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Chapter I

Introduction
Background of the Study
Traffic management schemes are introduced to solve a problem which
has been identified in one or more roads. The need for a scheme can be
identified in a variety of ways. It may for example be a bad accident record or
the concerns of residents that prompts an investigation. Sometimes the
Council adopts an "area wide" approach to traffic problems, for example
where there is a demand from several residential roads for "Speed Control
Humps". To deal with this priority is given to the worst problems first. There is
no single solution to problems associated with traffic management. A variety
of measures are used sometimes in combination.
The last few decades have seen the advent of deregulation and
competition in transportation worldwide. Increased pressure from consumers
has ensured that a better service is available through competition and market
forces in these areas. The case of road transport is however quite different.
Indeed, government intervention is still regarded as necessary to secure
investment in road infrastructure. In parallel, increased wealth and
employment has seen the number of passenger cars increase phenomenally.
OSullivan (1991) mentioned that traffic congestion appears when too many
passenger cars attempt to take the same route at the same time. This has put
increased pressure on the roads and the public transport system. The latter
being in most cases under-funded and inefficient has resulted in a definite
switch to passenger cars.

According to Pedroso (2013) that in the Philippines, the country has


been losing billions of pesos due to traffic congestion over the years. In
August last year, a study by the University of the Philippines National Center
for Transportation Study (UP NCTS) placed the average annual losses
incurred due to traffic congestion in Metro Manila at over P137 billion as of
2011. The study noted that the country has lost more than P1.5 trillion since
2001 due to traffic, which has led to loss of productivity. Earlier in 1999,
studies by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) and the
Department of Transportation and Communication placed annual losses due
to traffic in Metro Manila at P140 billion.
Furthermore, of this figure, P40 billion went to direct losses, such as
wasted gasoline, lost labor hours, employment of traffic aides, and wasted
electricity, while P100 billion went to indirect losses, like missed business
opportunities and reduced capital inflow due to investors shying away from
the country, among others. Bad driving habits, inadequate traffic enforcement,
and poorly coordinated infrastructure projects are the main reasons for the
traffic.
Lirios (2003) stated in her papers that due to rapid urbanization and
population growth, mobility problems arise. The economic development of
Davao has brought rapid growth on the vehicle volume, resulting to traffic
congestion during peak hours along major thoroughfares. This may hinder
further development and economic growth in the city. Pedestrians are also
one of reason for Davaos traffic congestion because these people cross the
street anytime they want to and do not even mind to look for pedestrian lanes
for safer cross.

Increase in population, growing tourism industry, rising economy,


increase in vehicular ownership, etc. contributed to the traffic congestion in
Davao City. As most of us have observed that with the growing problem on
traffic congestion in Davao City, the proponents of this study believe that
suggestive intervention scheme through the proponents thorough study may
hopefully contribute to alleviate if cannot be prevented the present traffic
congestion in Davao City.
Statement of the Problem
The concern of this study is to determine the factors contributing traffic
congestion in Davao City as basis for intervention scheme. Thus, it sought to
answers on the following questions:
1. What is the level of satisfaction of the motorists with the present
traffic congestion in Davao City in terms of:
1.1 PUJ routes;
1.2 Pedestrians crossing; and
1.3 Present traffic scheme plan of Davao City
2. What intervention scheme can be developed to mitigate the traffic
congestion in Davao City in terms of?
2.1 Re-routing
2.2 Additional TMC personnel; and
2.3 Adjustment of traffic lights?
3. Based on the foregoing study, what intervention scheme can be
proposed by the proponents of this study to lessen traffic congestion in Davao
City?

4. Is there a significant difference with the level of satisfaction of the


motorists and the traffic congestion in Davao City?
Review of Related Literature
Traffic management involves the allocation of infrastructure (road
space or train slots on a railway network) according to strategic operational
and policy goals. These include efficiency, safety, environmental, economic
and equity objectives. In real terms, meeting them may encompass measures
that include giving priority to buses, trams or other vehicles such as
emergency services or high occupancy vehicles, increasing space available
for pedestrians and cyclists, or providing shared road space. For rail, rules for
market opening, network capacity allocation and pricing also constitute policylevel strategic management. Smith (2003)
According to Andrew Winder and Mark Brackstone ( 2009) that traffic
signals and railway signaling are perhaps the earliest form of intelligent
traffic management, aimed primarily at safety but also at managing priorities
at junctions. The phasing and coordination of road traffic signals in urban
areas via a control center is still the most widespread tool for the effective
management of street networks. More recent applications of traffic signaling
include dynamic lane allocation (for tidal flow, or reserved lanes for buses or
other authorized vehicles) and ramp metering (signalized access control to
motorways).
Tugbobo (2009) cited that while the largest cities are the most
congested, congestion occursand has grownin cities of every size
Congestion extends to more time of the day, more roads, affects more of the
travel, and creates more extra travel time than in the past. It has become

more volatile as well in cities of developing world. Rising population, rapid


economic growth and increasing employment without a corresponding growth
in the supply of public transport, responsible largely for major urban traffic
issues in most cities of developing economy.
Moreover, rail traffic management, and particularly signaling, is as old
as rail operations themselves. Rail traffic, due to its own physical
characteristics, is based on a controlled flow density, as opposed to road
traffic, which is based on free flow. Rail signal systems therefore do not only
protect junctions but also ensure safe spacing between trains running on the
same lines. Some of them, in addition to transmitting information about
movement to authorities and speed limits from track to train, can also effect
automatic braking if the train ignores certain limits through Automatic Train
Protection (ATP). In stations and yards these functions are realized by
interlocking systems which ensure that trains run safely across the many
conflict points.
According to Norquist (2011) that it is certainly true that people
complain about congestion. Yet it is just as true that popular destinations tend
to be crowded. Fifth Avenue in New York, Market Street in San Francisco,
Chicagos Michigan Avenue and Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills are all
congested, but people keep coming back to shop or hang out.
More recently, the renewed Lisbon Strategy (CEC, 2005) highlighted
the need to develop and improve economic and resource efficiency. This will
enable a reduction in transport costs. Objectives of the Lisbon Strategy with
relevance to traffic management include improved utilization of existing
networks, tackling congestion and increasing accessibility, developing urban

transport opportunities, developing charging policies, increasing synergies


between modes and improving logistics.
According to (Trevor, 2006), the mid-term review of the 2001 White
Paper on Transport, there is no reason in the long run why sophisticated
communication, navigation and automation should be restricted to aircraft and
not be available to land transport modes, in particular road transport.
Trevor further cited that the review expects that new technologies will
provide new services to citizens and allow improved real-time management of
traffic movements and infrastructure capacity use, as well as the tracing and
tracking of transport flows. In addition to providing benefits for transport
operators and users, new systems can provide public administrations with
rapid and detailed information on infrastructure maintenance and renovation
needs. Traffic management applications can increase the efficiency of
networks, reduce the need to build new infrastructure, enhance driving and
travelling comfort and also help to increase safety and security, as well as
tackling wasteful and socially harmful transport patterns in the interests of
environmental and social sustainability.
According to Regidor (2004) that transportation and traffic problems
have hounded major cities around the world, necessitating the provision of
various infrastructures and the implementation of an assortment of policies
geared towards solving these problems. Various results have been
experienced with certain policies failing to control traffic, and infrastructure
unable to address the demand for facilities. In many cases, implementation is
successful leading to the notion that such success can be replicated in other
cases.

Doctrine (2013) cited that on-street parking and pedestrian activity


along Manila roads many cities such as Manila are guilty of not having any
serious initiatives to address on-street parking. In many cases, its tolerated
particularly in commercial areas as local governments dont like to engage
business in what they assume to be the small issue (or non-issue) of parking.
In the case of pedestrians, it is a behavioral thing that requires a bit more
effort than police or enforcer visibility (or the occasional apprehension). As a
result, people will generally cross wherever they want and walk along the
carriageway, not minding their safety. Of course, such behavior is encouraged
by the absence of space for walking as vehicles, merchandise and other stuff
occupy space thats supposed to be for pedestrians.
Although the amount lost to traffic congestion would depend on the
activity or business that is being held up by bad traffic in Metro Manila,
Mekaniko (2012) mentioned that a study published by the National Center for
Transportation Studies (NCTS) revealed that traffic congestion in Metro
Manila alone would amount to P137.5 billion just for 2011. Cumulatively, traffic
congestion in Metro Manila for the last 11 years would already have cost a
whopping P1.5 trillion. Likewise, additional losses from fuel are estimated to
reach P4.2 billion. The study only covered traffic congestion losses of five
occupations, particularly government officials, professionals, technicians,
clerical workers, and service workers. The fact that it does not include
variables from other economic activities, such as tourism, education, among
others could actually increase the amount of losses.

The City of Davao (Filipino: Lungsod ng Dabaw) is the largest city in


the island of Mindanao in the Philippines and the country's largest in terms of
land area. It has the third most significant metropolitan centre in the country. It
is also the center of trade, commerce, and industry in Mindanao. The
vehicular traffic situation in Davao City has significantly improved, being listed
5th on a recent list of Southeast Asian cities with the best managed traffic
flow, from a rank of 27th in the same survey held three years ago. This
improvement is attributed to the continuing education of drivers and the strict
implementation of traffic laws.
There are, Regidor (2004) added, at least, 35,000 vehicles plying the
routes of Davao City, plus 20% of the total number of vehicles coming from
the rest of Region 11. Private automobiles that you will mostly see are
sedans, pick-ups, vans, motorcycles and buses used for private purposes
such as carpooling or servicing tourists. Public vehicles, however, comprise
most of the citys traffic, including jeeps, motorcycle taxis, taxicabs and
tricycles in smaller roads. Public buses are also seen in the citys streets,
albeit sparingly, as they only ply out-of-town routes.
According to National Statistics Office (NSO, 2010), the estimated
population of the city is 1,449,296 in 2010. Metro Davao, with the city as its
metropolitan center, has about 2,274,913 people in 2010, making it as the
third most populous metropolitan agglomeration in the Philippines and the
most populous and cleanest city in Mindanao. However, as the population is
pushed up by rapid migration growth, its urban landscape is rapidly expanding
with sprawl spreading in all directions inland.

Moreover, construction of more roads and bridges are also underway.


The construction of the Citys third major road the Buhangin underpass was
completed in the 1st quarter of 2003. A Traffic Management and
Computerization Scheme was also implemented. Davao City is ranked no. 5
among cities in Asia with better traffic flow based on vehicles per kilometer of
city road.
According to (Banzon, 2006) that there is a mark improvement in the
flow of traffic in Davao City that ranked the city in 2006 as fifth among Asean
cities with the best flow of traffic. According to Traffic Management Center
head Celso Gempesaw in an interview after the Club 888 Forum at The
Marco Polo Hotel he said that a group of companies operating in the Asean
conducted the survey. Three years back a similar survey was conducted
where Davao City ranked 27th on its flow of traffic among the Asean cities.
Gempesaw however admitted that there are still traffic violations committed by
some public utility drivers but the current flow of traffic is much better
compared the last year.
Fenequito (2014) cited that the vehicular traffic situation in Davao City
has significantly improved, being listed 5th on a recent list of Southeast Asian
cities with the best managed traffic flow, from a rank of 27th in the same
survey held three years ago. This improvement is attributed to the continuing
education of drivers and the strict implementation of traffic laws. There are, at
least, 35,000 vehicles plying the routes of Davao City, plus 20% of the total
number of vehicles coming from the rest of Region 11. Private automobiles
that will mostly see are sedans, pick-ups, vans, motorcycles and buses used
for private purposes such as carpooling or servicing tourists. Public vehicles,

however, comprise most of the citys traffic, including jeeps, motorcycle taxis,
taxicabs and tricycles in smaller roads. Public buses are also seen in the citys
streets. Davao City Traffic Management Center
Traffic Management Center is under the supervision of the City Mayor.
It conducts traffic direction and control for the safe and orderly movements of
vehicular and pedestrian traffic. It coordinates all traffic management activities
of the City with other related function agencies. It instills awareness among
the public of their obedience to traffic rules and regulation and the importance
of their road safety. And also it conducts research and studies to enhance
more efficient and effective traffic management.
Fenequito further added that the city has a total of 82 routes which are
managed with a computerized traffic system, making Davao the only place in
the Philippines with a traffic light installed at nearly each intersection. It is said
that the presence of too many traffic lights tends to make vehicles move
slower. However, there is no question about the fact that the system performs
when it comes to organizing traffic flow. The citys roads are also managed
with a CCTV system that has proven its usefulness in terms of resolving
cases involving vehicular accidents, traffic violations and even the movement
of criminals.
The volume of traffic in Davao is generally dependent on certain factors
such as the day, the time of day and miscellaneous issues, including ongoing
road widening projects, rerouting experiments, etc. On weekends and
holidays, traffic is usually free-flowing, but on a regular weekday, the situation
can get tight during the hours of 7-10 in the morning, and 4-8 in the afternoon
towards the evening. This pattern includes the larger roads such as Quimpo

Boulevard, JP Laurel Avenue and Buhangin. However, for long-time Davao


drivers, there are many shortcuts that could be taken.
.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
This study was coined from Bartone et. al. (1994) that inadequate
transportation system hampers economic activities and creates hindrances for
development. In most of the developing countries, which are overburdened by
huge population and extreme poverty, increasing economic activities and
opportunities in the cities result in rapid increase in urban population and
consequent need for transportation facilities. Authorities in these countries
often fail to cope with the pressure of increasing population growth and
economic activities in the cities, causing uncontrolled expansion of the cities,
urban sprawl, traffic congestion and environmental degradation. The
backbone of urban activities is the urban transportation network. The
transportation network of an urban area is usually designed to accommodate
the transportation activities of urban people. With growing population and
diversified land use activities, transportation system needs to be updated or
readjusted. Any lag between growing transportation demand and network
capacity

results

in

traffic

congestion,

thereby

economic

loss

and

environmental degradation.
Shown in Figure 1 is the conceptualized framework of this study. The
framework represented in the input showed the problems concerning traffic
congestion in Davao City enumerated as follows: PUJ routes; pedestrian
crossings and the present traffic scheme plan. Also depicted in the output is
the proposed intervention scheme proposed by the researchers.

Input

Output

p
Traffic Scheme of
Davao City

Intervention Scheme

PUJ routes
Pedestrians crossing
Present traffic scheme
plan

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study

Significance of the Study


The findings of this research will be significant to the following entities:
The City Government. The results of the study will help most
specifically the Davao City Traffic Management Center and the city
government of Davao in mitigating traffic congestions on all streets where
traffic congestions can be experienced during peak hours of the working days.
Public Utility Jeepney (PUJ) Drivers. With the results of the study,
the PUJ drivers will become educated and observant to the traffic rules.
Pedestrians. The findings of the study can be the best tool to
determine the motivational needs for pedestrians.
Researchers. The findings of the study can be a great source of
reference for future researchers who have the same interest.
Definition of Terms
To provide a better understanding of the study, the following terms
were given meaning through how it is used in the study.
Traffic Management a local government agency designated to
oversee traffic related problems within Davao City only.
Public Utility Vehicles- a public service vehicle, such as the bus
system
Pedestrian term used for someone crossing the street.

Traffic congestion - is a condition on road networks that occurs as


use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and
increased vehicular queueing.
Route - thoroughfare for transportation.

Chapter 2
METHOD
This chapter deals with the methods used in the conduct of the study.
This will be utilized to best attain the main focus of the study. This also
discusses the research design, research subjects, research instruments, data
gathering procedure and data analysis to be applied in analyzing the results of
the study.
Research Design
This study employs the descriptive survey research design. As cited by
Mark R. Leary (2010), it is designed to describe the characteristics or
behaviors of a particular population in a systematic and accurate fashion. In
this study, the design will be used to find out how
The main focus of this study is to determine the traffic congestion in
Davao City in order for the researchers to formulate traffic intervention
scheme measures.
Research Subject
The respondents of this study were the motorists of Davao City. This
allowed the researchers to sample the population with a desired degree of

accuracy. This gave the researchers an idea of how large the sample size
needs to be to ensure a reasonable accuracy of results. The actual
respondents of the study were one hundred eighty (180) motorists/drivers in
Davao City.

Research Environment
This study will be done along the busiest streets during peak hours of
working and school days in Davao City. These streets include: San Pedro,
C.M. Recto, McArthur Highway, J.P. Laurel and Mabini.
Research Instrument
The researchers will be using a self-administered survey questionnaire
as an instrument to the research study to determine the traffic congestion in
Davao City. There are two sets of questionnaires prepared by the
researchers. One is designed to determine the drivers familiarity of the traffic
rules and regulations

and the other one was designed for the drivers

perception with the traffic scheme. The researchers questionnaires were


made for a 5-minute maximum time of answering the questionnaire since the
drivers are driving the vehicle while being interviewed by the researchers.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers handed questionnaire to the drivers-respondents to
fill-up and will be retrieved after it was done for tabulation purposes. For data
tabulation, the researcher will be using Likert scaling technique.
The researchers carefully reviewed and corrected the questionnaire.
The validity of the instrument was determined by computing the average

mean ratings of the expert. The acquired mean for the instrument used in this
study is 4 or always.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered for this research were tallied, tabulated analyzed
and interpreted using the following statistical tools:
Gathering of data was done with the use of a questionnaire which was
checked and validated. There are two questionnaires for the PUJ drivers and
has two parts. The first part was a checklist that will determine the drivers
knowledge with traffic rules and regulations. The second part was a set of
questions that measured the factors that affects the traffic condition within
Davao City proper. This questionnaire was patterned from a Likert scaling
technique but using the fourpoint scale or called as forced choice method
since the middle option is not available. The respondents identified 1 as the
lowest and 4 as the highest: 4Always, 3Often, 2Sometimes, 1Never.
For interpretation purposes, the following scales were used:
The Likert Scale was used to determine the level of learning motivation
of students. Hall (2012) stated that Likert Scale is the best measures in
determining the mode or the most frequent response. This is best done by
putting tick on a box/blank in response to a large number of items concerning
the study. It is common to treat the number obtained from a rating scale
directly as measurements by calculating averages or more generally any
arithmetic operations. The levels of satisfaction are ordered
respective range of means and descriptions are as follows:
Range of Means

Descriptive Equivalent

Description

with their

3.26 4.00

Always

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item were
manifested at all times.

2.51 3.25

Often

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item were
manifested in many but
not the majority of the
cases.

1.76 2.50

Sometimes

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item was
manifested in a few
instances.

1.00 1.75

Never

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item was
not manifested at all.

Range of Means

Descriptive Equivalent

Description

3.26 4.00

Always

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item were
manifested at all times.

2.51 3.25

Often

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item were
manifested in many but
not the majority of the
cases.

1.76 2.50

Sometimes

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item was
manifested in a few
instances.

1.00 1.75

Never

If the level of satisfaction


described in the item was
not manifested at all.

Mean. A percentage is a proportion between two quantities expressed


in hundredths. It is often used to define a portion as a fraction of a whole. It's
widely used in statistics, and finance to define probability, rate of return etc.

This was used to determine the result of the questionnaires given to the PUJ
drivers.
Percentage. is an arrangement of the values that one or more
variables take in a sample. Each entry in the table contains the frequency or
count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval, and in
this way, the table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample.
This statistics was utilized to find out the level vehicles with routes passing
San Pedro, C.M. Recto, McArthur Highway, J.P. Laurel and Mabini streets.