Structure DesignerIWSD
Module 4. Design of welded joints
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4.4.5. New standards for fracture mechanics testing of metallic materials ......................................... 146
List of figures.............................................................................................................................148
List of tables ..............................................................................................................................150
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The classification of welded joints takes in account the international terminology (Figure 1).
a) Considering the welding process there are:
a. Welding by melting
b. Pressure welding
b) According to the purpose:
a. Resistance joining
b. Sealing up joining
c. Hardening joining
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d. Surfacing joining
c) Position of components in the joining process:
a. Butt welding, when components are in the same plane (1, 4)
b. Fillet welding, with constructive variants
i.
ii.
Welding positions differentiate them according to the circular scale disks accepting the
horizontal line as reference, so:
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j)
Thickness uniformity:
a. equal (20)
b. unequal (21)
Homogeneous joints are realized with base and filler materials belonging to the same
metallurgical group. The heterogeneous ones, have one or both components, and the filler
material, respectively from different metallurgical groups.
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a. manual welding
b. semimechanized welding
c. automated welding
Analyzing the way welded joints are formed according to EC 318 the following types of
welded joints are defined:
1. Fillet welds, which can be continuous or intermittent fillet welds,
2. Fillet welds all round, in fact fillet welds on the contour of holes made in one of the
overlapped components,
3. Butt welds,
4. Plug welds and
5. Flare groove welds.
Table 1 presents the classification criteria and the type of welds. Butt welds can be realized
with full or partial penetration.
In the category of fillet welds are framed all welds between components making between
them an angle in the range 60 and 120. Besides the common fillet welds, which thickness
a is considered equal with the height of the inscriptible triangle in the cross section of the
weld, descended from its root on the exterior side, EC 3 also stipulates fillet welds with full
penetration, which thickness depends on the technology and equipment used. The design
codes foresee the obligation to check by preliminary test probes.
No.
Classifica
tion
criteria
Weld type
Butt
welds
Butt welds
with full
penetration
and V, 2V, U,
2U groove
Representation
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Butt
welds
Butt welds
with
penetration
and V and U
groove
Fillet
welds
Continuous
welds
Fillet
welds
Fillet weld
with 2xV
Fillet
welds
Fillet welds
with V, J, K
and 2J
groove
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Fillet
welds
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Intermittent
welds:
alternative,
bilateral,
Fillet
welds
Fillet welds
with deep
penetration
Fillet
welds
Fillet welds
with partial
penetration
completed
with
deposition
Overlapp
ed welds
Continuous
fillet welds:
 lateral,
 frontal
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Fillet welds:
10
Overlapp
ed welds
 all around,
 oblong
11
Overlapp
ed welds
Plug welds
12
Flare
groove
welds
Welds
between
oblong
groove welds
Accepting this type of weld intervene following the improvement of welding technologies,
which at present allow the significant penetration of fillet welds in the material of the welded
components.
So, it is possible to realize actual weld thickness a bigger than those considered in common
fillet welds, where the penetration is more reduced and not taken into account.
Obviously, here appears as necessary the direct designer executants relation, which have to
collaborate during the design stage having as objective the possibility to realize deep
penetrated fillet welds, relation that is not a problem for firms realizing the design
documentation, execution and the assemblage of metallic structures.
As regards the full penetrated welds, both the butt welds and the T welds, changes in
designation appear. For example, X weld is designated as double V weld, the K one is
named double J weld, and the V and U welds are named semi V, and J, respectively.
A significant difference consists in accepting the partial penetration welds, both for butt welds
and for T welds; they are named double V and double U welds, semi double V welds,
respectively.
EC 3 also stipulates for T welds the possibility to use butt welds with partial penetration
completed with fillet welds, which thickness is established according to specifications of
design codes.
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4.1.2 Definitions
It is necessary to introduce main vocabulary notions under the form of technical terms,
weblated with components of single sided joint, double sided joint, respectively (Figure 2).
The following definitions are used:
basic component of a joint: specific parts of a joint that has an identified contribution
on structural characteristics;
Joint configuration: type or location of joint or joints in an area where two or more
interconnected elements meet (Figure 2);
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2. According to the position the welds are made, butt welds can be:
a. horizontal welds, in horizontal plane
b. horizontal welds, in vertical plane
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b. horizontal weld
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d. overhead weld
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Joint type
Weld type
Loading and
calculus
relations
Performed
welds
Control of
welds
Rs = R
BUTT WELD
compression
N
cs
Rcs
As
automated
semiautomat
ed manual
Common
means
automated
  
semiautomat
ed manual
  
0.8
0.8 R
semiautomat
ed manual
With X
or rays
T
s
R sf
As
automate
semiautomat
e manual
Common
means
0.6
0.6 R
bending
automated
  
Common
means
0.8
0.8 R
automated
semiautomat
ed manual
Common
means
0.7
0.7 R
automated
Common
0.7
0.7 R
tensile
N
Rsi
As
s
i
shearing
As
bxa
b 2 a xa
a b
Ws
6
M
s
Rinc
semiautomat
Ws
ed manual
OVERLAPPED
Filet welds
Tensilecompression
T
Rs
As
s
3 mm a 0,7 tmin
As a l si ; l s l si
T
Tensile
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Fillet welds
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compression
shearing
semiautomat
ed manual
means
N
Rs
As
As 2 a b
bending
3 mm a 0,7 tmin
Ws 2
M
Rs
Ws
a b 2 ; l =2b
s
6
As it results from table 2 coefficient and finally the calculus resistance of welds, depend on
the calculus resistance of the material to be welded, loading mode of the weld ( = 1 for
compression, tensile, respectively, for controlled but welds with performance procedures, =
0,8 for tensile loading in butt welds, if the weld control is made with less performing
procedures, = 0.6 for butt welds shear loaded and = 0.7 for fillet welds, where only
tangential stresses, t are checked.
In the calculation of weld sizes according to EC 318, limits of geometric sizes are
stipulated.
For example, for the fillet welds thickness a the following condition has to be respected:
For the minimum weld length, some norms foresee 40 mm, while EC 3 foresees only 30 mm,
but keeps the prescription: lmin  6a.
It must be retained that EC 3 foresee the acceptance of fillet welds with constant thickness
on the whole length, if it can be practically realized, not considering the existence of final
craters form the ends of the welds. Contrary, the reduction of weld with 2a is maintained.
Additionally the return of welds is accepted, in the same plane, after the corner of the
overlapped components. The return of weld is considered when calculating the weld length,
if it has the same thickness a as the its rest.
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When the distribution of stresses along the fillet welds is significantly influenced by the
rigidity of elements or of jointed components, the nonuniformity of this distribution is
considered by using a reduced effective length: bef. When the length of welds exceeds 150a,
resistance of the weld is reduced with a factor JLw < 1.
C 318 also provides special restrictions to use single sided fillet welds and the butt welds
with single sided partial penetration, in case of bending and tensile stresses.
a)
b)
d)
c)
e)
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f)
i)
g)
h)
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j)
k)
l)
m)
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Identify relevant stress values from a type stresstime history for a structural
component. Calculate the design strength of end welds based on weld stress
components.
Calculate the design strength of side welds based on weld stress components.
Calculate the strength reduction factor for long side welds or transverse stiffeners.
Calculate the needed throat thickness for a full strength primary load carrying weld.
4.2.1. Scope
Present chapter deals with the design rules of joints and is prepared in accordance with the
provisions of EN 1993, Part 18. Consequently, the main attention is focused on design
methods for joints subjected to predominantly static loads. In conjunction with the provisions
of EN 1993, Part 18, the methods described may also apply for applications generating
dynamic loads, particularly from wind action, unless otherwise noted. Popular brands of steel
to be used in conjunction with the design methods presented are S 235, S 275, S 366, S 420
and S 460. Joints fatigue design, not subject to this chapter.
Components used in modern engineering usually have to bear high mechanical loads.
Because mechanical equipment is often used at or near design limitations, great care must
be employed in selecting the proper materials to use for a particular design application. The
need for highperformance materials in such industries as aerospace and power generation
has advanced the use of design parameters in the evaluation of material behaviour. The term
"mechanical behaviour" encompasses the response of materials to external forces.
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The successful employment of metals in engineering applications relies on the ability of the
metal to meet design and service requirements and to be fabricated to the proper
dimensions. The capability of metallical structures to meet these requirements is determined
by the mechanical, physical, chemical and fabrication properties of the metal components
with welding joinings (Figure 5).
Various tests have been devised to reveal the mechanical properties of materials, related
with structural integrity, with two main types of loading conditions, namely static loading and
dynamic loading. Assessment only at static behaviour is almost an idealization.
A static load is applied only once; it induces strain in the material very slowly and gradually
and remains constant throughout the service life of the component. Tension, compression,
hardness, and creep tests are used to reveal mechanical properties under a static loading
condition.
Dynamic loads can be classified into impact loads and fatigue loads. An impact load
resembles a static load in that it is applied only once. However, it differs from a static load
because it introduces strain in the material very rapidly. Charpy impact test is devised to
measure the behaviour in these circumstances of materials.
Design for structural and mechanical functions is based on the useful strength or allowable
stress of engineering materials. Usually, in such applications, materials are selected to
operate within their elastic range. Sometimes, however, machine parts and structures are
operated at stresses exceeding their elastic limit. Also, to guard against catastrophic failure,
it is taken into account that the material should plastically deform rather than fracture in case
of a sudden overload condition. During service, engineering products are usually subjected
to complex systems of stresses.
Tension, hardness, creep, impact toughness, and fatigue tests have long been used to
evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering materials in mechanical welding joining
structures. More recently, the fracture toughness test has emerged as another important test.
Compression is a less common mechanical test. Another test rarely used to specify the
mechanical properties of materials is the torsion test. As described below, the uniaxial stress
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strain relationship determined from the tension test reveals a number of important
mechanical properties of the material, usable for engineering calculations.
Application of all simulation and testing programs is routine in many design groups in
worldwide. Set design calculations are based on results of a very broad palette of testing and
practical experiments. However, test range for particular engineering component requires
special attention. Reliability and functionality are two of the most prized qualities required
from engineered components. These are not achieved by accident. Indeed, considerable
scientific and technological endeavour is expended to help achieve them, because without
them the functionality of our whole society would be seriously jeopardized. Individual
structures are, of course, designed and manufactured to perform an individual specified
function, be they large or small. For example, a turbine should generate and transmit power,
a bridge should carry traffic, and a pressure vessel should contain a liquid or gas under
pressure. These constitute large structures, many of which are hidden from the general
public, but whose function is taken for granted by them. Other structures and components
can involve the public at a very personal level, like a mechanical heart valve or a
replacement hip, or relatively mundane domestic appliances. Yet more are hidden in
instruments and service systems, like computers, banking systems, telecommunication
systems. Loss of functionality in any one of these components can, therefore, have
consequences which far exceed the immediate damage to the component in question. Many
of welding joining metallic structures and components are required to operate under tight
controllable operating conditions, while others operate under unpredictable and
uncontrollable regimes. The environment may also be variable, regardless of the operating
regime. All the structures must be capable of operating to their design function for the period
for which that function is required, in terms of reliability and safety requirements. For a heart
valve, this may be the remaining lifetime of a patient, let say decades, while for a building or
a bridge it may be several hundred years. Additionally, operating conditions may change
throughout life: on bridges loads may increase as traffic becomes heavier and more frequent,
storage vessels may be required to store heavier charges as technology changes, electricity
generating plants may be required to switch from operating continuously at base load to two,
shift operation for peak lopping, and rail tracks may have to carry higher speed and heavier
trains. One way in which a structure may fail to meet its engineering function by mechanical
failure. This occurs when the structure, or part of it, loses its mechanical integrity to such an
extent that it ceases to perform as designed.
The mechanical integrity required to function as designed is what is meant by the term
"structural integrity", and they are all dedicated to the various methods that are inherent in
the "assurance" of structural integrity. These methods involve activity at all stages of life,
during conception, design, manufacture, operation, and decommissioning of a structure, and
the disciplines required to ensure structural integrity are all embracing.
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All joints shall have a design resistance such that the structure is capable of satisfying all the
basic design requirements provided by the designer according to specific codes, including in
EN 1993 parts 11, 18.
The partial safety factors M for joints are given in table 3.
Mo , M 1 and M 2 see EN
1993 11
Resistance of bolts
Resistance of rivets
M2
Resistance of pins
Resistance of welds
Resistance of plates in bearing
M3
Slip resistance
 for hybrid connections or connections under fatigue
loading
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
Resistance of concrete
M 0 see EN 1992
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cases.
Joints shall be designed on the basis of a realistic assumption of the distribution of internal
forces and moments. The following assumptions should be used to determine the distribution
of forces:
a) the internal forces and moments assumed in the analysis are in equilibrium with the
forces and moments applied to the joints,
b) each element in the joint is capable of resisting the internal forces and moments,
c) the deformations implied by this distribution do not exceed the deformation
capacity of the fasteners or welds and the connected parts,
d) the assumed distribution of internal forces shall be realistic with regard to relative
stiffnesses within the joint,
e) the deformations assumed in any design model based on elasticplastic analysis are
based on rigid body rotations and/or inplane deformations which are physically
possible, and
f) any model used is in compliance with the evaluation of test results (see EN 1990).
Where a joint loaded in shear is subject to impact or significant vibration one of the following
jointing methods should be used:
welding
preloaded bolts
injection bolts
other types of bolt which effectively prevent movement of the connected parts
rivets
Where slip is not acceptable in a joint (because it is subject to reversal of shear load or for
any other reason), preloaded bolts in a Category B or C connection, fit bolts rivets or
welding should be used.
For wind and/or stability bracings, bolts in Category A connections may be used.
Where there is eccentricity at intersections, the joints and members should be
designed for the resulting moments and forces, except in the case of particular types of
structures where it has been demonstrated that it is not necessary.
In the case of joints of angles or tees attached by either a single line of bolts or two lines of
bolts any possible eccentricity should be taken into account in accordance with set design.
Inplane and outofplane eccentricities should be determined by considering the relative
positions of the centroidal axis of the member and of the setting out line in the plane of the
connection (Figure 6). For a single angle in tension connected by bolts on one leg the
simplified design method given in set design, may be used.
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Global analysis
The effects of the behaviour of the joints on the distribution of internal forces and moments
within a structure, and on the overall deformations of the structure, should generally be taken
into account, but where these effects are sufficiently small they may be neglected.
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To identify whether the effects of joint behaviour on the analysis need be taken into account,
a distinction may be made between three simplified joint models as follows:
Simple, in which the joint may be assumed not to transmit bending moments
Continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint may be assumed to have no effect on
the analysis
Semicontinuous, in which the behaviour of the joint needs to be taken into account in
the analysis
The appropriate type of joint model should be determined from table 4, depending on the
classification of the joint and on the chosen method of analysis.
The design momentrotation characteristic of a joint used in the analysis may be simplified by
adopting any appropriate curve, including a linearised approximation (e.g. bilinear or trilinear), provided that the approximate curve lies wholly below the design momentrotation
characteristic.
Method of
global analysis
Classification of joint
Elastic
Nominally pinned
Rigid
Semi rigid
Rigid Plastic
Nominally pinned
Full  strength
Partial  strength
Elastic
Plastic
Nominally pinned
Type of joint
model
Simple
Continuous
Semi  continuous
Loading actions
All types of fluctuating load acting on the component and the resulting stresses at potential
sites for static and variable loading have to be considered. Stresses or stress intensity
factors then have to be determined according to the assessment procedure applied.
Frequently, a fatigue load is a more common type of load, and it is applied several times in a
cyclic manner. Fatigue test is exclusively used to determine mechanical properties under
cyclic loading condition. As important as is the fracture toughness.
The actions originate from live loads, dead weights, snow, wind, waves, pressure,
accelerations, dynamic response, etc. Actions due to transient temperature changes should
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be considered. Improper knowledge of fatigue actions is one of the major sources of fatigue
damage.
Joint geometry
In the absence of defects, ability to weld butt load applied perpendicularly on the seam axes
is:
FrMB = RrMB . Ao
FrSUD = RrSUD . AS
(4.2.1)
(4.2.2)
where Ao , AS are cross section areas, with pot defects in BM, WELD, respectively, and RrMB
. RrSUD fracture resistances of the BM, WELD, respectively /N/mm2/.
Load capacity of the material deposited when welding, with defects is expressed by relation:
FrdSUD = RrdSUD . AS
= RrdSUDef( AS Ad )
(4.2.3)
where RrdSUD is the fracture nominal resistance of the deposited material with defects,
RrdSUDef effective fracture resistance relative to net area ( AS  Ad ), Ad  defects affected
area.
The global resistance of the weld depends on the effective fracture resistance of the weld
containing defects and a linear variation factor relative to the size of the defect:
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(4.2.4)
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Defects induce the change of the stress state by its concentration in the defect section
expressed by the concentration coefficient:
kS = RrdSUDef / RrSUD > 1
(4.2.5)
Figure 7 presents the evolution of the bearing capacity of the weld with the defect area.
The weld must provide superior bearing capacity to the base material:
FrdSUD =
FrMB
(4.2.6)
I.
where
(4.2.7)
II.
where
(4.2.8)
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RrMB . Ao = kS . RrdSUDef (AS  d)
(4.2.9)
Where it is explained:
d = Ao [ (AS/ Ao)  (RrMB / kS RrSUD)]
(4.2.10)
(4.2.11)
The previous relation is valid when the selection of the base material is made on the criterion
RrdSUD > RrMB. If this criterion refers to the yield limit, the ratio R0.2 / Rr is considered. This ratio
is statistically situated at:
Defects with round shapes (sulphurs, inclusions, cavities) respect the mentioned
considerations. Defects with great acuity, such as cracks, lack of penetration, are not
subjected to the mentioned considerations. The weld behaviour is controlled by the material
capacity to inhibit the propagation of the defect.
As regards the calculus dimensions for welds, in EC318 limits are stipulated that are also to
be found in other norms, but different limits, too. For example, for the thickness of fillet welds
the condition: 3 mm a 0.7 t has to be respected and values a checked by preliminary
min
probes, in the case of deep penetration fillet welds, of partial penetration deep welds
completed with fillet welds, respectively.
For the minimum weld length, EC 3 stipulates 30 mm, but keeps the prescription: l
6a.
min
In EC 3 is provided the acceptance of fillet welds with constant thickness on their whole
length, if this can be practically accomplished, not taking into account the existence of final
craters from th end of welds.
Otherwise is maintained the requirement related to the reduction of the weld length with 2a.
In addition, the return of welds is acceptable, in the same plane, after the corner of the
overlapping parts, a return to be taken into account in calculating the length of weld, if the
thickness is the same.
When stress distribution along the weld angle is significantly influenced by the rigidity of
components or joined parts, uniformity of this distribution is taken into account by using a
reduced effective length b and when the weld length exceeds 150 a, the weld strength is
eff
Lw
< 1.
EC 318 also provides special restrictions to use one side fillet welds and one side partial
penetration deep welds, when subjected to bending and tensile stresses. Calculation of weld
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Directional method
Simplified method
Directional method
In directional method, the forces transmitted by a unit length of weld are resolved into
components parallel and transverse to the longitudinal axis of the weld and normal and
transverse to the plane of its throat.
The design throat area Aw should be taken as Aw = a. leff.
The location of the design throat area should be assumed to be concentrated in the root. A
uniform distribution of stress is assumed on the throat section of the weld, leading to the
normal stresses and shear stresses (Figure 8), as follows:
 is the normal stress perpendicular to the throat
  is the normal stress parallel to the axis of the weld
 is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld

 is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) parallel to the axis of the weld.
The normal stress parallel to the axis is not considered when verifying the design resistance
of the weld.
The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied:
3 2 2
0,5
f u / W M 2 and f u / M 2
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(4.2.12)
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where:
 fu is the nominal ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined;
 w is the appropriate correlation factor taken from table 5.
Welds between parts with different material strength grades should be designed using the
properties of the material with the lower strength grade.
EN 10210
EN 10219
Correlation
factor w
S 235 H
S 235 H
0.8
S 235
S 235 W
S 275
S 275 H
S 275 H
S 275 N/NL
S 275 NH/NLH
0.85
S 275 NH/NLH
S 275 M/ML
S 275 MH/MLH
S 355
S 355 H
S 355 N/NL
S 355 H
S 355 M/ML
S 355 NH/NLH
S 355 NH/NLH
0.9
S 355 MH/MLH
S 355 W
S 420 N/NL
S 420 MH/MLH
1.0
S 420 M/ML
S 460 N/NL
S 460 NH/NLH
S 420 M/ML
S 460 NH/NLH
1.0
S 460 MH/MLH
S 420 Q/Ql/QL1
Simplified method
In the simplified method, the design resistance of a fillet weld may be assumed to be
adequate if, at every point along its length, the resultant of all the forces per unit length
transmitted by the weld satisfy the following criterion:
F.w,Ed Fw,Rd
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(4.2.13)
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where:
F.w,Ed is the design value of the weld force per unit length;
F.w,Rd is the design weld resistance per unit length.
Independent of the orientation of the weld throat plane to the applied force, the design
resistance per unit length Fw,Rd should be determined from:
Fw,Rd = fvw.d a
(4.2.14)
where:
fvw.d is the design shear strength of the weld.
The design shear strength fvw.d of the weld should be determined from:
f vw,d
fu / 3
w M 2
(4.2.15)
where:
fu and w are defined previous.
The design resistance of a full penetration butt weld should be taken as equal to the design
resistance of the weaker of the parts connected, provided that the weld is made with a
suitable consumable which will produce allweld tensile specimens having both a minimum
yield strength and a minimum tensile strength not less than those specified for the parent
metal.
The design resistance of a partial penetration butt weld should be determined using the
method for a deep penetration fillet weld. The throat thickness of a partial penetration butt
weld should not be greater than the depth of penetration that can be consistently achieved.
The design resistance of a Tbutt joint, consisting of a pair of partial penetration butt welds
reinforced by superimposed fillet welds, may be determined as for a full penetration butt weld
if the total nominal throat thickness, exclusive of the unwelded gap, is not less than the
thickness t of the part forming the stem of the tee joint, provided that the unwelded gap is
not more than (t / 5) or 3 mm, whichever is less (Figure 9).
The design resistance of a Tbutt joint which does not meet the requirements should be
determined using the method for a fillet weld or a deep penetration fillet weld, depending on
the amount of penetration. The throat thickness should be determined in conformity with the
provisions for both fillet welds and partial penetration butt welds.
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(4.2.16)
where
fvw.d is the design shear strength of a weld,
Aw is the design throat area and should be taken as the area of the hole.
The distribution of forces in a welded connection may be calculated on the assumption of
either elastic or plastic behaviour. It is acceptable to assume a simplified load distribution
within the welds.
Residual stresses and stresses not subjected to transfer of load need not be included when
checking the resistance of a weld. This applies specifically to the normal stress parallel to the
axis of a weld.
Welded joints should be designed to have adequate deformation capacity. However, ductility
of the welds should not be relied upon.
In joints where plastic hinges may form, the welds should be designed to provide at least the
same design resistance as the weakest of the connected parts.
In other joints where deformation capacity for joint rotation is required due to the possibility of
excessive straining, the welds require sufficient strength not to rupture before general
yielding in the adjacent parent material.
If the design resistance of an intermittent weld is determined by using the total length ltot, the
weld shear force per unit length Fw,Ed should be multiplied by the factor (e + l/l) (Figure 10).
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material. As for deep welds, the calculation area of weld is equal with the cross section area
of the base material, as accepting the equality of the weld resistance calculation with that of
the base material, practically the weld verification is identical with that of the base material
and effectively it is not necessary any more.
To transmit shear
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To interconnect the components of builtup members but should not be used to resist
externally applied tension.
The diameter of a circular hole or width of an elongated hole, for a plug weld should be at
least 8 mm more than the thickness of the part containing it.
The ends of elongated holes should either be semicircular or else should have corners
which are rounded to a radius of not less than the thickness of the part containing the slot,
except for those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The thickness of a plug weld in parent material up to 16 mm thick should be equal to the
thickness of the parent material. The thickness of a plug weld in parent material over 16 mm
thick should be at least half the thickness of the parent material and not less than 16 mm.
In the case of welds with packing, the packing should be trimmed flush with the edge of the
part that is to be welded.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness less
than the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, the required leg length should
be increased by the thickness of the packing.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness
equal to, or greater than, the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, each
of the parts should be connected to the packing by a weld capable of transmitting the
design force.
The effective length of a fillet weld should be taken as the length over which the fillet is
fullsize. This may be taken as the overall length of the weld reduced by twice the
effective throat thickness a. Provided that the weld is full size throughout its length
including starts and terminations, no reduction in effective length need be made for either
the start or the termination of the weld. A fillet weld with an effective length less than 30
mm or less than 6 times its throat thickness, whichever is larger, should not be designed
to carry load.
The effective throat thickness, a, of a fillet weld should be taken as the height of the
largest triangle (with equal or unequal legs) that can be inscribed within the fusion
faces and the weld surface, measured perpendicular to the outer side of this
triangle(Figure 11). The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld should not be less than 3
mm.
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In determining the design resistance of a deep penetration fillet weld, account may be
taken of its additional throat thickness (Figure 12), provided that preliminary tests show
that the required penetration can consistently be achieved.
For solid bars the design throat thickness of flare groove welds, when fitted flush to the
surface of the solid section of the bars, is defined in Figure 13. The definition of the design
throat thickness of flare groove welds in rectangular hollow sections.
Where a transverse plate (or beam flange) is welded to a supporting unstiffened flange of an
I, H or other section, Figure 14, and provided that the design condition given is met, the
applied force perpendicular to the unstiffened flange should not exceed any of the relevant
design resistances as follows:
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That of the supporting flange as given by formulas, calculated assuming the applied
force is concentrated over an effective width, beff, of the flange as given as relevant.
For an unstiffened I or H section the effective width beff should be obtained from:
beff = tw
k.tf
(4.2.17)
where:
k = (tf/tp ) ( fy, f/f y,p ) for k 1
(4.2.18)
In lap joints the design resistance of a fillet weld should be reduced by multiplying it by a
reduction factor Lw to allow for the effects of nonuniform distribution of stress along its
length. The provisions do not apply when the stress distribution along the weld corresponds
to the stress distribution in the adjacent base metal, as, for example, in the case of a weld
connecting the flange and the web of a plate girder.
Generally in lap joints longer than 150a the reduction factor Lw should be taken as Lw.1
given by:
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(4.2.19)
where:
L j is the overall length of the lap in the direction of the force transfer.
For fillet welds longer than 1,7 metres connecting transverse stiffeners in plated members,
the reduction factor Lw may be taken as Lw.2 given by:
0,6 Lw.2 1
(4.2.20)
where:
w is the length of the weld (in metres).
Local eccentricity should be avoided whenever it is possible.
Local eccentricity (relative to the line of action of the force to be resisted) should be taken into
account in the following cases:
 where a bending moment transmitted about the longitudinal axis of the weld produces
tension at the root of the weld (Figure 15 a),
 where a tensile force transmitted perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weld
produces a bending moment, resulting in a tension force at the root of the weld (Figure 15 b).
Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group
around the perimeter of a structural hollow section.
Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group
around the perimeter of a structural hollow section.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may
be allowed for by adopting an effective crosssectional area and then treating the
member as concentrically loaded.
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For an equalleg angle, or an unequalleg angle connected by its larger leg, the effective
area may be taken as equal to the gross area.
For an unequalleg angle connected by its smaller leg, the effective area should be taken
as equal to the gross crosssectional area of an equivalent equalleg angle of leg size
equal to that of the smaller leg, when determining the design resistance of the crosssection, see EN 199311. When determining the design buckling resistance of a
compression member, the actual gross crosssectional area should be used.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may be
allowed for by adopting an effective crosssectional area and then treating the member
as concentrically loaded.
Welding may be carried out within a length 5t either side of a coldformed zone ( table
6), provided that one of the following conditions is fulfilled:
the coldformed zones are normalized after coldforming but before welding;
the r/t ratio satisfy the relevant value obtained from table 6.
r/t
Strain due
to cold forming
(%)
25
10
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
2
5
14
20
25
33
Generally
Predominan
tly static loading
Fully killed
Where
fatigue
predominates
any
any
any
16
24
12
12
10
Aluminium
killed steel (Al
0,02%)
any
any
24
12
10
6
Fw,Rd = fvw,d Aw
(4.2.21)
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In conclusion, calculation of welds is made reducing the effect of loading in relation to the
centre weight of the weld area calculation. In simple loading, this leads to one type of stress
( or ) in this area, stresses that must not exceed the calculating resistance of welds
In the case of fillet welds it is acceptable to rebate the calculating area of weld in the cathetes
plan and carrying out the verification in relation to the rebated area. In the case of compound
loading an equivalent stress is determined on the bases of the Huber Mises concept
ech 2 3 2 R
(4.2.22)
where has the value 1,1, and R is the calculating resistance of the base material.
As it results from the EC 3 norm, analytical relations are expressly provided to check the
weld strength only for fillet welds and welds in filled holes and two methods to check fillet
welds.
Type
Stress raisers
Stress determined
Assessment procedure
not applicable for fatigue
analysis, only component
testing
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Besides the usual corner welds, the thickness "a" is considered equal to the height of the
triangle in cross section of weld recordable, lowered from its roots on the outer side, EC May
3 provides deep penetration welds corner with a thickness depends on technology and
equipment required for execution and check the preliminary tests (table 8).
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Joint
type
0
Weld type
Characteristics, limitations
and conditions
FILLET WELDS
1. continuous
60 120
in T, in angle
l S l SI returns (for a
= constant) l Smin min (30 mm
or 6a); l Smax 150 a
For > 150a weld strength
is reduced with LW
3 mm a 0.7 tmin
Aw a leff
2. interrupted
Not to be used in
corrosive environments.
in T, in angle
Standard EN 1993, part 18, covers the design of fillet welds, fillet welds all round, butt
welds, plug welds and flare groove welds. Butt welds may be either full penetration butt
welds or partial penetration butt welds.
Both fillet welds all round and plug welds may be either in circular holes or in elongated
holes.
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The most common types of joints and welds are illustrated in EN 12345.
Fillet welds may be used for connecting parts where the fusion faces form an angle of
between 60 and 120.
Angles smaller than 60 are also permitted. However, in such cases the weld should be
considered to be a partial penetration butt weld.
For angles greater than 120 the resistance of fillet welds should be determined by testing in
accordance with EN 1990 Annex D: Design by testing.
Fillet welds finishing at the ends or sides of parts should be returned continuously, full size,
around the corner for a distance of at least twice the leg length of the weld, unless access or
the configuration of the joint renders this impracticable. In the case of intermittent welds this
rule applies only to the last intermittent fillet weld at corners.
End returns should be indicated on the drawings.
Intermittent fillet welds shall not be used in corrosive conditions.
In an intermittent fillet weld, the gaps (L1 or L2) between the ends of each length of weld Lw
should fulfil the requirement given in Figure 18. In an intermittent fillet weld, the gap (L1 or
L2) should be taken as the smaller of the distances between the ends of the welds on
opposite sides and the distance between the ends of the welds on the same side. Correlated
with previous Figure, to remember:
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In any run of intermittent fillet weld there should always be a length of weld at each end of
the part connected.
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In a builtup member where plates are connected by means of intermittent fillet welds, a
continuous fillet weld should be provided on each side of the plate for a length at each end
equal to at least threequarters of the width of the narrower plate concerned (Figure 18).
Fillet welds all round, comprising fillet welds in circular or elongated holes, may be used only
to transmit shear or to prevent the buckling or separation of lapped parts. The diameter of a
circular hole, or width of an elongated hole, for a fillet weld all round should not be less than
four times the thickness of the part containing it. The ends of elongated holes should be
semicircular, except for those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round should not exceed the value necessary
to prevent local buckling, show in table 9.
A full penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has complete penetration and fusion of
weld and parent metal throughout the thickness of the joint.
A partial penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has joint penetration which is less
than the full thickness of the parent material.
Intermittent butt welds should not be used.
Maximum1) 2) 3)
Distances
and spacings,
see Figure 3.1
Minimu
m
Steel not
exposed to the
weather or other
corrosive
influences
Structures
made from steels
conforming to EN
10025
Steel used
unprotected
End
distance e1
1.2 do
4t+40 mm
The larger of
8t or 125 mm
Edge
distance e2
1.2 do
4t+40 mm
The larger of
8t or 125 mm
Distance e3
in slotted holes
4)
Distance e4
in slotted holes
4)
Spacing p1
1.5 do
1.5 do
2.2 do
The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm
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The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm
The smaller
of 14tmin or 175
mm
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Spacing p1,0
The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm
Spacing p1,i
The smaller
of 28t or 400 mm
Spacing p2
5)
2.4 do
The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm
The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm
The smaller
of 14tmin or 175
mm
1)
Maximum values for spacing, edge and end distances are unlimited, except in the following
cases:
for compression members in order to avoid local buckling and to prevent corrosion in
exposed members and;
for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion.
2)
The local buckling resistance of the plate in compression between the fasteners should be
calculated according to EN 199311 using 0.6 pi as buckling length. Local buckling between
the fasteners need not to be checked if p1/t is smaller than 9. The edge distance should not
exceed the local buckling requirements for an outstand element in the compression
members; see EN 199311. The end distance is not affected by this requirement.
3)
4)
The dimensional limits for slotted holes are given in 2.8 Reference Standards: Group 7.
5)
For staggered rows of fasteners a minimum line spacing of p2 = 1.2d0 may be used,
provided that the minimum distance, L, between any two fasteners is greater than 2.4d0,
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If a refined stress analysis method is used, which gives a nonlinear stress distribution, the
stress components can be separated by the following method:
the membrane stress mem is equal to the average stress calculated through the
and tt is found by drawing a straight line through the point 0 where the membrane
stress intersects the midplane of the plate. The gradient of the shell bending stress is
chosen such that the remaining nonlinearly distributed component is in equilibrium.
the nonlinear stress peak nlp is the remaining component of the stress.
The stress components can be separated analytically for a given stress distribution
(x) for x=0 at surface to x=t at through thickness.
Nominal stress
Nominal stress is the stress calculated in the sectional area under consideration,
disregarding the local stress raising effects of the welded joint, but including the stress raising
effects of the macrogeometric shape of the component in the vicinity of the joint, such as e.g.
large cut outs (Figure 20). Overall elastic behaviour is assumed.
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The nominal stress may vary over the section under consideration. E.g. at a beamlike
component, the modified (also local) nominal stress and the variation over the section can be
calculated using simple beam theory. Here, the effect of a welded on attachment is ignored.
The effects of macrogeometric features of the component as well as stress fields in the
vicinity of concentrated loads must be included in the nominal stress. Consequently,
macrogeometric effects may cause a significant redistribution of the membrane stresses
across the section. Similar effects occur in the vicinity of concentrated loads or reaction
forces. Significant shell bending stress may also be generated, as in curling of a flange, or
distortion of a box section (Figure 21, 22).
The secondary bending stress caused by axial or angular misalignment needs to be
considered if the misalignment exceeds the amount which is already covered by fatigue
resistance SN curves for the structural detail (Figure 23). This is done by the application of
an additional stress raising factor km,eff.
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If nominal stresses are calculated in fillet welds by a coarse finite element mesh, nodal forces
should be used in a section through the weld instead of element stresses in order to avoid
stress underestimation.
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The structural hot spot stress approach is recommended for welded joints where there is no
clearly defined nominal stress due to complicated geometric effects, and where the structural
discontinuity is not comparable to a classified structural detail. Definition of structural hot spot
stress show in Figure 25.
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The structural hot spot stress can be determined using reference points and extrapolation to
the weld toe at the considered hot spot. The method as defined here is limited to the
assessment of the weld toe, i.e. cases a to e in Figure 4.2.22. It is not applicable in cases
where crack will grow from the weld root and propagate through the weld metal, i.e. cases f
to I in Figure 26.
The method of structural hot spot stress may be extended to the assessment of spots of the
welded joint susceptible to fatigue cracking other than on plate surface, e.g. on a fillet weld
root. In this case, structural hot spot stress on surface is used as an indication and estimation
of the stress for the spot in consideration. The SN curves or structural hot spot stress
concentration factors used for verification in this case depend largely on geometric and
dimensional parameters and are only valid within the range of these parameters.
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In case of a biaxial stress state at the plate surface, it is recommended to use the principal
stress which is approximately in line with the perpendicular to the weld toe, i.e. within a
deviation of 60 (Figure 27).
The other principal stress may be analysed, if necessary, using the fatigue class for parallel
welds in the nominal stress approach.
Besides the definitions of structural hot spot stress as given above, two types of hot spots
have to be distinguished according to their location on the plate and their orientation to the
weld toe (table 10).
Determination of structural hot spot stress
Determination of structural hot spot stress can be done either by measurement or by
calculation. Here the nonlinear peak stress is eliminated by linearization of the stress
through the plate thickness or by extrapolation of the stress at the surface to the weld toe.
The following considerations focus on extrapolation procedures of the surface stress, which
are nearly the same in measurement and calculation.
Firstly the stresses at the reference points, i.e. extrapolation points, have to be determined;
secondly the structural hot spot stress has to be determined by extrapolation to the weld toe.
Type
Description
Determination
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The structural hot spot stress may be determined using two or three stress or strain values at
particular reference points apart from the weld toe in direction of stress. The closest position
to the weld toe must be chosen to avoid any influence of the notch due to the weld itself
(which leads to a nonlinear stress peak). This is practically the case at a distance of 0.4 t (t =
plate thickness) from the weld toe. The structural hot spot stress at the weld toe is then
obtained by extrapolation. Identification of the critical points (hot spots) can be made by:
Usually, structural hot spot stress is calculated on the basis of an idealized, perfectly aligned
welded joint. Consequently, any possible misalignment has to be taken explicitly into
consideration by the FEA model or by an appropriate stress magnification factor k m. This
applies particularly to butt welds, cruciform joints and onesided transverse fillet welds at
free, unsupported plates (Figure 28).
The extent of the finite element model has to be chosen such that constraining boundary
effects of the structural detail analysed are comparable to the actual structure.
Models with thin plate or shell elements or alternatively with solid elements may be used. It
should be noted that on the one hand the arrangement and the type of the elements have to
allow for steep stress gradients as well as for the formation of plate bending, and on the
other hand, only the linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction needs to be
evaluated with respect to the definition of the structural hot spot stress. The stresses should
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a)
b)
Figure 29 Typical meshes and stress evaluation path for a welded detail
An alternative particularly for complex cases is recommended using prismatic solid elements
which have a displacement function allowing steep stress gradients as well as plate bending
with linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction. This is offered, e. g., by
isoparametric 20 node elements with midside nodes at the edges, which allow only one
element to be arranged in the plate thickness direction due to the quadratic displacement
function and the linear stress distribution. At a reduced integration, the linear part of the
stresses can be directly evaluated. Modelling of welds is generally recommended (Figure
29.b).
The element lengths are determined by the reference points for the subsequent
extrapolation. In order to avoid an influence of the stress singularity, the stress closest to the
hot spot is usually evaluated at the first or second nodal point. Therefore, the length of the
element at the hot spot has to correspond at least to its distance from the first reference
point. Coarser meshes are possible with higherorder elements and fixed lengths, as further
explained below.
Appropriate element widths are important particularly in cases with steep stress gradients.
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The width of the solid element or the two shell elements in front of the attachment should not
exceed the attachment width w, i. e. the attachment thickness plus two weld leg lengths.
Usually, the structural hot spot stress components are evaluated on the plate surface or
edge. Typical extrapolation paths are shown by arrows in Figure 25. If the weld is not
modelled, it is recommended to extrapolate the stress to the structural intersection point in
order to avoid stress underestimation due to the missing stiffness of the weld.
Type a hot spots
The structural hot spot stress hs is determined using the reference points and extrapolation
equations as given below (Figure 30).
1. Fine mesh with element length not more than 0.4 t at the hot spot: Evaluation of nodal
stresses at two reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t, and linear extrapolation.
2. Fine mesh as defined above: Evaluation of nodal stresses at three reference points
0.4 t, 0.9 t and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation. This method is recommended in
cases with pronounced nonlinear structural stress increase to the hot spot.
3. Coarse mesh with higherorder elements having lengths equal to plate thickness at
the hot spot: Evaluation of stresses at midside points or surface centres respectively,
i.e. at two reference points 0.5 t and 1.5 t, and linear extrapolation.
(4.2.23)
(4.2.24)
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(4.2.25)
4. Fine mesh with element length of not more than 4 mm at the hot spot: Evaluation of
nodal stresses at three reference points 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm and quadratic
extrapolation (eq. 4).
5. Coarse mesh with higherorder elements having length of 10 mm at the hot spot:
Evaluation of stresses at the midside points of the first two elements and linear extrapolation (eq. 5).
(4.2.26)
(4.2.27)
Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe it is in
table 11.
Table 11 Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe
Element
size
t x t max t x 10 x 10 mm
w/2*)
0.4 t x t or 4 x 4 mm
0.4 t x w/2
10 x 10 mm
0.4 t x t or 4 x 4 mm
0.4 t x w/2
Shells
Solids
Extrapolation
points
t x t max t x w
Type a
Type b
Shells
Solids
*)
**)
surface centre at
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transversal welds, if the weld below the plate is not modelled (see Figure 28.a).
The centre point of the first gauge should be placed at a distance of 0.4 t from the weld toe.
The gauge length should not exceed 0.2 t. If this is not possible due to a small plate
thickness, the leading edge of the gauge should be placed at a distance 0.3 t from the weld
toe. The following extrapolation procedure and number of gauges are recommended:
Type a hot spots
a) Two gauges at reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t and linear extrapolation (eq. 6).
(4.2.28)
b) Three gauges at reference points 0.4 t, 0.9 t and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation in
cases of pronounced nonlinear structural stress increase to the hot spot (eq. 7).
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(4.2.29)
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Often multigrid strip gauges are used with fixed distances between the gauges. Then the
gauges may not be located as recommended above. Then it is recommended to use e.g.
four gauges and fit a curve through the results.
(4.2.30)
Tubular joints
For tubular joints, there exist recommendations which allow the use of linear extrapolation
using two strain gauges. Here, the measurement of simple uniaxial stress is sufficient.
Determination of stress
If the stress state is close to uniaxial, the structural hot spot stress is obtained approximately
from eqn. (9).
hs E hs
(4.2.31)
At biaxial stress states, the actual stress may be up to 10% higher than obtained from eqn.
(3). In this case, use of rosette strain gauges is recommended. If FEA results are available
giving the ratio between longitudinal and transverse strains y/x , the structural hot spot
stress can then be resolved assuming that this principal stress is about perpenticular to
hs
1 v
hs E x
y
x
(4.2.32)
1 v2
Instead of absolute strains, strain ranges = max min are usually measured and
substituted in the above equations, producing the range of structural hot spot stress hs.
Structural hot spot stress concentration factors and parametric formulae
For many joints between circular section tubes parametric formulae have been established
for the stress concentration factor khs in terms of structural structural stress at the critical
points (hot spots). Hence the structural hot spot stress hs becomes:
hs k hs nom
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(4.2.33)
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where nom is the nominal axial membrane stress in the braces, calculated by elementary
stress analysis.
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The parameter which describes the fatigue action at a crack tip in terms of crack propagation
is the stress intensity factor (SIF) K.
Fracture mechanics calculations generally have to be based on total stress at the notch root,
e.g. at the weld toe. For a variety of welded structural details, correction functions for the
local notch effect and the nonlinear stress peak of the structural detail have been
established. Using these correction functions, fracture mechanics analysis can be based on
structural hot spot stress or even on nominal stress. The correction function formulae may be
based on different stress types. The correction function and the stress type have to
correspond.
Stress intensity factor determination methods are usually based on FEM analyses. They may
be directly calculated as described in the literature, or indirectly using the weight function
approach.
Calculation of stress intensity factors by parametric formulae
First, the local nominal stress or the structural Structural hot spot stress at the location of the
crack has to be determined, assuming that no crack is present. The stress should be
separated into membrane and shell bending stresses. The stress intensity factor (SIF) K
results as a superposition of the effects of both stress components. The effect of the
remaining stress raising discontinuity or notch (nonlinear peak stress) has to be covered by
additional factors Mk.
 membrane stress
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(4.2.34)
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The correction functions Ymem and Yben, the formulae for stress intensity factors, Mkfactors
can be found in the literature.
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o
residual stresses
o
initial defects
Constant and variable amplitude loading
Cumulative damage FAT class
Overview of fatigue calculation methods in a relevant design guidance document, e.g.,
IIW Doc. XIII196503/XV112703 Recommendations for fatigue design of welded
joints and components
Expected result at comprehensive level:
Explain the assumptions involved in the design of predominantly static loaded joints.
Identify relevant stress values from a type stresstime history for a structural
component. Calculate the design strength of end welds based on weld stress
components.
Calculate the design strength of side welds based on weld stress components.
Calculate the strength reduction factor for long side welds or transverse stiffeners.
Calculate the needed throat thickness for a full strength primary load carrying weld.
In fatigue assessment, the fatigue actions and the fatigue resistance are related by means of
an appropriate assessment procedure. It must be ensured that all three elements (actions,
resistance and assessment procedure) correspond. Three procedures may be distinguished:
a) Procedures based on SN curves, such as nominal stress approach structural hot
spot stress approach effective notch stress approach.
b) Procedures based on crack propagation considerations.
c) Direct experimental approach by fatigue testing of components or entire structures.
If normal and shear stress occur simultaneously, their combined effect shall be considered.
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maximum principal stress is not changed significantly, the maximum principal stress
range may be used.
c) If normal and shear stress vary independently out of phase, in damage calculation the
damage sums shall be calculated separately and finally added. The usage of 1/2 of
the calculated life cycles is recommended.
Fracture mechanics crack propagation calculations should be based on maximum principal
stress range.
The SN curve represents a material characteristic, experimentally considered for any
loading type or body. It is known as the material base curve. ConFigureation must be plain to
assure homogenous tensile / compression mechanical loading. Results obtained on bodies
subjected to cyclic bending, or bodies with geometric concentrators, reflect the effect of
certain influence factors.
Figure 33 presents two curves:
 curve a defines the asimptotic level of stress SR under which fracture does not happen
any more indifferently of the loading cycles,
 curve b defines a level of the loading at which the material can failure for a defined
number of cycles.
Distinct zones on the curve SN (Figure 34): quasistatic fracture, oligocyclic, and polycyclic
fatigue, respectively
Very high stress leads to quasistatic fracture. The oligocyclic fatigue is localized in the range
102105 cycles, and for a greater number of cycles the polycyclic fatigue works.
Stress is a time periodical function. Assembly of stress values during a period is called cycle.
ConFigureation of cycles is presented in Figure 1.
Parameters:
 stress (S): maximum / minimum, (Smax / Smin) (Figure 35),
 period (T),
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(4.3.1)
(4.3.2)
(4.3.3)
 a cycle characteristic = Sv /  Sm 
(4.3.4)
(4.3.5)
Variation of cycle asymmetry coefficient with amplitude (Sa) and average stress (Smed) is
represented in Figure 36.
Figure 36 Correlation of the cycle asymmetry coefficient, amplitude and average stress
Loading complex aleatory spectra reflect, in the nearest way the in service situations.
Mathematical presentation is possible by the Fourier series decomposition, as it is presented
later in this material.
In conventional endurance testing, there are different definitions of failure. In general, small
specimens are tested to complete rupture, while in large components the observation of a
through wall crack is taken as a failure criterion. In fracture mechanics crack propagation
testing, the crack growth rate data are derived from crack propagation monitoring.
All fatigue resistance data are given as characteristic values, which are assumed to have a
survival probability of at least 95%, calculated from a mean value of a twosided 75%
confidence level, unless otherwise stated.
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The (nominal) stress range should be within the limits of the elastic properties of the material.
The range of the design values of the stress range shall not exceed 1.5 fy for nominal normal
stresses or 1.5 fy / 3 for nominal shear stresses. fy actual or specified yield strength of the
material.
Evaluation to variable loading supposes to define form the beginning the using requirements
of characteristics for components, subassemblies, products. Requirement is generated by
the balance technical efficiency and involved costs. The establishment of fatigue
characteristics is influenced by the dispersion of primary results: structural macro/micron
homogenities of used materials, surface state, effect of stress constructive concentrators,
change in time of testing conditions (temperature, environment, etc.), testing technical
systems state, personnel qualification. Costs are generated by the volume of probes,
duration, cost for the exploitation of experimental technical systems, etc, of personnel,
respectively.
Accordingly, experiments are being planned.: Volume of probes, forming series, their
optimum distribution on loading parameter packages: type of loading, stresses, strains,
frequency, environment conditions, etc. Statistical processing of results is important to define
fatigue limit curves.
or
n = (2 / a2) Z 2 1/2
(4.3.6)
n = Z 2 1/2 / a2
(4.3.7)
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where: t, k is the value of the statistic quintile value for the level P = 1/2 for the degree of
freedom number k = n 1. Usually is adopted = 0.1 or 0.05, more rarely 0.01.
The size of the maximum value a and a
of average values of determinations:

or
Ra = R1 +a(log N) 
(4.3.9)
Ra = R1 +b(log N) 
(4.3.10)
(4.3.11)
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Estimation of quintiles related to the durability values Np is possible with the relation:
log Np = a + zp .
(4.3.13)
where a and are estimations of mathematical expectations, the square mean deviation of
the size x = log N, respectively zp  quintile of the normal aleatory size level.
Estimated sensitivity threshold based on the layout where the law of normal distribution of
random size x = log (N  No). Estimate, which is covering and is considered the threshold of
sensitivity, is determined by the relationship:
(4.3.14)
where Nmax , Nmin , N0,5 reprezint valorile durabiliti maxime, minime, mediane
determintate.
Relationship is valid for n 20 and (Nmax + Nmin) 5 N0, 5). Such calculations made
produced results similar to the graphical determination.
4.3.2 S N Diagram
SN curve is a characteristic of material, experimental high for any kind of request, or body.
It is recognized as the basic curve of the material. ConFigureation must be plain to ensure
uniform application of mechanical traction / compression.
Results obtained by cyclic bending required bodies, or bodies containing geometric
concentrators, reflecting the effect of certain influencing factors.
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 curve b defines a level of application at which the material can fail at a specified number
of cycles.
Distinct areas on the SN curve (Figure 38): quasistatic fracture, cycle fatigue life, polycyclic,
respectively.
i = (2/T) Sa . cos (2 i . f. t) dt
0
T
i = (2/T) Sa . sin (2 i . f. t) d
0
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(4.3.17)
S(t) = Sa . e t . cos . t
(4.3.18)
Sai = Sai+1 S
(4.3.19)
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Cp = (Sa)N / Smax.
(4.3.20)
direct: Whlers classical method, steps, Probit, with progressive loading (Prot, Locati)
indirect: based on the change of physical constants during the application variables
(elastic modulus, work absorption, magnetic permeability)
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Whler method call the dependence of the maximum tension the material yield (Rmax,,
Smax) and corresponding number of cycles to fracture (N). Testing continues until at least
one probe does not break. Include consecrated values (N0):
light alloys
With pairs of values: stress fracture (S)  number of cycles (N) the diagram in Figure 41 is
made: fatigue life curve (Whler), for determined loading conditions. The voltage coefficient
is the asymmetry index (R).
In semilogarithmic coordinates, there are three areas (Figure 42): static requests or few
cycles (I) limited durability (II), nonlimited durability or fatigue resistance (III).
Dispersion results are affected by the homogeneity of the material, preparing samples, test
conditions, etc. In the plane S N the curve can be replaced by an izoprobability network of
curves generated by the equation:
Np
f N , S dN p const.
(4.3.21)
where p is probability (01). At the S3 loading level point 'a' is the probability that no
specimen fracture, and point "b" the probability of survival of 0%. Significance points are
treated alike 'c', 'd' for a specified number of cycles.
The main factors affecting the durability of variable loadings, including weld fatigue limit are:
 asymmetry degree of the cycle,
 coefficient of fullness,
 overloading,
 geometry of the joint,
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Testing with "soft loading cycles' when the stress is the evaluated one
Testing with "hard loading cycles when the strain is the evaluate one
The difference between the two regimes is the most obvious in asymmetric cycles.
"Hard cyclic" loading with average tensile stress (Smed), leads to cyclic creep. "Soft cyclic"
with average tensile strain (med) leads to the stressrelieving of the creep stress. Figures 43
and 44 present the stressrelieving of average stress in case of pulsed loading, respectively
to the stressrelieving of creep stress for asymmetric cyclic loading. They represent typical
behaviours of materials at oligocyclic loading.
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strain
The average stress (Smed) is stress relieved after several loading cycles. The hystereses
loop becomes completely symmetric as a function of the stress. The stressrelieving rate
depends on the material, amplitude of deformation and its average value (a, med). The final
value of the average stress, after stressrelieving must not become nule. Cyclic creep can
develop only in the case of the soft asymetric loading cycle (Controlled amplitude of stress).
The example is suggestively expressed in the previous Figure: Smed, Sa =const. Material
reacts so that a, med constant. med increases with the number of cycles(N). Depending on
the material, Smed, Sa and T creep stops after N cycles or continues to fracture.
In the first case, fracture is base don fatigue, and in the second case it is base don plastic
instability.
The effect of average strain depends on the existence of average stress which is not zero
anbd can be understood only on the bases of stress change. So, the effect of average strain
is not significant when the average stress is rapidly relaxed during the controlled strain cycle,
but can be very important if the stressrelieving is a slow one. The stressrelieving rate
depends on material and strain. When the strain is higher the stressrelieving is more
reduced, and the effect on the average strain is more reduced.
Overlapping of the cyclic and average stress components in controlled conditions is to be
found out by cyclic creep. The tensile average stress shortens the fatigue life, while the
average compression stress make it longer. Figure 45 presents the effect of average stress
son fracture mechanisms under controlled stress conditions. There are four intervals:
Figure 45 Effect of average stress son fracture mechanisms for controlled stress testing.
a) For reduced levels of stress amplitude, under the fatigue limit there is no failure
indifferently of the average stress level
b) For levels of stress amplitude over the fatigue limit (median area of the diagram)
failure is fatigue typical, by initiation and propagation of cracks, preceded by creep
strain afferent to the average stress which is 0.
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c) For high levels of average stress the cyclic creep and ductile fracture prevail, by the
contraction of area.
d) For cyclic compression loading and high average stress the loss of stability occurs by
buckling.
For a prescribed amplitude of stress, it is found out that durability decreases, but not
monotonously, when average stress increases.
The effect of average stress on fatigue durability is suggestively expressed in Figure 46. The
maximum stress (Smax) depends on the average one (Sm) and the number of cycles (N). So,
a set of parametric curves (parameter N), is obtained and the experimental determination of
the diagram SN is compulsory.
Figure 46 Influence of average stress son fatigue resistance for different Nf values.
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Care must be taken to ensure that the stress used for the fatigue assessment is the same as
that given in the tables of the classified structural details. Macrostructural hot spot stress
concentrations not covered by the structural detail of the joint itself, e.g. large cutouts in the
vicinity of the joint, have to be accounted for by the use of a detailed stress analysis, e.g.
finite element analysis, or appropriate stress concentration factors.
The fatigue curves are based on representative experimental investigations and thus include
the effects of:
structural hot spot stress concentrations due to the detail shown,
local stress concentrations due to the weld geometry,
weld imperfections consistent with normal fabrication standards,
stress direction,
welding residual stresses,
metallurgical conditions,
welding process (fusion welding, unless otherwise stated),
inspection procedure (NDT), if specified,
postweld treatment, if specified.
Furthermore, within the limits imposed by static strength considerations, the fatigue curves of
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is m=3.00. The constant amplitude knee point is at 1. 10 cycles. The slope at higher number
of cycles is m=22.
The slope of the fatigue strength curves for detailed assessments on the basis of shear
8
stresses is m=5.00, but in this case the knee point is at 10 cycles. The slope at higher
number of cycles is m=22.
The descriptions of the structural details only partially include information about the weld
size, shape and quality. The data refer to a standard quality as given in codes and standard
welding procedures. For higher or lower qualities, conditions of welding may be specified and
verified by test.
The fatigue classes given in table 4.3.1 shall be modified as given in chapter 4.3.5. The
limitations of weld imperfections shall be considered.
All butt welds shall be full penetration welds without lack of fusion, unless otherwise stated.
All SN curves of details are limited by the material SN curve, which may vary due to
different strengths of the materials.
Disregarding major weld defects, fatigue cracks originate from the weld toe, and then
propagate through the base material, or from the weld root, and then propagate through the
weld throat. For potential toe cracks, the nominal stress in the base material has to be
calculated and compared with the fatigue resistance given in the tables. For potential root
cracks, the nominal stress in the weld throat has to be calculated. If both failure modes are
possible, e.g. at cruciform joints with fillet welds, both potential failure modes have to be
assessed.
Fatigue verification is carried out using the design spectrum of fatigue actions in terms of
stress ranges i,S,d, in which the stresses of the characteristic spectrum i, S, k have been
multiplied by the partial safety factor F for fatigue actions.
The design resistance SN curve based on design resistance stresses R,d, in which the
characteristic resistance stress ranges R,k have been divided by the partial safety factor M
for fatigue resistance.
The design resistance SN curve may be modified further according to the needs of the
damage calculation procedure.
For constant amplitude loading, the characteristic stress range R,k at the required
number of stress cycles is firstly determined. Secondly the fatigue criterion is checked:
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S ,d S .k F
R ,k
(4.3.22)
Dd
1
N usable
nt
1
Nt
N const N var
2
(4.3.23)
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Table 12 FAT data, stress at kneepoint of SN curve, constants of tentative SN curves and constants for
PalmgrenMiner summation
FAT class stress at knee # of cycles lower # of cycles higher than knee point of SN
[MPa]
point [MPa]
than knee point of curve Constant C: N=C/ m
SN curve
at 2e6c.
at 1e7 c.
m=3
125
73.1
3.906E+12
2.0440E+47
2.091E+16
112
65.5
2.810E+12
1.8250E+46
1.207E+16
100
58.5
2.000E+12
1.5082E+45
6.851E+15
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90
52.7
1.458E+12
1.4852E+44
4.046E+15
80
46.8
1.024E+12
1.1129E+43
2.245E+15
71
41.5
7.158E+11
8.0564E+41
1.236E+15
63
36.9
5.001E+11
5.8070E+40
6.800E+14
56
32.8
3.512E+11
4.3511E+39
3.773E+14
50
29.3
2.500E+11
3.5958E+38
2.141E+14
45
26.3
1.823E+11
3.5411E+37
1.264E+14
40
23.4
1.280E+11
2.6533E+36
7.016E+13
36
21.1
9.331E+10
2.6128E+35
4.143E+13
32
18.7
6.554E+10
1.9578E+34
2.299E+13
28
16.4
4.390E+10
1.0374E+33
1.179E+13
25
14.6
3.125E+10
8.5731E+31
6.691E+12
22
12.9
2.130E+10
5.1494E+30
3.531E+12
20
11.7
1.600E+10
6.3259E+29
2.192E+12
18
10.5
1.166E+10
6.2295E+28
1.295E+12
16
9.4
8.192E+09
4.6677E+27
7.184E+11
14
8.2
5.488E+09
2.4733E+26
3.685E+11
12
7.0
3.456E+09
8.3262E+24
1.705E+11
160
116.0
2.097E+17
5.2373E+51
2.100E+17
80
58.0
6.554E+15
1.2487E+45
6.564E+15
70
50.8
3.361E+15
6.6164E+43
3.367E+15
at 2e6 c.
at 1e8 c.
100
45.7
2.000E+16
3.2973E+44
2.000E+16
80
36.6
3.277E+15
2.4922E+42
3.277E+15
36
16.5
1.209E+14
6.0904E+34
1.209E+14
28
12.8
3.442E+13
2.2836E+32
3.442E+13
m=5
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No
.
Structural detail
Description
Requirements
FAT FAT
Steel Alu.
Butt joint
As welded, NDT
100
40
Kbutt welds, no
lamellar tearing
100
40
Transverse nonload
carrying attachment,
not thicker than main
plate, as welded
100
40
Bracket ends,
ends of
longitudinal stiffeners
100
40
100
40
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Structural detail
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Cruciform joints
with loadcarrying fillet
welds
90
36
Description
Requirements
FAT
FAT
Steel Alu.
90
36
Type b joint
with short
attachment
100
40
Type b joint
with long
attachment
90
36
Note: Table does not cover effects of misalignment. They have to be considered explicitely
in determination of stress range.
For hollow section joints, special hotspot stress design SN curves have been
recommended by the IIW. The tubular joint design curves should not be applied to other
types of structure.
B. Fatigue resistance using a reference detail
The tables of the fatigue resistance of structural details, or fatigue data from other sources
which refer to a comparable detail, may be used. The reference detail should be chosen as
similar as possible to the detail to be assessed. Thus the procedure will be:
a) Select a reference detail with known fatigue resistance, which is as similar as
possible to the detail being assessed with respect to geometric and loading
parameters.
b) Identify the type of stress in which the fatigue resistance is expressed. This is usually
nominal stress.
c) Establish a FEM model of the reference detail and the detail to be assessed with the
same type of meshing and elements.
d) Load the reference detail and the detail to be assessed with the stress identified in b).
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e) Determine the structural hot spot stress hs, ref of the reference detail and the
Structural hot spot stress hs, assess of the detail to be assessed.
f) The fatigue resistance for 2 million cyles of the detail to be assessed FATassess is then
calculated from fatigue class of the reference detail FATref by:
FATassess
hs, ref
FATref
hs, assess
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(4.3.24)
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No.
1
Material
Steel
Aluminium
Description
FAT
225
Unwelded base material and wrought products with negligible residual stresses
(<0.2fy), stress relieved welded components, in which the effects of constraints or
secondary stresses have been considered in analysis. No constraints in assembly.
Small scale thinwalled simple structural elements containing short welds. Parts or
components containing thermally cut edges. No constraints in assembly.
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f(R) = 1
no enhancement
The ranking in categories I, II or III should be done and documented by the design office. If
no reliable information on residual stress is available, f(R)=1.
It has to be noted in this respect that stress relief in welded joints is unlikely to be fully
effective and long range residual stresses may be introduced during assembly of
prefabricated welded components. For such reasons, it is recommended that values of
f(R)>1 should only be adopted for welded components in very special circumstances.
A2. Aluminium
The same regulations as for steel are recommended.
Joint category
Condition
aswelded
0.3
toe ground
0.2
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25
f t
t
eff
If
aswelded
0.2
any
0.1
where t >25 mm
(4.3.25)
The plate thickness correction factor is not required in the case of assessment based on
effective notch stress procedure or fracture mechanics.
B. Aluminium
The same regulations as for steel are recommended.
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Date 18.10.2010
The effects of all improvement techniques are sensitive to the method of application and the
applied loading, being most effective in the low stress high cycle regime. They may also
depend on the material, structural detail and dimensions of the welded joint. Consequently,
fatigue tests for the verification of the procedure in the endurance range of interest are
recommended in lot of references.
For some post welding improvement procedures, direct recommendations are given below.
They may be used under the following circumstances:
The recommendations apply to all arc welded steel or aluminium components subjected to
fluctuating or cyclic stress and designed to fatigue limit state criterion. They are limited to
structural steels up to a specified yield strength of 900 MPa and to structural aluminium
alloys commonly used in welded structures, primarily of the AA 5000 and AA 6000 series.
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The recommendations apply to welded joints of plates, of sections built up of plates or similar
rolled or extruded shapes, and hollow sections. If not specified else, the plate thickness
range for steel is from 6 to 150 mm, for aluminium from 4 to 50 mm.
The application is limited to joints operating at temperatures below the creep range. In
general, the recommendations do not apply at low cycle fatigue conditions, so the nominal
stress range is limited to
For the special improvement procedures additional restrictions may be given.
The improvement procedures described below, apply solely to the weld toe and to cracks
starting from this point. All other points of a possible start of fatigue cracks therefore should
be carefully considered as e.g. the weld root or weld imperfections.
The recommendations do not apply to joints operating under free corrosion.
(Figure 54).
Figure 54 Examples of joints, at which an improvement might be limited by a possible root crack
Burr Grinding
Fatigue cracks initiate usually at the weld toe at points of cold fusion or other sharp cracklike
defects of a few tenth of a millimetre. The grinding has firstly to remove these defects and
secondly to create a smooth weld transition and thus to reduce the stress concentration. All
embedded imperfection which emerge to the surface at grinding must be repaired. The
benefit of burr grinding is given as a factor on the stress range of the fatigue class of a nonimproved joint (table 16).
Table 16 Benefit factors on stress of burr grinding and TIG dressing
Area of application
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1.3
1.5 (1.3*)
For transverse fillet welds at continuous plates, corresponding to FAT 80 at steel or FAT 28
at aluminium in the catalogue of details
TIG dressing
By TIG (tungsten inert gas) dressing, the weld toe is remolten in order to remove the weld
toe undercut or other irregularities and to smoothen the stress concentration of the weld
transition (table 17). The recommendations apply to partial or full penetration arc welded fillet
welds in steels with a specified yield strength up to 900 MPa and to wall thicknesses >= 10
mm operating noncorrosive environment or under conditions of corrosion protection. The
details of the procedure are described in references.
Hammer peening
By hammer peening, the material is plastically deformed at the weld toe in order to introduce
beneficial compressive residual stresses. The recommendation is restricted to steels with
specified yield strength up to 900 MPa and structural aluminium alloys, both operating noncorrosive environment or under conditions of corrosion protection. The recommendations
apply for plate thicknesses from 10 to 50 mm at steel and 5 to 25 mm at aluminium and to
arc welded fillet welds with a minimum weld leg length of 0.1.t, where t is the wall thickness
of the stressed plate. The details of the procedure are described in references (table 17).
Area of application
Benefit
Requirements
Max. amount of nominal
compressive stress in load
spectrum < 0.25 fy ,
including proof loading
if R < 0 then use
if R >=0 then use max
instead of (for aluminium
use fy of HAZ !)
For structural hot spot stress see recommendations for needle peening.
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Needle peening
By needle peening, the material is plastically deformed at the weld toe in order to introduce
beneficial compressive residual stresses. Before any application, it is recommended to grind
the weld toe in order to remove undercut and weld toe irregularities and subsequently to
finish with a sandpaper tool for a glossy surface. The details of the procedure are described
in in references (table 18).
Area of application
Benefit
Requirements
At all peening techniques, the structural hot spot stress approach should be applied only to
joints with fillet welds (with any penetration) and not to butt joints. The structural hot spot
stress, which includes the stress increase due to the structural geometry and possible
misalignments can be assessed by the corresponding material SN curve, e.g. FAT 160 for
steel and FAT 71 for aluminium alloys in conjunction with the slope exponent m=5.0 . In this
way, the base metal at the weld toe is assumed to have a lower fatigue strength than the
peened weld.
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B. Aluminium
The fatigue data given here refer to operation temperatures lower than 70 C. This value is a
conservative approach. It may be raised according to test evidence or an applicable code.
da
C0 K m
dN
if
K K th
then
da
0
dN
(4.3.25)
where the material parameters are C0  constant of the power law, m  exponent of the power
law, K range of cyclic stress intensity factor, Kth  threshold value of stress intensity, under
which no crack propagation is assumed R, ratio Kmin/Kmax, taking all stresses including
residual stresses into account.
In the absence of specified or measured material parameters, the values given below are
recommended. They are characteristic values.
B. Steel
11
C0 = 1.58 .10
13
C0 = 5.0.10
3/2
(units in N*mm
and mm)
m=3
Kth = 6.0  4.56.R but not lower than 2 (units in MPa%m), or
Kth = 190  144 .R but not lower than 62 (units in N*mm
C. Aluminium
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9
C0 = 4.00.10
3/2
(units in N*mm
and mm)
m=3
Kth = 2.0  1.5.R but not lower than 0.7 (units in MPa%m), or
3/2
da
C0 K m
dN
if K K th
then
da
0
dN
(4.3.26)
K S ,k S ,k a
(4.3.27)
The characteristic resistance parameters can be derived from the characteristic constant
amplitude fatigue resistance SN curve: The threshold value corresponds to the fatigue limit,
Kth,k =FL,R,k, m equals the slope of the SN curve, and the constant C0,k can be calculated
from a data point (FSN and NSN) on the SN curve, preferably from the fatigue class at 2
6
x10 cycles:
C 0, k
(4.3.28)
(m 2) N S N Sm N
The fatigue verification is executed according to 4.4, using an initial crack parameter ai=1
9
and a final one af=4 or a large number e.g. af=10 . The restrictions on life cycles given in 4.3
are to be considered. The actual fatigue class of a predamaged component is FATact. =
FAT/a.
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K i ,S ,d K i ,S ,k F
(4.3.27)
K th,k
(4.3.28)
da
C0 K m
dN
if K K th
then
da
0
dN
(4.3.29)
C 0 K m
da
dN
1 R K
Kc
(4.3.30)
da C0,d K dm ,
if
K d K th,d
then
da = 0
(4.3.31)
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integration procedure.
A predimensioning leading to the mean values of the resistance data may be done by
multiplying the resistance values in terms of stress by a factor of 1.5, which is based on a
standard deviation of log cycles of 0.25 and an exponent of m=3.00 .
The verification or assessment depends of the safety strategy considered. Safe life, fail safe
and damage tolerant strategy have to be distinguished.
The fatigue tests should be performed using the data of the fatigue action history, factored by
the partial safety factors F and M, i.e., the stress levels of the action history have to be
multiplied by F . M for testing (table 19).
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Approach
all failed
first to fail
p to fail
The all failed approach is the normal way of testing at small size samples of which each
specimen represents the same weld details. The statistical analysis uses the data of the
failed specimens disregarding the nonfailed ones.
The first to fail approach may be used at a large scale sample with the same weld details
and loading. The test is stopped at the first failure of a specimen.
The n to fail approach is used in similar conditions as the first to fail one, when repairs of
crack details can be performed during the test. Each time when a detail fails, the test is
stopped and the failed detail is repaired. Repairs are stopped depending of test conditions.
At the end possibbly all details have failed and thus the all failed approach is applied. If only
p specimens out of the n size of the sample failed, the p to fail approach is used.
This chapter considers the all failed and first to fail approaches.
The following test result data should be documented according to the selected approach:
The mean of the log of number of cycles at failure of all n failed samples or details.
The number of cycles of the first failed detail within n tested details.
The number of cycles of the first p failed details within n tested details.
The tests should be performed according to well established and appropriate procedures or
standards.
For the evaluation of service tests, an estimate of the standard deviation of logN has to be
made, taking into account that the standard deviation varies with the life cycle of the
component to be assessed.
For the number of test results being n>10, the standard deviation has to be calculated.
For the number of test results being n<10, or if the procedure of first failure or p failures in
n specimens is used, the standard deviation can be estimated as follows:
4
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B. Acceptance criteria
The number of design life cycles of the component or structure should be less than the
minimum probable number of the test life cycles:
Nd
NT
F
(4.3.32)
where NT number of test life cycles of the test specimens corresponding to the log mean
value or number of cycles of the first test specimen to fail, whichever is applicable. F factor
dependent of the number of test results available as defined in tables 4.3.8, 4.3.9. The Ffactors refer to a 95% survival probability at a two sided confidence level of 75% of the mean
(see also 6.4) Nd number of design life cycles, up to which the component or structure may
be used in service.
If all components or test specimens are tested to failure, table 20, shall be used.
Table 20 Ffactors for failure of all test specimens
Stdv. \ n
10
0.178
3.93
2.64
2.45
2.36
2.30
0.200
4.67
2.97
2.73
2.55
2.52
0.250
6.86
3.90
3.52
3.23
3.18
If the tests are carried out until failure of the first test specimen, table 21 shall be used, the
factor F may be further modified according to safety requirements.
Stdv. \ n
10
0.178
2.72
2.07
1.83
1.69
1.55
0.200
3.08
2.26
1.98
1.80
1.64
0.250
4.07
2.77
2.34
2.09
1.85
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b. Volumetric discontinuities
Gas pores and cavities of any shape. Solid inclusions, such as isolated slag, slag lines, flux,
oxides and metallic inclusions.
c. Planar discontinuities.
All types of cracks or cracklike imperfections, such as lack of fusion or lack of penetration
(Note that for certain structural details intentional lack of penetration is already covered, e.g.
at partial penetration butt welds or cruciform joints with fillet welds)
If a volumetric discontinuity is surface breaking or near the surface, or if there is any doubt
about the type of an embedded discontinuity, it shall be assessed like a planar discontinuity.
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Effect of imperfection
Type of imperfection
Assessment
Formulae for effective
stress concentration
Weld
shape
Tables given
imperfections, undercut
Porosity and inclusions
Tables given
not near the surface
Cracks, lack of fusion and Fracture mechanics
penetration, all types of
imperfections other than
given here
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c. Cracklike imperfections
Planar discontinuities, such as cracks or cracklike imperfections, which require only a short
period for crack initiation, are assessed using fracture mechanics on the basis that their
fatigue lives consist entirely of crack propagation.
After inspection and detection of a weld imperfection, the first step of the assessment
procedure is to determine the type and the effect of the imperfection as given here.
If a weld imperfection cannot be clearly associated to a type or an effect of imperfections
listed here, it is recommended that it is assumed to be cracklike.
C. Misalignment
Misalignment in axially loaded joints leads to an increase of stress in the welded joint due to
the occurrence of secondary shell bending stresses. The resulting stress is calculated by
stress analysis or by using the formulae for the stress magnification factor km.
Secondary shell bending stresses do not occur in continuous welds longitudinally loaded or
in joints loaded in pure bending, and so misalignment will not reduce the fatigue resistance.
However, misalignment in components, e.g. beams, subject to overall bending may cause
secondary bending stresses in parts of the component, where the through thickness stress
gradient is small, e.g. in a flange of a beam, where the stress is effectively axial. Such cases
should be assessed.
Some allowance for misalignment is already included in the tables of classified structural
details (3.2). In particular, the data for transverse butt welds are directly applicable for
misalignment which results in an increase of stress up to 30%, while for the cruciform joints
the increase can be up to 45%. In local concepts of fatigue analysis, a small but unevitable
amount of misalignment according to a stress manification factor of km =1.05 is already
included in the fatigue resistance SN curves.
In special joints, i.e. all listed in table 23, the effect of a larger misalignment has to be additionally considered in the local stress (structural hot spot stress or effective notch stress. The
misalignement effect may be present even in the vicinity of supporting structures. A
corresponding stress increase has to be taken into account also in crack propagation
analyses. In all those cases, where the stress magnification factor is directly calculated, the
effective stress magnification factor km, eff should be calculated as given below:
K m,eff
k m,calculated
k m,already cov ered
(4.3.33)
For the simultaneous occurrence of linear and angular misalignment, both stress
magnification:
k m 1 k m,axial 1 k m,angular 1
(4.3.34)
As misalignment reduces the fatigue resistance, the fatigue resistance of the classified
structural detail (3.2) has to be divided by the effective stress magnification factor.
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Nominal
approach
Type of km analysis
stress
km already
km already covercovered in SN
ed in FAT class
curves
1.05
1.10*
1.30
1.05
1.25*
cruciform joints
1.45
1.05
1.40*
1.25
1.05
1.20**
*) but not more than (0.95 + 3. emax /t), where emax = permissible misalignment and t = wall
thickness of loaded plate,
**) but not more than (0.95 + 0.3. tref/t), where tref = reference wall thickness
D. Undercut
The basis for the assessment of undercut is the ratio u/t, i.e. depth of undercut to plate
thickness. Though undercut is an additive notch, it is already considered to a limited extent in
the tables of fatigue resistance of classified structural details for steels and aluminium (table
24, 25).
Undercut does not reduce fatigue resistance of welds which are only longitudinally loaded.
Table 24 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in steel
Fatigue class
fillet welds
100
0.025
not applicable
90
0.05
not applicable
80
0.075
0.05
71
0.10
0.075
63
0.10
0.10
56 and lower
0.10
0.10
Notes: a) undercut deeper than 1 mm shall be assessed as a cracklike imperfection. b) the table
is only applicable for plate thicknesses from 10 to 20 mm
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Fatigue class
fillet welds
50
0.025
not applicable
45
0.05
not applicable
40
0.075
0.05
36
0.10
0.075
32
0.10
0.10
28 and lower
0.10
0.10
Notes: a) undercut deeper than 1 mm shall be assessed as a cracklike imperfection. b) the table
is only applicable for plate thicknesses from 10 to 20 mm
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Fatigue class
*
**
+
stress relieved +
Limits of
porosity in %
of area * **
100
1.5
7.5
90
2.5
19
80
58
71
10
no limit
63
35
no limit
56 and lower
no limit
no limit
Fatigue class
Max.
length
of
inclusion in mm **
an Limits of porosity in % of
area * **
aswelded
1.5
40 and higher
36
2.5
0 +)
32
28
10
25
35
15 and lower
no limit
* Area of radiograph used is length of weld affected by porosity multiplied by width of weld
** Maximum pore diameter or width of an inclusion less than 1/4 plate thickness or 6 mm
+) Single pores up to 1.5 mm allowed
***Tungsten inclusions have no effect on fatigue behaviour and therefore do not need to be
assessed.
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Table 28 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and aluminium assessed on the basis of
nominal stresses
No.
Structural Detail
Description
(St.= steel;
Al.=
aluminium)
FAT FAT
St.
Al.
Rolled or
extruded
products,
components
with mashined
edges,
seamless
hollow
sections.
70
160
No fatigue resistance of
any detail to be higher at
any number of cycles!
Sharp edges, surface and
rolling flaws to be removed
by grinding. Any machining
lines or groves to be parallel to stresses! For high
strength steels a higher
FAT class may be used if
verified by test.
140
80
m=5
1
Requirements and
Remarks
Machine gas
cut or sheared
material with
subsequent
dressing, no
cracks by
inspection, no
visible
imperfections
m=3
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Machine
thermally cut
edges, corners
removed, no
cracks by
inspection m =
3
Manually
thermally cut
edges, free
from cracks
and severe
notches m = 3
100
Manually
thermally cut
edges, uncontrolled, no
notch deeper
than .5 mm m =
3
80
100
40
36
Transverse
loaded butt
weld (Xgroove
or Vgroove)
ground flush to
plate, 100%
NDT
Transverse butt
weld made in
shop in flat
position, toe
angle # 30,
NDT
Transverse butt
weld not
satisfying
conditions of
212, NDT Al.:
Butt weld with
106 Of 150
125
90
40
32
25
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toe angle #50
Butt welds with
toe angle >50/
Misalignment <10%
Transverse butt
weld, welded
on ceramic
backing, root
crack
80
28
10
Transverse butt
weld on
permanent
backing bar
terminating >10
mm from plate
edge, else
71
63
25
22
Misalignment <10%
71
36
28
12
11
Transverse butt
welds welded
from one side
without backing
bar, full
penetration
root controlled
by NDT no
NDT
12
Transverse
partial
penetration butt
weld, analysis
based on
stress in weld
throat sectional
area, weld
overfill not to
be taken into
account.
13
Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, NDT,
with transition
in thickness
and width slope
1:5 slope 1:3
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Misalignment <10%
36
100
90
80
12
40
32
28
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slope 1:2
Exceeding misalignment
due to thickness step to be
considered.
90
32
28
14
Transverse butt
weld made in
shop, welded in
flat position,
weld profile
controlled,
NDT, with
transition in
thickness and
width: slope 1:5
slope 1:3 slope
1:2
80
25
72
15
Transverse butt
weld, NDT, with
transition on
thickness and
width slope 1:5
slope 1:3 slope
1:2
25
22
20
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17
Date 18.10.2010
Transverse butt
weld, different
thicknesses
without
transition,
centres
aligned. In
cases, where
weld profile is
equivalent to a
moderate slope
transition, see
no. 222
71
Three plate
connection,
root crack
71
22
Misalignment <10% of
smaller
plate thickness
22
18
Transverse butt
weld flange
splice in builtup section
welded prior to
the assembly,
ground flush,
with radius
transition, NDT
100
40
19
Transverse butt
weld splice in
rolled section
or bar besides
flats, ground
flush, NDT
28
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flush in direction of stress.
20
Transverse butt
weld splice in
circular hollow
section, welded
from one side,
full penetration,
root crack root
inspected by
NDT no NDT
71
36
28
12
21
Tubular joint
with permanent
backing
71
28
22
Transverse butt
weld splice in
rectangular
hollow section,
welded from
one side, full
penetration,
root crack root
inspected by
NDT no NDT
56
36
25
12
23
Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, weld
ends and
radius ground,
100% NDT at
crossing
flanges, radius
transition.
40
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misalignment. Required
weld quality
cannot be inspected by
NDT
24
25
26
Transverse butt
weld made in
shop at flat
position, weld
profile
controlled,
NDT, at
crossing
flanges, radius
transition
Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, NDT, at
crossing
flanges with
welded
triangular
transition
plates, weld
ends ground.
Crack starting
at butt weld.
For crack of
throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526.
Transverse butt
weld, NDT, at
crossing
flanges, with
welded
triangular
transition
plates, weld
ends ground.
Crack starting
at butt weld.
111 Of 150
36
32
28
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For crack of
throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526!
Transverse butt
weld at
crossing flanges. Crack
starting at butt
weld. For crack
of throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526!
50
28
Automatic
longitudinal
seam welds
without
stop/start
positions in
hollow sections
with stop/start
positions
125
90
50
36
29
Longitudinal
butt weld, both
sides ground
flush parallel to
load direction
125
50
30
Longitudinal
butt weld,
without
stop/start
positions, NDT
with stop/start
positions
125
90
50
36
31
Continuous
automatic
longitudinal fully penetrated
Kbutt weld
without
stop/start
positions
27
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No startStop position is
permitted
125
50
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(based on
stress range in
flange) NDT
verify
the proper execution of the
weld.
32
Continuous
automatic
longitudinal
double sided
fillet weld
without stop/start positions
(based on
stress range in
flange)
100
40
33
Continuous
manual
longitudinal
fillet or butt
weld (based on
stress range in
flange)
90
36
34
Intermittent
longitudinal
fillet weld
(based on
normal stress
in flange and
shear stress in
web at weld
ends). / = 0
0.0  0.2
0.2  0.3
0.3  0.4
0.4  0.5
35
Joint at
stiffened
knuckle of a
flange to be
assessed
according to
no. 411  414,
depending on
type of joint.
113 Of 150
32
28
25
22
at weld ends.
representation by
formula:
steel 80.[1 ( / ) but
>=36
alum. 36.[1 ( / ) but
>=14
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Stress in
stiffener plate:
Af = area of
flange ASt =
area of stiffener
Stress in weld
throat: Aw =
area of weld
throat
The resulting force of Ffleft
and
Ffright will bend the flange
perpenticular to the plane
of main
36
Unstiffened
curved flange
to web joint, to
be assessed
according to
no. 411 414,
depending on
type of joint.
Stress in web
plate: Stress in
weld throat: Ff
axial force in
flange t
thickness of
web plate a
weld throat
37
Cruciform joint
or Tjoint, Kbutt welds, full
penetration, no
lamellar
tearing,
misalignment
e<0.15At, weld
114 Of 150
80
28
Material quality of
intermediate plate has to
be checked against
susceptibility of lamellar
tearing. Misalignment
<15% of primary plate.
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toes ground,
toe crack
38
Cruciform joint
or Tjoint,
singlesided arc
welded fillet or
partial
penetration Ybutt weld, no
lamellar
tearing,
misalignment of
plates e<
0.15At, stress
at weld root.
Penetration
verified.
Penetration not
verified.
71
36
25
12
39
Splice of rolled
section with
intermediate
plate, fillet
welds, weld
root crack.
Analysis base
on stress in
weld throat.
36
12
40
Splice of
circular hollow
section with
intermediate
plate,
singlesided butt
weld, toe crack
wall thickness
> 8 mm wall
thickness < 8
mm
56
50
22
20
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41
Splice of
circular hollow
section with
intermediate
plate, fillet
weld, root
crack. Analysis
based on
stress in weld
throat. wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm
45
40
16
14
42
Splice of
rectangular
hollow section,
singlesided
butt weld, toe
crack wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm
50
45
20
18
43
Splice of
rectangular
hollow section
with
intermediate
plate, fillet
welds, root
crack wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm
40
36
16
14
44
Weld
connecting web
and flange, loaded by a
concentrated
force in web
plane
perpendicular
to weld. Force
distributed on
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width b = 2Ah
+ 50 mm.
Assessment
according to
no. 411  414.
A local bending
due to
eccentric load
should be
considered.
45
Transverse
nonloadcarrying attachment, not
thicker than
main plate Kbutt weld, toe
ground Twosided fillets, toe
ground Fillet
weld(s), as
welded thicker
than main plate
100
100
80
71
36
36
28
25
46
Transverse
stiffener welded
on girder web
or flange, not
thicker than
main plate. Kbutt weld, toe
ground Twosided fillets, toe
ground fillet
weld(s): as
welded thicker
than main plate
100
100
80
71
36
36
28
25
47
Nonloadcarrying
stud as welded
80
28
48
Trapezoidal
stiffener to
deck plate, full
penetration butt
weld,
71
25
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calculated on
basis of
stiffener
thickness, out
of plane
bending
49
Trapezoidal
stiffener to
deck plate, fillet
or partial
penetration
weld, out of
plane bending
50
Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset at
length l l < 50
mm l < 150 mm
l < 300 mm l >
300 mm
51
Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
radius
transition, end
of fillet weld
reinforced and
ground, c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
150 mm
52
Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius) welded
on beam flange
or plate. c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20
118 Of 150
16
Calculation on basis of
stiffener thickness and weld
throat, whichever is smaller
80
71
63
50
28
25
20
18
90
32
t = thickness of attachment
25
20
t = thickness of attachment
If attachement thickness <
1/2 of base plat thickness,
then one step higher
allowed (not for welded on
profiles!)
50
71
63
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53
Longitudinal
flat side gusset
welded on
plate edge or
beam flange
edge, with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius). c < 2t2,
max. 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20
50
45
18
16
t = thickness of attachment
For t2 < 0.7 t1, FAT rises
12%
54
Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
radius
transition, end
of fillet weld
reinforced and
ground, c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
150 mm
90
32
t = thickness of attachment
55
Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius) welded
on beam flange
or plate. c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20
71
63
25
20
t = thickness of attachment
If attachement thickness <
1/2 of base plat thickness,
then one step higher
allowed (not for welded on
profiles!)
56
Longitudinal
flat side gusset
welded on
plate edge or
beam flange
edge, with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius). c < 2t2,
max. 25 mm r >
50
45
18
16
t = thickness of attachment
For t2 < 0.7 t1, FAT rises
12%
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0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20
57
Longitudinally
loaded lap joint
with side fillet
welds Fatigue
of parent metal
Fatigue of weld
(calc. on max.
weld length of
40 times the
throat of the
weld
50
50
18
18
58
Lap joint
gusset, fillet
welded, nonloadcarrying,
with smooth
transition
(sniped end
with n<20 or
radius), welded
to loaded
element c<2At,
but c <= 25 mm
to flat bar to
bulb section to
angle section
63
56
50
22
20
18
t = thickness of gusset
plate
59
Transverse
loaded overlap
joint with fillet
welds. Stress in
plate at weld
toe (toe crack)
Stress in weld
throat (root
crack)
22
12
Stresses to be calculated
using a plate width
equalling the weld length.
For stress in plate,
excenticity to be
considered, as given in
chapters 3.8.2 and 6.3.
Both failure modes have to
be assessed separately.
60
End of long
doubling plate
on Ibeam,
welded ends
(based on
stress range in
20
18
16
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63
36
56
50
45
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flange at weld
toe) tD # 0.8 t
0.8 t < tD # 1.5
t tD > 1.5 t
needed. No undercut at
frontal welds!
61
End of long
doubling plate
on beam,
reinforced
welded ends
ground (based
on stress range
in flange at
weld toe) tD #
0.8 t 0.8 t < tD
# 1.5 t tD > 1.5
t
71
63
56
28
25
22
62
End of
reinforcement
plate on rectangular hollow
section. wall
thickness: t <
25 mm
50
20
63
Reinforcements
welded on with
fillet welds, toe
ground Toe as
welded
80
71
32
25
Grinding in direction of
stress! Analysis based on
modified nominal stress,
however, structural stress
approach recommended.
64
Stiff block
flange, full
penetration
weld
71
25
65
Stiff block
flange, partial
penetration or
fillet weld toe
crack in plate
root crack in
weld throat
63
36
22
12
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66
71
25
67
63
22
68
Tubular branch
or pipe
penetrating a
plate, Kbutt
welds.
69
Tubular branch
or pipe
penetrating a
plate, fillet
welds. Toe
cracks. Root
cracks
(analysis based
on stress in
weld throat)
70
Nozzle welded
on plate, root
pass removed
by drilling.
71
Nozzle welded
on pipe, root
pass as
welded.
72
Circular hollow
section butt
joint to massive
bar, as welded
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80
71
36
71
63
63
28
25
12
25
22
22
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direction.
73
Circular hollow
section welded
to component
with single side
butt weld, backing provided.
Root crack.
74
Circular hollow
section welded
to component
single sided
butt weld or
double fillet
welds. Root
crack.
22
50
18
Impairment of inspection of
root cracks by NDT may be
compensated by adequate
safety considerations (see
chapter 5) or by
downgrading down to 2
FAT classes.
75
Circular hollow
section with
welded on disk
Kbutt weld, toe
ground Fillet
weld, toe
ground Fillet
welds, as
welded
90
90
71
32
32
25
76
Tubeplate
joint, tubes
flattened, butt
weld (Xgroove) Tube
diameter < 200
mm and plate
thickness < 20
mm
71
25
77
Tubeplate
joint, tube
slitted and welded to plate
tube diameter <
200 mm and
plate thickness
63
45
18
14
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< 20 mm tube
diameter > 200
mm or plate
thickness > 20
mm
Compute critical crack size for structural element with typical material properties.
4.4.1. General
Toughness of steel structures is treated exhaustively in design codes, thanks to a long
history of technical events due to factors that degrade materials after shorter or longer is
used. Toughness characterizes the behaviour of the steel structure damaged by mechanical
characteristics apparently not affecting them. For this reason the current presentation aims at
evaluating the behaviour of materials at the request of traction, bending the shock in different
ways, to understand the significance of defects in material harm to the intensity and tension
associated. This problem is highlighted in the context of variable demands, which promotes
germination and growth of cracks.
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For homogen material, the strain in the engineering stressstrain curve is the average linear
strain, obtained by dividing the elongation of the specimen gauge length, , by its original
length, Lo. Since both the stress and the strain are obtained by dividing the load and
elongation by constant factors, the loadelongation curve will have the same shape as the
engineering stressstrain curve. The two curves are frequently used interchangeably. The
shape of the curve and magnitudes of stress and strain of the material will depend on its
composition, heat treatment, prior history of plastic deformation, and the strain rate,
temperature, and state of stress imposed during testing. The basic parameters used to
describe the stressstrain curve of a metal are the tensile strength, yield strength or yield
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point, percent elongation, and reduction of area. The first two are strength parameters; the
last two indicate ductility.
For welded joints are determined only resistance characteristics. In addition it is possible to
analyze the location and appearance of fracture section.
The general shape of the engineering stressstrain curve requires further explanation.
In the elastic region stress is linearly proportional to strain. When the load exceeds a value
corresponding to the yield strength, the specimen undergoes gross plastic deformation. It is
permanent1y deformed if the load is re1eased to zero. The stress producing continued
plastic deformation increases with increasing plastic strain, i.e., the metal strainhardens. The
volume of the specimen remains constant during plastic deformation, AL = AaLo, and as the
specimen elongates, it decreases uniformly along the gauge length in crosssection area.
Initially, strain hardening more than compensates for this decrease in area and the
engineering stress (proportional to load P) continues to rise with increasing strain. Eventually
a point is reached where the decrease in specimen crosssectional area is gre ater than the
increase in deformation load, arising from strain hardening. This condition wilI be reached
first at some point in the specimen that is slightly weaker than the rest. All further plastic
deformation is concentrated in this region, and the specimen begins to neck or thin down
local.
Ductility is a qualitative, subjective property of a material. In general, measurements of
ductility are of interest in two ways:
1. To indicate the extent to which a metal can be deformed without fracture in
metalworking operations such as rolling and extrusion.
2. An indication to the designer, in a general way, of the ability of the metal to flow
plastically before fracture. A high ductility indicates that the material is likely to deform
locally without fracture.
The slope of the initial linear portion of the stressstrain curve is the modulus of elasticity, or
the Young' s modulus. The modulus of elasticity is a measure of stiffness of the material, for
computing deflections of beams and other members. However, an increase in temperature
decreases the modulus of elasticity.
The ability of a material to absorb energy when deformed elasticalIy and to retuffi it when
unloaded is called resilience. This is usually measured by the modulus of resilience, which is
the strain energy per unit volume required to stress the material from zero stress to yield
stress So.
The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy in the plastic range. The ability to
withstand occasional stresses above yield stress without fracturing is particularly desirable in
parts such are freightcar couplings, gears, chains, and crane hooks. Toughness is a
commonly used concept which is difficult to pin down and define. One way of looking at
toughness is to consider that it is the total area under the stresssstrain curve.
The engineering stressstrain curve for homogen materials, does not give a true indication of
deformation characteristics of a metal because it is based entirely on original dimensions of
the specimen, and these dimensions change continuously during the test. Also, ductile metal
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pulled in tension becomes unstable and necks down during the course of the test. Since the
crosssection area of the specimen decreases rapidly at this stage in the test, the load
required to continue deformation falls off. The average stress based on original are a
decreases likewise, and this produces the falloff in the stressstrain curve beyond the point
of maximum load. Actually, the metal continues to strainharden all the way up to fracture, so
that stress required to produce further deformation should also increase. If true stress is
used, based on the actual crosssection area of the specimen, it is found that the stressstrain curve increases continuously up to fracture. If the strain is measured also
instantaneously, the curve which is obtained is known as a truestresstruestrain curve, or a
flow curve. Any point on the flow curve can be considered as the yield stress for a metal
strained in tension by the amount shown off the curve. Thus, if the load is removed at this
point and then reapplied, the material will behave elastically throughout the entire range of
reloading.
a low temperature,
All three of these factors do not have to be present at the same time to produce brittle
fracture. A triaxial state of stress, such existing at a notch, and low temperature are
responsible for most service failures of the brittle type. However, since these effects are
accentuated at a high rate of loading, many types of impact tests have been used to
determine the susceptibility of materials to brittle behaviour. Steels which have identical
properties when tested in tension or tors ion at slow strain rates can show pronounced
differences in their tendency for brittle frac ture when tested in a notchedimpact test.
The situation becomes more complex when heterogeneous metallurgical materials, as if
welded joints. Since the ship failures occurred primarily in structures of welded construction,
it was considered for a time that this method of fabrication was not suitable for service where
brittle fracture might be encountered. A great deal of research has since demonstrated that
welding, per se, is not inferior in this respect to other types of construction. However, strict
quality control is needed to prevent weld defects which can act as stress raisers or notches.
New electrodes have been developed for a weld with better properties than the mildsteel
plate. The design of a welded structure is more critical than the design of an equivalent
riveted structure. It is important to eliminate stress raisers and reduce rigidity.
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beam in a horizontal position and loaded behind the notch by the impact of a heavy swinging
pendulum (Figure 58.) with the high impact velocity.
Plastic constraint at the notch produces a triaxial state of stress. The maximum plastic stress
concentration is given by:
K = [1 + (/2) (/2)]
(4.4.1)
where is the included flank angle of the notch.
The relative values of the three principal stresses depend strongly on the dimensions of the
bar and the details of the notch. The standard Charpy V specimen is thick enough to ensure
a high degree of plancstrain and triaxiality across almost all of the notched cross section,
and provides a severe condition for brittle fracture. Therefore, nonstandard specimens
should be used with great care. The principal measurement from the impact test is the
energy absorbed in fracturing the specimen. After breaking the test bar, the pendulum
rebounds to a height which decreases as the energy absorbed in fracture increases.
The energy absorbed for fracture, in joules (J), of ten designated KV, is read directly from a
calibrated dial on the impact tester. Sometimes impact test results are expressed ut energy
absorbed per unit crosssectional area of the specimen (notch or impact toughness).
Fracture energy measured by the Charpy test is only a relative energy and cannot be use,
direct1y in design equations. Another common result obtained from the Charpy test is based
on examination of the fracture surface. The fracture is fibrous (shear fracture) granular
(cleavage fracture), or a mixture of both. These different modes of failure are readily
distinguishable even without magnification. The flat facets of cleavage fracture provide a high
reflectivity and bright appearance, while the dimpled surface of a ductile fibrous fracture
provides a lightabsorptive surface and dull appearance. Usually an estimate is made of the
percentage of the fracture surface that is cleavage (or fibrous) fracture.
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Figure 59 shows how the fracture appearance of steel changes from 100 percent flat
cleavage (Ieft) to 100 percent fibrous fracture (right) as the test temperature is increased.
The fibrous fracture appears first around the outer surface of the specimen (shear lip) where
the triaxial constraint is the least.
Gradual decrease in the granular region and increase in lateral contraction at the notch with
increasing temperature is visible. Sometimes in the Charpy test the ductility is measured as
indicated by the percent contraction of the specimen at the notch.
The notchedbar impact test is most meaningful when conducted over a range of
temperature so that the temperature for ductiletobrittle transition can be determined (Figure
60). The energy absorbed decreases with decreasing temperature but for most cases the
decrease is not sharp at a certain temperature, and it is difficult to determine accurately the
transition temperature. In selecting a material from the standpoint of impact toughness or
tendency to brittle failure, the important factor is the transition temperature. Steel A, on
Figure 60.a, shows higher impact toughness at room temperature; yet its transition
temperature is higher than that of steel B. The material with the lowest transition temperature
is to be preferred. Notchedbar impact tests are subject to considerable scatter, particularly in
the region of the transition temperature.
5 oC
38 oC
100 oC
Figure 59 Fracture surfaces of Charpy specimens of mild steel, tested at different temperatures
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Most of this scatter is due to local variations in the properties of the steel, but also notch
shape and depth are critical variables, which can not be perfectly reproduced. Proper
placement of the specimen in the anvil is also important.
The principal advantage of the Charpy V notch impact test is that can readily be carried out
over a range of subambient temperatures. Moreover, the design of the test specimen is well
suited for measuring differences in notch toughness in lowstrength materials such as
structural steels. The test is used for comparing the influence of alloy studies and heat
treatment on notch toughness. It frequently is used for quality control and material
acceptance. By collecting and testing samples of welded joints areas, obtain information
about tenacity is located.
The major difficulty is that the results of the Charpy test are not directly applicable in design.
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propogation energy is convenient for welded joint, having in mind that cracklike defects
cannot be excluded in welded structures.
Because the root of the notch in a Charpy specimen is not as sharp as in fracture mechanics
tests with precracked specimens, there has been a trend toward using standard Charpy
specimens which are precracked by the introduction of a fatigue crack at the tip of the V
notch. These precracked specimens have been used in the instrumented Charpy test to
measure dynamic fracture toughness values (KId).
The significance of impact testing is illustrated by test results performed for two high strength
steels (table 29, Figure 61).
Steel
Si
Mn
Cr
Tensile characteristics
Ni
Mo
Al
Yield
strength
Ultimate
tensile
Elon
Reductin
gation
of cross
strength
YS
UTS
[MPa]
[MPa]
section
A
area
[%]
Z [%]
0,1
0,27
0,35
1,11
2,65
0,26
0,1
0,05
780
825
18,0
68,0
0,3
0,28
0,73
2,05
1,87
0,30
940
1015
16,7
58,2
Figure 61 Instrumented impact test resu1ts obtained with Charpy V specimen for steels A and B
Lnotch in crossrolling direction; Cnotch in rolling direction. 1crack initiation energy, 2crack
propagation energy, 3total energy.
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The difference in strength and ductility of these steels is not expressed in the same level as
in the case with impact toughness properties. Steel A, with low carbon content, exhibited
high impact energy at low temperatures (down to  100 C) for crack propagation and also
crack initiation. However, there a significant effect of rolling direction in that case, which
should be taken into account. For steel B, with 0.3% C, the impact energy is low, and nil
ductility transition temperature can be determined (between
40C and  60C).
Typical curve obtained on instrumented Charpy pendulum is presented in Figure 62. In this
Figure all oscillations of Charpy specimen during testing on instrumented pendulum
indicated.
Figure 62 Typical load vs. time record showing fracture phases of Charpy specimen
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Die support (rig) with the base allows bulging of properly positioned test plate (specimen).
Cast explosive charge of specified mass and power should be applied at properly determined
distance, obtained by cardboard box over the test plate. High rate of explosion loading
contributes to brittle fracture of test plate. Tests can be carried out over a range of
temperatures and then the appearance of the fracture determines the transition temperatures
(Figure 63). Below the nilductilitytransition (NDT) temperature the fracture is a flat (elastic)
fracture running completely to the edges of the test plate. Above the nil ductility temperaature
a plastic bulge forms in the center of the plate, but the fracture is still a flat elastic fracture out
to the plate edge. At a still higher temperature the fracture does not propagate outside of the
bulged region. The temperature at which elastic fracture no longer propagates to the edge of
the plate is called the fracture transition elastic (FTE). The FTE marks the highest
temperature of fracture propagation by purely elastic stresses. At yet higher temperature the
extensive plasticity results in a helmettype bulge. The temperature above which this fully
ductile tearing occurs is the fracture transition plastic (FTP).
The explosion bulge test makes use of a large plate specimen that incorporates novel
features in its preparation and testing procedure. However, the application of explosion in the
test introduced inconveniences and a new loading type had been proposed.
As an illustration, the results of explosion bulge test with the plates (BM) of steels A aud B
(table 4.4.1) are presented in Figure 64. After each shot, the reduction of thickness R and
bulge extension B were measured. Again the effect of rolling direction of stee1 A is
significant, and steel B exhibited linear behaviour.
test NDT  Nil Ductility Transition; FTEFracture Transition Elastic; FTPFracture Transition
Plastic
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The graphs show reduction of thickness R and bulge development B vs. number of
explosions Lnotch in hard bead in cross rolling direction; Cnotch in rolling direction.
C2. Drop weight test. Experience gathered with the explosion bulge test in NRL has led to
the development of dropweight test (DWT), in order to avoid the explosion. The DWT energy
is obtained from potential energy of falling mass (weight). Due to significant weight of the tup
and height of device, more energy can be obtained compared to Charpy pendulum.
The drop weight test was developed specifically for the determination of the NDT
temperature on full thickness plates. The simplicity of the dropweight specimen, the
apparatus for applying load and the interpretation of results, contributed to wide use of this
test. The stress applied to the specimen during the impact loading is limited to the yield point
by a stopping block attached to the anvil below the specimen (Figure 65). This is the practical
device for evaluating the ability of the steel to withstand yie1d point loading in the presence
of a small flaw.
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Data obtained from the DWT and other largescale fracture tests have been assembled into
a useful design procedure called the fracture analysis diagram (FAD). The NDT as
determined by the DWT provides a key data point to start construction of the fracture
analysis diagram and transition temperature features of steel (Figure 4.4.12).
For mild steel below NDT the CAT curve is flat. A stress level in excess of 35 to 55 MPa
causes brittle fracture, regardless of the size of the initial flaw. Extensive correlation between
NDT and Robertson CAT tests for a variety of structural steels has shown that the CAT curve
bears a fixed relationship to the NDT temperature. Thus, the NDT 1C provides a
conservative estimate of the CAT curve at stress of o /2, NDT + 15C provides an estimate
ofthe CAT at = o, and the FTE and NDT +50C provides an estimate of the FTP. So, once
NDT for structural steels is determined, the entire scope of the CAT curve can be established
well enough for engineering design. The curve traced out represents the worse possible case
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for large flaws in excess of 600 mrn. One can imagine a spectrum of curves translated
upward and to the left for smaller, less severe flaws. Correlation with service failures and
other tests has allowed the approximate determination of curves for a row of initial flaw sizes.
Thus, the FAD provides a generalized relationship of flaw size, stress, and temperaature for
lowcarbon structural steels of the type used in ship construction. The fracture analysis
diagram can be used in several ways for design (Figure 69). One simple approach would be
to use the FAD to select a steel which had an FTE that was lower than the lowest expected
service temperature. With this criterion the worst expected flaw would not propagate so long
as the stress remained elastic. Since the assumption of elastic behaviour is basic in
structural design, this design philosophy would be tantamount to being able ta ignore the
presence of flaws and brittle fracture. However, this procedure may prove to be too
expensive and overconservative. A slightly less conservative design against brittle fracture,
but still a practical approach, would be to design on the basis of an allowable stress level not
exceeding o/2. From Figure is visible that any crack will not propagate under this stress so
long as the temperature is not below NDT 1C.
The dynamic tear test (DT) can also be used to construct the FAD (Figure 70), using NDT as
base (dashed line). Below the NDT the fracture is brittle and has aflat, featureless surface
devoid of any shear lips. At temperatures above NDT there is a sharp rise in energy for
fracture and the fracture surfaces begin to develop shear lips. The shear lips become
progressively more prominent as the temperature is increased to the FTE. Above FTE the
fracture is ductile, void coalescencetype fracture. The fracture surface is a fibrous slant
fracture. The upper shelf of energy represents the FTP. The lower half of the DT energy
curve traces the temperature course of the CAT curve from NDT to FTE.
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final failure.
It also clearly defines the requirement of plastic deformation for the onset of crack initiation.
In general, three simultaneous conditions are required for the occurrence of fatigue damage:
cyclic stress,
tensile stress,
plastic strain.
If any one of these three conditions is not present, a fatigue crack will not initiate and
propagate. The plastic strain resulting from cyclic stress initiates the crack, and the tensile
stress (which may be localized tensile stresses caused by compressive loads) promotes
crack propagation.
The stages of fatigue can also be defined in more general terms from the perspective of
mechanical behavior of crack growth. For example, another division of the fatigue process is
defined as follows:
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structurally dependent crack growth rates (often called the "short crack" or "small
crack" phase),
crack growth rates that can be characterized by either linear elastic fracture
mechanics, elasticplastic fracture mechanics, or fully plastic fracture mechanics,
final instability.
This definition of the stages in the fatigue process is roughly equivalent to the first, except
that crack propagation is expressed in terms of crack growth rates, and nucleation is meant
to include all processes leading up to crack initiation. In general, the fatigue process consists
of a crack initiation and a crack propagation phase. There is, however, no general agreement
when (or at what crack size) the crack initiation process ends, and when the crack growth
process begins. Nonetheless, the separation of the fatigue process into initiation and
propagation phases has been an important and useful advance in engineering. Another
important engineering advance is the transfer of the multistage fatigue process from the field
to the laboratory. In order to study, explain, and qualify component designs, or to conduct
failure analyses, a key engineering step is often the simulation of the problem in the
laboratory. Any simulation is, of course, a compromise of what is practical to quantify, but the
study of the multistage fatigue process has been greatly advanced by the combined methods
of straincontrol testing and the development fracture mechanics of fatigue crack growth
rates. This combined approach (Figure 72) is a key advance that allows better understanding
and simulation of both crack nucleation in regions of localized strain and the subsequent
crack growth mechanisms outside the plastic zone. This integration of fatigue and fracture
mechanics has had important implications in many industrial applications for mechanical and
materials engineering.
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Design philosophy
Design methodology
Safelife, infinitelife
Stresslife
SN
Safelife, finitelife
Strainlife
N
Damage tolerant
Fracture mechanics
da/dNK
The SN and N techniques are usually appropriate for situations where a component or
structure can be considered a continuum (i.e., those meeting the "no cracks" assummption).
In the event of a cracklike discontinuity, the SN or N methods (except through residuallife
testing) offer little or quantitative basis for assessment of fatigue life.
Another limitation of the SN and N methods is the inability of the controlling quantities to
make sense of the presence of a crack. A brief review of basic elasticity calculations shows
that both stress and strain become astronomical at a discontinuity such as a crack, far
exceeding any recognized property levels that might offer some sort of limitation. Even
invoking plasticity still leaves inordinately large numbers or, conversely, extremely low
tolerable loads.
The solution to this situation is the characterization and quantification of the stress field at the
crack tip in terms of stress intensity in linear elastic fracture mechanics. It recognizes the
singularity of stress at the tip and provides a tractable controlling quantity and measurable
material property. The use of the stress intensity as a controlling quantity for crack extension
under cyclic loading thus enhances the engineering analysis of the fatigue process.
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Figure 74 Schematic illustration of variation of fatiguecrack growth rate, da/dN, with alternating stress
intensity, K, in steels, showing regions of primary crackgrowth mechanisms.
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(4.4.2)
where is the notchtip radius, is the range of applied nominal stress, and kt is stressconcentration factor.
Extensive data have shown that the fatiguecrackpropagation behaviour of metals is
controlled primarily by the stress intensity factor range, KI. The fatiguecrack propagation
behaviour of metals can be divided into regions (Figure 74):
 the behaviour in region I exhibits a fatiguecrack propagation threshold, Kth, wich
corresponds to the stressintensityfactor range, below which cracks do not propagate under
cyclicstress fluctuations.
 the behaviour in region II represents the fatiguecrackpropagation behaviour above Kth,
which can be represented by the powerlaw relationship:
da/dN = A (Kth)n
(4.4.3)
Extensive fatigue crack growth rate data for various steels show that the primary parameter
affecting growth rate in region II is the stress intensity factor range, and that the mechanical
and metallurgical properties of these steels have negligible effects on the fatigue crack
growth rate in a room temperature air environment. The stress ratio and mean stress have
negligible effects on the rate of crack growth in region II. Also, the frequency of cyclic loading
and the wave form (sinusoidal, triangular, square, or trapezoidal) do not affect the rate of
crack propagation per cycle of load for steels in benign environments. The acceleration of
fatiguecrackgrowth rates that determines the transition from region II to region III appears to
be caused by the superposition of a brittle or a ductiletearing mechanism onto the
mechanism of cyclic subcritical crack extension, which leaves fatigue striations on the
fracture surface. These mechanisms occur when the strain at the tip of the crack reaches a
critical value. Thus, the fatiguerate transition from region II to region III depends on the
maximum stressintensity factor, on the stress ratio, and on the fracture properties ofthe
material.
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K=(a).Y(a/W)
(4.4.4)
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The test methods covered include linearelastic and nonlinear loading, slow and rapid
loading, crack initiation, and crack arrest. The development of the test methods followed a
chronological pattern; that is, a standard was written for a particular technology soon after
that technology was developed. Standards written in this manner tend to become exclusive
to a particular procedure or parameter. Because most fracture toughness tests use the same
specimens and procedures, this exclusive nature of each new standard did not allow much
flexibility in the determination of a fracture toughness value.
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machining capabilities (the compact has more detail and costs more to machine),
Specimens for the KIc test must be precracked in fatigue before testing. This means that a
sharp crack is developed at the end of a notch by repeated loading and unloading of the
specimen, that is, fatigue loading.
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cracktip opening displacement (CTOD) : the crack displacement due to elastic and
plastic deformation at variously defined locations near the original (prior to an
application of load) crack tip.
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Although the conservative approach can accept the lowest strength as the relevant
parameter for weldment integrity assessment (e.g. if FAD is applied), in the case of more
precise analysis it is necessary to evaluate strength properties for alI weldment regions with
different microstructure, either directly, using tensile microspecimens, or indirectly, e.g. by
measuring the microhardness. One should notice, that even more sophisticated integrity
procedures like JR vs Crack Driving Force analysis, strongly depend on tensile properties,
i.e. flow strength.
Toughness is often used in structural integrity assessment procedures, e.g. in Fracture
Analysis Diagrammes (FAD), at least indirectly, as the nil ductility temperature (NDT). It is
well known that NDT temperature is often significantly different for different microstructures in
a weldment, indicating once again the need for precise evaluation of a mechanical property
in order to get the reliable structural integrity estimate of a material and weldment.
Present damage tolerant design philosophy doesn't address issue about flaw existence.
Moreover, it claims that there is no component and structure without flaws, which shift
fracture mechanic design and testing methodology on a new level, lead to real and
comprehensive structural integrity.
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List of figures
Figure 1 Classification of electric arc welded joints _______________________________________________________________ 8
Figure 2 Components of single sided joint, double sided joint, respectively _____________________________________14
Figure 3 Types of welded joints ___________________________________________________________________________________17
Figure 4 Types of welded joints on technological equipment ____________________________________________________22
Figure 5 The overview of engineering properties of materials. __________________________________________________24
Figure 6 Setting out lines __________________________________________________________________________________________28
Figure 7 Change of the bearing capacity of weld with defect area. _____________________________________________31
Figure 8 Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld ___________________________________________________________33
Figure 9 Effective penetration of Tbutt welds. ___________________________________________________________________36
Figure 10 Calculation of the weld forces for intermittent welds _________________________________________________37
Figure 11 Throat thickness of a fillet weld. _______________________________________________________________________38
Figure 12 Throat thickness of a deep penetration fillet weld. ___________________________________________________39
Figure 13 Effective throat thickness of flare groove welds in solid sections. ____________________________________39
Figure 14 Effective width of an unstiffened T joint _____________________________________________________________40
Figure 15 Local eccentricity _______________________________________________________________________________________41
Figure 16 Modified or local nominal stress _______________________________________________________________________44
Figure 17 Notch stress and structural stress _____________________________________________________________________44
Figure 18 Geometric elements of intermittent fillet weld ________________________________________________________47
Figure 19 The stress distribution over the plate thickness. ______________________________________________________50
Figure 20 Nominal stress in a beamlike component_____________________________________________________________51
Figure 21 Examples of macrogeometric effects __________________________________________________________________51
Figure 22 Modified (local) nominal stress near concentrated loads ____________________________________________52
Figure 23 Axial and angular misalignment _______________________________________________________________________52
Figure 24 Structural details and structural stress _______________________________________________________________53
Figure 25 Definition of structural hot spot stress ________________________________________________________________54
Figure 26 Various locations of crack propagation in welded joints _____________________________________________54
Figure 27 Biaxial stress at weld toe _______________________________________________________________________________55
Figure 28 Types of hot spots _______________________________________________________________________________________56
Figure 29 Typical meshes and stress evaluation path for a welded detail ______________________________________57
Figure 30 Reference points at different types of meshing ________________________________________________________58
Figure 31 Examples of strain gauges in plate structures ________________________________________________________60
Figure 32 Effective notch stress concentration factors __________________________________________________________62
Figure 33 SN Diagram Figure 34 Specific zones of the SN diagram________________________________________66
Figure 35 Loading parameters ____________________________________________________________________________________67
Figure 36 Correlation of the cycle asymmetry coefficient, amplitude and average stress ______________________67
Figure 37 SN Diagrams ___________________________________________________________________________________________71
Figure 38 Specific zones of the S N diagram ____________________________________________________________________71
Figure 39 Spectra of aleatory loading. ____________________________________________________________________________72
Figure 40 Curve of cumulated frequencies. _______________________________________________________________________72
Figure 41 Fatigue resistance curve _______________________________________________________________________________74
Figure 42 Fatigue curve domains _________________________________________________________________________________74
Figure 43 Stressrelieving cat pulsed constant strain ____________________________________________________________75
Figure 44 Creep stressrelieving asymmetric cyclic loading and controlled stress _____________________________75
Figure 45 Effect of average stress son fracture mechanisms for controlled stress testing. _____________________76
Figure 46 Influence of average stress son fatigue resistance for different N f values. ___________________________77
Figure 47 Fatigue resistance SN curves for steel, normal stress ________________________________________________78
Figure 48 Fatigue resistance SN curves for aluminium, normal stress _________________________________________78
Figure 49 Modified resistance SN curves of steel for PalmgrenMine summation _____________________________81
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Figure 50 Modified resustance SN curves of aluminium for PalmgrenMiner summation ____________________81
Figure 51 Enhancement factor f(R) _______________________________________________________________________________87
Figure 52 Toe distance ____________________________________________________________________________________________88
Figure 53 Examples of joint suitable for improuvement _________________________________________________________89
Figure 54 Examples of joints, at which an improvement might be limited by a possible root crack ___________90
Figure 55 Fatigue strength reduction factor for steel at elevated temperatures _______________________________92
Figure 56 Example of scatter of test data _________________________________________________________________________96
Figure 57 Comparison of engineering and true streestrain curve ____________________________________________ 125
Figure 58 Dimensions of Charpy V notch standard specimen __________________________________________________ 128
Figure 59 Fracture surfaces of Charpy specimens of mild steel, tested at different temperatures ___________ 129
Figure 60 Transitiontemperature curves for a) two steels, b) transition temperature criterion ___________ 130
Figure 61 Instrumented impact test resu1ts obtained with Charpy V specimen for steels A and B __________ 131
Figure 62 Typical load vs. time record showing fracture phases of Charpy specimen ________________________ 132
Figure 63 Fracture appearance vs. temperature for explosioncrackstarter ________________________________ 133
Figure 64 Typical results of explosion bulge test for steels A and B ___________________________________________ 134
Figure 65 Drop weight test conFigureation the anvil stop. ____________________________________________________ 134
Figure 66 Robertson crackarrest test __________________________________________________________________________ 136
Figure 67 Temperature dependence of yield strength (o), tensile strength (u) _____________________________ 136
Figure 68 Fractureanalysis diagram showing influence of various initial flaw sizes ________________________ 136
Figure 69 Fracture analysis diagram for steel A _______________________________________________________________ 137
Figure 70 Application of DT test result for fracture analysis ___________________________________________________ 137
Figure 71 Different phases of fatigue life and relevant factors ________________________________________________ 138
Figure 72 Laboratory simulation of the multistage fatigue process. __________________________________________ 139
Figure 73 Different scenarios for fatigue crack growth ________________________________________________________ 141
Figure 74 Schematic illustration of variation of fatiguecrack growth rate, da/dN, with alternating stress
intensity, K, in steels, showing regions of primary crackgrowth mechanisms. ______________________________ 141
Figure 75 Schematic of Kbased crack resistance, R curve with position of KIc _______________________________ 145
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List of tables
Table 1 Classification criteria and weld type according to EC 318. _______________________________________10
Table 2 Provisions regarding the correlation of loading and control of welds ______________________________18
Table 3 The partial safety factors M for joints _________________________________________________________________26
Table 4 Type of joint model ______________________________________________________________________________________29
Table 5 Correlation factor w for fillet welds. __________________________________________________________________34
Table 6 Conditions for welding coldformed zone and adiacent material ___________________________________42
Table 7 Stress raisers and notch effects _______________________________________________________________________43
Table 8 Characteristics, limitations and conditions related to the type of welding. ________________________45
Table 9 The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round ________________________________________________48
Table 10 Types of hot spots ______________________________________________________________________________________55
Table 11 Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe ________59
Table 12 FAT data, stress at kneepoint of SN curve, constants of tentative SN curves and constants
for PalmgrenMiner summation __________________________________________________________________________________81
Table 13 Fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress ______________________________________________83
Table 14 Effective notch fatigue resistance for steel __________________________________________________________86
Table 15 Thickness correction exponents ______________________________________________________________________87
Table 16 Benefit factors on stress of burr grinding and TIG dressing ______________________________________90
Table 17 Benefit on stress of hammer peening (nominal stress) ____________________________________________91
Table 18 Benefit on stress of needle peening (nominal stress) ______________________________________________92
Table 19 Testing approaches ____________________________________________________________________________________97
Table 20 Ffactors for failure of all test specimens ____________________________________________________________98
Table 21 Ffactors for the first test specimen to fail ___________________________________________________________98
Table 22 Categorisation and assessment procedure for weld imperfections ____________________________ 100
Table 23 Consideration of stress magnification factors due to misalignment ____________________________ 102
Table 24 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in steel _________________________________________________ 102
Table 25 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in aluminium __________________________________________ 103
Table 26 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in steel ________________________________ 104
Table 27 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in aluminium __________________________ 104
Table 28 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and aluminium assessed on the basis
of nominal stresses _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 105
Table 29 Chemical composition and tensile characteristics of tested steels _____________________________ 131
Table 30 The three basic types of fatigue properties _______________________________________________________ 140
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