seale
1+8+(8+8)+16

6 x 41 + AACI
Warrington-Seale
1+8+(8+8)16

6x25+AACI
Filler
1+6+6+12
46

47

62
to
63

8.6

8.7

Wire rope - Class 6x61


Construction

Characteristics

Wire ropes of 6 strands with 61 to 85 wires. These


ropes are usually manufactured in diameters above
90 mm, where the great number of wires ensures
good flexibility.
6x71+AACI
Warrington-Seale
1+6+8+(8+8)+16+24

Table
Page

Wire rope - Class 8X19


Construction

64

8x19+AF
Seale
1+9+9

48

Characteristics

Wire ropes of 8 strands with 15 to 26 wires in


each strand.
In this class, the ropes are usually manufactured
with FC.
Due to the relatively large size of the core,
necessary for manufacturing this class, this
wire rope is more susceptible to flattening when
submitted to a high pressure in the pulley and
drum; thus, its use is recommended in operations
with moderate loads.
The greater portion of the passenger elevators
uses wire ropes with diameters between 9.5 mm
and 16.0 mm, in this class.

49

Table
Page

65

8.8

Wire rope - Class 18x7 and 35x7


(Rotation Resistant)

Construction

Characteristics

8.9
Table
Page

High Performance wire ropes ErgoFlex


Construction

The ErgoFlex was especially developed for


equipment that works in applications where the
hoisting height is critical, such as, for instance:

The term Rotation Resistant, is due to the smaller tendency of


turning of this wire rope which is grounded in the inversion of lay
between the layers of external and internal strands, annulling the
torsion moment under tension.

Fixed derricks, telescoping, erecting and


extending boom.
Tower cranes used in ships and oil rigs
Equipment with only a single line of rope for
hoisting loads
Systems with more than one layer of winding
on the drum

The ropes of this class twist a little in the beginning of applying the
load, until it stays in balance.
The rotation resistant wire ropes must be used with great care and
with design factors higher than the other classes.
Special care recommended in the use of Rotation Resistant
ropes:

2) This wire rope is very sensitive to brusque variations of load


and requires a very smooth handling. In general, there must be
a weight next to the hook to keep it under tension. Most times,
the brusque variations promote birdcaging, rendering the wire
rope useless.
3) It must be avoided that the rotation resistant rope undergoes
rotation during service.

19 x 7
1+6

4) On attaching (anchoring), it is essential that all the strands of the


rotation resistant rope are well attached, including the internal
ones. To achieve that, attachment by means of clips or other
pressure-actuated fittings must be avoided, the use of sockets
is recommended.

In addition to its excellent anti-rotating property,


we can highlight:
66

35xK7
1+6

High Minimum Breaking Force


High flexibility due to the construction
characteristics
High resistance to fatigue due to the
compacting of the strands
Galvanized finish reducing the level of oxidation
and increasing the resistance to fatigue by
bending
Note: All the cares pointed out in the previous
page must be taken as a reference.

5) This rope must be wound on a drum with channel and sufficient


dimensions to prevent overlapping of different layers.
6) The rotation resistant rope is usually recommended for
equipment which works with only a single wire rope line, or
further, when the equipment works with two very close rope
lines, its hoisting height being very high.
Note: By virtue of the special cares which are required in
installation, handling and operation of the rotation resistant ropes
(18x and 19x7), it is recommended to limit is employment only to
the essential cases.

50

Table
Page

Manufactured with 34 compacted strands, the


ErgoFlex wire rope is composted of 7 wires in
each strand and steel core.

The rotation resistant wire ropes are usually manufactured with 12


external strands of 7 wires each with regular right lay, laid around
a nucleus composed of 6 strands of 7 wires each with Lang left
lay which in turn are laid around a core which can be made of fibre
or steel.

1) The general instructions for handling wire ropes must be


followed, preventing them, both when unwinding from the reel
and in installing in the machine, from suffering distortions or
knots which may render them useless.

Characteristics

51

70

8.10

High Performance wire ropes ErgoFlexPlus

Construction

Characteristics

8.11
Table
Page

Wire rope - Class 6x7 e 6x19 Galvanized


Construction

Characteristics

Table
Page

Manufactured with 33 strands and compacted


core, the ErgoFlexPlus wire rope is composted of
7 wires in each external strand and steel core and
17 wires in internal each strand.
The ErgoFlexPlus was especially developed for
equipment that works in applications where the
hoisting height is critical, such as, for instance:
Fixed derricks, telescoping, erecting and
extending boom.
Tower cranes used in ships and oil rigs
Equipment with only a single line of rope for
hoisting loads
Systems with more than one layer of winding
on the drum.

6x7+AFA
1+6

Manufactured with high zinc layer and artificial


fibre core (SFC), promoting high resistance to
corrosion, high flexibility and greater durability
ensuring an excellent performance in the fishing
industry.

71

In addition to its excellent anti-rotating property,


we can highlight:
34xK(7+17)
(1+6) / (1+8+8)

High Minimum Breaking Force


High flexibility due to the construction
characteristics
High resistance to fatigue due to the
compacting of the strands
Increase of structural stability as a function of
the plasticized core
Galvanized finish reducing the level of oxidation
and increasing the resistance to fatigue by
bending

6x19+AFA
Seale
1+9+9

Note: All the cares pointed out in the previous


page must be taken as a reference.

52

53

59
and
67

8.12

High Performance wire ropes - ProPac

Construction

Characteristics

8.13
Table
Page

High Performance wire ropes - PowerPac

Construction

Characteristics

Table
Page

The PowerPac ropes were especially developed for


dynamic applications, mainly for equipment such
as: Port Cranes, Ship Loaders and Off-Loaders
and Overhead Cranes.
In addition to its high performance, the PowerPac
rope stands out due to:
1) Greater performance promoted by the
compacted strands and coated core.
2) High Minimum Breaking Force.
8xK31+EPAACI
Warrington-Seale
1+6+(6+6)+12

The ProPac ropes were especially developed for


dynamic applications under severe conditions,
mainly for equipment such as: Overhead Cranes,
Ship Loaders and Off-Loaders.

2) High Minimum Breaking Force.


6xK31+AACI
1+6+(6+6)+12

3) Use in systems with more than one layer of


winding on the drum.

68

8.14

High Performance wire ropes MinePac

Construction

Characteristics

Table
Page

The MinePac ropes were especially developed for


dynamic applications, mainly for equipment in the
mining sector, such as: bulldozers (Shovel and
Dragline).

4) Easiness of adapting to the equipment; it can


be manufactured with strands of 26 to 36
wires.

EP8xK36+AACI
Warrington-Seale
1+7+(7+7)+14

54

4) Greater structural stability and internal


corrosion protection due to the coated core.
5) Use in systems with more than one layer of
winding on the drum.

In addition to its high performance, the ProPac


rope stands out due to:
1) Greater resistance to abrasion promoted
strands compacted

69

3) Easiness of adapting to the equipment; it can


be manufactured with strands of 21 to 41
wires.

In addition to its high performance, the MinePac


rope stands out due to:
1) Greater performance promoted by the
compacted strands.
2) High Minimum Breaking Force.
3) Greater structural stability and internal and
external corrosion protection due to complete rope
coating.

55

72

56

Tables

9.1

Spiral Strands 19 and 37 wires Electrification

19 wires
1+6/12

Diameter
mm
12,7
14,3
15,9
19,0
20,2
22,2
25,4
28,6

in.
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
13/16"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"

37 wires
1+6/12/18

Construction

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

1x19
1x19
1x19
1x37
1x37
1x37
1x37
1x37

0,77
0,98
1,22
1,76
1,98
2,40
3,12
3,96

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)
EHS
13,00
17,00
21,00
29,00
32,80
40,00
50,00
66,00

Manufactured and tested in accordance with the requirements of the standards


ABNT NBR 5909 and ASTM A475
57

9.2

Spiral Strands 7 and 19 wires - Automobile Industry


7 wires
1+6

Diameter
mm

Spiral Strand
Construction

1,5
1,2
1,5
2,0
2,5
2,8
3,0
3,2
3,5

9.3

Wire rope class 6x7 - Fibre core

19 wires
1+6/12

6x7
1+6

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

1x7
1x19
1x19
1x19
1x19
1x19
1x19
1x19
1x19

9.4

IPS
0,22
0,14
0,22
0,39
0,62
0,78
0,89
1,01
1,20

0,011
0,007
0,011
0,020
0,520
0,580
0,046
0,052
0,062

Diameter

Wire rope class 6x7 - steel core


Automobile Industry
9.5
6x7+AA
1+6

mm
1,6
2,4
3,2
4,0
4,8
6,4
8,0
9,5

in.
1/16
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8

14,5

9/16

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)

0,008
0,018
0,031
0,046
0,065
0,145
0,235
0,376

IPS
0,16
0,35
0,61
0,96
1,38
2,50
3,80
5,50

0,725

12,30

Wire rope class 6x7 steel core

8x7+AA
1+6
6x7
1+6

Diameter Spiral Strand Approx. Mass


(kg/m)
mm
Construction

Minimum Breaking Force (tf)


180
kgf/mm

215
kgf/mm

235
kgf/mm

250
kgf/mm

1,5

6x7

0,011

0,28

1,5
1,6
1,8
2,0
2,4

8x7
6x7
6x7
6x7
6x7

0,011
0,011
0,011
0,020
0,021

0,36

0,28
0,32
0,37
-

0,27
-

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

58

Diameter
mm

in.

2,4
3,2
4,0
4,8

3/32"
1/8"
5/32"
3/16"

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,024
0,034
0,065
0,085

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)
IPS
0,37
0,66
1,04
1,49

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

59

9.6

Wire rope class 6x19 - Fibre core

6x19 Seale
1+9+9

Diameter
mm

in.

3,2
4,8
6,4
8,0
9,5
11,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0
22,0
26,0
29,0
32,0
35,0
38,0
45,0
52,0

1/8"
3/16"
1/4"
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"
1.3/8"
1.1/2"
1.3/4"
2"

9.7

Wire rope class 6x19 - Steel core

6x25 Filler
1+6+6+12

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,036
0,082
0,142
0,230
0,343
0,479
0,608
0,775
0,933
1,298
1,805
2,442
3,055
3,733
4,529
5,328
8,368
9,740

6x19 Seale
1+9+9

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)
IPS

EIPS

0,61
1,37
2,50
3,90
29,50
38,50
60,10
86,50
-

2,73
4,30
6,10
8,30
10,80
13,60
16,80
24,00
32,60
42,60
53,90
66,50
80,50
95,80
130,40
170,30

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

60

Diameter
mm
3,2
4,0
4,8
6,4
8,0
9,5
11,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0
22,0
26,0
29,0
32,0
38,0
42,0
45,0
52,0

in.
1/8"
5/32
3/16"
1/4
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"
1.1/2"
1.5/8"
1.3/4"
2"

6x25 Filler
1+6+6+12

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,040
0,063
0,096
0,142
0,268
0,352
0,519
0,685
0,868
1,058
1,496
2,036
2,746
3,447
4,192
6,009
7,120
8,368
10,921

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)
IPS
0,65
1,02
1,46
2,68
-

EIPS
0,73
1,13
1,64
3,10
4,80
6,86
9,30
12,10
15,20
18,70
26,80
36,10
47,00
59,00
72,60
103,30
122,00
141,00
183,70

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

61

9.8

Wire rope class 6x36 - Fibre core

6x36 Warrington-Seale
1+7+(7+7)+14
Diameter
mm
6,4
8,0
9,5
11,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0
22,0
26,0
29,0
32,0
35,0
38,0
45,0
52,0

in.
1/4"
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"
1.3/8"
1.1/2"
1.3/4"
2"

6x41 Warrington-Seale
1+8+(8+8)+16
Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,150
0,228
0,353
0,479
0,580
0,786
0,919
1,359
1,842
2,376
3,064
3,770
4,687
5,530
7,628
9,978

9.9

6x47 Warrington-Seale
1+6/8+(8+8)+16
Minimum Breaking Force (tf)
IPS
2,50
3,90
5,55
7,88
10,10
12,50
15,20
22,00
29,50
38,50
50,10
60,10
73,00
86,50
117,70
153,80

EIPS
2,72
4,26
6,10
8,27
10,80
13,60
16,80
24,00
32,60
42,60
53,90
66,50
80,50
95,80
130,40
170,30

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

62

Wire rope class 6x36 - Steel core

6x36 Warrington-Seale
1+7+(7+7)+14
Diameter
mm
6,4
8,0
9,5
11,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0
22,0
26,0
29,0
32,0
35,0
38,0
42,0
45,0
52,0
57,2
63,5
69,9
76,2
85,7
95,3
102,0
108,0

in.
1/4"
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"
1.3/8"
1.1/2"
1.5/8"
1.3/4"
2"
2.1/4"
2.1/2"
2.3/4"
3"
3.3/8"
3.3/4"
4"
4.1/4"

6x41 Warrington-Seale
1+8+(8+8)+16
Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,173
0,266
0,399
0,538
0,695
0,879
1,044
1,520
2,073
2,610
3,456
4,230
5,086
5,918
7,368
8,387
11,159
13,821
16,980
19,166
24,549
29,744
37,606
44,000
46,919

6x47 Warrington-Seale
1+6/8+(8+8)+16

Minimum Breaking Force (tf)


IPS
2,70
4,15
5,96
8,10
10,50
13,20
16,20
23,40
31,80
41,50
52,50
64,80
78,40
93,30
-

EIPS
3,10
4,79
6,86
9,30
12,10
15,20
18,70
26,80
36,10
47,00
59,00
72,60
87,20
103,30
122,00
141,00
183,70
232,50
274,00
333,10
389,00
487,00
585,00
595,00
667,00

EEIPS
301,00
360,00
437,20
529,00
640,00
647,00
725,10

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

63

9.10

CWire rope class 6x36 - Steel core

9.11

Wire rope class 8x19 - Fibre core


Special for Passenger Elevators - Traction

8x19
Seale
1+9+9

Diameter
6x71
Warrington-Seale
1+6+8+(8+8)+16+24
Diameter
mm
114,0
121,0
127,0

in.
4.1/2
4.3/4
5

Minimum Breaking Force (tf)

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

EIPS
806,0
891,0
978,0

55,700
62,000
68,700

mm
8,0
9,5
11,0
13,0
16,0

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

in.
5/16
3/8
1/2
5/8

Minimum Breaking
Force (tf)
TS
2,86
4,10
5,42
7,60
11,55

0,223
0,315
0,445
0,560
0,880

Fabricados e testados de acordo com as exigncias da norma ISO 4344

9.12

Cabo de ao classe 8x19 - Alma de fibra


Especial para Elevadores de Passageiros - Limitador

8x19
Seale
1+9+9

Diameter

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

64

mm

in.

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

6,4*
6,4
8,0

1/4
1/4
5/16

0,140
0,145
0,223

6x19
Seale
1+9+9

Minimum Breaking Force (tf)


1770N/mm2
2,50
2,52
3,82

* 6x19S+AF

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

65

9.13

Wire rope class 18x7

9.14

Wire rope class 6x19 - Fibre Core - Fishing

6x19
Seale
1+9+9

19x7
1+6
Diameter
mm
6,4
8,0
9,5
11,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0
22,0
26,0
29,0
32,0

in.
1/4"
5/16"
3/8"
7/16"
1/2"
9/16
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,170
0,260
0,358
0,523
0,699
0,821
1,054
1,492
2,050
2,639
3,295
4,121

Minimum Breaking Force


IPS
2,40
3,75
5,40
7,40
9,60
12,10
15,00
21,50
29,30
38,20
48,40
59,70

EIPS
42,30
53,60
66,10

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

66

Diameter
mm
9,5
13,0
14,5
16,0
19,0

in.
3/8"
1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,340
0,590
0,770
0,940
1,298

Minimum Breaking Force


IPS
5,60
9,80
12,30
15,20
21,70

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance..

67

9.15

ProPac

9.16

PowerPac

Diameter

Diameter
mm
12
15
18
19
20
22
24
26
28
29
30
32
34
35
36
38
40
42

in.

1/2"
9/16"
5/8"
3/4"
1"
1.1/8"
1.1/4"
-

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)
0,690
0,800
0,930
1,070
1,220
1,540
1,730
1,740
1,930
2,340
2,780
3,020
3,240
3,680
3,940
4,029
4,220
4,800
4,906
5,420
5,869
6,209
6,918
7,665
8,451

Minimum Breaking Force


1960N/mm2
tf

kN

12,00
14,10
16,30
18,80
21,30
27,00
30,00
30,60
33,90
41,00
48,70
52,90
55,50
65,40
70,10
71,50
75,10
85,40
86,40
96,40
102,10
108,10
120,30
133,40
147,10

118
138
160
184
209
265
294
300
332
402
478
519
544
641
687
701
736
837
847
945
1.001
1.060
1.180
1.308
1.442

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

68

mm

in.

Approx.
Mass
(kg/m)

12
13
14
16
18
19
20
22
24
26
28
29
30
32
35
36
38
40
42
46
48
50
52
54
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
75

1.3/4"
-

0,673
0,810
0,939
1,226
1,513
1,730
1,865
2,319
2,728
3,239
3,698
4,029
4,240
4,906
5,869
6,082
6,918
7,475
8,451
9,487
10,138
11,038
11,977
12,955
13,970
16,117
17,247
18,416
19,624
20,869
22,153
23,476
24,836
26,949

Minimum Breaking Force


1770 N/mm2

1960 N/mm2

tf

kN

tf

kN

2160 N/mm2
tf

kN

11,70
14,00
16,10
21,10
26,50
29,80
32,70
40,00
47,40
55,00
64,20
69,00
74,10
84,40
100,30
106,10
118,60
131,10
145,00
158,70
174,90
189,70
202,90
218,10
238,60
272,20
292,70
310,00
324,30
346,70
367,10
387,50
411,00
441,10

115
137
158
207
260
292
321
392
465
539
630
677
727
828
984
1.040
1.163
1.286
1.422
1.556
1.715
1.860
1.990
2.139
2.340
2.669
2.870
3.040
3.180
3.400
3.600
3.800
4.030
4.325

12,50
15,40
17,80
23,50
29,50
33,00
36,40
44,30
52,00
62,00
71,20
75,80
80,90
92,90
111,20
117,60
132,40
145,20
158,00
174,90
190,30
209,10
226,80
245,40
264,60
305,40
326,60
348,80
371,70
395,30
419,50
444,60
466,60
505,20

123
151
175
230
289
324
357
434
510
608
698
743
793
911
1.090
1.153
1.298
1.424
1.549
1.715
1.866
2.050
2.224
2.406
2.595
2.995
3.203
3.420
3.645
3.876
4.114
4.360
4.575
4.954

13,80
16,90
19,90
25,30
32,00
35,90
39,60
48,30
56,10
67,80
77,80
82,80
87,90
102,20
114,60
128,20
142,80
156,70
175,00
195,20
211,10
229,50
250,50
269,90
289,90
334,20
357,10
384,30
406,20
433,20
459,80
488,90
517,20
551,70

135
166
195
248
314
352
388
474
550
665
763
812
862
1.002
1.124
1.257
1.400
1.537
1.716
1.914
2.070
2.250
2.456
2.647
2.843
3.277
3.502
3.768
3.983
4.248
4.509
4.794
5.072
5.410

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

69

9.17

ErgoFlex

Nominal Diameter

9.18

Minimum Breaking Force

Nominal Diameter

mm

in.

Approx.
Mass
(kg/m)

10

0,438

tf
9,40

kN
91,70

tf
10,10

kN
98,60

12
13
14
15
16
18
19
20
22
24
26
28
29
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
45

7/8"
1"
1.1/8"
-

0,638
0,750
0,862
1,013
1,141
1,418
1,633
1,777
2,148
2,150
2,529
2,910
3,021
3,466
3,670
3,731
4,025
4,578
5,168
5,829
6,476
7,138
7,940
8,960

13,60
15,90
18,50
21,20
24,30
30,40
34,10
37,70
46,10
46,20
54,00
60,50
63,90
73,90
76,50
79,20
84,60
96,30
108,20
121,50
135,30
150,00
165,30
189,80

133
156
181
208
238
298
334
370
452
453
530
593
627
725
750
777
830
944
1.061
1.191
1.327
1.471
1.621
1.861

14,70
17,10
19,70
22,90
26,00
32,20
37,00
40,30
48,60
48,70
57,10
65,70
68,30
78,20
82,30
83,90
90,90
103,30
116,40
130,50
145,30
160,90
178,00
201,90

144
168
193
225
255
316
363
395
477
478
560
644
670
767
807
823
891
1.013
1.141
1.280
1.425
1.578
1.745
1.980

1960N/mm2

2160N/mm2

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

70

ErgoFlex Plus

Minimum Breaking Force

mm

in.

Approx.
Mass
(kg/m)

22

2,490

tf
45,50

kN
446

tf
46,00

kN
451

24
26
28
29
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
45

1"
-

2,963
3,332
3,478
3,920
4,184
4,482
5,134
5,751
6,380
7,428
7,899
8,739
10,417

54,60
61,10
63,90
73,90
79,20
84,60
96,30
108,20
121,50
135,30
150,00
165,30
189,80

535
599
627
725
777
830
944
1.061
1.191
1.327
1.471
1.621
1.861

55,60
62,20
65,10
75,20
80,90
86,70
98,70
111,40
123,30
137,20
152,40
168,40
193,60

545
610
638
737
793
850
968
1.092
1.209
1.345
1.494
1.651
1.898

1960N/mm2

2160N/mm2

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

71

9.19

MinePac

Diameter

Minimum Breaking Force

mm

in.

Approx. Mass
(kg/m)

38

6,17

tf
108,10

kN
1.060

1770N/mm2

1.3/4"

9,23

148,48

1.456

48

10,68

171,53

1.682

58

15,53

249,75

2.449

60

16,41

265,04

2.599

2.1/2"

18,70

302,06

2.962

71

22,99

346,01

3.393

74

24,97

375,89

3.686

The value for mass indicated on the table refers to the internal standard of BBA;
it can vary as a function of the wire rope lay length tolerance.

72

73

10

10.1

Recommendations of wire ropes in


various applications

10.2

Bulldozer

Bulldozer
B
A
B

A
C

C
A) Bucket hoisting rope
MinePac, lang lay, bright, 1770 N/mm2.
B) Boom hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
A) Bucket hoisting rope

C) Bucket opening rope

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), lang lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
B) Boom hoisting rope

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
D) Mobile arm command rope

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

MinePac, lang lay, bright, 1770 N/mm2.

C) Bucket drag cable


6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

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75

10.3

Bulldozer

10.4

Crane on tracks

B
C
B

A) Hoisting rope

A) Bucket hoisting rope


PowerPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm2.

6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
B) Boom hoisting rope

B) Boom hoisting rope


6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
C) Boom holding cable

ProPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm2.

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

C) Drag rope
PowerPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm

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77

10.5

10.6

Stationary crane

Overhead crane

D
A

A
1

A) Bucket hoisting rope


More than on branch of rope for hoisting load: 6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay,
bright, preformed, EIPS.
If the rope is subject to kneading on the drum, use the same specifications above with
steel core (IWRC).
Only a single load hoisting rope: ErgoFlex or ErgoFlexPlus.
B) Boom hoisting rope

A) Hoisting rope
6x41 Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.
PowerPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm2.
ProPac, regular lay, bright, .1960 N/mm2.
B) Rope for raising hot loads
6x41Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS,

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
C) Crane rotation rope
6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.
D) Tie rods
6x7, steel core (WSC), regular lay, bright/galvanized, preformed, IPS or EIPS.

78

PowerPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm2,


Notes:
Lay right and left can be used simultaneously in installations which have two or more
independent ropes.
Wire rope with steel core (IWRC) is also recommended for working in corrosive
atmosphere.
We manufacture other constructions under consultation.
79

10.7

Suction dredge

10.8

Transportation of wooden logs

D
A

A) Stake rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), Lang lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), Lang lay, bright, preformed, IPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), Lang lay, bright, preformed, IPS

A) Winch rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
B) Slings
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS

B) Direction rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
C) Hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
D) Tie rod ropes
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

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81

10.10 Mining - Inclined plane

10.9

Pile driver

B
A

A) Traction rope
6x7, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
ProPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/ mm2.

A) Hammer rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
B) Guide tube rope
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
C) Block rope
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC) regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.

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83

10.11 Mining - Inclined well

10.13 Cableway

A
A

A) Hoisting rope
6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
ProPac, regular lay, bright, 1960 N/mm2

10.12 Vertical well


A

A) Track rope
Full-locked coil
B) Tractor rope

6x25 Filler, fibre core natural, regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
6X19 Seale, synthetic fibre core (SFC), Lang lay, bright, preformed, IPS.

A) Hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
Note:
The following ropes are recommended in installations in which the cabin are not guided:
Ergoflex or ErgoflexPlus
84

Note:
By virtue of rope wear on the bucket engagement bridges, it is recommended to
always choose the tractor rope with external wires as thick as possible, according to
the diameters of the sheaves on the installation.
For diameters below 1 inch, the construction 6x25F+FC, regular lay and EIPS wire
resistance can be used.
85

10.14 Blast furnace

10.15 Passenger elevator

A) Traction ropes
8X19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay,
bright, preformed, controlled lubrication
and special wires resistance for
elevators.

B) Compensation rope
8X19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay,
bright, preformed, special wires
resistance for elevators.

A
A

C) Speed limiter rope


6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay,
bright, preformed, special wires
resistance for elevators,
8X19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay,
galvanized, preformed, special wires
resistance for elevators.
.

A) Hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.
B) Cone ropes
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

Note:
These ropes are usually pre-stretched before placed into use,
Lay right and left can be used simultaneously in installations which have two or
more independent ropes.
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87

10.16 Work site winch - Work site elevator

10.17 Percussion drilling

B
B
A

A) Drilling rope
6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular left lay, bright, preformed, dual tensile wire
resistance.
B) Auxiliary rope

A) Winch rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS,

6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.
Note:
If the which drum has grooves, the wire rope can be used with fibre core (FC).

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89

10.18 Rotary drilling

10.19 Ropes for offshore

A) Anchoring rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized, EIPS.
A

6x36 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,


EIPS/EEIPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,
EIPS/EEIPS.
6x47 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,
EIPS/EEIPS.
B) Indicator rope

A) Drilling ropes

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized, EIPS.

6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS,
Note:
Fibre core (FC) is recommended only in shallow wells.
B) Auxiliary ropes
6x7, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS or EIPS.

6x36 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,


EIPS/EEIPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,
EIPS/EEIPS.
6x47 Warrington-Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized,
EIPS/EEIPS.
Note:
For other constructions, diameters and Minimum Breaking Force, consult our
technical department.

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91

10.20 Rope for navy

10.21 Ropes for fishing

A
A

A) Hoisting rope or halyard


6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized, PS.
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.

B) Cargo rope
6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, preformed, galvanized, PS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), regular lay, bright, preformed, IPS.
A) Real rope
6x7, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.

C) Vangs
6x7, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, PS,

6x19 Seale, synthetic fibre core (SFC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.

6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, PS


B) Scissors rope
6x19 Seale, synthetic fibre core (SFC), regular lay, galvanized preformed, IPS.

D) and E) Backstays
6x7, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.
6x19 Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC), regular lay, galvanized, preformed, IPS.

92

A) Rope for net trawling


6x19 Seale, synthetic fibre core (SFC), regular lay, galvanized preformed, IPS.

93

10.23 Highway protection

10.22 Suspension bridge

A
A
B

A) Main rope
1x19, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS.

1x7, galvanized, IPS/EIPS.

1x37, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS.

1x19, galvanized, IPS/EIPS.

6x7, steel core (WSC), preformed, galvanized, regular lay, pre-stretched, EIPS.

1x37, galvanized, IPS/EIPS.

6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), preformed, galvanized, pre-stretched regular lay,
EIPS.

6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), preformed, galvanized, pre-stretched regular lay,
IPS/EIPS.

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), preformed, bright, pre-stretched regular lay, EIPS.

B) Suspension ropes
1x19, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS.
1x37, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS.
6x7, steel core (WSC), pre-stretched, regular lay, EIPS.
6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), preformed, galvanized, pre-stretched
regular lay, EIPS.
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), preformed, bright, pre-stretched regular lay, EIPS.

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95

10.25 Port crane

10.24 Electricity

A
A

A) Hoisting rope
PowerPac, regular lay, galvanized, 1960 N/mm2

A) Ground rope
Strand 7 wires, galvanized, HS or EHS.
B) Messenger rope and tie rods
Strand 19 wires, galvanized, HS or EHS.
Strand 37 wires, galvanized, HS or EHS.
C) Aluminum ropes
Strand 7 wires, galvanized, HS or EHS.
Strand 19 wires, galvanized, HS or EHS.
96

97

10.26 Tirfor

10.28 Derrick

A) Hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

10.27 Suspended Fishing Tackle


A) Hoisting rope
19x7 Rotation Resistant, regular lay, bright or galvanized, IPS.
Ergoflex, lang lay, galvanized, 1960 N/mm2
ErgoflexPlus, lang lay, galvanized, 1960 N/mm2

A) Tie Rod
1x19 wires, galvanized, IPS.

A) Spiral Strand
Spiral Strand 19 wires, galvanized, HS.
98

99

10.29 Rocker arm

10.30 Tensostructure

A) Hoisting rope

A) Anchorage tie rod

6x25 Filler, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright, preformed, EIPS.

1x19, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS

6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright or galvanized, preformed, EIPS.

1x37, galvanized, pre-stretched, EIPS,


6x7, steel core (WSC), preformed, galvanized, regular lay, pre-stretched, EIPS,
6x19 Seale, steel core (IWRC), preformed, galvanized, regular lay,
pre-stretched, EIPS.

100

101

10.31 Hillo Winch

The Cimaf ropes are in constant development in their


production, maintenance and distribution processes.
With the verticalization of the stockpiles, the Cimaf
ropes have achieved a level of agility and organization
which make the brand a pioneer in the development of
advanced logistic methods in its segment.

A) Hoisting rope
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC) or steel core (IWRC), preformed, bright, pre-stretched
regular lay, EIPS.
6x41 Warrington-Seale, fibre core (FC) or steel core (IWRC), regular lay, bright,
preformed, IPS.
B) Slings
6x25 Filler, fibre core (FC), preformed, bright, pre-stretched regular lay, EIPS.

This technical manual contains recommendations on the type of wire ropes to be


used in the majority of industrial applications; however, we recommend that the
wire rope to be replaced has similar characteristics to the original rope of the
equipment or that our Technical Assistance is consulted to adapt the best product.
102

103

9A - 0014

104

105