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THEORY OF MATRICES

Real Matrices:

REAL MATRIX: A Matrix A= ( aij ) is said to be a real matrix if every element

real number.

ij

of A is a

3

1 2

Ex: 8 0 1

5 6 9

1 2 3

Ex: 2 6 9

3 9 7

matrix if aij= -aji for every i and j. Thus A is skew-symmetric if

A=-AT.

Note: Every diagonal element of a skew-symmetric matrix is necessarily zero.

a b

0

c

Ex: a 0

b c 0

ORTHOGONAL MATRIX: A real Matrix A= ( aij ) is said to be a orthogonal matrix

If A-1=-AT.

1 2 2

1

2 1 2

Ex:

3

2 2 1

Complex Matrices:

Complex matrix: A matrix A is called a complex matrix if the elements of A are complex.

5

2 3i

Ex:

6 7i 5 i

Conjugate complex matrix: If the elements of the matrix of A are replaced by their conjugate

complexes then the resulting matrix is defined as conjugate complex matrix.It is denoted by A

bar

5

5

2 3i

2 3i

Ex: If A=

, then conjugate of A =

6 7i 5 i

6 7i 5 i

Hermition:: A complex square matrix A is said to be a Hermition if A= A = A T

A=

2 1+j 2-j

1-j 1 j

2+j -j 1

skew-Hermition

Hermition if A= - A T

1) Interchange of two rows, if it h row and jt h row

w are interchanged it is denoted as RiRj

Ri

2) Multiplication of each element of a row with a non-zero scalar if ith row is multiplied with K

then it is denoted as RiKRi

3) Multiplying every element of a row with a non-zero scalar and adding to the corresponding

elements of another row. If all the elements of ith row are multiplied with k and added to the

corresponding elements of jth row then it is denoted by RjRj+kRi

Elementary column Transformation:

1) Interchange of two rows, if it h column and jt h column are interchanged it is denoted as CiCj

2) Multiplication of each element of a column with a non-zero scalar if ith column is multiplied with

K then it is denoted as CiKCi

3) Multiplying every element of a column with a non-zero scalar and adding to the corresponding

elements of another column. If all the elements of ith column are multiplied with k and added to the

corresponding elements of jth column then it is denoted by CjCj+kCi

Elementary Matrix:

A matrix which is obtained by applying elementary transformations in known as Elementary

matrix.

Rank of a Matrix:

A matrix is said to be of rank r if

(i) It has atleast one non-zero minor of order r and

(ii) Every minor of order higher than r vanishes.

And it is denoted by (A).

Properties:

1) The rank of a null matrix is zero.

2) For a non-zero matrix A,(A) 1

3) The rank of every non-singular matrix of order n is n. The rank of a singular matrix of order n is

< n.

4) The rank of a unit matrix of order n is n.

5) The rank of an mn matrix min(m,n).

6) The rank of a matrix every element of which is unity is unity.

Different methods to find the rank of a matrix:

Method 1:

Echelon form:: A matrix is said to be Echelon form if

1) Zero rows, if any, are below any non

non-zero row

2) The first non-zero entry in each

ach non

non-zero row is equal to one

3) The number of zeros before the first non

non-zero

zero elements in a row is less than the number of such

zeros in the next rows.

0

0

Ex: the rank of matrix which is in Echelon form

0

0

rows is

1

0

0

0

3

1

0

0

4 5

2 9

is 3 since the no. of non-zero

non

1 3

0 0

Method 2:

Normal Form: Every mn matrix of rank r can be reduced to the form

or I r

0 0

2

4

Ex: the rank of matrix A=

1

1

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 I 3

form as

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

2

2

1

2

0

0

0

1

6

2

after applying elementary operations reduced to normal

3

0

0

the rank of A is 3.

Finding the Inverse of a Nonsingular Matrix using Row/Column Transformations(GaussTransformations(Gauss

Jordan Method):

Jordan method.

Jordan method are:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

EXERCISE : Find the inverse of the following matrices using the Gauss

Gauss-Jordan

Jordan method.

of the Matrix:

Nature of solution:

1. m n non-homogeneous

homogeneous with m equations and n unknowns

The system of equations AX=B is said to be

i)

ii)

consistent and unique solution if rank of A = rank of [AB]=r=n

Where r is the rank of A and n is the no. of unknowns.

iii)

Consistent

tent and an infinite no. of solutions if rank of A < rank of [AB] i.e., r < n. In

this case we have to give arbitrary values to nn-rr variables and the remaining variables

can be expressed in terms of these arbitrary values.

Inconsistent if rank of A rank of [AB]

iv)

2. m = n non-homogeneous

homogeneous equations with n equations and n unknowns

If A be an n-rowed non-singular

singular matrix, the ranks of matrices A and [AB] are both n.

Therefore the system of equations AX=B is consistent i.e., possesses a solution.

3. Method of finding the rank of A and [AB]:

Reduce the augmented matrix [A:B] to Echelon form by elementary row transformations.

x+y+z = 6 , x+2y+3z = 10 , x+2y+

x+2y+z = have

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

no solution

A uniquee solution

An infinite no. of solutions

1 1 1

i.e., 1 2 3

1 2

x 6

y = 10

z

1 1 1 . 6

and we have the augmented matrix [AB] = 1 2 3 . 10

1 2 .

1

.

6

1 1

2

.

4 R2R2-R1, R3R3-R1

0 1

0 1 1 . 6

1

.

6

1 1

2

.

4 R3R3-R2

0 1

0 0 3 . 10

Case-I: When 3, then rank of A = 3 = rank of [AB]. So that the system of equations is

consistent. And r=3=n, so the system has unique solution.

Case-II: When =3 and 10, then rank of A = 2. And rank of [AB] = 3.

Therefore rank of A rank of [AB]. So the system is inconsistent.

Case-III: When =3 and =10, then rank of A = rank of [AB] = 2.

Therefore the system is consistent and has an infinite no. of solutions.

Since the no. of unknowns = n = 3 > rank of A = 2.

Homogeneous linear equations

Consider the system of m homogeneous equations in n unknowns

a x a x .......... a x 0

a x a x .......... a x 0

11

12

21

22

1n

2n

(1)

............................................................

a x a x

m1

n2

.......... a mn x n 0

a11 a12

a 21 a 22

am1 am 2

a1n

a 2 n

amn

x1

0

x2

0

.

.

X= and B=

.

.

xn

0

Consistency: The matrix A and [AB] are same. So rank of A = rank of [AB]

Therefore the system (1) is always consistent.

Nature of solution:

Trivial solution: Obviously x1=x2=x3= -------- =xn=0 is always a solution of the given system

and this solution is called trivial solution.

Therefore trivial solution or zero solution always exists.

Non-Trivial solution: Let r be the rank of the matrix A and n be the no. of unknowns.

Case-I: If r=n, the equations AX=O will have n-n i.e., no linearly independent solutions. In

this case, the zero solution will be the only solution.

Case-II: If r<n, we shall have n-r linearly independent solutions. Any linear combination of

these n-r solutions will also be a solution of AX=O.

Case-III: If m<n then rm<n. Thus in this case n-r > 0.

Therefore when the no. of equations < No. of unknowns, the equations will have an infinite

no. of solutions.

Ex: Show that the only real number for which the system

X+2y+3z = x, 3x+y+2z = y, 2x+3y+z = z has non-zero solution is 6 and solve

them when =6.

2

3

1

x

0

1

2 ; X= y and O= 0

Where A= 3

2

z

0

3

1

Here the no. of variables = n = 3.

The given system of equations possesses a non-zero (non-zero) solution, if rank of A <

number of unknowns i.e., rank of A < 3.

For this we must have detA = 0

1

2 =0

3

1

3

2

6 6 6

i.e.,

1

3

3

2

1

2 =0

1

R1R1+R2+R3

2 =0

i.e., (6-) 3 1

2

3

1

1

i.e., (6-)

3 2

2

1

0

1 =0

1

C2C2-C1, C3C3-C1

i.e., = 6 is the only real value and other values are complex.

3

5 2

3 5 2

2

3 5

x 0

y = 0

z 0

3

5 2

0 19 19

0

19 19

x 0

y = 0

z 0

R25R2+3R1, R35R3+2R1

2

3 x 0

5

0 19 19 y = 0

0

0

0 z 0

R3R3+R2

y=z

Since rank of A < No. of unknowns i.e., r < n (2 < 3)

Therefore, the given system has infinite no. of non-trivial solutions.

Let z=k y=k and -5x+2k+3k = 0 x=k

Solving mxn and nxm Linear System of Equations by Gauss Elimination:

GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION METHOD: Consider the system of linear

a1 x1 b1 x2 c1 x3 d 1

equation s

a x b x c x d

a x b x c x d

2

[A:B]=

a1 b1 c1 d1

a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2

a3 b3 c3 d 3

a1 b1 c1 d1

[A:B] = 0 b2 c 2 d 2

0 0 c3 d 3

Ex: solve the equations

2x1 + x2 + x3 = 10

3x1 + 2x2 +3x3 = 18

X1 + 4x2 + 9x3 = 16 using gauss elimination method

2 1 1 10

Sol: The augmented matrix of the given matrix is [A B] = 3 2 3 18

1 4 9 16

1

10

2 1

[A B] 0 1 / 2 3 / 2 3 R22R3-R1

0 7 / 2 17 / 4 11

1

10

2 1

3 R3R3-7R2

[A B] 0 1 / 2 3 / 2

0 0

2 10

This augmented matrix corresponds to the following upper triangular system. By backward

substitution we get

2x1 + x2 + x3 = 10;

1

3

x2 + x3 = 3; -2x3 = -10

2

2

x3 = 5 ; x2 = -9 ; x1 = 7

CAYLEY-HAMILTON THEOREM:

Verification: Example 1: Cayley-Hamilton theorem

Consider the matrix

11

A=

21

1- 1

2 1-

p( ) = det (A - I) =

= ( 1 - )2 - 2 = 2 - 2 - 1

p(A) = A2 - 2 A - I

=

32

43

11

11

21

21

22

42

10

01

-2

00

00

11

21

10

01

Linear Dependence and Independence of Vectors:

LINEAR TRANSFORMATION:

Consider a set of n linear equations

a11 x1 a12 x2 .......... a1n xn y

a x a x

21

21

............ a 2 n xn

.....................................................

a x a x

n1

n2

................ ann xn

If the above equation is additive and homogenous

The transformation is called linear transformation

Orthogonal Transformation:

Suppose that A is a real square matrix of order n. Then the linear transformation Y=AX is

called an orthogonal linear transformation or orthogonal transformation if A is an orthogonal

matrix.

Consider the following n homogeneous equations in n unknowns as given below

(a11 ) x1 + a12x2 + - - - - - - a1nxn = 0

a21x1 + (a22 ) x2 + - - - - - -a2nxn = 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

an1x1 + an2x2 + - - - - - - (ann )xn = 0

The above system of equations in matrix notation can be written as (A I) X = 0

Where is a parameter.

The matrix (A I) is called Characteristic Matrix and |A I| = 0 is called Characteristic

Equation. i.e.,

|A I| = (-1)n n + k1 n-1 + k2 n-2 + - - - - - - + kn = 0

Where k1,k2,- - - - - ,kn are expressible in terms of the elements aij

Eigen Value: The roots of characteristic equation are called the characteristic roots or latent

roots or eigen values.

Eigen Vector: If is a characteristic root of a matrix then a non-zero vector X such that AX =

X is called a characteristic vector or Eigen vector of A corresponding to the characteristic root

.

Note: Eigen vector must be a non-zero vector

PROPERTIES OF THE EIGEN VALUES:

1) The sum of the Eigen values of the square matrix is equal to its trace and product of the Eigen

values is equal to its determinant.

Proof: consider A =

a 21 a 22 a 23

a31 a 32 a 33

a11

a12

a13

a 21

a 22

a 23

a31

a32

a 33

=0

- 3 + 2 (a11+a22+a33) + - - - - - - - = 0

| A I | = - 3 + 2 (a11+a22+a33) + - - - - - - - (1)

Also if 1, 2, 3 be the Eigen values, then

|A I| = (-1)3(-1) (-2)( -3)

| A I | = -3 + 2 (1+2+3) + - - - - - - -

(2)

1+2+3 = a11+a22+a33

Hence the sum of the Eigen values of a matrix is the trace of the matrix.

2) If is an eigen values of A corresponding to the eigen vector X then n is the eigen value of the

matrix An corresponding to the eigen vector Xn

3) If 1 2 3 ......... n are the latent roots of A then A3 has the latent roots as

4)A square matrix A and its transpose AT have the same eigen values

......

3

5) If A and B are n rowed square matrix and if A is invertible then A-1B and BA-1 have the same

eigen values

6) If 1 2 3 ......... n are the eigen values of a matrix A then product of each 1 2 3 ......... n

with K are the eigen values of the matrix KA where K is anon-zero scalar

7) If is an Eigen value of the matrix A then K+ is an Eigen value of the matrix A+KI

8) If is the Eigen value of A then -K are the eigen values of the matrix A-KI.

9) If is the Eigen value of the matrix of A, then (-K) 2 is the eigern value of the matrix

2

(A-KI)

10) If is an Eigen value of a non-singular matrix A then A/ is an Eigen value of the matrix Adj

(A)

Eigen values and Eigen vectors of complex matrix and their properties:

1) The Eigen value of a hermitian matrix is real

2) The eigen values of askew-hermitioan are purely imaginary or zero

3) The eigenvalues of unitary matrix have absolute value one

4) Transpose of a unitary matrix is unitary

6) If A is hermitian (skew-hermitian) then iA is skew-hermitian (hermitian)

7) The square matrix A can be written as sum of Hermitian and Skew-hermitian

Eigen values: Consider the matrix A of order n and its characteristic equation is |A-I| = 0. Expand

the determinant to obtain Eigen values =1, 2, 3, ----, n.

Eigen vectors:

Case-I: Eigen values are distinct 123

x1

x2

can be obtained from the

x3

matrix equation (A-I)X=O and by expanding it we get three homogeneous linearly independent

x1

x2

equations are obtained and solving any two equations for x1,x2,x3 the eigen vector X1= can be

x3

obtained. Similarly, the remaining Eigen vectors X2, X3 can be obtained corresponding to the Eigen

values 2 and 3.

Method2: (Rank method) in the matrix equation (A-I) X=O, reduce the coefficient matrix to

Echelon form, the rank of the coefficient matrix is less than the number of unknowns. So give

arbitrary constants to n-r variables and solve as in case of homogeneous equations.

Case-II: Finding Linearly Independent Eigen vectors of a matrix whenthe Eigen values of the matrix

are repeated (1=2)

Method1: The matrix equation (A- I) X=O gives three equations which represent a single

independent equation of the form.

a1x1+a2x2+a3x3 = 0

Put x3=0, a1x1+a2x2 = 0 give values to x1 and x2 to satisfy the equation.

k1

k 2

0

c1

0

c3

Method2: (Rank method)

Ex: Find the Eigen values and corresponding Eigen vectors of the matrix

6 2 2

A = 2 3 1

2 1 3

Sol: The characteristic equation of the matrix A is |A- I| = 0

2

2

3 1 = 0

1 3

3 102 + 20 32 = 0

(-2)(-2)(-8) = 0

= 2, 2, 8

x1

x2

x3

2 x1

6 2

2 3 1

x2 =

2

1 3 x3

0

0

2 x1

6 8 2

2 3 8 1

x2 =

2

1 3 8 x3

2 2 2 x1

2 5 1

x2 =

2 1 5 x3

0

0

0

0

-2x1-2x2+2x3 = 0

-2x1-5x2-x3 = 0

2x1-x2-5x3 = 0

x1 x 2 x 3

=

=

=k (say)

2 1 1

DIAGONALIZATION OF THE MATRIX:

If a square matrix A of order n has linearly independent Eigen vectors

Corresponding to the n Eigen values

such that

Let

X X X

1

.........

X X X

1

........ X n

.........

1

Define P=(

X X X

1

be eigen values

........ X n )

then

AP=PD

p

p

AP=

PD

AP=D

The matrix P in the above result which diagonals the square matrix A is called the modal matrix of A

and the resulting diagonal matrix D is know as spectral matrix.

Calculation of powers of Matrix:

Let A be the square matrix and

Let P a non-singular matrix such that D=P-1AP

D2=P-1A2P

Similarly D3=P-1A3P Like for n tern we have Dn=P-1AnP

A homogeneous polynomial of second degree in n variables (x1,x2,-------,xn) is called a quadratic

form. The most general quadratic form is

a11 x1 a12 x2 .......... a1n xn

Q=

a x a x

21

21

............ a 2 n x n

.....................................................

a x a x

n1

n2

................ a nn xn

a x x

i 1 j 1

Canonical form:

ij

let Q=XTAX be a quadratic form in n variables then there exists a real non-singular linear

transformation X=PY which transforms Q=XTAX to the form

y y

.......

2

n

this form is

Rank of the quadratic form : let XTAX be a quadratic form over R . The rank r of A is called

the rank of the quadratic form if (r<n) where n is order of A or det(A)=0 or A is singular . The

quadratic form is called singular or non-singular

Index: The index of the quadratic form is the number of positive square terms in the canonical

form

Signature: signature of the quadratic form is the difference between the number of positive and

negative square terms of be the canonical form

Definiteness: A real non-singular quadratic form Q= XTAX (with det(A)0) is said to be

positive definite if rank and index are equal that is r=n and s=n. and the quadratic form is called

negative definite if index equal to zero that is r=n and s=0 and the quadratic form is called

positive semi-definite if the rank and index are equal but less than n that is s=r<n and it is

negative semi- definite if index is zero

Method1: Orthogonalization

Procedure:

Step1: Write the matrix A of the given quadratic form.

Step2: Find the Eigen values 1, 2, 3and corresponding Eigen vectors X1 ,X2 and

X3 in the normalized form.

Step3: Write the modal matrix P = [X1 X2 X3] formed by normalized vectors.

Step4: P being an orthogonal matrix P-1=P so that PTAP = D where D is the diagonal matrix

formed by Eigen values.

Step5: The canonical form is YT (PTAP) Y = 1y12+2y22+3y32

Step6: The orthogonal transformation is X=PY

Note: The matrix A of the quadratic form is symmetric matrix and so diagonalization is by

orthogonal transformation.

Nature of a quadratic form:

When the quadratic form Q=XTAX is reduced to a canonical form, it will contain r terms if the

rank of A is r.

1. Rank of A = Rank of quadratic form = r = No. of terms in the canonical form.

2. The Index = No. of positive terms in the canonical form and is denoted by p

3. Signature = the difference of the no. of positive terms and the no. of negative terms i.e., 2p-r.

4. The quadratic form is

(i) Positive definite, if all the Eigen values of A are positive i.e., r=n and p=n.

(ii) Positive semi definite, if at least one of the Eigen values of A is zero and

other

positive i.e., r<n and p=0.

(iii) Negative definite, if all the Eigen values are negative i.e., r=n and p=0

(iv) Negative semi definite, if at least one of the Eigen values of A is zero and others are

negative i.e., r<n and p=0.

(v) Indefinite, if the Eigen values of A are positive and negative.

Ex: Reduce the quadratic form 6x12+3x22+3x32-4x1x2+4x1x3-2x2x3 to canonical form by an

orthogonalization. Find rank, Index and signature of quadratic form.

Sol: The matrix A of the given quadratic form is

6 2 2

A = 2 3 1

2 1 3

The characteristic equation of the matrix A is |A- I| = 0

6 2

2

2

2

3 1 = 0

1 3

3 102 + 20 32 = 0

(-2)(-2)( -8) = 0

= 2, 2, 8

The Eigen values of A are 2,2 and 8.

x1

x2

of A corresponding to the Eigen value is given by the non-zero

x3

2 x1

6 2

2 3 1

x2 =

2

1 3 x3

0

0

2 x1

6 8 2

2 3 8 1

x2 =

2

1 3 8 x3

2 2 2 x1

2 5 1

x2 =

2 1 5 x3

0

0

0

0

-2x1-2x2+2x3 = 0

-2x1-5x2-x3 = 0

2x1-x2-5x3 = 0

Solving any two of the equations, we get

x1 x 2 x 3

=

=

=k (say)

2 1 1

x1=2k , x2=-k and x3=k

2k

For the eigen value =8, the eigen vector X3 = k

k

2

In particular k=1, X3 = 1

1

If =2, the Eigen vector X is given by (A-2I) X=O

4 2 2 x1

2 1 1

x2 =

2 1 1 x3

0

0

4x1-2x2+2x3 = 0

-2x1+x2-x3 = 0

2x1-x2+x3 = 0

All the above three equations represent only one independent equation

2x1-x2+x3 = 0

Let x1 = 0, then -x2+x3 = 0 x2 = x3 =1

Let x2 = 0, then 2x1+ x3 = 0 x1 = 1, x3 = -2

So corresponding Eigen value =2, then linearly independent Eigen vectors are given by

0

1

X1 = 1 and X2 = 0

1

2

0

1/ 2

X1 =

1/ 2

1/ 5

2/ 5

2/ 6

1

/

6

X3 =

1/ 6

= e1

= e2

= e3

PTAP =

2 0 0

0 2 0

0 0 8

0

1/ 5

2/ 6

1

/

2

0

1

/

6

1/ 2 2 / 5 1/ 6

= diag [2 2 8]

And the quadratic form will be reduced to the normal form 2y12+2y22+8 y32 by the orthogonal

transformation X = PY. i.e.,

y2 2 y3

y1 y3

y1 2 y 2 y3

x1 =

+

; x2 =

; x3 =

+

5

6

6

6

2

5

6

Method2: Diagonalization

Procedure:

Step1: Write the matrix A of the given quadratic form, A is a symmetric matrix

Step2: Write A=IAI

Step3: Reduce the matrix A to diagonal form by applying row and column transformations.

Step4: Apply same row operations on prefactor I on R.H.S and identical column operations on

postfactor I on R.H.S

Step5: A=IAI will be transformed to the form D = PTAP

The canonical form is given by

YT D Y = [y1 y2 y3]

1 0 0

0 2 0

0 0 3

YT D Y = 1y12+2y22+3y32

y1

y 2

y3

diagonalization. Find rank, Index and signature of quadratic form.

Sol: The matrix A of the given quadratic form is

6 2 2

A = 2 3 1

2 1 3

The characteristic equation of the matrix A is |A- I| = 0

6 2

2

2

2

3 1 = 0

1 3

3 102 + 20 32 = 0

(-2)( -2)( -8) = 0

= 2,2,8

The Eigen values of A are 2,2 and 8.

x1

x2

of A corresponding to the Eigen value is given by the non-zero

x3

2 x1

6 2

2 3 1

x2 =

2

1 3 x3

0

0

2 x1

6 8 2

2 3 8 1

x2 =

2

1 3 8 x3

0

0

2 2 2 x1

2 5 1

x2 =

2 1 5 x3

0

0

-2x1-2x2+2x3 = 0

-2x1-5x2-x3 = 0

2x1-x2-5x3 = 0

Solving any two of the equations ,we get

x1 x 2 x 3

=

=

=k (say)

2 1 1

x1=2k , x2=-k and x3=k

2k

For the eigen value =8, the eigen vector X3 = k

k

2

Inparticular k=1 , X3 = 1

1

If =2, the Eigen vector X is given by (A-2I)X=O

4 2 2 x1

2 1 1

x2 =

2 1 1 x3

0

0

4x1-2x2+2x3 = 0

-2x1+x2-x3 = 0

2x1-x2+x3 = 0

All the above three equations represent only one independent equation

2x1-x2+x3 = 0

Let x1 = 0, then -x2+x3 = 0 x2 = x3 =1

Let x2 = 0, then 2x1+ x3 = 0 x1 = 1, x3 = -2

So corresponding Eigen value =2, then linearly independent Eigen vectors are given by

0

1

X1 = 1 and X2 = 0

1

2

0

1/ 2

X1 =

1/ 2

= e1

1/ 5

2/ 5

2/ 6

1

/

6

X3 =

1/ 6

= e2

= e3

=

The matrix P is orthogonal so P-1 = PT

Diagonalization PTAP = D

0

1/ 5

2/ 6

1

/

2

0

1

/

6

1/ 2 2 / 5 1/ 6

0

1/ 2

1 / 2 6 2 2 0

1/ 5

2/ 6

2

3

1

1

/

5

0

2

/

5

1

/

2

0

1

/

6

2 / 6 1/ 6 1/ 6 2 1 3 1/ 2 2 / 5 1/ 6

2 0 0

0 2 0

0 0 8

y1

2 0 0

0 2 0 y2

= [y1 y2 y3]

0 0 8 y3

= 2y12+2y22+8 y32

The rank of quadratic form = no. of non-zero terms in the canonical form = 3

The Index P = no. of positive terms in the canonical form = 3

Signature = 2P rank of quadratic form = 3.

Procedure:

Step1: Take the common terms from product terms of given quadratic form.

Step2: Make perfect squares suitably by regrouping the terms.

Step3: The resulting relation gives the canonical form.

Ex: Reduce the following quadratic form x12+2x22-7x32-4x1x2+8x1x3 to canonical form by

lagranges reduction.

Sol: Let the quadratic form be x12+2x22-7x32-4x1x2+8x1x3

= x12+2x22-7x32-4 x1(x2-2x3)

= [x12-4x1(x2-2x3)+22(x2-2x3)2]-22(x2-2x3)2+2x22-7x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-4[x22-4x2x3+4x32]+2x22-7x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-4x22+16x2x3-16x32+2x22-7x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-2x22+16x2x3-23x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-2[x22-8x2x3]-23x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-2[x22-8x2x3+42x32]+32x32-23x32

= [x1-2(x2-2x3)]2-2[x2-4x3]2+9x32

= y12-2y22+9y32

Where y1= x1-2(x2-2x3) ; y2= x2-4x3 ; y3=x3

Let the quadratic form is XTAX, using orthogonal transformation X=PY we get

PY APY

T

T AP Y

p

where p AP D

y y

.......

DY

2

n

D is called spectral matrix

Practice Problems:

1. Reduce the quadratic form x12+3x22+3x32-2x2x3 to canonical form by orthogonal

transformation.

2. Reduce the quadratic form 6x2+3y2+3z2-4yz-4zx-2xy to normal form by diagonolization.

3. Find the nature of the quadratic form x2+3y2+4z2+2yz+4xz+2xy

4. Reduce the quadratic form 2x2+7y2+5z2-8xy-10yz+4zx to canonical form by lagranges

reduction.

5. (i) Show that if A is a Hermitian then iA is a Skew-Hermitian

(ii) Show that if A is Skew-Hermitian the iA is Hermitian

MATRICES 1

1.

the normal form.

Also Verify Cayley Hamilton Theorem and find inverse for the followings.

1.

2 1 1

A 1 2 1

1 1 2

3 1 1

1

Ans.: A1 1 3 1

4

1 1 3

2.

7 2 2

A 6 1 2

6 2 1

3 2 2

1

Ans.: A 6 5 2

3

6 2 5

3.

3 1 1

A 1 5 1

1 1 3

7 2 3

1

1 4 1

Ans.: A

20

2 2 8

2. Using Cayley Hamilton Theorem, find the inverse of the following Matrices:

5 3

3 2

1.

2 3

3 5

Ans.:

2.

7 1 3

6 1 4

2 4 8

8 20 7

1

40 50 10

Ans.:

50

22 30 13

3.

1 0 3

2 1 1

1 1 1

4.

1 1 3

1 3 3

2 4 4

5.

2 1 3

1 0 2

4 2 1

6.

5 1 5

0 2

0

5 3 15

0 3 3

1

3 2 7

Ans.:

9

3 1 1

Ans.:

12 4 6

1

5 1 3

4

1 1 1

4 5 2

1

Ans.: 7 10 1

5

2 0

1

3 0 1

1

0 5 0

10

1 1 1

7.

1 1 3

1 3 3

2 4 4

24 8 12

1

10 2 6

Ans.:

8

2 2 2

8.

1 2 4

1 0 3

3 1 2

6

3 8

1

7 14 7

Ans.:

7

2

1 5

3. Find the Characteristic equation of the following Matrix and Show that the equation is

satisfied by the matrix itself and hence obtain the inverse of the given matrix:

1 3 7

4 2 3

A=

1 2 1

4 11 5

1

Ans.: 4 20 35 0 , A 1 6 25

35

6 1 10

3

2 1 1

4. Find the Characteristic equation of the matrix A 0 1 0 and hence, find the

1 1 2

matrix represented by A8 5 A7 7 A6 3 A5 A4 5 A3 8 A2 2 A I

8 5 5

Ans.: 0 3 0

5 5 8

1 2 3

5. Find the Characteristic equation of the matrix A 2 1 4 . Show that the

3 1 1

equation is satisfied by A.

Ans.: 3 2 18 40 0

1

3

3 3 and hence find its

2 4 4

inverse.

5

1

Ans.: A

4

1

1

1

4

1

4

3

2

3

4

1

4

1 2 2

7. Find the Characteristic equation of the matrix A 1 1 1 and hence find its

1 3 1

4 4 4

1

3

2

1

inverse.

Ans.: 4 4 0, A 2 1 3

4

2 1 1

2 1 1

8. Find the Characteristic equation of the symmetric matrix A 1 2 1 and

1 1 2

1

verify that it is satisfied by A and hence obtain A .

3 1 1

1

Ans.: 6 9 4 0, A 1 3 1

4

1 1 3

3

4 3 1

9. Find the Characteristic equation of the matrix A 2 1 2 .Hence find A1 .

1 2 1

7 2 10

1

1

Ans.:. A 2 2 1

9

1 1 4

1 2 2

10. Show that the matrix A 1 2 3 satisfies its Characteristic equation. Hence

0 1 2

7 2 10

1

1

1

find A .

Ans.: A 2 2 1

9

1 1 4

1 2

11. Using Cayley Hamilton Theorem find A8 , if A

.

2 1

Ans.: 625 I

MATRICES2

1)

5 4

Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

1 2

Ans:

2)

3)

1, 6;

1

K1 ,

1

4

K2

1

1)

8 6 2

6 7 4

2 4 3

1

2

2

Ans.: 0, 3, 15 K1 2 , K 2 1 , K 3 2

2

2

1

2)

6 2 2

2 3 1

2 1 3

Ans.: 2, 2, 8

1

1

2

K 1 0 , K 2 2 , K 3 1

2

0

1

3)

2 0 1

0 2 0

1 0 2

Ans.: 1, 2, 3

1

0

1

K1 0 , K 2 1 , K 3 0

1

0

1

4)

2 1 1

1 2 1

0 0 1

Ans.: 1, 1, 3

1

1

1

K 1 2 , K 2 1 , K 3 1

1

0

0

5)

3 1 4

0 2 0

0 0 5

Ans.: 2, 3, 5

1

1

2

K1 1 , K 2 0 , K 3 0

0

0

1

3 1 1

Find the Characteristic Polynomial of the Matrix A 1 5 1

1 1 3

.

7 2 3

1

1

4

1

Ans.: A

20

2 2

8

1

4)

5)

1)

2 1 3

A 1 0 2

4 2 1

5 2

4

1

Ans.: A 7 10 1

5

2 0

1

2)

5 1 5

A 0

2

0

5 3 15

3 0 1

1

Ans.: A 0 5 0

10

1 1 1

1 3 7

Find the characteristic Equation of the matrix A 4 2 3 and Show that

1 2 1

the equation is also satisfied by A .

Ans.: 3 4 2 20 35 0

6)

1 2 2

Show that the matrix A 1 2 3 satisfies its characteristic equation.

0 1 2

Hence, find A 1

7 2 10

1

Ans.: A 2 2 1

9

1 1

4

1

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