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Regular Expressions - Quick Reference Guide

Anchors Literal Characters


^
Character group contents
start of line
$ end of line Letters and digits match exactly axB70 x individual chars
\b word boundary Some special characters match exactly @-=% x-y character range
\B not at word boundary [:class:] posix char class
\A start of subject
Escape other specials with backslash \. \\ \$ \[
\G first match in subject
[^:class:] negated class
\z end of subject Character Groups
\Z end of subject Almost any character (usually not newline) . Examples
or before newline at end [a-zA-Z0-9_]
Lists and ranges of characters [ ]
Non-printing characters Any character except those listed [^ ] [[:alnum:]_]
\a alarm (BEL, hex 07)
\cx "control-x"
\e escape (hex 1B) Counts (add ? for non-greedy) Comments
\f formfeed (hex 0C) 0 or more ("perhaps some") * (?#comment)
\n newline (hex 0A) 0 or 1 ("perhaps a") ?
\r carriage return (hex OD)
\t 1 or more ("some") + Conditional subpatterns
tab (hex 09)
\ddd octal code ddd Between "n" and "m" of {n,m} (?(condition)yes-pattern)
\xhh hex code hh Exactly "n", "n" or more {n}, {n,} (?(condition)yes|no-pattern)
\x{hhh..} hex code hhh..

Generic character types Alternation Recursive patterns


\d decimal digit Either/or | (?n) Numbered
\D not a decimal digit (?0) (?R) Entire regex
\s whitespace character
\S Lookahead and Lookbehind (?&name) Named
not a whitespace char
\w "word" character Followed by (?= )
\W "non-word" character NOT followed by (?! ) Replacements
POSIX character classes Following (?<= ) $n reference capture
alnum letters and digits NOT following (?<! )
alpha letters Case foldings
ascii character codes 0-127
blank Grouping \u upper case next char
space or tab only
cntrl control characters For capture and counts ( ) \U upper case following
digit decimal digits Non-capturing (?: ) \l lower case next char
graph printing chars -space \L lower case following
lower lower case letters
Named captures (?<name> )
print printing chars +space Alternation \E end case folding
punct printing chars -alnum Back references
space white space Conditional insertions
upper
Numbered \n \gn \g{n}
upper case letters (?n:insertion)
word "word" characters Relative \g{-n}
xdigit hexadecimal digits Named \k<name> (?n:insertion:otherwise)
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