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International Welded

Structure Designer----IWSD
Module 4. Design of welded joints

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Date 18.10.2010

4.1 Categories of welded joints ..................................................................................................... 5


4.1.1 Classification of welded joints ...........................................................................................................................5
4.1.2 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.3. Correlation of loading and control of welds ............................................................................................ 17
4.1.4. Welded joints realized on actual metallic structures ........................................................................... 20
4.2 Design of welded joints with predominantly static loading .................................................... 23
4.2.1. Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................ 23
4.2.2. Basis of design ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
General requirements ........................................................................................................................................................ 25
4.2.3. Welded connections ........................................................................................................................................... 28
General ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Global analysis ......................................................................................................................................................................28
Loading actions ....................................................................................................................................................................29
4.2.4. Basic principles .................................................................................................................................................... 30
Calculation of welded joints ............................................................................................................................................ 30
Directional method ............................................................................................................................................................. 33
Simplified method ................................................................................................................................................................ 34
Resistance calculation of welds .....................................................................................................................................37
4.2.5. Types of stress raisers and notch effects .................................................................................................. 43
4.2.6. Determination of stress and stress intensity factors ........................................................................... 50
Definition of Stress Components ...................................................................................................................................50
Nominal stress .......................................................................................................................................................................50
Calculation of nominal stress .........................................................................................................................................52
Measurement of nominal stress ....................................................................................................................................53
4.2.7 Structural hot spot stress ................................................................................................................................. 53
General ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Determination of structural hot spot stress ............................................................................................................ 55
Calculation of structural hot spot Stress................................................................................................................... 56
Measurement of structural hot spot stress .............................................................................................................. 60
Determination of stress ..................................................................................................................................................... 61
Structural hot spot stress concentration factors and parametric formulae ............................................ 61
4.2.8 Effective notch stress ......................................................................................................................................... 62
Calculation of effective notch stress ............................................................................................................................ 62
Stress intensity factors ...................................................................................................................................................... 63
Calculation of stress intensity factors by parametric formulae .....................................................................63
4.3 Design of welded joints with predominantly fatigue loading .................................................. 64
4.3.1 Basic principles ..................................................................................................................................................... 65
Increasing accuracy and efficiency of mechanical characteristics .............................................................. 68
Distribution function of durability at the action of variable loading.......................................................... 69
Statistical processing method ........................................................................................................................................70
4.3.2 S N Diagram......................................................................................................................................................... 70
4.3.3 Collective applications of voltage .................................................................................................................. 71
4.3.4 Fatigue resistance ................................................................................................................................................ 73
4.3.5 The average voltage effect ................................................................................................................................ 75
4.3.6 Fatigue resistance of classified structural details .................................................................................. 77
4.3.7 Linear Damage Calculation by "Palmgren-Miner" ................................................................................. 80
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4.3.8 Nonlinear Damage Calculation ....................................................................................................................... 83


4.3.9 Fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress ........................................................................... 83
A.Fatigue Resistance using Reference S-N Curve ..................................................................................................83
B. Fatigue resistance using a reference detail........................................................................................................84
4.3.10 Fatigue resistance against effective notch stress ................................................................................. 86
4.3.11 Fatigue strength modifications .................................................................................................................... 86
4.3.12 Wall Thickness.................................................................................................................................................... 87
4.3.13 Improvement techniques ............................................................................................................................... 88
Applicability of improvement methods ..................................................................................................................... 89
Burr Grinding.........................................................................................................................................................................90
TIG dressing ............................................................................................................................................................................ 91
Hammer peening..................................................................................................................................................................91
Needle peening ......................................................................................................................................................................92
4.3.14 Effect of elevated temperatures .................................................................................................................. 92
4.3.15 Effect of corrosion ............................................................................................................................................. 93
4.3.16 Fatigue resistance against crack propagation ....................................................................................... 93
4.3.17 Fatigue assessment by crack propagation calculation ...................................................................... 95
4.3.18 Fatigue assessment by service testing...................................................................................................... 96
A. General................................................................................................................................................................................. 96
B. Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................................................................................ 98
C. Safe life verification ....................................................................................................................................................... 98
D. Fail safe verification...................................................................................................................................................... 99
E. Damage tolerant verification....................................................................................................................................99
4.3.19 Fatigue resistance of joints with weld imperfections ........................................................................ 99
A.Types of Imperfections .................................................................................................................................................. 99
B. Effects and assessment of imperfections........................................................................................................... 100
C. Misalignment ................................................................................................................................................................. 101
D. Undercut .......................................................................................................................................................................... 102
E. Porosity and inclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 103
4.3.20 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and aluminium assessed on the
basis of nominal stresses .......................................................................................................................................... 105
4.4 Design against brittle fracture ..............................................................................................124
4.4.1. General ................................................................................................................................................................. 124
4.4.2. Mechanical behaviour under tensile loads ............................................................................................ 125
4.4.3. Impact testing .................................................................................................................................................... 127
A. Notched-bar impact tests......................................................................................................................................... 127
B. Instrumented Charpy test ........................................................................................................................................ 130
C. High rate impact test ................................................................................................................................................. 132
C1. Explosion bulge test ................................................................................................................................................. 132
C2. Drop weight test. ....................................................................................................................................................... 134
C3. Robertson crack-arrest test .................................................................................................................................. 135
C4. Fracture analysis diagram.................................................................................................................................... 135
4.4.3. Fatigue testing ................................................................................................................................................... 138
4.4.4. Fracture mechanics approach .................................................................................................................... 140
A. General.............................................................................................................................................................................. 140
B. Linear-elastic fracture toughness testing ........................................................................................................ 144
C. Nonlinear fracture toughness testing ................................................................................................................ 145
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4.4.5. New standards for fracture mechanics testing of metallic materials ......................................... 146
List of figures.............................................................................................................................148
List of tables ..............................................................................................................................150

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4.1 Categories of welded joints


Objective
The students will understand the differences between functional weld categories and how the
design requirements will depend on the categories
Scope
Weld categories
Primary load carrying joints
Connecting joints
Binding joints; accessory joints
Expected results
Identify various classes of welded joints based on their function.
Explain the load-bearing requirement of various weld categories.
Explain the need to avoid the under- and over-size of the throat thickness.
Illustrate the role of joint preparation and weld penetration for load-carrying joints.
Identify joint categories from an engineering structure.

4.1.1 Classification of welded joints


The welding operation must be understood as the realization of a non-detachable joint
between two or more parts, named components, by heating and/or applying a pressure with
or without using filler material. In the welding area, material of components can be in melting
or plastic sate assuring the continuity of materials the components are made out of. In
technical literature, standards and norms, inclusively welded joints are classified according to
the welders position against the joint, the way the parts to be welded are situated one
against the other and the way edges are processed, inclusively when the thickness of jointed
parts exceeds 8-10 mm.

The classification of welded joints takes in account the international terminology (Figure 1).
a) Considering the welding process there are:
a. Welding by melting
b. Pressure welding
b) According to the purpose:
a. Resistance joining
b. Sealing up joining
c. Hardening joining
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d. Surfacing joining
c) Position of components in the joining process:
a. Butt welding, when components are in the same plane (1, 4)
b. Fillet welding, with constructive variants
i.

T, when components form an angle by joining (2)

ii.

Overlapped, when components are in contact on a certain area


(3)

d) According the direction of loading:


a. Frontal joining, when the loading is transversal against the
longitudinal axis
b. Longitudinal joining, when the loading is on the direction of the
longitudinal axis
e) Welding position:
a. horizontal (5),
b. flat weld (6),
c. vertical up, vertical down (7a and 7b, 7c),
d. horizontal vertical weld (8),
e. overhead (9).

Welding positions differentiate them according to the circular scale disks accepting the
horizontal line as reference, so:

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Figure 1 Classification of electric arc welded joints

Horizontal position, in the range 45 135 (7b)

Position in vertical plane, in the range 135 225 i 315 45 (7c)

Position overhead, in the range 225 135 (7c)


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f) Continuity of deposited welds:


a. Continuous joining, when the length of the joining is identical with that of
components to be welded
b. Discontinuous joining, when the joining length sum is more reduced than that
of components to be welded
c. Weld spots joining, when the components joining is locally assured
g) Number of cooling ways:
a. bimetallic (10)
b. multimetallic (11, 12)
h) Accessibility when welding:
a. one side joining (13, 14, 15)
b. both sides joining (16, 17a, b, c)
i)

Number of weld metal passings:


a. one passing (18)
b. more passings (19)

j)

Thickness uniformity:
a. equal (20)
b. unequal (21)

k) Shape and geometry of the groove:


a. butt welds: in I(13), in V(14), in double V or X(16), K
b. fillet welds: with non-processed web (17 b), with processed web (17 c)
l)

Metallurgical group of materials to be welded:


a. Homogeneous
b. heterogeneous

Homogeneous joints are realized with base and filler materials belonging to the same
metallurgical group. The heterogeneous ones, have one or both components, and the filler
material, respectively from different metallurgical groups.

m) The mechanization degree can be:


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a. manual welding
b. semi-mechanized welding
c. automated welding

Analyzing the way welded joints are formed according to EC 3-1-8 the following types of
welded joints are defined:
1. Fillet welds, which can be continuous or intermittent fillet welds,
2. Fillet welds all round, in fact fillet welds on the contour of holes made in one of the
overlapped components,
3. Butt welds,
4. Plug welds and
5. Flare groove welds.

Table 1 presents the classification criteria and the type of welds. Butt welds can be realized
with full or partial penetration.
In the category of fillet welds are framed all welds between components making between
them an angle in the range 60 and 120. Besides the common fillet welds, which thickness
a is considered equal with the height of the inscriptible triangle in the cross section of the
weld, descended from its root on the exterior side, EC 3 also stipulates fillet welds with full
penetration, which thickness depends on the technology and equipment used. The design
codes foresee the obligation to check by preliminary test probes.

Table 1 Classification criteria and weld type according to EC 3-1-8.

No.

Classifica
tion
criteria

Weld type

Butt
welds

Butt welds
with full
penetration
and V, 2V, U,
2U groove

Representation

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Butt
welds

Butt welds
with
penetration
and V and U
groove

Fillet
welds

Continuous
welds

Fillet
welds

Fillet weld
with 2xV

Fillet
welds

Fillet welds
with V, J, K
and 2J
groove

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Fillet
welds

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Intermittent
welds:
-alternative,
-bilateral,

Fillet
welds

Fillet welds
with deep
penetration

Fillet
welds

Fillet welds
with partial
penetration
completed
with
deposition

Overlapp
ed welds

Continuous
fillet welds:
- lateral,
- frontal

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Fillet welds:
10

Overlapp
ed welds

- all around,
- oblong

11

Overlapp
ed welds

Plug welds

12

Flare
groove
welds

Welds
between
oblong
groove welds

Accepting this type of weld intervene following the improvement of welding technologies,
which at present allow the significant penetration of fillet welds in the material of the welded
components.
So, it is possible to realize actual weld thickness a bigger than those considered in common
fillet welds, where the penetration is more reduced and not taken into account.
Obviously, here appears as necessary the direct designer- executants relation, which have to
collaborate during the design stage having as objective the possibility to realize deep
penetrated fillet welds, relation that is not a problem for firms realizing the design
documentation, execution and the assemblage of metallic structures.
As regards the full penetrated welds, both the butt welds and the T welds, changes in
designation appear. For example, X weld is designated as double V weld, the K one is
named double J weld, and the V and U welds are named semi V, and J, respectively.
A significant difference consists in accepting the partial penetration welds, both for butt welds
and for T welds; they are named double V and double U welds, semi double V welds,
respectively.
EC 3 also stipulates for T welds the possibility to use butt welds with partial penetration
completed with fillet welds, which thickness is established according to specifications of
design codes.
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4.1.2 Definitions
It is necessary to introduce main vocabulary notions under the form of technical terms,
weblated with components of single sided joint, double sided joint, respectively (Figure 2).
The following definitions are used:

basic component of a joint: specific parts of a joint that has an identified contribution
on structural characteristics;

Figure 2 Components of single sided joint, double sided joint, respectively

Connection: a place where two components and inter-connection means are


interconnected;

Connected member: element that is supported by the element it is connected to;

Joint: assembly of basic components which make possible the connection of


elements so that relevant forces and internal moments can be transferred form one to
another. As for example, a beam- column joint consists in a web type cassette in a
connection (single-sided joint) or two connections (double-sided joint),

Joint configuration: type or location of joint or joints in an area where two or more
inter-connected elements meet (Figure 2);

Structural properties of a joint: resistance to internal forces and moments in


interconnected elements, rigidity and its rotation capacity;

Uniplanar joint: in a lattice structure a uniplanar joint connects elements situated in a


single plane.

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Figure 3 presents images of above classified welds, to be identified and commented by


students.
Electric arc welds are classified according to different criteria:
1. According to the joint type:
a. butt welds
b. fillet welds

2. According to the position the welds are made, butt welds can be:
a. horizontal welds, in horizontal plane
b. horizontal welds, in vertical plane

c. vertical welds (can be performed up-down and down-up)

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d. overhead welds which are the most difficult to be performed

3. Fillet welds can be performed:


a. horizontal fillet weld

b. horizontal weld

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c. vertical weld, performed by descending or ascending the electrode

d. overhead weld

Figure 3 Types of welded joints

4.1.3. Correlation of loading and control of welds


Design codes stipulate checking of stresses in welds with relations: as < Rs = R,
respectively Ts < Rs = R, where is a coefficient depending on the loading nature, which
values are presented in table 2.

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Table 2 Provisions regarding the correlation of loading and control of welds

Joint type
Weld type

Loading and
calculus
relations

Performed
welds

Control of
welds

Rs = R

BUTT WELD

compression

with deep penetration

N
cs
Rcs
As

automated
semiautomat
ed manual

Common
means

automated

- || -

semiautomat
ed manual

- || -

0.8

0.8 R

semiautomat
ed manual

With X
or rays

T
s
R sf
As

automate
semiautomat
e manual

Common
means

0.6

0.6 R

bending

automated

- || -

Common
means

0.8

0.8 R

automated
semiautomat
ed manual

Common
means

0.7

0.7 R

automated

Common

0.7

0.7 R

tensile

N

Rsi
As
s
i

shearing

As

bxa
b 2 a xa

a b
Ws
6

M
s
Rinc
semiautomat
Ws
ed manual

OVERLAPPED
Filet welds
Tensilecompression

T

Rs
As
s

3 mm a 0,7 tmin

As a l si ; l s l si
T

Tensile

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Fillet welds

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compression
shearing

semiautomat
ed manual

means

N
Rs
As

As 2 a b

bending
3 mm a 0,7 tmin

Ws 2

M
Rs
Ws

a b 2 ; l =2b
s
6

As it results from table 2 coefficient and finally the calculus resistance of welds, depend on
the calculus resistance of the material to be welded, loading mode of the weld ( = 1 for
compression, tensile, respectively, for controlled but welds with performance procedures, =
0,8 for tensile loading in butt welds, if the weld control is made with less performing
procedures, = 0.6 for butt welds shear loaded and = 0.7 for fillet welds, where only
tangential stresses, t are checked.
In the calculation of weld sizes according to EC 3-1-8, limits of geometric sizes are
stipulated.
For example, for the fillet welds thickness a the following condition has to be respected:

3 mm <a <0,7 tmin

The a values have to be checked by measurements and preliminary probes, in the


case of fillet welds with deep penetration, respectively of butt welds with partial
penetration completed with fillet welds.

For the minimum weld length, some norms foresee 40 mm, while EC 3 foresees only 30 mm,
but keeps the prescription: lmin - 6a.
It must be retained that EC 3 foresee the acceptance of fillet welds with constant thickness
on the whole length, if it can be practically realized, not considering the existence of final
craters form the ends of the welds. Contrary, the reduction of weld with 2a is maintained.
Additionally the return of welds is accepted, in the same plane, after the corner of the
overlapped components. The return of weld is considered when calculating the weld length,
if it has the same thickness a as the its rest.

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When the distribution of stresses along the fillet welds is significantly influenced by the
rigidity of elements or of jointed components, the non-uniformity of this distribution is
considered by using a reduced effective length: bef. When the length of welds exceeds 150a,
resistance of the weld is reduced with a factor JLw < 1.
C 3-1-8 also provides special restrictions to use single sided fillet welds and the butt welds
with single sided partial penetration, in case of bending and tensile stresses.

4.1.4. Welded joints realized on actual metallic structures


Figure 3 presents welded joints realized on actual metallic structures.

a)

b)

d)

c)

e)

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f)

i)

g)

h)

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j)

k)

l)

m)

Figure 4 Types of welded joints on technological equipment

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4.2 Design of welded joints with predominantly static loading


Objective
The students will understand how the throat thickness of weld will be defined in
predominantly static loaded joints.
Scope
Throat thickness
Elastic and plastic design
Deformation capacity Stress components in a fillet weld
Correlation factor for weld strength
Design strength
As appropriate, a suitable design guidance document, e.g., EN 1993 Eurocode 3-part 1-8:
Design of Steel Structures: Design of Joints, may be used.
Expected result at comprehensive level
Explain the assumptions involved in the design of predominantly static loaded joints.

Identify relevant stress values from a type stress-time history for a structural
component. Calculate the design strength of end welds based on weld stress
components.

Calculate the design strength of side welds based on weld stress components.

Calculate the strength reduction factor for long side welds or transverse stiffeners.

Calculate the needed throat thickness for a full strength primary load carrying weld.

Calculate the throat thickness for a binding welded joint.

4.2.1. Scope
Present chapter deals with the design rules of joints and is prepared in accordance with the
provisions of EN 1993, Part 1-8. Consequently, the main attention is focused on design
methods for joints subjected to predominantly static loads. In conjunction with the provisions
of EN 1993, Part 1-8, the methods described may also apply for applications generating
dynamic loads, particularly from wind action, unless otherwise noted. Popular brands of steel
to be used in conjunction with the design methods presented are S 235, S 275, S 366, S 420
and S 460. Joints fatigue design, not subject to this chapter.
Components used in modern engineering usually have to bear high mechanical loads.
Because mechanical equipment is often used at or near design limitations, great care must
be employed in selecting the proper materials to use for a particular design application. The
need for high-performance materials in such industries as aerospace and power generation
has advanced the use of design parameters in the evaluation of material behaviour. The term
"mechanical behaviour" encompasses the response of materials to external forces.

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The successful employment of metals in engineering applications relies on the ability of the
metal to meet design and service requirements and to be fabricated to the proper
dimensions. The capability of metallical structures to meet these requirements is determined
by the mechanical, physical, chemical and fabrication properties of the metal components
with welding joinings (Figure 5).

Figure 5 The overview of engineering properties of materials.

Various tests have been devised to reveal the mechanical properties of materials, related
with structural integrity, with two main types of loading conditions, namely static loading and
dynamic loading. Assessment only at static behaviour is almost an idealization.
A static load is applied only once; it induces strain in the material very slowly and gradually
and remains constant throughout the service life of the component. Tension, compression,
hardness, and creep tests are used to reveal mechanical properties under a static loading
condition.
Dynamic loads can be classified into impact loads and fatigue loads. An impact load
resembles a static load in that it is applied only once. However, it differs from a static load
because it introduces strain in the material very rapidly. Charpy impact test is devised to
measure the behaviour in these circumstances of materials.
Design for structural and mechanical functions is based on the useful strength or allowable
stress of engineering materials. Usually, in such applications, materials are selected to
operate within their elastic range. Sometimes, however, machine parts and structures are
operated at stresses exceeding their elastic limit. Also, to guard against catastrophic failure,
it is taken into account that the material should plastically deform rather than fracture in case
of a sudden overload condition. During service, engineering products are usually subjected
to complex systems of stresses.
Tension, hardness, creep, impact toughness, and fatigue tests have long been used to
evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering materials in mechanical welding joining
structures. More recently, the fracture toughness test has emerged as another important test.
Compression is a less common mechanical test. Another test rarely used to specify the
mechanical properties of materials is the torsion test. As described below, the uniaxial stress-

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strain relationship determined from the tension test reveals a number of important
mechanical properties of the material, usable for engineering calculations.
Application of all simulation and testing programs is routine in many design groups in
worldwide. Set design calculations are based on results of a very broad palette of testing and
practical experiments. However, test range for particular engineering component requires
special attention. Reliability and functionality are two of the most prized qualities required
from engineered components. These are not achieved by accident. Indeed, considerable
scientific and technological endeavour is expended to help achieve them, because without
them the functionality of our whole society would be seriously jeopardized. Individual
structures are, of course, designed and manufactured to perform an individual specified
function, be they large or small. For example, a turbine should generate and transmit power,
a bridge should carry traffic, and a pressure vessel should contain a liquid or gas under
pressure. These constitute large structures, many of which are hidden from the general
public, but whose function is taken for granted by them. Other structures and components
can involve the public at a very personal level, like a mechanical heart valve or a
replacement hip, or relatively mundane domestic appliances. Yet more are hidden in
instruments and service systems, like computers, banking systems, telecommunication
systems. Loss of functionality in any one of these components can, therefore, have
consequences which far exceed the immediate damage to the component in question. Many
of welding joining metallic structures and components are required to operate under tight
controllable operating conditions, while others operate under unpredictable and
uncontrollable regimes. The environment may also be variable, regardless of the operating
regime. All the structures must be capable of operating to their design function for the period
for which that function is required, in terms of reliability and safety requirements. For a heart
valve, this may be the remaining lifetime of a patient, let say decades, while for a building or
a bridge it may be several hundred years. Additionally, operating conditions may change
throughout life: on bridges loads may increase as traffic becomes heavier and more frequent,
storage vessels may be required to store heavier charges as technology changes, electricity
generating plants may be required to switch from operating continuously at base load to two,
shift operation for peak lopping, and rail tracks may have to carry higher speed and heavier
trains. One way in which a structure may fail to meet its engineering function by mechanical
failure. This occurs when the structure, or part of it, loses its mechanical integrity to such an
extent that it ceases to perform as designed.
The mechanical integrity required to function as designed is what is meant by the term
"structural integrity", and they are all dedicated to the various methods that are inherent in
the "assurance" of structural integrity. These methods involve activity at all stages of life,
during conception, design, manufacture, operation, and decommissioning of a structure, and
the disciplines required to ensure structural integrity are all embracing.

4.2.2. Basis of design


General requirements
The design methods taken from EN 1993 assume that the standard of construction is
as specified in the execution standards set designer and that the construction materials and
products used are those specified in EN 1993 or in the relevant material and product
specifications.
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All joints shall have a design resistance such that the structure is capable of satisfying all the
basic design requirements provided by the designer according to specific codes, including in
EN 1993 parts 1-1, 1-8.
The partial safety factors M for joints are given in table 3.

Table 3 The partial safety factors M for joints

Resistance of members and cross-sections

Mo , M 1 and M 2 see EN

1993 -1-1
Resistance of bolts
Resistance of rivets

M2

Resistance of pins
Resistance of welds
Resistance of plates in bearing

M3

Slip resistance
- for hybrid connections or connections under fatigue
loading

M3

- for other design situations


Bearing resistance of an injection bolt

M4

Resistance of joints in hollow section lattice girder

M5

Resistance of pins at serviceability limit state

M6

Preload of high strength bolts

M7

Resistance of concrete

M 0 see EN 1992

Recommended values are as follows: M2 = 1,25; M3 = 1,25 for hybrid connections or


connections under fatigue loading and M3 = 1,1 for other design situations; M4 = 1,0;
M5=1,0 ; M6 = 1,0 ; M7 = 1,1.
Joints subject to fatigue should also satisfy the principles given in EN 1993-1-9.
The forces and moments applied to joints at the ultimate limit state shall be determined
according to the principles in EN 1993-1-1.The resistance of a joint shall be determined on the
basis of the resistances of its basic components. In terms of tensile strength, breaking
combining should take place outside the typical areas.
Frequently, in the design of joints, linear-elastic or elastic-plastic analysis may be used.
Where fasteners with different stiffnesses are used to carry a shear load the fasteners with the
highest stiffness should be designed to carry the design load. However there may be some
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cases.
Joints shall be designed on the basis of a realistic assumption of the distribution of internal
forces and moments. The following assumptions should be used to determine the distribution
of forces:
a) the internal forces and moments assumed in the analysis are in equilibrium with the
forces and moments applied to the joints,
b) each element in the joint is capable of resisting the internal forces and moments,
c) the deformations implied by this distribution do not exceed the deformation
capacity of the fasteners or welds and the connected parts,
d) the assumed distribution of internal forces shall be realistic with regard to relative
stiffnesses within the joint,
e) the deformations assumed in any design model based on elastic-plastic analysis are
based on rigid body rotations and/or in-plane deformations which are physically
possible, and
f) any model used is in compliance with the evaluation of test results (see EN 1990).
Where a joint loaded in shear is subject to impact or significant vibration one of the following
jointing methods should be used:

welding

bolts with locking device

preloaded bolts

injection bolts

other types of bolt which effectively prevent movement of the connected parts

rivets

Where slip is not acceptable in a joint (because it is subject to reversal of shear load or for
any other reason), preloaded bolts in a Category B or C connection, fit bolts rivets or
welding should be used.
For wind and/or stability bracings, bolts in Category A connections may be used.
Where there is eccentricity at intersections, the joints and members should be
designed for the resulting moments and forces, except in the case of particular types of
structures where it has been demonstrated that it is not necessary.
In the case of joints of angles or tees attached by either a single line of bolts or two lines of
bolts any possible eccentricity should be taken into account in accordance with set design.
In-plane and out-of-plane eccentricities should be determined by considering the relative
positions of the centroidal axis of the member and of the setting out line in the plane of the
connection (Figure 6). For a single angle in tension connected by bolts on one leg the
simplified design method given in set design, may be used.
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The effect of eccentricity on angles used as web members in compression is given in


EN 1993-1-1, Annex BB 1.2, special attention is to be treated as.

Figure 6 Setting out lines

4.2.3. Welded connections


General
Conforming to EN 1993-1-1, apply to weldable structural steels and to material
thicknesses of 4 mm and over. Also apply to joints in which the mechanical properties of
the weld metal are compatible with those of the parent metal.
For welds in thinner material reference should be made to EN 1993 part 1.3 and for welds in
structural hollow sections in material thicknesses of 2.5 mm and over guidance is
given section 7 of EN 1993.
For stud welding reference should be made to EN 1994-1-1. Further guidance on stud
welding can be found in EN ISO 14555 and EN ISO 13918.
Quality level C according to EN ISO 5817 is usually required, if not otherwise specified. The
frequency of inspection of welds should be specified in accordance with the rules in set
design.
Lamellar tearing shall be avoided. Guidance on lamellar tearing is given in EN 1993-1-10.
The specified yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation at failure and minimum
Charpy V-notch energy value of the filler metal, should be equivalent to, or better than that
specified for the parent material. Generally, it is safe to use electrodes that are
overmatched related to the steel grades being used.

Global analysis
The effects of the behaviour of the joints on the distribution of internal forces and moments
within a structure, and on the overall deformations of the structure, should generally be taken
into account, but where these effects are sufficiently small they may be neglected.

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To identify whether the effects of joint behaviour on the analysis need be taken into account,
a distinction may be made between three simplified joint models as follows:

Simple, in which the joint may be assumed not to transmit bending moments

Continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint may be assumed to have no effect on
the analysis

Semi-continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint needs to be taken into account in
the analysis

The appropriate type of joint model should be determined from table 4, depending on the
classification of the joint and on the chosen method of analysis.
The design moment-rotation characteristic of a joint used in the analysis may be simplified by
adopting any appropriate curve, including a linearised approximation (e.g. bi-linear or trilinear), provided that the approximate curve lies wholly below the design moment-rotation
characteristic.

Table 4 Type of joint model

Method of
global analysis

Classification of joint

Elastic

Nominally pinned

Rigid

Semi rigid

Rigid Plastic

Nominally pinned

Full - strength

Partial - strength

Elastic
Plastic

Nominally pinned

Rigid and full strength

Semi rigid and partial


strength
Semi rigid and full strength
Rigid and partial - strength

Type of joint
model

Simple

Continuous

Semi - continuous

Loading actions
All types of fluctuating load acting on the component and the resulting stresses at potential
sites for static and variable loading have to be considered. Stresses or stress intensity
factors then have to be determined according to the assessment procedure applied.
Frequently, a fatigue load is a more common type of load, and it is applied several times in a
cyclic manner. Fatigue test is exclusively used to determine mechanical properties under
cyclic loading condition. As important as is the fracture toughness.
The actions originate from live loads, dead weights, snow, wind, waves, pressure,
accelerations, dynamic response, etc. Actions due to transient temperature changes should
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be considered. Improper knowledge of fatigue actions is one of the major sources of fatigue
damage.

4.2.4. Basic principles


Calculation of welded joints
Weld load capacity is affected by:

Joint geometry

Cross section effective area

Fracture resistance of used materials

Fracture resistance depends on:

Structural heterogeneity of weld zones (BM, HAZ, WM)

Biaxiality effect of the stress state

In the absence of defects, ability to weld butt load applied perpendicularly on the seam axes
is:

when fracture occurs in base metal

when fracture occurs in weld

FrMB = RrMB . Ao
FrSUD = RrSUD . AS

(4.2.1)
(4.2.2)

where Ao , AS are cross section areas, with pot defects in BM, WELD, respectively, and RrMB
. RrSUD fracture resistances of the BM, WELD, respectively /N/mm2/.
Load capacity of the material deposited when welding, with defects is expressed by relation:

FrdSUD = RrdSUD . AS

= RrdSUDef( AS- Ad )

(4.2.3)

where RrdSUD is the fracture nominal resistance of the deposited material with defects,
RrdSUDef effective fracture resistance relative to net area ( AS - Ad ), Ad - defects affected
area.
The global resistance of the weld depends on the effective fracture resistance of the weld
containing defects and a linear variation factor relative to the size of the defect:

RrdSUD = RrdSUDef.[1 - (Ad/ AS )]

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Defects induce the change of the stress state by its concentration in the defect section
expressed by the concentration coefficient:
kS = RrdSUDef / RrSUD > 1

(4.2.5)

Figure 7 presents the evolution of the bearing capacity of the weld with the defect area.

Figure 7 Change of the bearing capacity of weld with defect area.

The weld must provide superior bearing capacity to the base material:

FrSUD = FrMB sau

FrdSUD =

FrMB

(4.2.6)

In the previous Figure there are two domains:

I.

where

FrdSUD = RrdSUD . AS > FrMB = RrMB . Ao

(4.2.7)

the bearing capacity is attributed to RrMB , and fracture produces in BM,

II.

where

FrdSUD = RrdSUD . AS < FrMB = RrMB . Ao

the bearing capacity is attributed to RrdSUD , and fracture produces in SUD

Switching between the two areas is defined by the relation:


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RrMB . Ao = kS . RrdSUDef (AS - d)

(4.2.9)

Where it is explained:
d = Ao [ (AS/ Ao) - (RrMB / kS RrSUD)]

(4.2.10)

Admitting that (AS/ Ao) = 1, there results:


d = Ao [ 1 - (RrMB / kS RrSUD)]

(4.2.11)

The previous relation is valid when the selection of the base material is made on the criterion
RrdSUD > RrMB. If this criterion refers to the yield limit, the ratio R0.2 / Rr is considered. This ratio
is statistically situated at:

0.60 for non-alloy steel base materials heat resistant alloy

0.80 for non-alloy filler materials

0.85 for alloy filler materials

Defects with round shapes (sulphurs, inclusions, cavities) respect the mentioned
considerations. Defects with great acuity, such as cracks, lack of penetration, are not
subjected to the mentioned considerations. The weld behaviour is controlled by the material
capacity to inhibit the propagation of the defect.
As regards the calculus dimensions for welds, in EC3-1-8 limits are stipulated that are also to
be found in other norms, but different limits, too. For example, for the thickness of fillet welds
the condition: 3 mm a 0.7 t has to be respected and values a checked by preliminary
min

probes, in the case of deep penetration fillet welds, of partial penetration deep welds
completed with fillet welds, respectively.
For the minimum weld length, EC 3 stipulates 30 mm, but keeps the prescription: l

6a.

min

In EC 3 is provided the acceptance of fillet welds with constant thickness on their whole
length, if this can be practically accomplished, not taking into account the existence of final
craters from th end of welds.
Otherwise is maintained the requirement related to the reduction of the weld length with 2a.
In addition, the return of welds is acceptable, in the same plane, after the corner of the
overlapping parts, a return to be taken into account in calculating the length of weld, if the
thickness is the same.
When stress distribution along the weld angle is significantly influenced by the rigidity of
components or joined parts, uniformity of this distribution is taken into account by using a
reduced effective length b and when the weld length exceeds 150 a, the weld strength is
eff

reduced with a factor

Lw

< 1.

EC 3-1-8 also provides special restrictions to use one side fillet welds and one side partial
penetration deep welds, when subjected to bending and tensile stresses. Calculation of weld
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strength is determined according to EC 3 as function of fracture tensile nominal strength


tensile of the steel used in joining f and not as a function of its yield limit f .
u

The design resistance of a fillet weld should be determined using:

Directional method
Simplified method

Directional method
In directional method, the forces transmitted by a unit length of weld are resolved into
components parallel and transverse to the longitudinal axis of the weld and normal and
transverse to the plane of its throat.
The design throat area Aw should be taken as Aw = a. leff.
The location of the design throat area should be assumed to be concentrated in the root. A
uniform distribution of stress is assumed on the throat section of the weld, leading to the
normal stresses and shear stresses (Figure 8), as follows:
- is the normal stress perpendicular to the throat
|| - is the normal stress parallel to the axis of the weld
- is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld

||

- is the shear stress (in the plane of the throat) parallel to the axis of the weld.

Figure 8 Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld

The normal stress parallel to the axis is not considered when verifying the design resistance
of the weld.
The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following are both satisfied:

3 2 2

0,5

f u / W M 2 and f u / M 2
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where:
- fu is the nominal ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined;
- w is the appropriate correlation factor taken from table 5.
Welds between parts with different material strength grades should be designed using the
properties of the material with the lower strength grade.

Table 5 Correlation factor w for fillet welds.

Standard and steel grade


EN 10025

EN 10210

EN 10219

Correlation
factor w

S 235 H

S 235 H

0.8

S 235
S 235 W
S 275

S 275 H
S 275 H

S 275 N/NL

S 275 NH/NLH

0.85

S 275 NH/NLH
S 275 M/ML

S 275 MH/MLH

S 355
S 355 H
S 355 N/NL

S 355 H

S 355 M/ML

S 355 NH/NLH

S 355 NH/NLH

0.9

S 355 MH/MLH
S 355 W
S 420 N/NL
S 420 MH/MLH

1.0

S 420 M/ML
S 460 N/NL
S 460 NH/NLH
S 420 M/ML

S 460 NH/NLH

1.0
S 460 MH/MLH

S 420 Q/Ql/QL1

Simplified method
In the simplified method, the design resistance of a fillet weld may be assumed to be
adequate if, at every point along its length, the resultant of all the forces per unit length
transmitted by the weld satisfy the following criterion:

F.w,Ed Fw,Rd
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where:
F.w,Ed is the design value of the weld force per unit length;
F.w,Rd is the design weld resistance per unit length.
Independent of the orientation of the weld throat plane to the applied force, the design
resistance per unit length Fw,Rd should be determined from:
Fw,Rd = fvw.d a

(4.2.14)

where:
fvw.d is the design shear strength of the weld.
The design shear strength fvw.d of the weld should be determined from:

f vw,d

fu / 3

w M 2

(4.2.15)

where:
fu and w are defined previous.
The design resistance of a full penetration butt weld should be taken as equal to the design
resistance of the weaker of the parts connected, provided that the weld is made with a
suitable consumable which will produce all-weld tensile specimens having both a minimum
yield strength and a minimum tensile strength not less than those specified for the parent
metal.
The design resistance of a partial penetration butt weld should be determined using the
method for a deep penetration fillet weld. The throat thickness of a partial penetration butt
weld should not be greater than the depth of penetration that can be consistently achieved.
The design resistance of a T-butt joint, consisting of a pair of partial penetration butt welds
reinforced by superimposed fillet welds, may be determined as for a full penetration butt weld
if the total nominal throat thickness, exclusive of the unwelded gap, is not less than the
thickness t of the part forming the stem of the tee joint, provided that the unwelded gap is
not more than (t / 5) or 3 mm, whichever is less (Figure 9).
The design resistance of a T-butt joint which does not meet the requirements should be
determined using the method for a fillet weld or a deep penetration fillet weld, depending on
the amount of penetration. The throat thickness should be determined in conformity with the
provisions for both fillet welds and partial penetration butt welds.

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Figure 9 Effective penetration of T-butt welds.

The design resistance Fw,Rd of a plug weld should be taken as:

Fw,Rd = fvw.d .Aw

(4.2.16)

where
fvw.d is the design shear strength of a weld,
Aw is the design throat area and should be taken as the area of the hole.
The distribution of forces in a welded connection may be calculated on the assumption of
either elastic or plastic behaviour. It is acceptable to assume a simplified load distribution
within the welds.
Residual stresses and stresses not subjected to transfer of load need not be included when
checking the resistance of a weld. This applies specifically to the normal stress parallel to the
axis of a weld.
Welded joints should be designed to have adequate deformation capacity. However, ductility
of the welds should not be relied upon.
In joints where plastic hinges may form, the welds should be designed to provide at least the
same design resistance as the weakest of the connected parts.
In other joints where deformation capacity for joint rotation is required due to the possibility of
excessive straining, the welds require sufficient strength not to rupture before general
yielding in the adjacent parent material.
If the design resistance of an intermittent weld is determined by using the total length ltot, the
weld shear force per unit length Fw,Ed should be multiplied by the factor (e + l/l) (Figure 10).
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Figure 10 Calculation of the weld forces for intermittent welds

Resistance calculation of welds


a) with full penetration
Resistance calculation of deep full penetrated welds is taken as equal with the resistance of
the weakest joined part, provided that welding is done by filler materials that will ensure in all
tensile tests, yield limit (f ) and fracture resistance (f ) greater than or equal to the basic
y

material. As for deep welds, the calculation area of weld is equal with the cross section area
of the base material, as accepting the equality of the weld resistance calculation with that of
the base material, practically the weld verification is identical with that of the base material
and effectively it is not necessary any more.

b) with partial penetration


Proceed as for fillet welds with deep penetration. Thicknesses of welds with partial
penetration "a" that can effectively be determined by preliminary tests, within the certification
action of the welding technology.

c) with partial penetration completed with fillet welds


The procedure is similar with that for deep welds with full penetration provided that
requirements in correlation between characteristics, limits and geometrical conditions are
met. When the aforementioned conditions are not met, proceed as for fillet welds or deep
penetration welds.

Plug welds may be used:

To transmit shear

To prevent the buckling or separation of lapped parts, and


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To inter-connect the components of built-up members but should not be used to resist
externally applied tension.

The diameter of a circular hole or width of an elongated hole, for a plug weld should be at
least 8 mm more than the thickness of the part containing it.
The ends of elongated holes should either be semi-circular or else should have corners
which are rounded to a radius of not less than the thickness of the part containing the slot,
except for those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The thickness of a plug weld in parent material up to 16 mm thick should be equal to the
thickness of the parent material. The thickness of a plug weld in parent material over 16 mm
thick should be at least half the thickness of the parent material and not less than 16 mm.
In the case of welds with packing, the packing should be trimmed flush with the edge of the
part that is to be welded.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness less
than the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, the required leg length should
be increased by the thickness of the packing.
Where two parts connected by welding are separated by packing having a thickness
equal to, or greater than, the leg length of weld necessary to transmit the force, each
of the parts should be connected to the packing by a weld capable of transmitting the
design force.
The effective length of a fillet weld should be taken as the length over which the fillet is
full-size. This may be taken as the overall length of the weld reduced by twice the
effective throat thickness a. Provided that the weld is full size throughout its length
including starts and terminations, no reduction in effective length need be made for either
the start or the termination of the weld. A fillet weld with an effective length less than 30
mm or less than 6 times its throat thickness, whichever is larger, should not be designed
to carry load.
The effective throat thickness, a, of a fillet weld should be taken as the height of the
largest triangle (with equal or unequal legs) that can be inscribed within the fusion
faces and the weld surface, measured perpendicular to the outer side of this
triangle(Figure 11). The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld should not be less than 3
mm.

Figure 11 Throat thickness of a fillet weld.

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In determining the design resistance of a deep penetration fillet weld, account may be
taken of its additional throat thickness (Figure 12), provided that preliminary tests show
that the required penetration can consistently be achieved.

Figure 12 Throat thickness of a deep penetration fillet weld.

For solid bars the design throat thickness of flare groove welds, when fitted flush to the
surface of the solid section of the bars, is defined in Figure 13. The definition of the design
throat thickness of flare groove welds in rectangular hollow sections.

Figure 13 Effective throat thickness of flare groove welds in solid sections.

Where a transverse plate (or beam flange) is welded to a supporting unstiffened flange of an
I, H or other section, Figure 14, and provided that the design condition given is met, the
applied force perpendicular to the unstiffened flange should not exceed any of the relevant
design resistances as follows:

That of the web of the supporting member of I or H sections ,

Those for a transverse plate on a RHS member,

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That of the supporting flange as given by formulas, calculated assuming the applied
force is concentrated over an effective width, beff, of the flange as given as relevant.

Figure 14 Effective width of an unstiffened T joint

For an unstiffened I or H section the effective width beff should be obtained from:

beff = tw

k.tf

(4.2.17)

where:
k = (tf/tp ) ( fy, f/f y,p ) for k 1

(4.2.18)

f y,f is the yield strength of the flange of the I or H section;


f y,p is the yield strength of the plate welded to the I or H section.
The dimension s should be obtained from:
for a rolled I or H section: s= r
for a welded I or H section: s= 2 . a

In lap joints the design resistance of a fillet weld should be reduced by multiplying it by a
reduction factor Lw to allow for the effects of non-uniform distribution of stress along its
length. The provisions do not apply when the stress distribution along the weld corresponds
to the stress distribution in the adjacent base metal, as, for example, in the case of a weld
connecting the flange and the web of a plate girder.
Generally in lap joints longer than 150a the reduction factor Lw should be taken as Lw.1
given by:
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Lw.1 = 1,2 Lj /(150a) but Lw.1 1

(4.2.19)

where:
L j is the overall length of the lap in the direction of the force transfer.
For fillet welds longer than 1,7 metres connecting transverse stiffeners in plated members,
the reduction factor Lw may be taken as Lw.2 given by:

Lw.2 = 1,1 w /17 but

0,6 Lw.2 1

(4.2.20)

where:
w is the length of the weld (in metres).
Local eccentricity should be avoided whenever it is possible.

Local eccentricity (relative to the line of action of the force to be resisted) should be taken into
account in the following cases:
- where a bending moment transmitted about the longitudinal axis of the weld produces
tension at the root of the weld (Figure 15 a),
- where a tensile force transmitted perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weld
produces a bending moment, resulting in a tension force at the root of the weld (Figure 15 b).
Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group
around the perimeter of a structural hollow section.

a) Bending moment produces tension at the


root of the weld

b) Tensile force produces tension at the


root of the weld

Figure 15 Local eccentricity

Local eccentricity need not be taken into account if a weld is used as part of a weld group
around the perimeter of a structural hollow section.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may
be allowed for by adopting an effective cross-sectional area and then treating the
member as concentrically loaded.
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For an equal-leg angle, or an unequal-leg angle connected by its larger leg, the effective
area may be taken as equal to the gross area.
For an unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg, the effective area should be taken
as equal to the gross cross-sectional area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of leg size
equal to that of the smaller leg, when determining the design resistance of the crosssection, see EN 1993-1-1. When determining the design buckling resistance of a
compression member, the actual gross cross-sectional area should be used.
In angles connected by one leg, the eccentricity of welded lap joint end connections may be
allowed for by adopting an effective cross-sectional area and then treating the member
as concentrically loaded.
Welding may be carried out within a length 5t either side of a cold-formed zone ( table
6), provided that one of the following conditions is fulfilled:
the cold-formed zones are normalized after cold-forming but before welding;
the r/t -ratio satisfy the relevant value obtained from table 6.

Table 6 Conditions for welding cold-formed zone and adiacent material

Maximum thickness (mm)

r/t

Strain due
to cold forming
(%)

25
10
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0

2
5
14
20
25
33

Generally
Predominan
tly static loading

Fully killed

Where
fatigue
predominates

any

any

any

16

24

12

12

10

Aluminium
killed steel (Al
0,02%)
any
any
24
12
10
6

B. Calculating resistance of welds in filled holes


Calculating resistance of a filled hole is taken equal to:

Fw,Rd = fvw,d Aw

(4.2.21)

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is shear calculating resistance of the weld,

A hole area where the weld is performed (Circular or elongated).


w

In conclusion, calculation of welds is made reducing the effect of loading in relation to the
centre weight of the weld area calculation. In simple loading, this leads to one type of stress
( or ) in this area, stresses that must not exceed the calculating resistance of welds
In the case of fillet welds it is acceptable to rebate the calculating area of weld in the cathetes
plan and carrying out the verification in relation to the rebated area. In the case of compound
loading an equivalent stress is determined on the bases of the Huber Mises concept

ech 2 3 2 R

(4.2.22)

where has the value 1,1, and R is the calculating resistance of the base material.
As it results from the EC 3 norm, analytical relations are expressly provided to check the
weld strength only for fillet welds and welds in filled holes and two methods to check fillet
welds.

4.2.5. Types of stress raisers and notch effects


Different types of stress raisers and notch effects lead to the calculation of different types of
stress. The choice of stress depends on the fatigue assessment procedure used (table 7,
Figure 16, 17).

Table 7 Stress raisers and notch effects

Type

Stress raisers

Stress determined

General analysis of sectional forces Gross average


using general theories e.g. beam stress from
theory, no stress risers considered
sectional forces

A + macrogeometrical effects due to


the design of the component, but
excluding stress risers due to the
welded joint itself.

Assessment procedure
not applicable for fatigue
analysis, only component
testing

Range of nominal Nominal stress approach


stress (also modified or local nominal stress)

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A + B + structural discontinuities due Range of structural Structural Stress (hot spot


to the structural detail of the welded Structural
Stress stress) approach
joint, but excluding the notch effect of (hot spot stress)
the weld toe transition

A + B + C + notch stress Range of elastic


a) Fracture mechanics
concentration due to the weld bead notch stress (total
approach b) effective
notches a) actual notch stress b) stress)
notch stress approach
effective notch stress

Figure 16 Modified or local nominal stress

Figure 17 Notch stress and structural stress

Besides the usual corner welds, the thickness "a" is considered equal to the height of the
triangle in cross section of weld recordable, lowered from its roots on the outer side, EC May
3 provides deep penetration welds corner with a thickness depends on technology and
equipment required for execution and check the preliminary tests (table 8).

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Table 8 Characteristics, limitations and conditions related to the type of welding.

Joint
type
0

Weld type

Characteristics, limitations
and conditions

FILLET WELDS
1. continuous

60 120

< 60 are considered to


be deep welds with partial
penetration
< 120 their strength is
determined by tests

in T, in angle

The return of welds is


imposed to the ends with 2a
and notation on drawings

l S l SI returns (for a
= constant) l Smin min (30 mm
or 6a); l Smax 150 a
For > 150a weld strength
is reduced with LW
3 mm a 0.7 tmin

Aw a leff
2. interrupted

Not to be used in
corrosive environments.

in T, in angle

At the ends of parts both


side welds are used.
max. Lwe 0.75b and
0.75b1
min. L1 16t and 16t1 or
200 mm
min. L2 12t and 16t1 and
0.25b sau 200 mm

Standard EN 1993, part 1-8, covers the design of fillet welds, fillet welds all round, butt
welds, plug welds and flare groove welds. Butt welds may be either full penetration butt
welds or partial penetration butt welds.
Both fillet welds all round and plug welds may be either in circular holes or in elongated
holes.
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The most common types of joints and welds are illustrated in EN 12345.
Fillet welds may be used for connecting parts where the fusion faces form an angle of
between 60 and 120.
Angles smaller than 60 are also permitted. However, in such cases the weld should be
considered to be a partial penetration butt weld.
For angles greater than 120 the resistance of fillet welds should be determined by testing in
accordance with EN 1990 Annex D: Design by testing.
Fillet welds finishing at the ends or sides of parts should be returned continuously, full size,
around the corner for a distance of at least twice the leg length of the weld, unless access or
the configuration of the joint renders this impracticable. In the case of intermittent welds this
rule applies only to the last intermittent fillet weld at corners.
End returns should be indicated on the drawings.
Intermittent fillet welds shall not be used in corrosive conditions.
In an intermittent fillet weld, the gaps (L1 or L2) between the ends of each length of weld Lw
should fulfil the requirement given in Figure 18. In an intermittent fillet weld, the gap (L1 or
L2) should be taken as the smaller of the distances between the ends of the welds on
opposite sides and the distance between the ends of the welds on the same side. Correlated
with previous Figure, to remember:

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Figure 18 Geometric elements of intermittent fillet weld

The larger of Lwe 0.75 b and 0.75 b1

For build-up members in tension:


The smallest of L1 16 t and 16 t1 and 200 mm

For build-up members in compression or shear:


The smallest of L2 12 t and 12 t1 and 0.25 b and 200 mm

In any run of intermittent fillet weld there should always be a length of weld at each end of
the part connected.
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In a built-up member where plates are connected by means of intermittent fillet welds, a
continuous fillet weld should be provided on each side of the plate for a length at each end
equal to at least three-quarters of the width of the narrower plate concerned (Figure 18).
Fillet welds all round, comprising fillet welds in circular or elongated holes, may be used only
to transmit shear or to prevent the buckling or separation of lapped parts. The diameter of a
circular hole, or width of an elongated hole, for a fillet weld all round should not be less than
four times the thickness of the part containing it. The ends of elongated holes should be
semi-circular, except for those ends which extend to the edge of the part concerned.
The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round should not exceed the value necessary
to prevent local buckling, show in table 9.
A full penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has complete penetration and fusion of
weld and parent metal throughout the thickness of the joint.
A partial penetration butt weld is defined as a weld that has joint penetration which is less
than the full thickness of the parent material.
Intermittent butt welds should not be used.

Table 9 The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round

Maximum1) 2) 3)

Distances
and spacings,
see Figure 3.1

Minimu
m

Structures made from steels


conforming to EN 10025 except
steels conforming to EN 10025-5
Steel
exposed to the
weather or other
corrosive
influences

Steel not
exposed to the
weather or other
corrosive
influences

Structures
made from steels
conforming to EN
10025

Steel used
unprotected

End
distance e1

1.2 do

4t+40 mm

The larger of
8t or 125 mm

Edge
distance e2

1.2 do

4t+40 mm

The larger of
8t or 125 mm

Distance e3
in slotted holes

4)

Distance e4
in slotted holes

4)

Spacing p1

1.5 do
1.5 do

2.2 do

The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm

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Spacing p1,0

The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm

Spacing p1,i

The smaller
of 28t or 400 mm

Spacing p2
5)

2.4 do

The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm

The smaller
of 14t or 200 mm

The smaller
of 14tmin or 175
mm

1)

Maximum values for spacing, edge and end distances are unlimited, except in the following
cases:
for compression members in order to avoid local buckling and to prevent corrosion in
exposed members and;
for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion.
2)

The local buckling resistance of the plate in compression between the fasteners should be
calculated according to EN 1993-1-1 using 0.6 pi as buckling length. Local buckling between
the fasteners need not to be checked if p1/t is smaller than 9. The edge distance should not
exceed the local buckling requirements for an outstand element in the compression
members; see EN 1993-1-1. The end distance is not affected by this requirement.
3)

t is the thickness of the thinner outer connected part.

4)

The dimensional limits for slotted holes are given in 2.8 Reference Standards: Group 7.

5)

For staggered rows of fasteners a minimum line spacing of p2 = 1.2d0 may be used,
provided that the minimum distance, L, between any two fasteners is greater than 2.4d0,

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4.2.6. Determination of stress and stress intensity factors


Definition of Stress Components
The stress distribution over the plate thickness is non-linear in the vicinity of notches. The
stress components of the notch stress ln are (Figure 19):
mem membrane stress,
ben shell bending stress,
nlp non-linear stress peak

Figure 19 The stress distribution over the plate thickness.

If a refined stress analysis method is used, which gives a non-linear stress distribution, the
stress components can be separated by the following method:

the membrane stress mem is equal to the average stress calculated through the

thickness of the plate, and it is constant through the thickness,


the shell bending stress ben is linearly distributed through the thickness of the plate,

and tt is found by drawing a straight line through the point 0 where the membrane
stress intersects the mid-plane of the plate. The gradient of the shell bending stress is
chosen such that the remaining non-linearly distributed component is in equilibrium.
the non-linear stress peak nlp is the remaining component of the stress.

The stress components can be separated analytically for a given stress distribution
(x) for x=0 at surface to x=t at through thickness.

Nominal stress
Nominal stress is the stress calculated in the sectional area under consideration,
disregarding the local stress raising effects of the welded joint, but including the stress raising
effects of the macrogeometric shape of the component in the vicinity of the joint, such as e.g.
large cut outs (Figure 20). Overall elastic behaviour is assumed.

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Figure 20 Nominal stress in a beam-like component

The nominal stress may vary over the section under consideration. E.g. at a beam-like
component, the modified (also local) nominal stress and the variation over the section can be
calculated using simple beam theory. Here, the effect of a welded on attachment is ignored.
The effects of macrogeometric features of the component as well as stress fields in the
vicinity of concentrated loads must be included in the nominal stress. Consequently,
macrogeometric effects may cause a significant redistribution of the membrane stresses
across the section. Similar effects occur in the vicinity of concentrated loads or reaction
forces. Significant shell bending stress may also be generated, as in curling of a flange, or
distortion of a box section (Figure 21, 22).
The secondary bending stress caused by axial or angular misalignment needs to be
considered if the misalignment exceeds the amount which is already covered by fatigue
resistance S-N curves for the structural detail (Figure 23). This is done by the application of
an additional stress raising factor km,eff.

Figure 21 Examples of macrogeometric effects

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Figure 22 Modified (local) nominal stress near concentrated loads

Figure 23 Axial and angular misalignment

Intentional misalignment (e.g. allowable misalignment specified in the design stage) is


considered when assessing the fatigue actions (stress) by multiplying by the factor. If it is
non-intentional, it is regarded as a weld imperfection which affects the fatigue resistance and
has to be considered by dividing the fatigue resistance (stress) by the factor.
Calculation of nominal stress
In simple components the nominal stress can be determined using elementary theories of
structural mechanics based on linear-elastic behaviour. In other cases, finite element method
(FEM) modelling may be used. This is primarily the case in:

a) complicated statically over-determined (hyperstatic) structures,


b) structural components incorporating macrogeometric discontinuities, for which no
analytical solutions are available.
Using FEM, meshing can be simple and coarse. Care must be taken to ensure that all stress
raising effects of the structural detail of the welded joint are excluded when calculating the
modified (local) nominal stress.

If nominal stresses are calculated in fillet welds by a coarse finite element mesh, nodal forces
should be used in a section through the weld instead of element stresses in order to avoid
stress underestimation.
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Measurement of nominal stress


The fatigue resistance S-N curves of classified structural details are based on nominal
stress, disregarding the stress concentrations due to the welded joint. Therefore the
measured nominal stress must exclude the stress or strain concentration due to the
corresponding discontinuity in the structural component. Thus, strain gauges must be placed
outside of the stress concentration field of the welded joint. In practice, it may be necessary
firstly to evaluate the extension and the stress gradient of the field of stress concentration
due to the welded joint. For further measurements, simple strain gauge application outside
this field is sufficient.

4.2.7 Structural hot spot stress


General
The structural or geometric stress Fhs at the hot spot includes all stress raising effects of a
structural detail excluding all stress concentrations due to the local weld profile itself. So, the
non-linear peak stress Fnlp caused by the local notch, i.e. the weld toe, is excluded from the
structural stress. The structural stress is dependent on the global dimensional and loading
parameters of the component in the vicinity of the joint. It is determined on the surface at the
hot spot of the component which is to be assessed. Structural hot spot stresses F hs are
generally defined at plate, shell and tubular structures. Figure 24 shows examples of
structural discontinuities and details together with the structural stress distribution.

Figure 24 Structural details and structural stress

The structural hot spot stress approach is recommended for welded joints where there is no
clearly defined nominal stress due to complicated geometric effects, and where the structural
discontinuity is not comparable to a classified structural detail. Definition of structural hot spot
stress show in Figure 25.

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Figure 25 Definition of structural hot spot stress

The structural hot spot stress can be determined using reference points and extrapolation to
the weld toe at the considered hot spot. The method as defined here is limited to the
assessment of the weld toe, i.e. cases a to e in Figure 4.2.22. It is not applicable in cases
where crack will grow from the weld root and propagate through the weld metal, i.e. cases f
to I in Figure 26.

Figure 26 Various locations of crack propagation in welded joints

The method of structural hot spot stress may be extended to the assessment of spots of the
welded joint susceptible to fatigue cracking other than on plate surface, e.g. on a fillet weld
root. In this case, structural hot spot stress on surface is used as an indication and estimation
of the stress for the spot in consideration. The S-N curves or structural hot spot stress
concentration factors used for verification in this case depend largely on geometric and
dimensional parameters and are only valid within the range of these parameters.
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In case of a biaxial stress state at the plate surface, it is recommended to use the principal
stress which is approximately in line with the perpendicular to the weld toe, i.e. within a
deviation of 60 (Figure 27).

Figure 27 Biaxial stress at weld toe

The other principal stress may be analysed, if necessary, using the fatigue class for parallel
welds in the nominal stress approach.
Besides the definitions of structural hot spot stress as given above, two types of hot spots
have to be distinguished according to their location on the plate and their orientation to the
weld toe (table 10).
Determination of structural hot spot stress
Determination of structural hot spot stress can be done either by measurement or by
calculation. Here the non-linear peak stress is eliminated by linearization of the stress
through the plate thickness or by extrapolation of the stress at the surface to the weld toe.
The following considerations focus on extrapolation procedures of the surface stress, which
are nearly the same in measurement and calculation.
Firstly the stresses at the reference points, i.e. extrapolation points, have to be determined;
secondly the structural hot spot stress has to be determined by extrapolation to the weld toe.

Table 10 Types of hot spots

Type

Description

Structural hot spot stress transverse to Special FEA procedure or


weld toe on plate surface
measurement and extrapolation

Determination

Structural hot spot stress transverse to Special FEA procedure or


weld toe at plate edge
measurement and extrapolation

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The structural hot spot stress may be determined using two or three stress or strain values at
particular reference points apart from the weld toe in direction of stress. The closest position
to the weld toe must be chosen to avoid any influence of the notch due to the weld itself
(which leads to a non-linear stress peak). This is practically the case at a distance of 0.4 t (t =
plate thickness) from the weld toe. The structural hot spot stress at the weld toe is then
obtained by extrapolation. Identification of the critical points (hot spots) can be made by:

a) measuring several different points,


b) analysing the results of a prior FEM analysis,
c) experience of existing components, which failed.

Calculation of structural hot spot Stress


In general, analysis of structural discontinuities and details to obtain the structural hot spot
stress is not possible using analytical methods. Parametric formulae are rarely available.
Thus, finite element (FEM) analysis is mostly applied.

Usually, structural hot spot stress is calculated on the basis of an idealized, perfectly aligned
welded joint. Consequently, any possible misalignment has to be taken explicitly into
consideration by the FEA model or by an appropriate stress magnification factor k m. This
applies particularly to butt welds, cruciform joints and one-sided transverse fillet welds at
free, unsupported plates (Figure 28).

Figure 28 Types of hot spots

The extent of the finite element model has to be chosen such that constraining boundary
effects of the structural detail analysed are comparable to the actual structure.
Models with thin plate or shell elements or alternatively with solid elements may be used. It
should be noted that on the one hand the arrangement and the type of the elements have to
allow for steep stress gradients as well as for the formation of plate bending, and on the
other hand, only the linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction needs to be
evaluated with respect to the definition of the structural hot spot stress. The stresses should
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be determined at the specified reference points.


For FEM analysis, sufficient expertise of the analyst is required. Guidance is given in [2-3]. In
the following, only some roughure (Figure 29.a), the elements have to be arranged in the
mid-plane of the structural components. 8-noded elements are recommended particularly in
case of steep stress gradients. In simplified models, the welds are not modelled, except for
cases where the results are affected by local bending, e. g. due to an offset between plates
or due to the small distance between adjacent welds. Here, the welds may be included by
vertical or inclined plate elements having appropriate stiffness or by introducing constraint
equations or rigid links to couple node displacements.

a)

b)

Figure 29 Typical meshes and stress evaluation path for a welded detail

An alternative particularly for complex cases is recommended using prismatic solid elements
which have a displacement function allowing steep stress gradients as well as plate bending
with linear stress distribution in the plate thickness direction. This is offered, e. g., by
isoparametric 20 node elements with mid-side nodes at the edges, which allow only one
element to be arranged in the plate thickness direction due to the quadratic displacement
function and the linear stress distribution. At a reduced integration, the linear part of the
stresses can be directly evaluated. Modelling of welds is generally recommended (Figure
29.b).

The element lengths are determined by the reference points for the subsequent
extrapolation. In order to avoid an influence of the stress singularity, the stress closest to the
hot spot is usually evaluated at the first or second nodal point. Therefore, the length of the
element at the hot spot has to correspond at least to its distance from the first reference
point. Coarser meshes are possible with higher-order elements and fixed lengths, as further
explained below.
Appropriate element widths are important particularly in cases with steep stress gradients.
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The width of the solid element or the two shell elements in front of the attachment should not
exceed the attachment width w, i. e. the attachment thickness plus two weld leg lengths.
Usually, the structural hot spot stress components are evaluated on the plate surface or
edge. Typical extrapolation paths are shown by arrows in Figure 25. If the weld is not
modelled, it is recommended to extrapolate the stress to the structural intersection point in
order to avoid stress underestimation due to the missing stiffness of the weld.
Type a hot spots
The structural hot spot stress hs is determined using the reference points and extrapolation
equations as given below (Figure 30).

Figure 30 Reference points at different types of meshing

1. Fine mesh with element length not more than 0.4 t at the hot spot: Evaluation of nodal
stresses at two reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t, and linear extrapolation.
2. Fine mesh as defined above: Evaluation of nodal stresses at three reference points
0.4 t, 0.9 t and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation. This method is recommended in
cases with pronounced non-linear structural stress increase to the hot spot.
3. Coarse mesh with higher-order elements having lengths equal to plate thickness at
the hot spot: Evaluation of stresses at mid-side points or surface centres respectively,
i.e. at two reference points 0.5 t and 1.5 t, and linear extrapolation.

hs 1,67 0, 4t 0,67 1,0t

hs 2,52 0, 4t 2,24 0,9t 0,72 1, 4t


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hs 1,50 0,5t 0.50 1,5t

(4.2.25)

Type b hot spots


The stress distribution is not dependent of plate thickness. So, the reference points are given
at absolute distances from the weld toe or from the weld end if the weld does not continue
around the end of the attached plate.

4. Fine mesh with element length of not more than 4 mm at the hot spot: Evaluation of
nodal stresses at three reference points 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm and quadratic
extrapolation (eq. 4).
5. Coarse mesh with higher-order elements having length of 10 mm at the hot spot:
Evaluation of stresses at the mid-side points of the first two elements and linear extrapolation (eq. 5).

hs 3 4mm 3 8mm 12mm

(4.2.26)

hs 1,5 5mm 0,5 15mm

(4.2.27)

Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe it is in
table 11.

Table 11 Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe

Type of model Relatively coase models


and weld toe
Type a
Type b

Relatively fine models

Element
size

t x t max t x 10 x 10 mm
w/2*)

0.4 t x t or 4 x 4 mm
0.4 t x w/2

10 x 10 mm

0.4 t x t or 4 x 4 mm
0.4 t x w/2

Shells

Solids

Extrapolation
points

t x t max t x w

Type a

Type b

Shells

0.5 t and 1.5 t 5 and 15 mm 0.4 t and 1.0 t 4. 8 and 12 mm


mid-side
mid-side points nodal points
nodal points
points**)

Solids

0.5 and 1.5 t 5 and 15 mm 0.4 t and 1.0 t 4. 8 and 12 mm


surface centre
surface centre
nodal points
nodal points

*)

**)

w = longitudinal attachment thickness + 2 weld leg lengths


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transversal welds, if the weld below the plate is not modelled (see Figure 28.a).

Measurement of structural hot spot stress


The recommended placement and number of strain gauges is dependent of the presence of
higher shell bending stresses, the wall thickness and the type of structural stress (Figure 31).

Figure 31 Examples of strain gauges in plate structures

The centre point of the first gauge should be placed at a distance of 0.4 t from the weld toe.
The gauge length should not exceed 0.2 t. If this is not possible due to a small plate
thickness, the leading edge of the gauge should be placed at a distance 0.3 t from the weld
toe. The following extrapolation procedure and number of gauges are recommended:
Type a hot spots
a) Two gauges at reference points 0.4 t and 1.0 t and linear extrapolation (eq. 6).

hs 1,67 0, 4t 0.67 1,0t

(4.2.28)

b) Three gauges at reference points 0.4 t, 0.9 t and 1.4 t, and quadratic extrapolation in
cases of pronounced non-linear structural stress increase to the hot spot (eq. 7).

ht 2,52 0, 4t 2,24 0,9t 0,72 1, 4t

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Often multi-grid strip gauges are used with fixed distances between the gauges. Then the
gauges may not be located as recommended above. Then it is recommended to use e.g.
four gauges and fit a curve through the results.

Type b hot spots


Strain gauges are attached at the plate edge at 4, 8 and 12 mm distant from the weld toe.
The hot spot strain is determined by quadratic extrapolation to the weld toe (eq. 8).

hs 3 4mm 3 8mm 12mm

(4.2.30)

Tubular joints
For tubular joints, there exist recommendations which allow the use of linear extrapolation
using two strain gauges. Here, the measurement of simple uniaxial stress is sufficient.
Determination of stress
If the stress state is close to uniaxial, the structural hot spot stress is obtained approximately
from eqn. (9).

hs E hs

(4.2.31)

At biaxial stress states, the actual stress may be up to 10% higher than obtained from eqn.
(3). In this case, use of rosette strain gauges is recommended. If FEA results are available
giving the ratio between longitudinal and transverse strains y/x , the structural hot spot
stress can then be resolved assuming that this principal stress is about perpenticular to
hs

the weld toe.

1 v

hs E x

y
x

(4.2.32)

1 v2

Instead of absolute strains, strain ranges = max min are usually measured and
substituted in the above equations, producing the range of structural hot spot stress hs.
Structural hot spot stress concentration factors and parametric formulae
For many joints between circular section tubes parametric formulae have been established
for the stress concentration factor khs in terms of structural structural stress at the critical
points (hot spots). Hence the structural hot spot stress hs becomes:

hs k hs nom
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where nom is the nominal axial membrane stress in the braces, calculated by elementary
stress analysis.

4.2.8 Effective notch stress


Effective notch stress is the total stress at the root of a notch, obtained assuming linearelastic material behaviour. To take account of the statistical nature and scatter of weld shape
parameters, as well as of the non-linear material behaviour at the notch root, the real weld
contour is replaced by an effective one. For structural steels and aluminium an effective
notch root radius of r = 1 mm has been verified to give consistent results.
The method is restricted to welded joints which are expected to fail from the weld toe or weld
root. Other causes of fatigue, e.g. from surface roughness or embedded defects, are not
covered. Also it is also not applicable where considerable stress components parallel to the
weld or parallel to the root gap exist.
The method is also restricted to assessment of naturally formed weld toes and roots. At
machined or ground welds, toes or roots shall be assessed using the notch stress and the
fatigue resistance value of a butt weld groud flush to plate.
The method is well suited to the comparison of alternative weld geometries. Unless
otherwise specified, flank angles of 30 for butt welds and 45 for fillet welds are suggested.
In cases where a mean geometrical notch root radius can be defined, e.g. after certain post
weld improvement procedures, this geometrical radius plus 1 mm may be used in the
effective notch stress analysis. The method is limited to thicknesses t 5 mm. For smaller
wall thicknesses, the method has not yet been verified.
Calculation of effective notch stress
Effective notch stresses or stress concentration factors can be calculated by parametric
formulae, taken from diagrams or calculated from finite element or boundary element
models. The effective notch radius is introduced such that the tip of the radius touches the
root of the real notch, e.g. the end of an unwelded root gap (Figure 32).

Figure 32 Effective notch stress concentration factors

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Possible misalignment has to be considered in the calculations.


Because the effective notch radius is an idealization, the effective notch stress cannot be
measured directly in the welded component. In contrast, the simple definition of the effective
notch can be used for photo-elastic stress measurements in resin models.
Stress intensity factors
Fracture mechanics assumes the existence of an initial crack ai. It can be used to predict the
growth of the crack to a final size af. Since for welds in structural metals, crack initiation
occupies only a small portion of the life, this method is suitable for assessment of fatigue life,
inspection intervals, crack-like weld imperfections and the effect of variable amplitude
loading.

The parameter which describes the fatigue action at a crack tip in terms of crack propagation
is the stress intensity factor (SIF) K.

Fracture mechanics calculations generally have to be based on total stress at the notch root,
e.g. at the weld toe. For a variety of welded structural details, correction functions for the
local notch effect and the nonlinear stress peak of the structural detail have been
established. Using these correction functions, fracture mechanics analysis can be based on
structural hot spot stress or even on nominal stress. The correction function formulae may be
based on different stress types. The correction function and the stress type have to
correspond.
Stress intensity factor determination methods are usually based on FEM analyses. They may
be directly calculated as described in the literature, or indirectly using the weight function
approach.
Calculation of stress intensity factors by parametric formulae
First, the local nominal stress or the structural Structural hot spot stress at the location of the
crack has to be determined, assuming that no crack is present. The stress should be
separated into membrane and shell bending stresses. The stress intensity factor (SIF) K
results as a superposition of the effects of both stress components. The effect of the
remaining stress raising discontinuity or notch (non-linear peak stress) has to be covered by
additional factors Mk.

K a mem Ymem M k ,mem ben Yben M k ,ben


where
mem

- membrane stress

ben -shell bending stress,

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Ymem - correction function for membrane stress intensity factor,


Yben - correction function for shell bending stress intensity factor,
Mk, mem - correction for non-linear stress peak in terms of membrane action,
Mk, ben - correction for non-linear stress peak in terms of shell bending.

The correction functions Ymem and Yben, the formulae for stress intensity factors, Mk-factors
can be found in the literature.

4.3 Design of welded joints with predominantly fatigue loading


Objective
The students will understand how the fatigue behaviour of welded joints and be able to
perform relevant fatigue life calculations.
Scope
Fatigue of welded joints:
o
stress concentrations
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o
residual stresses
o
initial defects
Constant and variable amplitude loading
Cumulative damage FAT class
Overview of fatigue calculation methods in a relevant design guidance document, e.g.,
IIW Doc. XIII-1965-03/XV-1127-03 Recommendations for fatigue design of welded
joints and components
Expected result at comprehensive level:
Explain the assumptions involved in the design of predominantly static loaded joints.

Identify relevant stress values from a type stress-time history for a structural
component. Calculate the design strength of end welds based on weld stress
components.

Calculate the design strength of side welds based on weld stress components.

Calculate the strength reduction factor for long side welds or transverse stiffeners.

Calculate the needed throat thickness for a full strength primary load carrying weld.

Calculate the throat thickness for a binding welded joint.

4.3.1 Basic principles


Fatigue resistance is usually derived from constant or variable amplitude tests. The fatigue
resistance data given here are based on published results from constant amplitude tests.
The fatigue resistance data must be expressed in terms of the same stress as that controlled
or determined the generation of those data.

In fatigue assessment, the fatigue actions and the fatigue resistance are related by means of
an appropriate assessment procedure. It must be ensured that all three elements (actions,
resistance and assessment procedure) correspond. Three procedures may be distinguished:
a) Procedures based on S-N curves, such as nominal stress approach structural hot
spot stress approach effective notch stress approach.
b) Procedures based on crack propagation considerations.
c) Direct experimental approach by fatigue testing of components or entire structures.
If normal and shear stress occur simultaneously, their combined effect shall be considered.

Three cases may be distinguished:


a) If the equivalent nominal shear stress range is less than 15% of the equivalent normal
stress range or if the damage sum due to shear stress range is lower than 10% of
that due to normal stress range, the effect of shear stress may be neglected.
b) If the normal and shear stress vary simultaneously in phase, or if the plane of
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maximum principal stress is not changed significantly, the maximum principal stress
range may be used.
c) If normal and shear stress vary independently out of phase, in damage calculation the
damage sums shall be calculated separately and finally added. The usage of 1/2 of
the calculated life cycles is recommended.
Fracture mechanics crack propagation calculations should be based on maximum principal
stress range.
The S-N curve represents a material characteristic, experimentally considered for any
loading type or body. It is known as the material base curve. ConFigureation must be plain to
assure homogenous tensile / compression mechanical loading. Results obtained on bodies
subjected to cyclic bending, or bodies with geometric concentrators, reflect the effect of
certain influence factors.
Figure 33 presents two curves:
- curve a defines the asimptotic level of stress SR under which fracture does not happen
any more indifferently of the loading cycles,
- curve b defines a level of the loading at which the material can failure for a defined
number of cycles.
Distinct zones on the curve S-N (Figure 34): quasistatic fracture, oligocyclic, and polycyclic
fatigue, respectively

Figure 33 S-N Diagram

Figure 34 Specific zones of the S-N diagram

Very high stress leads to quasistatic fracture. The oligocyclic fatigue is localized in the range
102-105 cycles, and for a greater number of cycles the polycyclic fatigue works.
Stress is a time periodical function. Assembly of stress values during a period is called cycle.
ConFigureation of cycles is presented in Figure 1.
Parameters:
- stress (S): maximum / minimum, (Smax / Smin) (Figure 35),
- period (T),
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Figure 35 Loading parameters

- average stress Sm = (Smax + Smin) / 2

(4.3.1)

- cycle amplitude Sa = (Smax Smin) / 2

(4.3.2)

- cycle asymmetry coefficient r = Smin / Smax

(4.3.3)

- a cycle characteristic = Sv / | Sm |

(4.3.4)

So, Smax = Smed + Ra/2, respectively Smin = Sm- Ra/2.

(4.3.5)

Variation of cycle asymmetry coefficient with amplitude (Sa) and average stress (Smed) is
represented in Figure 36.

Figure 36 Correlation of the cycle asymmetry coefficient, amplitude and average stress

Loading complex aleatory spectra reflect, in the nearest way the in service situations.
Mathematical presentation is possible by the Fourier series decomposition, as it is presented
later in this material.
In conventional endurance testing, there are different definitions of failure. In general, small
specimens are tested to complete rupture, while in large components the observation of a
through wall crack is taken as a failure criterion. In fracture mechanics crack propagation
testing, the crack growth rate data are derived from crack propagation monitoring.
All fatigue resistance data are given as characteristic values, which are assumed to have a
survival probability of at least 95%, calculated from a mean value of a two-sided 75%
confidence level, unless otherwise stated.
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The (nominal) stress range should be within the limits of the elastic properties of the material.
The range of the design values of the stress range shall not exceed 1.5 fy for nominal normal
stresses or 1.5 fy / 3 for nominal shear stresses. fy actual or specified yield strength of the
material.

Evaluation to variable loading supposes to define form the beginning the using requirements
of characteristics for components, subassemblies, products. Requirement is generated by
the balance technical efficiency and involved costs. The establishment of fatigue
characteristics is influenced by the dispersion of primary results: structural macro/micron
homogenities of used materials, surface state, effect of stress constructive concentrators,
change in time of testing conditions (temperature, environment, etc.), testing technical
systems state, personnel qualification. Costs are generated by the volume of probes,
duration, cost for the exploitation of experimental technical systems, etc, of personnel,
respectively.
Accordingly, experiments are being planned.: Volume of probes, forming series, their
optimum distribution on loading parameter packages: type of loading, stresses, strains,
frequency, environment conditions, etc. Statistical processing of results is important to define
fatigue limit curves.

Increasing accuracy and efficiency of mechanical characteristics


This is made possible by planning the volume of experiments and adopting a more rational
method for statistical processing of results.
If the aim of testing is to assess the mathematically the mechanical characteristics, selection
n in considering the normal distribution is determined by relation:

or

n = (2 / a2) Z 2 1-/2

(4.3.6)

n = Z 2 1-/2 / a2

(4.3.7)

where is the variation coefficient of determined mechanical characteristics; a


mathematical error (tolerated) relative to the assessment of the average value, Z1-/2
quintile level; P = 1-/2 statistical reliability, representing the probability of effective error
non-changed by assessing the average value of maximum error characteristics a or a; a
maximum relative error (tolerated) when estimating the average value in sizes of the mean
square deviation of the analyzed mechanical characteristic.
The testing volume is corrected with values of variation coefficient of selection methods using
the relation:
N = (v2 /a2). t2, k

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where: t, k is the value of the statistic quintile value for the level P = 1-/2 for the degree of
freedom number k = n 1. Usually is adopted = 0.1 or 0.05, more rarely 0.01.
The size of the maximum value a and a
of average values of determinations:
-

is adopted depending on the necessary accuracy

reduced accuracy , a , and a = 1,


average accuracy: a = (0,4-0,5) , and a = 0,4-0,5,
high accuracy: a = (0,2-0,3) , and a = 0,2-0,3.

Distribution function of durability at the action of variable loading


Inevitable dispersion of results necessary to define a higher limit, inferior one, respectively,
for durability curves.
Analysis of results evinces that the aleatory size x = log (N No) is distributed according to
a normal law. The main difficulty to use the normal distribution law of the magnitude x in
order to estimate the resource of construction elements in natural size is the complexity of
determining the quieting sensitivity. In order to test products or models there exists an
economic limit. In case a great number of samples are used the sensitivity of determinations
is valid for high stresses in correlation with the limited duration of the experiment. For law
stresses, in the case of real components, the assessment on samples takes long times.
Here from the necessity to adopt more simple distributions for which parameters are
easier to determine.
By using the independence assumption on the coefficients of fatigue life variation R -1 of
the base cycle number and the fatigue curve equation for the fracture probability P = 0.5 is:

or

Ra = R-1 +a(log N) -

(4.3.9)

Ra = R-1 +b(log N) -

(4.3.10)

where and depend on the analyzed material.


Square mean deviation for durability N, for symmetric cycle can be determined by the
relation:

log N = (R -1 / )[alog N + (R-1 /a) a+1 log N)]


or

(4.3.11)

log N = (R -1 /2,3) [ 1 + (R-1 /b) e 2,3 a log N] (4.3.12)

as to the previous relations.

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Statistical processing method


The experimental results are tabulated positions after increasing duration of durability,
including non-fractured specimens. Stress level at which all specimens were broken series,
determine media selection, dispersion, standard deviation of the logarithm of durability,
confidence intervals and the overall dispersion. Plot the empirical distribution of PN durability
in logarithmic coordinates for several levels of stress amplitude.

Estimation of quintiles related to the durability values Np is possible with the relation:

log Np = a + zp .

(4.3.13)

where a and are estimations of mathematical expectations, the square mean deviation of
the size x = log N, respectively zp - quintile of the normal aleatory size level.
Estimated sensitivity threshold based on the layout where the law of normal distribution of
random size x = log (N - No). Estimate, which is covering and is considered the threshold of
sensitivity, is determined by the relationship:

No = (Nmin . Nmax N2 0,5 ) / (Nmax + Nmin 2 N0,5)

(4.3.14)

where Nmax , Nmin , N0,5 reprezint valorile durabiliti maxime, minime, mediane
determintate.
Relationship is valid for n 20 and (Nmax + Nmin) 5 N0, 5). Such calculations made
produced results similar to the graphical determination.

4.3.2 S N Diagram
SN curve is a characteristic of material, experimental high for any kind of request, or body.
It is recognized as the basic curve of the material. ConFigureation must be plain to ensure
uniform application of mechanical traction / compression.
Results obtained by cyclic bending required bodies, or bodies containing geometric
concentrators, reflecting the effect of certain influencing factors.

Figure 37 presents two curves:


- curve a defines the asymptotic voltage of SR below which no fracture occurs regardless of
the number of cycles of application,
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- curve b defines a level of application at which the material can fail at a specified number
of cycles.
Distinct areas on the SN curve (Figure 38): quasi-static fracture, cycle fatigue life, polycyclic,
respectively.

Figure 38 Specific zones of the S N diagram

Figure 37 S-N Diagrams

Application with very high voltage leads to quasi-static fracture.


Cycle fatigue life is located within 102-105 cycles, and for greater number of fatigue cycles
works the multicyclic fatigue.

4.3.3 Collective applications of voltage


Aleatory complex loading spectra decomposed in Fourier series, under the form:

S(t) = Smed + (i.cos 2 i . f. t + i. sin2 i . f. t )


i=1

where: Smed = (1/T) . S. dt

i = (2/T) Sa . cos (2 i . f. t) dt
0

variable components of the stress (4.3.16)

T
i = (2/T) Sa . sin (2 i . f. t) d

0
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Sai = (i 2 + i 2 ) amplitude of i order harmonic

(4.3.17)

Variable loadings unperiodical and transitrory are described by relation:

S(t) = Sa . e t . cos . t

(4.3.18)

It reflects loading situations, in the service, as real as possible (Figure 39).


There are a number of loading classes:

Sai = Sai+1 S

(4.3.19)

In the representation Sai+1 / Sa as a function of N, the cumulated frequency curve is realized


(Figure 40).

Figure 39 Spectra of aleatory loading.

Figure 40 Curve of cumulated frequencies.

Number of loading cycles N = 5.105 106, for a representative situation.


Fullness coefficient of spectrum:
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Cp = (Sa)N- / Smax.

(4.3.20)

where: (SA)N- - intensity of loading corresponding to the maximum frequency,


Smax maximum intensity od loading.
0 < Cp < 1 : 1 harmonic loading spectrum,
0 - loading spectrum with normal log distribution.
Conventional number of loading cycles: N = 2.105 5.106
Left side of the spectrum: slow loading low frequency, high amplitude.
Right side of the spectrum: fast loading: high frequency, low amplitude.
Depending on reproductive possibilities of loading spectrum testing program types are:
-

blocks with monotonic load decrease,


blocks with monotonic increase/ decrease of load,
blocks that schematize aleatory loadings,
complex programs on the bases of modelling the Markov superior oder process.

4.3.4 Fatigue resistance


When a part is subjected to repeated cyclic loadings fracture can occur without observing
the degradation during the loading. The applied loading can be reduced so that evident
degradation is not noticed. Failure is the result of changes at micro/ sub microscopic level by
cumulative and irreversible degradation. The degradation process is correlated and
determined by the cyclic plastic deformation. The elastic deformation is reversible and does
not generate material degradation. Only the cyclic plastic deformation generates irreversible
changes, mainly in the dislocation substructure.
The fatigue resistance Sr is defined as the highest value of the maximum stress the
specimen, the material does not fails, indifferently of the number of loading cycles. It
represents the value corresponding to the unlimited durability of the material at the
respective loading.
Frequently is this necessary to determine the number of cycles at which material fails under
a prescribed loading over the level of fatigue resistance.
In order to determine materials characteristics at variable loadings the following methods are
used:

direct: Whlers classical method, steps, Probit, with progressive loading (Prot, Locati)

indirect: based on the change of physical constants during the application variables
(elastic modulus, work absorption, magnetic permeability)

based on dependencies between fatigue strength and mechanical properties (R0, 2,


Rm, A, Z.
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Whler method call the dependence of the maximum tension the material yield (Rmax,,
Smax) and corresponding number of cycles to fracture (N). Testing continues until at least
one probe does not break. Include consecrated values (N0):

steels 2.106 2. 107 cycles,

light alloys

2. 107 108 cycles

With pairs of values: stress fracture (S) - number of cycles (N) the diagram in Figure 41 is
made: fatigue life curve (Whler), for determined loading conditions. The voltage coefficient
is the asymmetry index (R).
In semi-logarithmic coordinates, there are three areas (Figure 42): static requests or few
cycles (I) limited durability (II), non-limited durability or fatigue resistance (III).

Figure 42 Fatigue resistance curve

Figure 41 Fatigue curve domains

In logarithmic coordinates, the curve appears as two lines connected.

Dispersion results are affected by the homogeneity of the material, preparing samples, test
conditions, etc. In the plane S N the curve can be replaced by an izoprobability network of
curves generated by the equation:

Np

f N , S dN p const.

(4.3.21)

where p is probability (0-1). At the S3 loading level point 'a' is the probability that no
specimen fracture, and point "b" the probability of survival of 0%. Significance points are
treated alike 'c', 'd' for a specified number of cycles.
The main factors affecting the durability of variable loadings, including weld fatigue limit are:
- asymmetry degree of the cycle,
- coefficient of fullness,
- overloading,
- geometry of the joint,
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- level of residual stresses,


- technological factors.
The asymmetry degree of the cycle (R) is defined by the dependence between the maximum
and the minimum stress.
Coefficient of fullness (cp) expresses the influence of the intensity of the aleatory loading
spectrum.
With decreasing degree of fullness of the spectrum and removal application spectrum with
constant amplitude at which cp = 1, the fatigue resistance and durability increase
continuously.
The cause is weight decrease of active processes of degradation and increase the effect of
structural strength. The range of use cp = 0-1. Other factors are subsequently treated in
terms of improving the reaction to variable loading.

4.3.5 The average voltage effect


Fatigue curve is obtained by highlighting current-stress dependence on the number of cycles
(S-N). An alternative is the strain-stress dependence. It defines:

Testing with "soft loading cycles' when the stress is the evaluated one

Testing with "hard loading cycles when the strain is the evaluate one

The difference between the two regimes is the most obvious in asymmetric cycles.
"Hard cyclic" loading with average tensile stress (Smed), leads to cyclic creep. "Soft cyclic"
with average tensile strain (med) leads to the stress-relieving of the creep stress. Figures 43
and 44 present the stress-relieving of average stress in case of pulsed loading, respectively
to the stress-relieving of creep stress for asymmetric cyclic loading. They represent typical
behaviours of materials at oligocyclic loading.

Figure 43 Stress-relieving cat pulsed constant

Figure 44 Creep stress-relieving asymmetric cyclic


loading and controlled stress

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strain

The average stress (Smed) is stress relieved after several loading cycles. The hystereses
loop becomes completely symmetric as a function of the stress. The stress-relieving rate
depends on the material, amplitude of deformation and its average value (a, med). The final
value of the average stress, after stress-relieving must not become nule. Cyclic creep can
develop only in the case of the soft asymetric loading cycle (Controlled amplitude of stress).
The example is suggestively expressed in the previous Figure: Smed, Sa =const. Material
reacts so that a, med constant. med increases with the number of cycles(N). Depending on
the material, Smed, Sa and T creep stops after N cycles or continues to fracture.
In the first case, fracture is base don fatigue, and in the second case it is base don plastic
instability.
The effect of average strain depends on the existence of average stress which is not zero
anbd can be understood only on the bases of stress change. So, the effect of average strain
is not significant when the average stress is rapidly relaxed during the controlled strain cycle,
but can be very important if the stress-relieving is a slow one. The stress-relieving rate
depends on material and strain. When the strain is higher the stress-relieving is more
reduced, and the effect on the average strain is more reduced.
Overlapping of the cyclic and average stress components in controlled conditions is to be
found out by cyclic creep. The tensile average stress shortens the fatigue life, while the
average compression stress make it longer. Figure 45 presents the effect of average stress
son fracture mechanisms under controlled stress conditions. There are four intervals:

Figure 45 Effect of average stress son fracture mechanisms for controlled stress testing.

a) For reduced levels of stress amplitude, under the fatigue limit there is no failure
indifferently of the average stress level
b) For levels of stress amplitude over the fatigue limit (median area of the diagram)
failure is fatigue typical, by initiation and propagation of cracks, preceded by creep
strain afferent to the average stress which is 0.
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c) For high levels of average stress the cyclic creep and ductile fracture prevail, by the
contraction of area.
d) For cyclic compression loading and high average stress the loss of stability occurs by
buckling.
For a prescribed amplitude of stress, it is found out that durability decreases, but not
monotonously, when average stress increases.
The effect of average stress on fatigue durability is suggestively expressed in Figure 46. The
maximum stress (Smax) depends on the average one (Sm) and the number of cycles (N). So,
a set of parametric curves (parameter N), is obtained and the experimental determination of
the diagram S-N is compulsory.

Figure 46 Influence of average stress son fatigue resistance for different Nf values.

4.3.6 Fatigue resistance of classified structural details


The fatigue assessment of classified structural details and welded joints is based on the
nominal stress range. In most cases structural details are assessed on the basis of the
maximum principal stress range in the section where potential fatigue cracking is considered.
However, guidance is also given for the assessment of shear loaded details, based on the
maximum shear stress range. Separate S-N curves are provided for consideration of normal
or shear stress ranges, as illustrated in Figures 47 and 48 respectively.

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Figure 47 Fatigue resistance S-N curves for steel, normal stress

Figure 48 Fatigue resistance S-N curves for aluminium, normal stress

Care must be taken to ensure that the stress used for the fatigue assessment is the same as
that given in the tables of the classified structural details. Macro-structural hot spot stress
concentrations not covered by the structural detail of the joint itself, e.g. large cut-outs in the
vicinity of the joint, have to be accounted for by the use of a detailed stress analysis, e.g.
finite element analysis, or appropriate stress concentration factors.
The fatigue curves are based on representative experimental investigations and thus include
the effects of:
structural hot spot stress concentrations due to the detail shown,
local stress concentrations due to the weld geometry,
weld imperfections consistent with normal fabrication standards,
stress direction,
welding residual stresses,
metallurgical conditions,
welding process (fusion welding, unless otherwise stated),
inspection procedure (NDT), if specified,
postweld treatment, if specified.
Furthermore, within the limits imposed by static strength considerations, the fatigue curves of
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welded joints are independent of the tensile strength of the material.


Each fatigue strength curve is identified by the characteristic fatigue strength of the detail at 2
million cycles. This value is the fatigue class (FAT).
The slope of the fatigue strength curves for details assessed on the basis of normal stresses
7

is m=3.00. The constant amplitude knee point is at 1. 10 cycles. The slope at higher number
of cycles is m=22.
The slope of the fatigue strength curves for detailed assessments on the basis of shear
8

stresses is m=5.00, but in this case the knee point is at 10 cycles. The slope at higher
number of cycles is m=22.
The descriptions of the structural details only partially include information about the weld
size, shape and quality. The data refer to a standard quality as given in codes and standard
welding procedures. For higher or lower qualities, conditions of welding may be specified and
verified by test.
The fatigue classes given in table 4.3.1 shall be modified as given in chapter 4.3.5. The
limitations of weld imperfections shall be considered.

All butt welds shall be full penetration welds without lack of fusion, unless otherwise stated.
All S-N curves of details are limited by the material S-N curve, which may vary due to
different strengths of the materials.

Disregarding major weld defects, fatigue cracks originate from the weld toe, and then
propagate through the base material, or from the weld root, and then propagate through the
weld throat. For potential toe cracks, the nominal stress in the base material has to be
calculated and compared with the fatigue resistance given in the tables. For potential root
cracks, the nominal stress in the weld throat has to be calculated. If both failure modes are
possible, e.g. at cruciform joints with fillet welds, both potential failure modes have to be
assessed.
Fatigue verification is carried out using the design spectrum of fatigue actions in terms of
stress ranges i,S,d, in which the stresses of the characteristic spectrum i, S, k have been
multiplied by the partial safety factor F for fatigue actions.
The design resistance S-N curve based on design resistance stresses R,d, in which the
characteristic resistance stress ranges R,k have been divided by the partial safety factor M
for fatigue resistance.
The design resistance S-N curve may be modified further according to the needs of the
damage calculation procedure.
For constant amplitude loading, the characteristic stress range R,k at the required
number of stress cycles is firstly determined. Secondly the fatigue criterion is checked:
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S ,d S .k F

R ,k

(4.3.22)

At variable amplitude loading, cumulative damage calculation procedure is applied. Usually


a modified "Palmgren-Miner"-rule, is appropriate. For load spectra which are sensitive to the
position of the fatigue limit or cut-off limit, or in which the spectrum changes during the
service time, additional assessment using the nonlinear damage calculation method is
recommended.
In fields of application, where no test data or service experience exist and the shape of the
stress spectrum is not close to constant amplitude, it is recommended to proceed according
to the damage calculation.

4.3.7 Linear Damage Calculation by "Palmgren-Miner"


For fatigue verification it has to be shown that the calculated usable cycles are larger than
the anticipated number of cycles occurring in service of the structure:
f

Dd
1

N usable

nt
1
Nt

N const N var
2

(4.3.23)

where Dd damage by summation.


i index for block number in load spectrum of required design life ni number of cycles of
stress range i,S,d in load spectrum block i Ni number of cycles at which design stress range
i,S,d causes failure in the modified design fatigue resistance S-N curve. Nvar number of
cycles calculated at variable amplitude load by use of damage summation Dd Nconst number
of cycles calculated at constant amplitude load of maximum stress range in spectrum Nusable
number of calculative usable cycles.
The order of sequence of the blocks has no effect on the results of this calculation.
In some cases it might be convenient to calculate an equivalent constant amplitude stress
range E and to compare it directly to the constant amplitude resistance S-N curve
neglecting the constant amplitude fatigue limit.
For the grid of fatigue resistance classes and an initial slope of m=3 predominantly used, the
values of the modified characteristic fatigue resistance S-N curves have been calculated.
Stepping down one class corresponds to a division by 1.12. So different levels of safety M of
SN curve may be achieved (Figure 49, 50 and table 12).

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Figure 49 Modified resistance S-N curves of steel for Palmgren-Mine summation

Figure 50 Modified resustance S-N curves of aluminium for Palmgren-Miner summation

Table 12 FAT data, stress at knee-point of S-N curve, constants of tentative S-N curves and constants for
Palmgren-Miner summation

FAT class stress at knee # of cycles lower # of cycles higher than knee point of S-N
[MPa]
point [MPa]
than knee point of curve Constant C: N=C/ m
S-N curve
at 2e6c.

at 1e7 c.

m=3

constant ampl. m=5

varable ampl. m=22

125

73.1

3.906E+12

2.0440E+47

2.091E+16

112

65.5

2.810E+12

1.8250E+46

1.207E+16

100

58.5

2.000E+12

1.5082E+45

6.851E+15

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90

52.7

1.458E+12

1.4852E+44

4.046E+15

80

46.8

1.024E+12

1.1129E+43

2.245E+15

71

41.5

7.158E+11

8.0564E+41

1.236E+15

63

36.9

5.001E+11

5.8070E+40

6.800E+14

56

32.8

3.512E+11

4.3511E+39

3.773E+14

50

29.3

2.500E+11

3.5958E+38

2.141E+14

45

26.3

1.823E+11

3.5411E+37

1.264E+14

40

23.4

1.280E+11

2.6533E+36

7.016E+13

36

21.1

9.331E+10

2.6128E+35

4.143E+13

32

18.7

6.554E+10

1.9578E+34

2.299E+13

28

16.4

4.390E+10

1.0374E+33

1.179E+13

25

14.6

3.125E+10

8.5731E+31

6.691E+12

22

12.9

2.130E+10

5.1494E+30

3.531E+12

20

11.7

1.600E+10

6.3259E+29

2.192E+12

18

10.5

1.166E+10

6.2295E+28

1.295E+12

16

9.4

8.192E+09

4.6677E+27

7.184E+11

14

8.2

5.488E+09

2.4733E+26

3.685E+11

12

7.0

3.456E+09

8.3262E+24

1.705E+11

160

116.0

2.097E+17

5.2373E+51

2.100E+17

80

58.0

6.554E+15

1.2487E+45

6.564E+15

70

50.8

3.361E+15

6.6164E+43

3.367E+15

at 2e6 c.

at 1e8 c.

100

45.7

2.000E+16

3.2973E+44

2.000E+16

80

36.6

3.277E+15

2.4922E+42

3.277E+15

36

16.5

1.209E+14

6.0904E+34

1.209E+14

28

12.8

3.442E+13

2.2836E+32

3.442E+13

m=5

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4.3.8 Nonlinear Damage Calculation


A nonlinear fracture mechanics damage calculation is recommended in cases, where:
1. The Miner summation is sensitive to the exact location of the knee point of the fatigue
resistance S-N curve
2. The spectrum of fatigue actions (loads) varies in service or is changed, and so the
sequence of loads becomes significant
3. The resistance S-N curve of a pre-damaged component has to be estimated.

4.3.9 Fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress


A.Fatigue Resistance using Reference S-N Curve
The S-N curves for fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress are given in the table
13 for steel and aluminium, where the definition of the FAT class is given in chapter 4.2. The
resistance values refer to the as-welded condition unless stated otherwise. The effects of
welding residual stress are included. Effects of misalignment are not included.
The design value of the structural hot spot stress range shall not exceed Fhs < 2.fy.
Table 13 Fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress

No
.

Structural detail

Description

Requirements

FAT FAT
Steel Alu.

Butt joint

As welded, NDT

100

40

Cruciform or Tjoint with full


penetration Kbutt welds

K-butt welds, no
lamellar tearing

100

40

Non loadcarrying fillet


welds

Transverse non-load
carrying attachment,
not thicker than main
plate, as welded

100

40

Bracket ends,
ends of
longitudinal stiffeners

Fillet welds welded


around or not, as
welded

100

40

Cover plate ends As welded


and similar joints

100

40

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Cruciform joints
with loadcarrying fillet
welds

Fillet welds, as welded

90

36

Description

Requirements

FAT

FAT

Steel Alu.

Lap joint with


load carrying fillt
welds

Fillet welds, as welded

90

36

Type b joint
with short
attachment

Fillet or full penetration


weld, as welded

100

40

Type b joint
with long
attachment

Fillet or full penetration


weld, as welded

90

36

Note: Table does not cover effects of misalignment. They have to be considered explicitely
in determination of stress range.
For hollow section joints, special hot-spot stress design S-N curves have been
recommended by the IIW. The tubular joint design curves should not be applied to other
types of structure.
B. Fatigue resistance using a reference detail
The tables of the fatigue resistance of structural details, or fatigue data from other sources
which refer to a comparable detail, may be used. The reference detail should be chosen as
similar as possible to the detail to be assessed. Thus the procedure will be:
a) Select a reference detail with known fatigue resistance, which is as similar as
possible to the detail being assessed with respect to geometric and loading
parameters.
b) Identify the type of stress in which the fatigue resistance is expressed. This is usually
nominal stress.
c) Establish a FEM model of the reference detail and the detail to be assessed with the
same type of meshing and elements.
d) Load the reference detail and the detail to be assessed with the stress identified in b).

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e) Determine the structural hot spot stress hs, ref of the reference detail and the
Structural hot spot stress hs, assess of the detail to be assessed.
f) The fatigue resistance for 2 million cyles of the detail to be assessed FATassess is then
calculated from fatigue class of the reference detail FATref by:

FATassess

hs, ref
FATref
hs, assess

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4.3.10 Fatigue resistance against effective notch stress


A. Steel
The effective notch stress fatigue resistance against fatigue actions, as determined for steel
and aluminium, is given in table 14. The fatigue resistance value refers to the as-welded
condition. The effect of welding residual stresses is included. Possible misalignment is not
included.

Table 14 Effective notch fatigue resistance for steel

No.
1

Quality of weld notch

Material

Effective notch radius equalling


1 mm replacing weld toe and
weld root notch

Steel

Effective notch radius equalling


1 mm replacing weld toe and
weld root notch

Aluminium

Description

FAT
225

Notch as-welded, normal


welding quality m=3
75
Notch as-welded, normal
welding quality m=3

4.3.11 Fatigue strength modifications


A. Stress ratio
A1. Steel
For stress ratios R<0.5 a fatigue enhancement factor f(R) may be considered by multiplying
the fatigue class of classified details by f(R). The fatigue enhancement factor depends on the
level and direction of residual stresses (Figure 51). It should only be used if reliable
information or estimation of the residual stress level was present. The following cases are to
be distinguished:
I.

Unwelded base material and wrought products with negligible residual stresses
(<0.2fy), stress relieved welded components, in which the effects of constraints or
secondary stresses have been considered in analysis. No constraints in assembly.

f(R) = 1.6 for R < -1


f(R) = -0.4 .R + 1.2 for -1 R 0.5
f(R) = 1 for R > 0.5
II.

Small scale thin-walled simple structural elements containing short welds. Parts or
components containing thermally cut edges. No constraints in assembly.

f(R) = 1.3 for R < -1


f(R) = -0.4 . R + 0.9 for -1 R -0.25
f(R) = 1 for R > -0.25

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Complex two or three-dimensional welded components, componentswith


globalresidual stresses, thickwalled components.

f(R) = 1

no enhancement

Figure 51 Enhancement factor f(R)

The ranking in categories I, II or III should be done and documented by the design office. If
no reliable information on residual stress is available, f(R)=1.
It has to be noted in this respect that stress relief in welded joints is unlikely to be fully
effective and long range residual stresses may be introduced during assembly of
prefabricated welded components. For such reasons, it is recommended that values of
f(R)>1 should only be adopted for welded components in very special circumstances.
A2. Aluminium
The same regulations as for steel are recommended.

4.3.12 Wall Thickness


A. Steel
The influence of plate thickness on fatigue strength should be taken into account in cases
where cracks start from the weld toe. The fatigue resistance values here given refer to a wall
thickness of 25 mm at steel. The reduced strength is taken in consideration by multiplying the
fatigue class of the structural detail by the thickness reduction factor f(t). The thickness
correction exponent n is dependent on the effective thickness teff and the joint category
(table 15 and Figure 52). The same way a benign thinness effect might be considered, but
should be verified by component test.
Table 15 Thickness correction exponents

Joint category

Condition

Cruciform joints, transverse T-joints, plates with transverse attachments

as-welded

0.3

Cruciform joints, transverse T-joints, plates with transverse attachments

toe ground

0.2

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Transverse butt welds


Butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudinal welds or attachements

25

f t
t
eff

If

as-welded

0.2

any

0.1

where t >25 mm

L/t 2 then teff = 0.5L


else teff = t

(4.3.25)

The plate thickness correction factor is not required in the case of assessment based on
effective notch stress procedure or fracture mechanics.

Figure 52 Toe distance

B. Aluminium
The same regulations as for steel are recommended.

4.3.13 Improvement techniques


A. General
Post weld improvement techniques may raise the fatigue resistance. These techniques
improve the weld profile, the residual stress conditions or the environmental conditions of the
welded joint. The improvements methods are:
1. Methods of improvement of weld profile:
a. machining or grinding of weld seam flush to surface,
b. machining or grinding of the weld transition at the toe,
c. remelting of the weld toe by TIG-, plasma or laser dressing.
2. Methods for improvement of residual stress conditions:
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a. peening (hammer-, needle-, shot- or brush-peening),


b. coining,
c. overstressing,
d. stress relieving thermal treatment
Methods for improvement of environmental conditions:
a. Painting
b. resin coating

The effects of all improvement techniques are sensitive to the method of application and the
applied loading, being most effective in the low stress high cycle regime. They may also
depend on the material, structural detail and dimensions of the welded joint. Consequently,
fatigue tests for the verification of the procedure in the endurance range of interest are
recommended in lot of references.

For some post welding improvement procedures, direct recommendations are given below.
They may be used under the following circumstances:

a) increasing the fatigue strength of new structures,


b) a verification by test is recommended,
c) repair or upgrading of existing structures.
The recommendations apply to nominal stress and structural hot spot stress method; they do
not apply to effective notch stress and fracture mechanics method.
Applicability of improvement methods
Examples of joint suitable for improvement show in Figure 53.

Figure 53 Examples of joint suitable for improuvement

The recommendations apply to all arc welded steel or aluminium components subjected to
fluctuating or cyclic stress and designed to fatigue limit state criterion. They are limited to
structural steels up to a specified yield strength of 900 MPa and to structural aluminium
alloys commonly used in welded structures, primarily of the AA 5000 and AA 6000 series.
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The recommendations apply to welded joints of plates, of sections built up of plates or similar
rolled or extruded shapes, and hollow sections. If not specified else, the plate thickness
range for steel is from 6 to 150 mm, for aluminium from 4 to 50 mm.
The application is limited to joints operating at temperatures below the creep range. In
general, the recommendations do not apply at low cycle fatigue conditions, so the nominal
stress range is limited to
For the special improvement procedures additional restrictions may be given.
The improvement procedures described below, apply solely to the weld toe and to cracks
starting from this point. All other points of a possible start of fatigue cracks therefore should
be carefully considered as e.g. the weld root or weld imperfections.
The recommendations do not apply to joints operating under free corrosion.

(Figure 54).

Figure 54 Examples of joints, at which an improvement might be limited by a possible root crack

Burr Grinding
Fatigue cracks initiate usually at the weld toe at points of cold fusion or other sharp crack-like
defects of a few tenth of a millimetre. The grinding has firstly to remove these defects and
secondly to create a smooth weld transition and thus to reduce the stress concentration. All
embedded imperfection which emerge to the surface at grinding must be repaired. The
benefit of burr grinding is given as a factor on the stress range of the fatigue class of a nonimproved joint (table 16).
Table 16 Benefit factors on stress of burr grinding and TIG dressing

Area of application

Mild steel fy < 355


MPa

All structural details leading to a IIW fatigue


class of 90 at steel or 32 at aluminium or lower
as applicable
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1.3

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All S-N curves and fatigue classes for


assessment by structural hot spot stress, but
no higher class than 100 at steel or 40 at
aluminium. Butt joints to be assessed by the
nominal stress fatigue class.

1.3

1.5 (1.3*)

For transverse fillet welds at continuous plates, corresponding to FAT 80 at steel or FAT 28
at aluminium in the catalogue of details
TIG dressing
By TIG (tungsten inert gas) dressing, the weld toe is remolten in order to remove the weld
toe undercut or other irregularities and to smoothen the stress concentration of the weld
transition (table 17). The recommendations apply to partial or full penetration arc welded fillet
welds in steels with a specified yield strength up to 900 MPa and to wall thicknesses >= 10
mm operating non-corrosive environment or under conditions of corrosion protection. The
details of the procedure are described in references.
Hammer peening
By hammer peening, the material is plastically deformed at the weld toe in order to introduce
beneficial compressive residual stresses. The recommendation is restricted to steels with
specified yield strength up to 900 MPa and structural aluminium alloys, both operating noncorrosive environment or under conditions of corrosion protection. The recommendations
apply for plate thicknesses from 10 to 50 mm at steel and 5 to 25 mm at aluminium and to
arc welded fillet welds with a minimum weld leg length of 0.1.t, where t is the wall thickness
of the stressed plate. The details of the procedure are described in references (table 17).

Table 17 Benefit on stress of hammer peening (nominal stress)

Area of application

All structural details leading


to a IIW fatigue class of 90 at
steel or 40 at aluminium or
lower

Benefit

Upgrade for steel to FAT 125


for aluminium to FAT 56

Requirements
Max. amount of nominal
compressive stress in load
spectrum < 0.25 fy ,
including proof loading
if R < 0 then use
if R >=0 then use max
instead of (for aluminium
use fy of HAZ !)

For structural hot spot stress see recommendations for needle peening.

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Needle peening
By needle peening, the material is plastically deformed at the weld toe in order to introduce
beneficial compressive residual stresses. Before any application, it is recommended to grind
the weld toe in order to remove undercut and weld toe irregularities and subsequently to
finish with a sandpaper tool for a glossy surface. The details of the procedure are described
in in references (table 18).

Table 18 Benefit on stress of needle peening (nominal stress)

Area of application

Benefit

Requirements

All structural details


leading to a IIW fatigue
class of 90 at steel or 40
at aluminium or lower

Upgrade for steel to


FAT 125 for aluminium
to FAT 56

Max. amount of nominal compressive


stress in load spectrum if R<0 then use
if R>=0 then use instead of (for aluminium
use fy of HAZ)

At all peening techniques, the structural hot spot stress approach should be applied only to
joints with fillet welds (with any penetration) and not to butt joints. The structural hot spot
stress, which includes the stress increase due to the structural geometry and possible
misalignments can be assessed by the corresponding material S-N curve, e.g. FAT 160 for
steel and FAT 71 for aluminium alloys in conjunction with the slope exponent m=5.0 . In this
way, the base metal at the weld toe is assumed to have a lower fatigue strength than the
peened weld.

4.3.14 Effect of elevated temperatures


A. Steel
For higher temperatures, the fatigue resistance data may be modified with a reduction factor
given in Figure 55. The fatigue reduction factor is a conservative approach and might be
raised according to test evidence or application codes.

Figure 55 Fatigue strength reduction factor for steel at elevated temperatures

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B. Aluminium
The fatigue data given here refer to operation temperatures lower than 70 C. This value is a
conservative approach. It may be raised according to test evidence or an applicable code.

4.3.15 Effect of corrosion


The fatigue resistance data given here refer to non-corrosive environments. Normal
protection against atmospheric corrosion is assumed. A corrosive environment or
unprotected exposure to atmospheric conditions may reduce the fatigue class. The fatigue
limit may also be reduced considerably. The effect depends on the spectrum of fatigue
actions and on the time of exposure.
For steel, except stainless steel, in marine environment not more than 70% of the fatigue
resistance values in terms of stress range shall be applied and no fatigue limit be considered.
In fracture mechanics crack propagation calculations the constant C0 of the Paris Power Law
shall be multiplied by a factor of 3.0 . A threshold value shall not be considered.
No further specific recommendations are given for corrosion fatigue assessment.

4.3.16 Fatigue resistance against crack propagation


The resistance of a material against cyclic crack propagation is characterized by the material
parameters of the "Paris" power law of crack propagation:

da
C0 K m
dN

if

K K th

then

da
0
dN

(4.3.25)

where the material parameters are C0 - constant of the power law, m - exponent of the power
law, K range of cyclic stress intensity factor, Kth - threshold value of stress intensity, under
which no crack propagation is assumed R, ratio Kmin/Kmax, taking all stresses including
residual stresses into account.
In the absence of specified or measured material parameters, the values given below are
recommended. They are characteristic values.
B. Steel
-11

C0 = 1.58 .10

(units in MPa%m and m) or

-13

C0 = 5.0.10

-3/2

(units in N*mm

and mm)

m=3
Kth = 6.0 - 4.56.R but not lower than 2 (units in MPa%m), or
Kth = 190 - 144 .R but not lower than 62 (units in N*mm
C. Aluminium
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-9

C0 = 1.27.10 (units in MPa%m and m) or


-11

C0 = 4.00.10

-3/2

(units in N*mm

and mm)

m=3
Kth = 2.0 - 1.5.R but not lower than 0.7 (units in MPa%m), or
-3/2

Kth = 63 48.R but not lower than 21 (units in N*mm )


Where the parameters for a fracture mechanics fatigue assessment are not known and only
the resistance S-N curve is known, the S-N curve can be used to derive dimensionless
fracture mechanics parameters, which allow a damage calculation. The procedure is based
on the "Paris" power law of crack propagation:

da
C0 K m
dN

if K K th

then

da
0
dN

(4.3.26)

where a crack parameter, damage parameter (dimensionless); N Number of cycles; K


range of stress intensity factor; Kth threshold value of stress intensity factor range; C0, m
material constants.
The characteristic stress intensity factor range KS,k of the fatigue action is calculated with
the stresses of the spectrum Fi,S,k and the crack parameter a:

K S ,k S ,k a

(4.3.27)

The characteristic resistance parameters can be derived from the characteristic constant
amplitude fatigue resistance S-N curve: The threshold value corresponds to the fatigue limit,
Kth,k =FL,R,k, m equals the slope of the S-N curve, and the constant C0,k can be calculated
from a data point (FS-N and NS-N) on the S-N curve, preferably from the fatigue class at 2
6

x10 cycles:

C 0, k

(4.3.28)

(m 2) N S N Sm N

The fatigue verification is executed according to 4.4, using an initial crack parameter ai=1
9

and a final one af=4 or a large number e.g. af=10 . The restrictions on life cycles given in 4.3
are to be considered. The actual fatigue class of a pre-damaged component is FATact. =
FAT/a.

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4.3.17 Fatigue assessment by crack propagation calculation


The fatigue action represented by the design spectrum of stress intensity factor ranges:

K i ,S ,d K i ,S ,k F

(4.3.27)

is verified by the material resistance design parameters against crack propagation

C0,d C0,k Mm C0,k M


K th,d

K th,k

(4.3.28)

using the "Paris" power law

da
C0 K m
dN

if K K th

then

da
0
dN

(4.3.29)

where a - crack parameter, damage parameter; N Number of cycles; K range of stress


intensity factor; Kth threshold value of stress intensity factor range; C0, m material constants.
At stress intensity factors which are high compared with the fracture toughness of the
material, Kc, an acceleration of crack propagation will occur. In these cases, the following
extension of the "Paris" power law of crack propagation is recommended. In the absence of
an accurate value of the fracture toughness, a conservative estimate should be made.

C 0 K m
da

dN
1 R K
Kc

(4.3.30)

where Kc fracture toughness, R stress ratio.


The number of life cycles N is determined by integration starting from an initial crack
parameter ai to a final one af. The calculated number of life cycles N has to be greater or
equal to the required number of cycles.
In general, the integration has to be carried out numerically. The increment for one cycle is:

da C0,d K dm ,

if

K d K th,d

then

da = 0

(4.3.31)

It is recommended that a continuous spectrum is subdivided to an adequate number of


stress range blocks, e.g. 8 or 10 blocks, and the integration performed block wise by
summing the increments of a and the number of cycles of the blocks. The entire size of the
spectrum in terms of cycles should be adjusted by multiplying the block cycles by an
appropriate factor in order to ensure at least 20 loops over the whole spectrum in the
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integration procedure.

4.3.18 Fatigue assessment by service testing


A. General
Components or structures may be tested or verified in respect to fatigue for different reasons:
a) Existence of a new design with no or not sufficient knowledge or experience of fatigue
behaviour.
b) Verification of a component or structure for a specified survival probability under a
special fatigue action (stress) history.
c) Optimization of design and/or fabrication in respect of weight, safety and economy
after pre-dimensioning. Pre-dimensioning may be done by the use of higher fatigue
resistance data, according to a lower survival probability in comparison with the
resistance data given here. Then the verification is achieved by a subsequent
component testing (Figure 56).

Figure 56 Example of scatter of test data

A pre-dimensioning leading to the mean values of the resistance data may be done by
multiplying the resistance values in terms of stress by a factor of 1.5, which is based on a
standard deviation of log cycles of 0.25 and an exponent of m=3.00 .
The verification or assessment depends of the safety strategy considered. Safe life, fail safe
and damage tolerant strategy have to be distinguished.
The fatigue tests should be performed using the data of the fatigue action history, factored by
the partial safety factors F and M, i.e., the stress levels of the action history have to be
multiplied by F . M for testing (table 19).

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Table 19 Testing approaches

No. Testing procedure

Approach

all specimens of the samples are tested until failure

all failed

testing is stopped at failure of first specimen of the sample

first to fail

testing is stopped when p specimens of the n samples fail

p to fail

The all failed approach is the normal way of testing at small size samples of which each
specimen represents the same weld details. The statistical analysis uses the data of the
failed specimens disregarding the non-failed ones.

The first to fail approach may be used at a large scale sample with the same weld details
and loading. The test is stopped at the first failure of a specimen.
The n to fail approach is used in similar conditions as the first to fail one, when repairs of
crack details can be performed during the test. Each time when a detail fails, the test is
stopped and the failed detail is repaired. Repairs are stopped depending of test conditions.
At the end possibbly all details have failed and thus the all failed approach is applied. If only
p specimens out of the n size of the sample failed, the p to fail approach is used.
This chapter considers the all failed and first to fail approaches.
The following test result data should be documented according to the selected approach:
The mean of the log of number of cycles at failure of all n failed samples or details.

The number of cycles of the first failed detail within n tested details.

The number of cycles of the first p failed details within n tested details.

The tests should be performed according to well established and appropriate procedures or
standards.

For the evaluation of service tests, an estimate of the standard deviation of logN has to be
made, taking into account that the standard deviation varies with the life cycle of the
component to be assessed.

For the number of test results being n>10, the standard deviation has to be calculated.
For the number of test results being n<10, or if the procedure of first failure or p failures in
n specimens is used, the standard deviation can be estimated as follows:
4

0.178 for geometrically simple structures at a number of cycles between 10 and 10

0.25 for complex structures at cycles up to 10


-----no estimate can be given for higher cycles near the endurance limit. Here special
verification procedures are recommended.

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B. Acceptance criteria
The number of design life cycles of the component or structure should be less than the
minimum probable number of the test life cycles:

Nd

NT
F

(4.3.32)

where NT number of test life cycles of the test specimens corresponding to the log mean
value or number of cycles of the first test specimen to fail, whichever is applicable. F factor
dependent of the number of test results available as defined in tables 4.3.8, 4.3.9. The Ffactors refer to a 95% survival probability at a two sided confidence level of 75% of the mean
(see also 6.4) Nd number of design life cycles, up to which the component or structure may
be used in service.
If all components or test specimens are tested to failure, table 20, shall be used.
Table 20 F-factors for failure of all test specimens

Stdv. \ n

10

0.178

3.93

2.64

2.45

2.36

2.30

0.200

4.67

2.97

2.73

2.55

2.52

0.250

6.86

3.90

3.52

3.23

3.18

If the tests are carried out until failure of the first test specimen, table 21 shall be used, the
factor F may be further modified according to safety requirements.

Table 21 F-factors for the first test specimen to fail

Stdv. \ n

10

0.178

2.72

2.07

1.83

1.69

1.55

0.200

3.08

2.26

1.98

1.80

1.64

0.250

4.07

2.77

2.34

2.09

1.85

C. Safe life verification


Safe life verification considers each structural element and detail as independent. Each
element has to fulfill the acceptance criteria previous as defined.
The partial safety factors F applied to fatigue actions (loads) and M applied to fatigue
resistance may be selected.
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D. Fail safe verification


Fatigue life verification of failsafe structures depends largely on the design and operation
parameters of a structure. The effectiveness of statically over-determined (hyperstatic)
behaviour or redundancy of structural components, the possibility of detection of failures in
individual structural parts and the possibility of repair determine the level of safety required in
the individual structural parts. So, no general recommendation can be given.
The partial safety factors F applied to fatigue actions (loads) and M applied to fatigue
resistance may be selected.
E. Damage tolerant verification
The verification is based on crack growth measurements, starting from a crack size, which
can be detected in inspection up to a critical crack size, at which the limit state of critical
safety against brittle or plastic fracture or other modes of failure of the remaining sectional
area is attained.
The criteria for factoring the observed life cycles for the test depend of the application. It is
recommended to establish agreement on the factor F.
The partial safety factors F applied to fatigue actions (loads) and M applied to fatigue
resistance may be selected.

4.3.19 Fatigue resistance of joints with weld imperfections


A.Types of Imperfections
The types of imperfections covered in this document are listed below. Other imperfections,
not yet covered, may be assessed by assuming similar imperfections with comparable notch
effect.
a. Imperfect shape
All types of misalignment including centre-line mismatch (linear misalignment) and angular
misalignment (angular distortions, roofing, peaking).

b. Volumetric discontinuities
Gas pores and cavities of any shape. Solid inclusions, such as isolated slag, slag lines, flux,
oxides and metallic inclusions.
c. Planar discontinuities.
All types of cracks or cracklike imperfections, such as lack of fusion or lack of penetration
(Note that for certain structural details intentional lack of penetration is already covered, e.g.
at partial penetration butt welds or cruciform joints with fillet welds)
If a volumetric discontinuity is surface breaking or near the surface, or if there is any doubt
about the type of an embedded discontinuity, it shall be assessed like a planar discontinuity.

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B. Effects and assessment of imperfections


At geometrical imperfections, three effects affecting fatigue resistance can be distiguished,
as summarized in table 22.

a. Increase of general stress level


This is the effect of all types of misalignment due to secondary bending. The additional
effective stress concentration factor can be calculated by appropriate formulae. The fatigue
resistance of the structural detail under consideration is to be lowered by division by this
factor.

Table 22 Categorisation and assessment procedure for weld imperfections

Effect of imperfection

Type of imperfection

Rise of general stress leMisalignment


vel
Local notch
additive
effect
competitive
Cracklike imperfection

Assessment
Formulae for effective
stress concentration

Weld
shape
Tables given
imperfections, undercut
Porosity and inclusions
Tables given
not near the surface
Cracks, lack of fusion and Fracture mechanics
penetration, all types of
imperfections other than
given here

b. Local notch effect


Here, interaction with other notches present in the welded joint is decisive. Two cases are to
be distinguished:

b1. Additive notch effect


If the location of the notch due to the the weld imperfection coincides with a structural
discontinuity associated with the geometry of the weld shape (e.g. weld toe), then the fatigue
resistance of the welded joint is decreased by the additive notch effect. This may be the case
at weld shape imperfections.

b2. Competitive notch effect


If the location of the notch due to the weld imperfection does not coincide with a structural
geometry associated with the shape geometry of the weld, the notches are in competition.
Both notches are assessed separately. The notch giving the lowest fatigue resistance is
governing.
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c. Cracklike imperfections
Planar discontinuities, such as cracks or cracklike imperfections, which require only a short
period for crack initiation, are assessed using fracture mechanics on the basis that their
fatigue lives consist entirely of crack propagation.
After inspection and detection of a weld imperfection, the first step of the assessment
procedure is to determine the type and the effect of the imperfection as given here.
If a weld imperfection cannot be clearly associated to a type or an effect of imperfections
listed here, it is recommended that it is assumed to be cracklike.
C. Misalignment
Misalignment in axially loaded joints leads to an increase of stress in the welded joint due to
the occurrence of secondary shell bending stresses. The resulting stress is calculated by
stress analysis or by using the formulae for the stress magnification factor km.
Secondary shell bending stresses do not occur in continuous welds longitudinally loaded or
in joints loaded in pure bending, and so misalignment will not reduce the fatigue resistance.
However, misalignment in components, e.g. beams, subject to overall bending may cause
secondary bending stresses in parts of the component, where the through thickness stress
gradient is small, e.g. in a flange of a beam, where the stress is effectively axial. Such cases
should be assessed.
Some allowance for misalignment is already included in the tables of classified structural
details (3.2). In particular, the data for transverse butt welds are directly applicable for
misalignment which results in an increase of stress up to 30%, while for the cruciform joints
the increase can be up to 45%. In local concepts of fatigue analysis, a small but unevitable
amount of misalignment according to a stress manification factor of km =1.05 is already
included in the fatigue resistance S-N curves.
In special joints, i.e. all listed in table 23, the effect of a larger misalignment has to be additionally considered in the local stress (structural hot spot stress or effective notch stress. The
misalignement effect may be present even in the vicinity of supporting structures. A
corresponding stress increase has to be taken into account also in crack propagation
analyses. In all those cases, where the stress magnification factor is directly calculated, the
effective stress magnification factor km, eff should be calculated as given below:

K m,eff

k m,calculated
k m,already cov ered

(4.3.33)

For the simultaneous occurrence of linear and angular misalignment, both stress
magnification:

k m 1 k m,axial 1 k m,angular 1

(4.3.34)

As misalignment reduces the fatigue resistance, the fatigue resistance of the classified
structural detail (3.2) has to be divided by the effective stress magnification factor.

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Table 23 Consideration of stress magnification factors due to misalignment

Nominal
approach

Type of km analysis

stress

Structural hot spot and effective notch approach

km already
km already covercovered in SN
ed in FAT class
curves

Type of welded joint

Default value of effective km to


be considered in stress

Butt joint made in shop 1.15


in flat position

1.05

1.10*

Other butt joints

1.30

1.05

1.25*

cruciform joints

1.45

1.05

1.40*

One-sided fillet welds

1.25

1.05

1.20**

*) but not more than (0.95 + 3. emax /t), where emax = permissible misalignment and t = wall
thickness of loaded plate,
**) but not more than (0.95 + 0.3. tref/t), where tref = reference wall thickness

D. Undercut
The basis for the assessment of undercut is the ratio u/t, i.e. depth of undercut to plate
thickness. Though undercut is an additive notch, it is already considered to a limited extent in
the tables of fatigue resistance of classified structural details for steels and aluminium (table
24, 25).
Undercut does not reduce fatigue resistance of welds which are only longitudinally loaded.
Table 24 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in steel

Fatigue class

Allowable undercut u/t


butt welds

fillet welds

100

0.025

not applicable

90

0.05

not applicable

80

0.075

0.05

71

0.10

0.075

63

0.10

0.10

56 and lower

0.10

0.10

Notes: a) undercut deeper than 1 mm shall be assessed as a crack-like imperfection. b) the table
is only applicable for plate thicknesses from 10 to 20 mm
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Table 25 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in aluminium

Fatigue class

Allowable undercut u/t


butt welds

fillet welds

50

0.025

not applicable

45

0.05

not applicable

40

0.075

0.05

36

0.10

0.075

32

0.10

0.10

28 and lower

0.10

0.10

Notes: a) undercut deeper than 1 mm shall be assessed as a crack-like imperfection. b) the table
is only applicable for plate thicknesses from 10 to 20 mm

E. Porosity and inclusions


Embedded volumetric discontinuities, such as porosity and inclusions, are considered as
competitive weld imperfections which can provide alternative sites for fatigue crack initiation
than those covered by the fatigue resistance tables of classified structural details steels and
aluminium (table 26, 27).
Before assessing the imperfections with respect to fatigue, it should be verified that the
conditions apply for competitive notches, i.e. that the anticipated sites of crack initiation in the
fatigue resistance tables do not coincide with the porosity and inclusions to be assessed and
no interaction is expected.
It is important to ensure that there is no interaction between multiple weld imperfections, be it
from the same or different type. Combined porosity or inclusions shall be treated as a single
large one. The defect interaction criteria must well know, for the assessments of cracks also
apply for adjacent inclusions. Worm holes shall be assessed as slag inclusions.
If there is any doubt about the coalescence of porosity or inclusions in the wall thickness
direction or about the distance from the surface, the imperfections shall be assessed as
cracks. It has to be verified by NDT that the porosity or inclusions are embedded and
volumetric. If there is any doubt, they are to be treated as cracks.
The parameter for assessing porosity is the maximum percentage of projected area of
porosity in the radiograph; for inclusions, it is the maximum length.

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Table 26 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in steel

Fatigue class

*
**
+

Max. length of an inclusion in mm


as-welded

stress relieved +

Limits of
porosity in %
of area * **

100

1.5

7.5

90

2.5

19

80

58

71

10

no limit

63

35

no limit

56 and lower

no limit

no limit

Area of radiograph used is length of weld affected by porosity multiplied by width of


weld
Maximum pore diameter or width of an inclusion less than 1/4 plate thickness or 6
mm
Stress relieved by post weld heat treatment.

Table 27 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in aluminium

Fatigue class

Max.
length
of
inclusion in mm **

an Limits of porosity in % of
area * **

as-welded
1.5
40 and higher
36
2.5

0 +)

32

28

10

25

35

15 and lower

no limit

* Area of radiograph used is length of weld affected by porosity multiplied by width of weld
** Maximum pore diameter or width of an inclusion less than 1/4 plate thickness or 6 mm
+) Single pores up to 1.5 mm allowed
***Tungsten inclusions have no effect on fatigue behaviour and therefore do not need to be
assessed.

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4.3.20 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and


aluminium assessed on the basis of nominal stresses (table 28)

Table 28 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and aluminium assessed on the basis of
nominal stresses

No.

Structural Detail

Description
(St.= steel;
Al.=
aluminium)

FAT FAT
St.
Al.

Rolled or
extruded
products,
components
with mashined
edges,
seamless
hollow
sections.

70

160

No fatigue resistance of
any detail to be higher at
any number of cycles!
Sharp edges, surface and
rolling flaws to be removed
by grinding. Any machining
lines or groves to be parallel to stresses! For high
strength steels a higher
FAT class may be used if
verified by test.

140

All visible signs of edge


imperfections to be
removed. The cut surfaces
to be mashined or ground,
all burrs to be removed. No
repair by welding refill!
Notcheffects due to shape
of edges have to be
considered.

80

m=5
1

Requirements and
Remarks

St.: For high


strength steels
a higher FAT
class may be
used if verified
by test.
Al.: AA
5000/6000
alloys AA 7000
alloys

Machine gas
cut or sheared
material with
subsequent
dressing, no
cracks by
inspection, no
visible
imperfections
m=3

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Machine
thermally cut
edges, corners
removed, no
cracks by
inspection m =
3

Manually
thermally cut
edges, free
from cracks
and severe
notches m = 3

100

Notcheffects due to shape


of edges have to be
considered.

Manually
thermally cut
edges, uncontrolled, no
notch deeper
than .5 mm m =
3

80

Notcheffects due to shape


of edges have to be
considered.

100

40

All welds ground flush to


surface, grinding paralell to
direction of stress. Weld
run-on and run-off pieces to
be used and subsequently
removed. Plate edges to be
ground flush in direction of
stress. Welded from both
sides. No misalignement.
Required quality cannot be
inspected by NDT !

36

Weld run-on and run-off


pieces to be used and
subsequently removed.
Plate edges to be ground
flush in direction of stress.
Welded from both sides.
Misalignment <5%

Transverse
loaded butt
weld (X-groove
or V-groove)
ground flush to
plate, 100%
NDT

Transverse butt
weld made in
shop in flat
position, toe
angle # 30,
NDT

Transverse butt
weld not
satisfying
conditions of
212, NDT Al.:
Butt weld with
106 Of 150

125

90

40

32
25
80

Notcheffects due to shape


of edges have to be
considered.

Weld run-on and run-off


pieces to be used and
subsequently removed.
Plate edges to be ground
flush in direction of stress.
Welded from both sides.

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toe angle #50
Butt welds with
toe angle >50/

Misalignment <10%

Transverse butt
weld, welded
on ceramic
backing, root
crack

80

28

Backing removed, root


visually inspected.
Misalignment <10%

10

Transverse butt
weld on
permanent
backing bar
terminating >10
mm from plate
edge, else

71
63

25
22

Misalignment <10%

71
36

28
12

11

Transverse butt
welds welded
from one side
without backing
bar, full
penetration
root controlled
by NDT no
NDT

12

Transverse
partial
penetration butt
weld, analysis
based on
stress in weld
throat sectional
area, weld
overfill not to
be taken into
account.

13

Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, NDT,
with transition
in thickness
and width slope
1:5 slope 1:3
107 Of 150

Misalignment <10%

36

100
90
80

12

The detail is not


recommended for fatigue
loaded members.
Assessment by notch
stress or fracture
mechanics is preferred.

40
32
28

All welds ground flush to


surface, grinding paralell to
direction of stress. Weld
run-on and run-off pieces to
be used and subsequently
removed. Plate edges to be
ground flush in direction of
stress. Misalignment <10%

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slope 1:2

Exceeding misalignment
due to thickness step to be
considered.

90

32

28

14

Transverse butt
weld made in
shop, welded in
flat position,
weld profile
controlled,
NDT, with
transition in
thickness and
width: slope 1:5
slope 1:3 slope
1:2

80
25
72

Weld run-on and run-off


pieces to be used and
subsequently removed.
Plate edges to be ground
flush in direction of stress.
Misalignment <10%
Exceeding misalignment
due to thickness step to be
considered.

Weld run-on and run-off


pieces
to be used and subsequently

15

Transverse butt
weld, NDT, with
transition on
thickness and
width slope 1:5
slope 1:3 slope
1:2

removed. Plate edges to be


80
71
63

25
22
20

ground flush in direction of


stress.
Misalignment <10%
Exceeding
misalignments due to
thickness
step to be considered.

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17

Date 18.10.2010
Transverse butt
weld, different
thicknesses
without
transition,
centres
aligned. In
cases, where
weld profile is
equivalent to a
moderate slope
transition, see
no. 222

71

Three plate
connection,
root crack

71

22

Misalignment <10% of
smaller
plate thickness

22

Arc welds: Misalignment


<10%

All welds ground flush to


surface,

18

Transverse butt
weld flange
splice in builtup section
welded prior to
the assembly,
ground flush,
with radius
transition, NDT

grinding paralell to direction


of

100

40

stress. Weld run-on and


run-off
pieces to be used and
subsequently
removed. Plate edges to be
ground
flush in direction of stress.
All welds ground flush to
surface,

19

Transverse butt
weld splice in
rolled section
or bar besides
flats, ground
flush, NDT

grinding paralell to direction


of
80

28

stress. Weld run-on and


run-off
pieces to be used and
subsequently
removed. Plate edges to be
ground

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flush in direction of stress.

20

Transverse butt
weld splice in
circular hollow
section, welded
from one side,
full penetration,
root crack root
inspected by
NDT no NDT

71
36

28
12

Welded in flat position.

21

Tubular joint
with permanent
backing

71

28

Welded in flat position.

22

Transverse butt
weld splice in
rectangular
hollow section,
welded from
one side, full
penetration,
root crack root
inspected by
NDT no NDT

56
36

25
12

Welded in flat position.

All welds ground flush to


surface,

23

Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, weld
ends and
radius ground,
100% NDT at
crossing
flanges, radius
transition.

grinding paralell to direction


of
stress. Weld run-on and
run-off
100

40

pieces to be used and


subsequently
removed. Plate edges to be
ground
flush in direction of stress.
Welded from both sides.
No

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misalignment. Required
weld quality
cannot be inspected by
NDT

24

25

26

Transverse butt
weld made in
shop at flat
position, weld
profile
controlled,
NDT, at
crossing
flanges, radius
transition

Transverse butt
weld ground
flush, NDT, at
crossing
flanges with
welded
triangular
transition
plates, weld
ends ground.
Crack starting
at butt weld.
For crack of
throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526.
Transverse butt
weld, NDT, at
crossing
flanges, with
welded
triangular
transition
plates, weld
ends ground.
Crack starting
at butt weld.
111 Of 150

Weld run-on and run-off


pieces
to be used and subsequently
90

36

removed. Plate edges to be


ground
flush in direction of stress.
Welded
from both
sides.Misalignment <5%

All welds ground flush to


surface,
grinding paralell to direction
of
80

32

stress. Plate edges to be


ground flush
in direction of stress.
Welded
from both sides.
Misalignment <10%

Plate edges to be ground


flush in
71

28

direction of stress. Welded


from
both sides.Misalignment
<10%

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For crack of
throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526!
Transverse butt
weld at
crossing flanges. Crack
starting at butt
weld. For crack
of throughgoing
flange see
details 525 and
526!

50

28

Automatic
longitudinal
seam welds
without
stop/start
positions in
hollow sections
with stop/start
positions

125
90

50
36

29

Longitudinal
butt weld, both
sides ground
flush parallel to
load direction

125

50

30

Longitudinal
butt weld,
without
stop/start
positions, NDT
with stop/start
positions

125
90

50
36

31

Continuous
automatic
longitudinal fully penetrated
K-butt weld
without
stop/start
positions

27

112 Of 150

Welded from both sides.


20
Misalignment <10%

No start-Stop position is
permitted
125

50

except when the repair is


performed by a specialist
and
inspection is carried out to

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(based on
stress range in
flange) NDT

verify
the proper execution of the
weld.

32

Continuous
automatic
longitudinal
double sided
fillet weld
without stop/start positions
(based on
stress range in
flange)

100

40

33

Continuous
manual
longitudinal
fillet or butt
weld (based on
stress range in
flange)

90

36

34

Intermittent
longitudinal
fillet weld
(based on
normal stress
in flange and
shear stress in
web at weld
ends). / = 0
0.0 - 0.2
0.2 - 0.3
0.3 - 0.4
0.4 - 0.5

35

Joint at
stiffened
knuckle of a
flange to be
assessed
according to
no. 411 - 414,
depending on
type of joint.
113 Of 150

Discussion: EC3 has 112

Analysis based on normal


stress
in flange and shear stress
in web
80
71
63
56

32
28
25
22

at weld ends.
representation by
formula:
-steel 80.[1- ( / ) but
>=36
-alum. 36.[1- ( / ) but
>=14

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Stress in
stiffener plate:
Af = area of
flange ASt =
area of stiffener
Stress in weld
throat: Aw =
area of weld
throat
The resulting force of Ff-left
and
Ff-right will bend the flange
perpenticular to the plane
of main

36

Unstiffened
curved flange
to web joint, to
be assessed
according to
no. 411 414,
depending on
type of joint.
Stress in web
plate: Stress in
weld throat: Ff
axial force in
flange t
thickness of
web plate a
weld throat

loading. In oder to minimize


this
additional stressing of the
welds,
it is recommended to
minimize
the width and to maximize
the
thickness of the flange.
Stress
longitudinally to the weld is
to be
considered. At additional
shear,
principle stress in web is to
be
consired (see 321 to 323)

37

Cruciform joint
or T-joint, Kbutt welds, full
penetration, no
lamellar
tearing,
misalignment
e<0.15At, weld
114 Of 150

80

28

Material quality of
intermediate plate has to
be checked against
susceptibility of lamellar
tearing. Misalignment
<15% of primary plate.

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toes ground,
toe crack

38

Cruciform joint
or T-joint,
single-sided arc
welded fillet or
partial
penetration Ybutt weld, no
lamellar
tearing,
misalignment of
plates e<
0.15At, stress
at weld root.
Penetration
verified.
Penetration not
verified.

71
36

25
12

39

Splice of rolled
section with
intermediate
plate, fillet
welds, weld
root crack.
Analysis base
on stress in
weld throat.

36

12

40

Splice of
circular hollow
section with
intermediate
plate,
singlesided butt
weld, toe crack
wall thickness
> 8 mm wall
thickness < 8
mm

56
50

22
20

115 Of 150

Analysis based on stress in


weld root. Excentricity e of
plate t and weld throat a
midpoints to be considered
in analysis. Stress at weld
root: )F w, root = )F w,
nom A (1+6e/a) An
analysis by effective notch
procedure is recommended

Welds NDT inspected in


order to ensure full root
penetration.

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Date 18.10.2010

41

Splice of
circular hollow
section with
intermediate
plate, fillet
weld, root
crack. Analysis
based on
stress in weld
throat. wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm

45
40

16
14

42

Splice of
rectangular
hollow section,
single-sided
butt weld, toe
crack wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm

50
45

20
18

43

Splice of
rectangular
hollow section
with
intermediate
plate, fillet
welds, root
crack wall
thickness > 8
mm wall
thickness < 8
mm

40
36

16
14

44

Weld
connecting web
and flange, loaded by a
concentrated
force in web
plane
perpendicular
to weld. Force
distributed on
116 Of 150

Welds NDT inspected in


order to ensure full root
penetration.

Full penetration butt weld.

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width b = 2Ah
+ 50 mm.
Assessment
according to
no. 411 - 414.
A local bending
due to
eccentric load
should be
considered.

45

Transverse
non-loadcarrying attachment, not
thicker than
main plate Kbutt weld, toe
ground Twosided fillets, toe
ground Fillet
weld(s), as
welded thicker
than main plate

100
100
80
71

36
36
28
25

Grinding parallel to stress


At one sided fillet welds, an
angular misalignment
corresponding to km = 1.2
is already covered

46

Transverse
stiffener welded
on girder web
or flange, not
thicker than
main plate. Kbutt weld, toe
ground Twosided fillets, toe
ground fillet
weld(s): as
welded thicker
than main plate

100
100
80
71

36
36
28
25

For weld ends on web


principle stress to be used

47

Nonloadcarrying
stud as welded

80

28

48

Trapezoidal
stiffener to
deck plate, full
penetration butt
weld,

71

25

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calculated on
basis of
stiffener
thickness, out
of plane
bending

49

Trapezoidal
stiffener to
deck plate, fillet
or partial
penetration
weld, out of
plane bending

50

Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset at
length l l < 50
mm l < 150 mm
l < 300 mm l >
300 mm

51

Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
radius
transition, end
of fillet weld
reinforced and
ground, c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
150 mm

52

Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius) welded
on beam flange
or plate. c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20

118 Of 150

16

Calculation on basis of
stiffener thickness and weld
throat, whichever is smaller

80
71
63
50

28
25
20
18

For gusset near edge: see


525 "flat side gusset" If
attachement thickness <
1/2 of base plat thickness,
then one step higher
allowed (not for welded on
profiles!)

90

32

t = thickness of attachment

25
20

t = thickness of attachment
If attachement thickness <
1/2 of base plat thickness,
then one step higher
allowed (not for welded on
profiles!)

50

71
63

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53

Longitudinal
flat side gusset
welded on
plate edge or
beam flange
edge, with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius). c < 2t2,
max. 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20

50
45

18
16

t = thickness of attachment
For t2 < 0.7 t1, FAT rises
12%

54

Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
radius
transition, end
of fillet weld
reinforced and
ground, c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
150 mm

90

32

t = thickness of attachment

55

Longitudinal
fillet welded
gusset with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius) welded
on beam flange
or plate. c < 2 t,
max 25 mm r >
0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20

71
63

25
20

t = thickness of attachment
If attachement thickness <
1/2 of base plat thickness,
then one step higher
allowed (not for welded on
profiles!)

56

Longitudinal
flat side gusset
welded on
plate edge or
beam flange
edge, with
smooth
transition
(sniped end or
radius). c < 2t2,
max. 25 mm r >

50
45

18
16

t = thickness of attachment
For t2 < 0.7 t1, FAT rises
12%

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0.5 h r < 0.5 h
or n < 20

57

Longitudinally
loaded lap joint
with side fillet
welds Fatigue
of parent metal
Fatigue of weld
(calc. on max.
weld length of
40 times the
throat of the
weld

50
50

18
18

Weld terminations more


than 10 mm from plate
edge. Buckling avoided by
loadin or design!

58

Lap joint
gusset, fillet
welded, nonload-carrying,
with smooth
transition
(sniped end
with n<20 or
radius), welded
to loaded
element c<2At,
but c <= 25 mm
to flat bar to
bulb section to
angle section

63
56
50

22
20
18

t = thickness of gusset
plate

59

Transverse
loaded overlap
joint with fillet
welds. Stress in
plate at weld
toe (toe crack)
Stress in weld
throat (root
crack)

22
12

Stresses to be calculated
using a plate width
equalling the weld length.
For stress in plate,
excenticity to be
considered, as given in
chapters 3.8.2 and 6.3.
Both failure modes have to
be assessed separately.

60

End of long
doubling plate
on I-beam,
welded ends
(based on
stress range in

20
18
16

End zones of single or


multiple welded cover
plates, with or without
frontal welds. If the cover
plate is wider than the
flange, a frontal weld is

120 Of 150

63
36

56
50
45

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flange at weld
toe) tD # 0.8 t
0.8 t < tD # 1.5
t tD > 1.5 t

needed. No undercut at
frontal welds!

61

End of long
doubling plate
on beam,
reinforced
welded ends
ground (based
on stress range
in flange at
weld toe) tD #
0.8 t 0.8 t < tD
# 1.5 t tD > 1.5
t

71
63
56

28
25
22

Grinding parallel to stress


direction.

62

End of
reinforcement
plate on rectangular hollow
section. wall
thickness: t <
25 mm

50

20

No undercut at frontal weld!

63

Reinforcements
welded on with
fillet welds, toe
ground Toe as
welded

80
71

32
25

Grinding in direction of
stress! Analysis based on
modified nominal stress,
however, structural stress
approach recommended.

64

Stiff block
flange, full
penetration
weld

71

25

65

Stiff block
flange, partial
penetration or
fillet weld toe
crack in plate
root crack in
weld throat

63
36

22
12

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66

Flat flange with


> 80% full
penetration butt
welds, modified
nominal stress
in pipe, toe
crack

71

25

67

Flat flange with


fillet welds,
modified
nominal stress
in pipe, toe
crack.

63

22

68

Tubular branch
or pipe
penetrating a
plate, K-butt
welds.

69

Tubular branch
or pipe
penetrating a
plate, fillet
welds. Toe
cracks. Root
cracks
(analysis based
on stress in
weld throat)

70

Nozzle welded
on plate, root
pass removed
by drilling.

71

Nozzle welded
on pipe, root
pass as
welded.

72

Circular hollow
section butt
joint to massive
bar, as welded

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80

71
36

71

63

63

28

If diameter > 50 mm, stress


concentration of cutout has
to be considered
Assessment by structural
hot spot is recommended.

25
12

If diameter > 50 mm, stress


concentration of cutout has
to be considered
Assessment by structural
hot spot is recommended.

25

If diameter > 50 mm, stress


concentration of cutout has
to be considered
Assessment by structural
hot spot is recommended.

22

If diameter > 50 mm, stress


concentration of cutout has
to be considered
Assessment by structural
hot spot is recommended.

22

Root of weld has to


penetrate into the massive
bar in order to avoid a gap
perpenticular to the stress

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direction.

73

Circular hollow
section welded
to component
with single side
butt weld, backing provided.
Root crack.

74

Circular hollow
section welded
to component
single sided
butt weld or
double fillet
welds. Root
crack.

22

Root of weld has to


penetrate into the backing
area in order to avoid a gap
perpenticular to the stress
direction.

50

18

Impairment of inspection of
root cracks by NDT may be
compensated by adequate
safety considerations (see
chapter 5) or by
downgrading down to 2
FAT classes.

75

Circular hollow
section with
welded on disk
K-butt weld, toe
ground Fillet
weld, toe
ground Fillet
welds, as
welded

90
90
71

32
32
25

Non load-carrying weld.

76

Tube-plate
joint, tubes
flattened, butt
weld (Xgroove) Tube
diameter < 200
mm and plate
thickness < 20
mm

71

25

77

Tube-plate
joint, tube
slitted and welded to plate
tube diameter <
200 mm and
plate thickness

63
45

18
14

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< 20 mm tube
diameter > 200
mm or plate
thickness > 20
mm

4.4 Design against brittle fracture


Objective:
The students will be acquainted with the brittle fracture analysis based on linear elastic
fracture mechanics.
Scope:
Fracture toughness
Critical stress intensity
Critical crack size Temperature and material toughness
Overview of calculation methods in a relevant design guidance document, e.g., EN
1993 Eurocode 3-part 1-10: Design of Steel Structures: Selection of materials for
fracture toughness and through thickness properties
Expected result at comprehensive level:
Review theory of fracture mechanics and brittle fracture.

Explain relationship between material fracture toughness and temperature.

Review calculation procedures in a relevant design guidance document.

Compute critical crack size for structural element with typical material properties.

Compute stress intensity factor for a welded connection.

4.4.1. General
Toughness of steel structures is treated exhaustively in design codes, thanks to a long
history of technical events due to factors that degrade materials after shorter or longer is
used. Toughness characterizes the behaviour of the steel structure damaged by mechanical
characteristics apparently not affecting them. For this reason the current presentation aims at
evaluating the behaviour of materials at the request of traction, bending the shock in different
ways, to understand the significance of defects in material harm to the intensity and tension
associated. This problem is highlighted in the context of variable demands, which promotes
germination and growth of cracks.

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4.4.2. Mechanical behaviour under tensile loads


The mechanical behavior of metals is described by their deformation and fracture
characteristics under applied tensile, compressive, or multiaxial stresses. Determination of
this mechanical behavior is influenced by several factors that include metalllurgicall material
variables, test methods, and the nature of the applied stresses. In welded joinings, external
loads are distributed over structurally heterogeneous areas, which include residual tensions.
The basic data on the mechanical properties of a material are obtained from a tension test, in
which a suitably designed specimen is subjected to increasing axialload until it fractures. The
main emphasis is on mechanical behavior during the engineering tension test, which is
wide1y used to provide basic design information on the strength of materials and as an
acceptance test for the specification of materials. In this test procedure, a specimen is
subjected to a continualIy increasing uniaxialload (force), while simultaneous observations
are made of the elongation of the specimen. An engineering stress-strain curve is
constructed from load-elongation measurements (Figure 57). The stress used in this stressstrain curve is the average longitudinal stress in the specimen, obtained by dividing the load
P, by the original specimen cross section area, Ao.

Figure 57 Comparison of engineering and true stree-strain curve

For homogen material, the strain in the engineering stress-strain curve is the average linear
strain, obtained by dividing the elongation of the specimen gauge length, , by its original
length, Lo. Since both the stress and the strain are obtained by dividing the load and
elongation by constant factors, the load-elongation curve will have the same shape as the
engineering stress-strain curve. The two curves are frequently used interchangeably. The
shape of the curve and magnitudes of stress and strain of the material will depend on its
composition, heat treatment, prior history of plastic deformation, and the strain rate,
temperature, and state of stress imposed during testing. The basic parameters used to
describe the stress-strain curve of a metal are the tensile strength, yield strength or yield
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point, percent elongation, and reduction of area. The first two are strength parameters; the
last two indicate ductility.
For welded joints are determined only resistance characteristics. In addition it is possible to
analyze the location and appearance of fracture section.
The general shape of the engineering stress-strain curve requires further explanation.
In the elastic region stress is linearly proportional to strain. When the load exceeds a value
corresponding to the yield strength, the specimen undergoes gross plastic deformation. It is
permanent1y deformed if the load is re1eased to zero. The stress producing continued
plastic deformation increases with increasing plastic strain, i.e., the metal strain-hardens. The
volume of the specimen remains constant during plastic deformation, AL = AaLo, and as the
specimen elongates, it decreases uniformly along the gauge length in cross-section area.
Initially, strain hardening more than compensates for this decrease in area and the
engineering stress (proportional to load P) continues to rise with increasing strain. Eventually
a point is reached where the decrease in specimen cross-sectional area is gre ater than the
increase in deformation load, arising from strain hardening. This condition wilI be reached
first at some point in the specimen that is slightly weaker than the rest. All further plastic
deformation is concentrated in this region, and the specimen begins to neck or thin down
local.
Ductility is a qualitative, subjective property of a material. In general, measurements of
ductility are of interest in two ways:
1. To indicate the extent to which a metal can be deformed without fracture in
metalworking operations such as rolling and extrusion.
2. An indication to the designer, in a general way, of the ability of the metal to flow
plastically before fracture. A high ductility indicates that the material is likely to deform
locally without fracture.
The slope of the initial linear portion of the stress-strain curve is the modulus of elasticity, or
the Young' s modulus. The modulus of elasticity is a measure of stiffness of the material, for
computing deflections of beams and other members. However, an increase in temperature
decreases the modulus of elasticity.
The ability of a material to absorb energy when deformed elasticalIy and to retuffi it when
unloaded is called resilience. This is usually measured by the modulus of resilience, which is
the strain energy per unit volume required to stress the material from zero stress to yield
stress So.
The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy in the plastic range. The ability to
withstand occasional stresses above yield stress without fracturing is particularly desirable in
parts such are freight-car couplings, gears, chains, and crane hooks. Toughness is a
commonly used concept which is difficult to pin down and define. One way of looking at
toughness is to consider that it is the total area under the stresssstrain curve.
The engineering stress-strain curve for homogen materials, does not give a true indication of
deformation characteristics of a metal because it is based entirely on original dimensions of
the specimen, and these dimensions change continuously during the test. Also, ductile metal
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pulled in tension becomes unstable and necks down during the course of the test. Since the
cross-section area of the specimen decreases rapidly at this stage in the test, the load
required to continue deformation falls off. The average stress based on original are a
decreases likewise, and this produces the fall-off in the stress-strain curve beyond the point
of maximum load. Actually, the metal continues to strain-harden all the way up to fracture, so
that stress required to produce further deformation should also increase. If true stress is
used, based on the actual cross-section area of the specimen, it is found that the stressstrain curve increases continuously up to fracture. If the strain is measured also
instantaneously, the curve which is obtained is known as a true-stress-true-strain curve, or a
flow curve. Any point on the flow curve can be considered as the yield stress for a metal
strained in tension by the amount shown off the curve. Thus, if the load is removed at this
point and then reapplied, the material will behave elastically throughout the entire range of
reloading.

4.4.3. Impact testing


Three basic factors contribute to a brittle-cleavage type of fracture:

a triaxial state of stress,

a low temperature,

a high strain rate or rapid rate of loading.

All three of these factors do not have to be present at the same time to produce brittle
fracture. A triaxial state of stress, such existing at a notch, and low temperature are
responsible for most service failures of the brittle type. However, since these effects are
accentuated at a high rate of loading, many types of impact tests have been used to
determine the susceptibility of materials to brittle behaviour. Steels which have identical
properties when tested in tension or tors ion at slow strain rates can show pronounced
differences in their tendency for brittle frac ture when tested in a notched-impact test.
The situation becomes more complex when heterogeneous metallurgical materials, as if
welded joints. Since the ship failures occurred primarily in structures of welded construction,
it was considered for a time that this method of fabrication was not suitable for service where
brittle fracture might be encountered. A great deal of research has since demonstrated that
welding, per se, is not inferior in this respect to other types of construction. However, strict
quality control is needed to prevent weld defects which can act as stress raisers or notches.
New electrodes have been developed for a weld with better properties than the mild-steel
plate. The design of a welded structure is more critical than the design of an equivalent
riveted structure. It is important to eliminate stress raisers and reduce rigidity.

A. Notched-bar impact tests


Various types of notched-bar impact tests are used to determine the tendency of a material
to behave in a brittle manner. The results obtained from notched-bar tests are not convenient
for design, since it is not possible to measure the components of the triaxial stress condition
at the notch. Furthermore, there is no general agreement on the interpretation or significance
of results obtained with this type of test. Nowadays, Charpy specimen is supported as a
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beam in a horizontal position and loaded behind the notch by the impact of a heavy swinging
pendulum (Figure 58.) with the high impact velocity.

Figure 58 Dimensions of Charpy V notch standard specimen

Plastic constraint at the notch produces a triaxial state of stress. The maximum plastic stress
concentration is given by:

K = [1 + (/2) (/2)]
(4.4.1)
where is the included flank angle of the notch.
The relative values of the three principal stresses depend strongly on the dimensions of the
bar and the details of the notch. The standard Charpy V specimen is thick enough to ensure
a high degree of planc-strain and triaxiality across almost all of the notched cross section,
and provides a severe condition for brittle fracture. Therefore, nonstandard specimens
should be used with great care. The principal measurement from the impact test is the
energy absorbed in fracturing the specimen. After breaking the test bar, the pendulum
rebounds to a height which decreases as the energy absorbed in fracture increases.
The energy absorbed for fracture, in joules (J), of ten designated KV, is read directly from a
calibrated dial on the impact tester. Sometimes impact test results are expressed ut energy
absorbed per unit cross-sectional area of the specimen (notch or impact toughness).
Fracture energy measured by the Charpy test is only a relative energy and cannot be use,
direct1y in design equations. Another common result obtained from the Charpy test is based
on examination of the fracture surface. The fracture is fibrous (shear fracture) granular
(cleavage fracture), or a mixture of both. These different modes of failure are readily
distinguishable even without magnification. The flat facets of cleavage fracture provide a high
reflectivity and bright appearance, while the dimpled surface of a ductile fibrous fracture
provides a lightabsorptive surface and dull appearance. Usually an estimate is made of the
percentage of the fracture surface that is cleavage (or fibrous) fracture.

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Figure 59 shows how the fracture appearance of steel changes from 100 percent flat
cleavage (Ieft) to 100 percent fibrous fracture (right) as the test temperature is increased.
The fibrous fracture appears first around the outer surface of the specimen (shear lip) where
the triaxial constraint is the least.
Gradual decrease in the granular region and increase in lateral contraction at the notch with
increasing temperature is visible. Sometimes in the Charpy test the ductility is measured as
indicated by the percent contraction of the specimen at the notch.
The notched-bar impact test is most meaningful when conducted over a range of
temperature so that the temperature for ductile-to-brittle transition can be determined (Figure
60). The energy absorbed decreases with decreasing temperature but for most cases the
decrease is not sharp at a certain temperature, and it is difficult to determine accurately the
transition temperature. In selecting a material from the standpoint of impact toughness or
tendency to brittle failure, the important factor is the transition temperature. Steel A, on
Figure 60.a, shows higher impact toughness at room temperature; yet its transition
temperature is higher than that of steel B. The material with the lowest transition temperature
is to be preferred. Notched-bar impact tests are subject to considerable scatter, particularly in
the region of the transition temperature.

5 oC

38 oC

100 oC

Figure 59 Fracture surfaces of Charpy specimens of mild steel, tested at different temperatures

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Figure 60 Transition-temperature curves for a) two steels, b) transition temperature criterion

Most of this scatter is due to local variations in the properties of the steel, but also notch
shape and depth are critical variables, which can not be perfectly reproduced. Proper
placement of the specimen in the anvil is also important.
The principal advantage of the Charpy V -notch impact test is that can readily be carried out
over a range of subambient temperatures. Moreover, the design of the test specimen is well
suited for measuring differences in notch toughness in low-strength materials such as
structural steels. The test is used for comparing the influence of alloy studies and heat
treatment on notch toughness. It frequently is used for quality control and material
acceptance. By collecting and testing samples of welded joints areas, obtain information
about tenacity is located.
The major difficulty is that the results of the Charpy test are not directly applicable in design.

B. Instrumented Charpy test


The conventional Charpy test measures the total energy absorbed in fracturing the
specimen. Additional information can be obtained if the impact tester is instrumented to
provide a load-time history of the specimen during the test. It is possible to determine the
energy required for initiating fracture (crack) and the energy required for propagating
fracture. It also yields information ob the load for general yielding, the maximum load and the
fracture load - information very important for designer. The area under diagram is
proportional to absorbed energy.
For same absorbed energy of two different steels tested at different temperatures, the ratio
between energies for crack initiation and propagation can be different at low temperatures,
although is the same at room temperature. Such a behavior can help as an additional
criterion of material weldability. It can be noticed, without a deep analysis, that higher crack
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propogation energy is convenient for welded joint, having in mind that crack-like defects
cannot be excluded in welded structures.
Because the root of the notch in a Charpy specimen is not as sharp as in fracture mechanics
tests with precracked specimens, there has been a trend toward using standard Charpy
specimens which are precracked by the introduction of a fatigue crack at the tip of the V
notch. These precracked specimens have been used in the instrumented Charpy test to
measure dynamic fracture toughness values (KId).
The significance of impact testing is illustrated by test results performed for two high strength
steels (table 29, Figure 61).

Table 29 Chemical composition and tensile characteristics of tested steels

Steel

Chemical composition (%)


C

Si

Mn

Cr

Tensile characteristics
Ni

Mo

Al

Yield
strength

Ultimate
tensile

Elon-

Reductin

gation

of cross

strength
YS

UTS

[MPa]

[MPa]

section
A

area

[%]

Z [%]

0,1

0,27

0,35

1,11

2,65

0,26

0,1

0,05

780

825

18,0

68,0

0,3

0,28

0,73

2,05

1,87

0,30

940

1015

16,7

58,2

Figure 61 Instrumented impact test resu1ts obtained with Charpy V specimen for steels A and B

L-notch in cross-rolling direction; C-notch in rolling direction. 1-crack initiation energy, 2-crack
propagation energy, 3-total energy.

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The difference in strength and ductility of these steels is not expressed in the same level as
in the case with impact toughness properties. Steel A, with low carbon content, exhibited
high impact energy at low temperatures (down to - 100 C) for crack propagation and also
crack initiation. However, there a significant effect of rolling direction in that case, which
should be taken into account. For steel B, with 0.3% C, the impact energy is low, and nil
ductility transition temperature can be determined (between
-40C and - 60C).
Typical curve obtained on instrumented Charpy pendulum is presented in Figure 62. In this
Figure all oscillations of Charpy specimen during testing on instrumented pendulum
indicated.

Figure 62 Typical load vs. time record showing fracture phases of Charpy specimen

C. High rate impact test


Probably the chief deficiency of the Charpy impact test is that the small specimen is not
always a realistic model of the actual situation. Not only does the small specimen lead to
considerable scatter, but a specimen with thickness of 10 mm cannot provide the same
constraint as would be found in a structure with much greater thickness.
At a particular service temperature the standard Charpy specimen shows a high shelf
energy, while actually the same material in a thick-section structure has low toughness at the
same temperature. The most logical approach to this problem is the development of tests
that are capable of handling specimens of extended thickness (e.g. explosion bulge test,
drop weight test).

C1. Explosion bulge test


The basic need for large specimens resulted from the inability to produce fracture in small
laboratory specimens at stresses below gross yield stress, whereas brittle fractures in ship
structures occur at service temperatures at elastic stress levels, as experieneed with Liberty
ships.

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Die support (rig) with the base allows bulging of properly positioned test plate (specimen).
Cast explosive charge of specified mass and power should be applied at properly determined
distance, obtained by cardboard box over the test plate. High rate of explosion loading
contributes to brittle fracture of test plate. Tests can be carried out over a range of
temperatures and then the appearance of the fracture determines the transition temperatures
(Figure 63). Below the nil-ductility-transition (NDT) temperature the fracture is a flat (elastic)
fracture running completely to the edges of the test plate. Above the nil ductility temperaature
a plastic bulge forms in the center of the plate, but the fracture is still a flat elastic fracture out
to the plate edge. At a still higher temperature the fracture does not propagate outside of the
bulged region. The temperature at which elastic fracture no longer propagates to the edge of
the plate is called the fracture transition elastic (FTE). The FTE marks the highest
temperature of fracture propagation by purely elastic stresses. At yet higher temperature the
extensive plasticity results in a helmet-type bulge. The temperature above which this fully
ductile tearing occurs is the fracture transition plastic (FTP).
The explosion bulge test makes use of a large plate specimen that incorporates novel
features in its preparation and testing procedure. However, the application of explosion in the
test introduced inconveniences and a new loading type had been proposed.
As an illustration, the results of explosion bulge test with the plates (BM) of steels A aud B
(table 4.4.1) are presented in Figure 64. After each shot, the reduction of thickness R and
bulge extension B were measured. Again the effect of rolling direction of stee1 A is
significant, and steel B exhibited linear behaviour.

Figure 63 Fracture appearance vs. temperature for explosion-crack-starter

test NDT - Nil Ductility Transition; FTE-Fracture Transition Elastic; FTP-Fracture Transition
Plastic

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Figure 64 Typical results of explosion bulge test for steels A and B

The graphs show reduction of thickness R and bulge development B vs. number of
explosions L-notch in hard bead in cross rolling direction; C-notch in rolling direction.

C2. Drop weight test. Experience gathered with the explosion bulge test in NRL has led to
the development of drop-weight test (DWT), in order to avoid the explosion. The DWT energy
is obtained from potential energy of falling mass (weight). Due to significant weight of the tup
and height of device, more energy can be obtained compared to Charpy pendulum.
The drop weight test was developed specifically for the determination of the NDT
temperature on full thickness plates. The simplicity of the drop-weight specimen, the
apparatus for applying load and the interpretation of results, contributed to wide use of this
test. The stress applied to the specimen during the impact loading is limited to the yield point
by a stopping block attached to the anvil below the specimen (Figure 65). This is the practical
device for evaluating the ability of the steel to withstand yie1d point loading in the presence
of a small flaw.

Figure 65 Drop weight test conFigureation the anvil stop.

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C3. Robertson crack-arrest test


This method provides a relationnship between the stress level and the ability of the material
to arrest a rapidly propagating crack (Figure 66). A uniform elastic tensile stress is applied to
a plate specimen 150 mm wide. A rapid brittle fracture is initiated by impact loading at a
starter crack on the cold side of the specimen. The crack propagates up a temperature
gradient toward the hot side. The point across the specimen width at which the temperature
is high enough to give sufficient ductility to blunt the crack is called the crack-arrest
temperature (CAT). In a test alternative form, the temperature across the specimen is
constant and tests are carried out with successive specimens at increasing temperature until
the CAT is reached. Crack-arrest tests on mild steel below NDT show that the CAT is
independent of temperature but the stress level for crack arrest is very low. If the stress is
greater than 35 to 55 MPa, brittle fracture will occur. Obviously, this stress level is too low for
practical engineering design, so that steels cannot be used below the NDT. While crackarrest tests are among the most quantitative ofbrittle fracture tests, they are not used
extensively due to required large testing machines and large specimens.

C4. Fracture analysis diagram


Nil-ductility transition temperature as determined by the drop weight test is regarded the most
important reference point on the fracture analysis diagram because of the simplicity with
which it is determined, and because a steel is characterized by a single NDT. Fracture
analysis system introduces considerable promise for guiding engineering design and
selection of steel for fracture-safe weldments and structures. More detailed consideration is
necessary before use of transition points by the fracture analysis diagram, through reference
to basic properties of the tension test. The sub-ambient temperature dependences of yield
strength o and ultimate tensile strength u in a metal (Figure 69).
For an unnotched specimen, the material is ductile until a very low temperaature, point A,
where o= u. Point A represents the NDT temperature for a flaw-free material. The curve
BCD represents the fracture strength of a specimen with a small flaw (a<0.1 mm). The
temperature corresponding to point C is the highest temperature where the fracture strength
f u. Point C represents the NDT for a specimen with a small crack or flaw. The presence
of a small flaw raises the NDT of a steel by about 90C.
Increasing the flaw size decreases the fracture stress curve, as in curve EF, until with
increasing flaw size a limiting curve of fracture stress HJKL is reached. Below the NDT, the
limiting safe stress is 35 to 55 MPa. Above NDT the stress required for unstable propagation
of a long flaw (JKL) rises sharply with increasing temperature. This is the crack-arrest
temperature curve (CAT). The CAT defines the highest temperature at which unstable crack
propagation can occur at any stress level. Fracture will not occur for any point to the right of
the CAT curve. The temperature above which elastic stresses cannot propagate a crack is
the fracture transition elastic (FTE). This is defined by the tempeerature when the CAT curve
crosses the yield-strength curve (point K). The fracture transition plastic (FTP) is the
temperature where the CAT curve crosses the tensile estrength curve (point L). Above this
temperature the material behaves as if it was flaw-free, for any crack, no matter how large,
cannot propagate as an unstable fracture.

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Figure 66 Robertson crack-arrest test

Date 18.10.2010

Figure 67 Temperature dependence of yield strength


(o), tensile strength (u)

Data obtained from the DWT and other large-scale fracture tests have been assembled into
a useful design procedure called the fracture analysis diagram (FAD). The NDT as
determined by the DWT provides a key data point to start construction of the fracture
analysis diagram and transition temperature features of steel (Figure 4.4.12).

Figure 68 Fracture-analysis diagram showing influence of various initial flaw sizes

For mild steel below NDT the CAT curve is flat. A stress level in excess of 35 to 55 MPa
causes brittle fracture, regardless of the size of the initial flaw. Extensive correlation between
NDT and Robertson CAT tests for a variety of structural steels has shown that the CAT curve
bears a fixed relationship to the NDT temperature. Thus, the NDT -1C provides a
conservative estimate of the CAT curve at stress of o /2, NDT + 15C provides an estimate
ofthe CAT at = o, and the FTE and NDT +50C provides an estimate of the FTP. So, once
NDT for structural steels is determined, the entire scope of the CAT curve can be established
well enough for engineering design. The curve traced out represents the worse possible case
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for large flaws in excess of 600 mrn. One can imagine a spectrum of curves translated
upward and to the left for smaller, less severe flaws. Correlation with service failures and
other tests has allowed the approximate determination of curves for a row of initial flaw sizes.
Thus, the FAD provides a generalized relationship of flaw size, stress, and temperaature for
low-carbon structural steels of the type used in ship construction. The fracture analysis
diagram can be used in several ways for design (Figure 69). One simple approach would be
to use the FAD to select a steel which had an FTE that was lower than the lowest expected
service temperature. With this criterion the worst expected flaw would not propagate so long
as the stress remained elastic. Since the assumption of elastic behaviour is basic in
structural design, this design philosophy would be tantamount to being able ta ignore the
presence of flaws and brittle fracture. However, this procedure may prove to be too
expensive and overconservative. A slightly less conservative design against brittle fracture,
but still a practical approach, would be to design on the basis of an allowable stress level not
exceeding o/2. From Figure is visible that any crack will not propagate under this stress so
long as the temperature is not below NDT -1C.
The dynamic tear test (DT) can also be used to construct the FAD (Figure 70), using NDT as
base (dashed line). Below the NDT the fracture is brittle and has aflat, featureless surface
devoid of any shear lips. At temperatures above NDT there is a sharp rise in energy for
fracture and the fracture surfaces begin to develop shear lips. The shear lips become
progressively more prominent as the temperature is increased to the FTE. Above FTE the
fracture is ductile, void coalescence-type fracture. The fracture surface is a fibrous slant
fracture. The upper shelf of energy represents the FTP. The lower half of the DT energy
curve traces the temperature course of the CAT curve from NDT to FTE.

Figure 69 Fracture analysis diagram for steel A

Figure 70 Application of DT test result for fracture analysis

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4.4.3. Fatigue testing


Fatigue is the progressive, localized, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a
material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum
values less than (and of ten much less than) the static yield strength of the material. This
process of fatigue failure can be divided into different stages, which, from the standpoint of
metallurgical processes, can be divided into five stages, defined by the characterization of
the underlying fatigue damage of a material (Figure 71):

cyclic plastic deformation prior to fatigue crack initiation,

initiation of one or more microcracks,

propagation or coalescence of microcracks to form one or more microcracks,

propagation of one or more macrocracks,

final failure.

Figure 71 Different phases of fatigue life and relevant factors

It also clearly defines the requirement of plastic deformation for the onset of crack initiation.
In general, three simultaneous conditions are required for the occurrence of fatigue damage:

cyclic stress,

tensile stress,

plastic strain.

If any one of these three conditions is not present, a fatigue crack will not initiate and
propagate. The plastic strain resulting from cyclic stress initiates the crack, and the tensile
stress (which may be localized tensile stresses caused by compressive loads) promotes
crack propagation.
The stages of fatigue can also be defined in more general terms from the perspective of
mechanical behavior of crack growth. For example, another division of the fatigue process is
defined as follows:
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nucleation (initiation of fatigue cracks),

structurally dependent crack growth rates (often called the "short crack" or "small
crack" phase),

crack growth rates that can be characterized by either linear elastic fracture
mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, or fully plastic fracture mechanics,

final instability.

This definition of the stages in the fatigue process is roughly equivalent to the first, except
that crack propagation is expressed in terms of crack growth rates, and nucleation is meant
to include all processes leading up to crack initiation. In general, the fatigue process consists
of a crack initiation and a crack propagation phase. There is, however, no general agreement
when (or at what crack size) the crack initiation process ends, and when the crack growth
process begins. Nonetheless, the separation of the fatigue process into initiation and
propagation phases has been an important and useful advance in engineering. Another
important engineering advance is the transfer of the multistage fatigue process from the field
to the laboratory. In order to study, explain, and qualify component designs, or to conduct
failure analyses, a key engineering step is often the simulation of the problem in the
laboratory. Any simulation is, of course, a compromise of what is practical to quantify, but the
study of the multistage fatigue process has been greatly advanced by the combined methods
of strain-control testing and the development fracture mechanics of fatigue crack growth
rates. This combined approach (Figure 72) is a key advance that allows better understanding
and simulation of both crack nucleation in regions of localized strain and the subsequent
crack growth mechanisms outside the plastic zone. This integration of fatigue and fracture
mechanics has had important implications in many industrial applications for mechanical and
materials engineering.

Figure 72 Laboratory simulation of the multistage fatigue process.

The three basic types of fatigue properties, are in table 30 presented.


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Table 30 The three basic types of fatigue properties

Design philosophy

Design methodology

Principal testing data desctription

Safe-life, infinite-life

Stress-life

S-N

Safe-life, finite-life

Strain-life

-N

Damage tolerant

Fracture mechanics

da/dN-K

The S-N and -N techniques are usually appropriate for situations where a component or
structure can be considered a continuum (i.e., those meeting the "no cracks" assummption).
In the event of a crack-like discontinuity, the S-N or -N methods (except through residuallife
testing) offer little or quantitative basis for assessment of fatigue life.
Another limitation of the S-N and -N methods is the inability of the controlling quantities to
make sense of the presence of a crack. A brief review of basic elasticity calculations shows
that both stress and strain become astronomical at a discontinuity such as a crack, far
exceeding any recognized property levels that might offer some sort of limitation. Even
invoking plasticity still leaves inordinately large numbers or, conversely, extremely low
tolerable loads.
The solution to this situation is the characterization and quantification of the stress field at the
crack tip in terms of stress intensity in linear elastic fracture mechanics. It recognizes the
singularity of stress at the tip and provides a tractable controlling quantity and measurable
material property. The use of the stress intensity as a controlling quantity for crack extension
under cyclic loading thus enhances the engineering analysis of the fatigue process.

4.4.4. Fracture mechanics approach


A. General
The concepts of fracture mechanics are basic ideas for developing methods of predicting the
load-carrying capabilities of structures and components containing cracks. Though virtualIy
alI design and standard specifications require the definition of tensile properties for a
material, these data are only partly indicative of inherent mechanical resistance to failure in
service. Except for those situations where gross yielding or highly ductile fracture represents
limiting failure conditions, tensile strength and yield strength are often insufficient
requirements for design of failure-resistant structures. Brittle fracture can also occur if
toughness, resistance to corosion, stress corosion, or fatigue resistance is reduced too much
in achieving high strength.
Fracture of structural and equipment components as a result of cyclic loading has long been
a major design problem and the subject of numerous investigations. Although a considerable
amount of fatigue data are available, the majority have been concemed with the nominal
stress required to cause failure in a given number of cycles-namely, S-N curves. Usually,
such data are obtained by testing smooth specimens which, although of some qualitative use
for guiding material selection, are subject to limitations caused primarily by the failure to
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adequately distinguish between fatigue-crack-initiation life and fatigue-crack-propagation life


(Figure 73).
The existence of surface irregularities and crack type imperfections reduces and may
eliminate the crack-initiation portion of the fatigue life of the component. Fracture emechanics
methodology offers considerable promise for improved understanding of the initiation and
propagation of fatigue cracks and problem resolution in designing to prevent failures by
fatigue.

Figure 73 Different scenarios for fatigue crack growth

Figure 74 Schematic illustration of variation of fatigue-crack -growth rate, da/dN, with alternating stress
intensity, K, in steels, showing regions of primary crack-growth mechanisms.

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Initiation of fatigue cracks in structural and equipment components occurs in regions of


stress concentrations, such as notches, as a result of gradients and fluctuation stresses. The
material element at the tip of a notch in a cyclically loaded component is subjected to the
maximum stress range, max.
Consequently, this material element is most susceptible to fatigue damage and is, in general,
the origin of fatigue-crack initiation. It can be shown that, for sharp notches, the maximumstress range on this element can be related to the stress intensity-factor range, KI, as
follows:

max =(2/ ). (KI / ) = (kt)

(4.4.2)

where is the notch-tip radius, is the range of applied nominal stress, and kt is stressconcentration factor.
Extensive data have shown that the fatigue-crack-propagation behaviour of metals is
controlled primarily by the stress intensity factor range, KI. The fatigue-crack propagation
behaviour of metals can be divided into regions (Figure 74):
- the behaviour in region I exhibits a fatigue-crack propagation threshold, Kth, wich
corresponds to the stress-intensity-factor range, below which cracks do not propagate under
cyclic-stress fluctuations.
- the behaviour in region II represents the fatigue-crack-propagation behaviour above Kth,
which can be represented by the power-law relationship:

da/dN = A (Kth)n

(4.4.3)

Extensive fatigue crack growth rate data for various steels show that the primary parameter
affecting growth rate in region II is the stress intensity factor range, and that the mechanical
and metallurgical properties of these steels have negligible effects on the fatigue crack
growth rate in a room temperature air environment. The stress ratio and mean stress have
negligible effects on the rate of crack growth in region II. Also, the frequency of cyclic loading
and the wave form (sinusoidal, triangular, square, or trapezoidal) do not affect the rate of
crack propagation per cycle of load for steels in benign environments. The acceleration of
fatigue-crack-growth rates that determines the transition from region II to region III appears to
be caused by the superposition of a brittle or a ductile-tearing mechanism onto the
mechanism of cyclic subcritical crack extension, which leaves fatigue striations on the
fracture surface. These mechanisms occur when the strain at the tip of the crack reaches a
critical value. Thus, the fatigue-rate transition from region II to region III depends on the
maximum stress-intensity factor, on the stress ratio, and on the fracture properties ofthe
material.
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The fracture mechanics approach is based on a mathematical description of the


characteristic stress field that surrounds any crack in a loaded body. When the region of
plastic deformation around a crack is small compared to the size of the crack (as is of ten
true for large structures and high-strength materials), the magnitude of the stress field around
the crack is related to the stress-intensity factor, K, with:

K=(a).Y(a/W)

(4.4.4)

where: is remotely applied stress, a - characteristic flaw size dimension, Y - geometry


factor that depends on the ratio of the crack length a, to the width W, determined from linear
elastic stress analysis.
The stress-intensity factor K, thus represents a single parameter that includes both the effect
of the stress applied to a sample and the effect of a crack of a given size in a sample. The
stress-intensity factor can have a simple relation to applied stress and crack length, or the
relation can involve complex geometry fac tors for complex loading, various conFigureations
of real structural components, or variations in crack shapes.
These concepts provide a basis for defining a critical stress-intensity factor (Kc) for the onset
of crack growth, as a material property independent of specimen size and geometry for many
conditions of loading and environment. In general, when the specimen thickness and theinplane dimensions near the crack are large enough relative to the size of the plastic zone,
then the value of K at which growth begins is a constant and, generally, minimum value
called the plane-strain fracture toughness factor, KIc, of the material. The parameter KIc is a
true material property in the same sense as is the yield strength of a material. The value of
KIc determined for a given material is unaffected by specimen dimensions or type of loading,
provided that the specimen dimensions are large enough relative to the plastic zone to
ensure plane-strain conditions around the crack tip (strain is zero in the through-thickness or
z-direction). Therefore, plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, is particularly pertinent in
materials selection because, unlike other measures of toughness, it is independent of
specimen configuration.
Whether the fracture is ductile or brittle does not directly influence the deformation process
that a component or specimen might undergo during the measurement of toughness. The
deformation process is generally described as being linear-elastic or nonlinear. This
determines which parameter is used in the fracture toughness test characterization. All
loading begins as linear-elastic. For this, the primary fracture parameter is the well-known
crack-tip stress-intensity factor, K.
If the toughness is relatively high, the loading may progress from linear-elastic to nonlinear
during the toughness measurement, and a nonlinear parameter is needed. The nonlinear
parameters that are most often used in toughness testing are the J-integral, labeled J, and
the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), labeled . Because all loading starts as linearelastic, the nonlinear parameters are all written as a sum of a linear component and a
nonlinear component.

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The test methods covered include linear-elastic and nonlinear loading, slow and rapid
loading, crack initiation, and crack arrest. The development of the test methods followed a
chronological pattern; that is, a standard was written for a particular technology soon after
that technology was developed. Standards written in this manner tend to become exclusive
to a particular procedure or parameter. Because most fracture toughness tests use the same
specimens and procedures, this exclusive nature of each new standard did not allow much
flexibility in the determination of a fracture toughness value.

B. Linear-elastic fracture toughness testing


Fracture mechanics and fracture toughness testing began with a strictly linear-elastic
methodology using the crack-tip stress-intensity factor, K. The linear-elastic methods of frac
ture toughness testing are used to measure a single point fracture toughness value. For
fracture by a brittle mechanism, this is no problem. Fracture occurs at a distinct point, and
the fracture toughness measurement is taken as a value of the fracture parameter at that
point. For fracture by a ductile mechanism, the fracture is a process, and the fracture
toughness measurement is an R-curve. To get a single value for this fracture toughness, a
point on the R-curve must be chosen. This usually involves a construction procedure.
The first fracture toughness test that was written as a standard was the KIc test method,
ASTM E 399 or BS 5447. This test measures fracture toughness that develops under
predominantly linear-elastic loading with the crack-tip region subjected to near strain
constraint conditions through the thickness. The test was developed for essentially ductile
fracture conditions, but can also be used for brittle fracture. As a ductile fracture test, a single
point to define the fracture toughness is desired. To accomplish this, a point where the
ductile crack extension equals 2% of the original crack length is identified. This criterion is
illustrated schematically with a K based R curve (Figure 75). This criterion gives a somewhat
size-dependent measurement, and so validity criteria are chosen to minimize the size effects
as well as to restrict the loading to essentialIy the linear-elastic regime. In this way, the KIc
test can serve as a model for the other discussions.
The first element of the test is the selection of a test specimen. Five different specimen
geometries are recommended. These are the single edge-notched bend specimen, SE(B),
compact tension specimen, C(T), arc-shaped specimen, A(T), disk-shaped compact
specimen, DC(T), and the arc-shaped bend specimen, A(B). Many of these specimen
geometries are used in the other standards as well. The SE(B) and C(T) specimens are
traditional fracture toughness specimens used in every fracture toughness test method. The
other three are special geometries that represent structural component forms. Most fracture
toughness tests are conducted with either the edge-notched bend or compact specimens.
The choice between the bend and compact tension specimen is based on:

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Figure 75 Schematic of K-based crack resistance, R curve with position of KIc

the amount of material available (the bend takes more),

machining capabilities (the compact has more detail and costs more to machine),

the loading equipment available for testing.

Specimens for the KIc test must be precracked in fatigue before testing. This means that a
sharp crack is developed at the end of a notch by repeated loading and unloading of the
specimen, that is, fatigue loading.

C. Nonlinear fracture toughness testing


Linear-elastic parameters are used to measure fracture toughness for relatively low
toughness materials, which fracture under or near the linear-loading portion of the test. For
many materials used in structures, it is desirable to have high toughness, a value at least
high enough so that the structure would not reach fracture toughness before signifiicant
yielding occurs. For these materials, it is necessary to use the nonlinear fracture parameters
to measure fracture toughness properties. The two leading nonlinear fracture parameters are
J and . For many of the nonlinear fracture toughness measurements, the fracture mode is a
ductile one. In this case the fracture toughness is measured by an R curve, that is, a plot of
the fracture-characterizing parameter as a function of the ductile crack advance. The
evaluation of R -curve toughness requires three measurements during the test: load,
displacement, and crack length. In the standards, the crack length has been measured
visually and the fracture surface by an elastic unloading compliance method that uses the
elastic properties of the specimen geometry to evaluate crack length. Methods that have also
been used are an electric al potential drop method and a key curve, or normalization,
method. The measured values are:

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crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) : the crack displacement due to elastic and
plastic deformation at variously defined locations near the original (prior to an
application of load) crack tip.

J-integral, J: a mathematical expression, a line or surface integral that encloses the


crack front from one crack surface to the other, used to characterize the local stressstrain field around the crack front.

4.4.5. New standards for fracture mechanics testing of metallic materials


The development of standard fracture toughness test methods is present a permanent
problem. They are the common test method, a new fracture toughness standard that
combines most of the standard test methods into a single standard, and the transition
fracture toughness standard. Corresponding standard for testing of weldments is still being
developed.
a) Common fracture toughness test method. Because the JJc and J-R curve test
standards are similar in many respects, they have been combined into a single test
standard, ASTM E 1820. This standard method also allows a measurementof fracture
toughness using the linear elastic parameter, K, and the nonlinear parameters, J and
. The idea of a common method is that most of the fracture toughness tests use the
same specimens, instrumentation, and test procedures. The way individual methods
were written in the past allows for the likelihood that a test can produce an invalid or
unqualified result with no way to use the analysis procedure of another test method to
try to obtain an acceptable result. The common method combines all measurements
of fracture toughness into a single standard instead of many specialized standards.
Therefore, after the test has been completed, the behavior of the material can dictate
the nature of the analysis used, and a satisfactory fracture toughness result can be
achieved for most tests. The analysis can use a linear elastic or an elastic-plastic
parameter; it can use a single point fracture measurement or an R-curve toughness
measurement.
b) Transition fracture toughness testing for ferritic steels has long been a problem. The
fracture behavior is usualIy brittle sometimes after an initial period of ductile crack
extension. The toughness values show extensive scatter and size dependency that
cause difficulty in the characterization of toughness for the evaluation of structures.
The scatter and size dependency has been attributed to statistical influences and
constraint differences. Characterization of the toughness relies mainly on the
statistical handling of the data. Test method ASTM E 1921 has been deve1oped
recently to handle the problems of transition fracture toughness testing. The
specimens, fixtures, instrumentation, test procedures, and calculation of toughness
parameters folIow existing standards, for example, ASTM E 1820. The evaluations of
the statistical aspects are handled with weakest-link weibull statistical distribution.
In final, without mechanical testing, there is no true structural integrity. In many procedures of
structural integrity assessment, precise evaluation of mechanical properties, especially
tensile properties, is of crucial importance. This is even more pronounced in the case of
weldment integrity assessment because of its heterogeneity.
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Although the conservative approach can accept the lowest strength as the relevant
parameter for weldment integrity assessment (e.g. if FAD is applied), in the case of more
precise analysis it is necessary to evaluate strength properties for alI weldment regions with
different microstructure, either directly, using tensile microspecimens, or indirectly, e.g. by
measuring the microhardness. One should notice, that even more sophisticated integrity
procedures like J-R vs Crack Driving Force analysis, strongly depend on tensile properties,
i.e. flow strength.
Toughness is often used in structural integrity assessment procedures, e.g. in Fracture
Analysis Diagrammes (FAD), at least indirectly, as the nil ductility temperature (NDT). It is
well known that NDT temperature is often significantly different for different microstructures in
a weldment, indicating once again the need for precise evaluation of a mechanical property
in order to get the reliable structural integrity estimate of a material and weldment.
Present damage tolerant design philosophy doesn't address issue about flaw existence.
Moreover, it claims that there is no component and structure without flaws, which shift
fracture mechanic design and testing methodology on a new level, lead to real and
comprehensive structural integrity.

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List of figures
Figure 1 Classification of electric arc welded joints _______________________________________________________________ 8
Figure 2 Components of single sided joint, double sided joint, respectively _____________________________________14
Figure 3 Types of welded joints ___________________________________________________________________________________17
Figure 4 Types of welded joints on technological equipment ____________________________________________________22
Figure 5 The overview of engineering properties of materials. __________________________________________________24
Figure 6 Setting out lines __________________________________________________________________________________________28
Figure 7 Change of the bearing capacity of weld with defect area. _____________________________________________31
Figure 8 Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld ___________________________________________________________33
Figure 9 Effective penetration of T-butt welds. ___________________________________________________________________36
Figure 10 Calculation of the weld forces for intermittent welds _________________________________________________37
Figure 11 Throat thickness of a fillet weld. _______________________________________________________________________38
Figure 12 Throat thickness of a deep penetration fillet weld. ___________________________________________________39
Figure 13 Effective throat thickness of flare groove welds in solid sections. ____________________________________39
Figure 14 Effective width of an unstiffened T joint _____________________________________________________________40
Figure 15 Local eccentricity _______________________________________________________________________________________41
Figure 16 Modified or local nominal stress _______________________________________________________________________44
Figure 17 Notch stress and structural stress _____________________________________________________________________44
Figure 18 Geometric elements of intermittent fillet weld ________________________________________________________47
Figure 19 The stress distribution over the plate thickness. ______________________________________________________50
Figure 20 Nominal stress in a beam-like component_____________________________________________________________51
Figure 21 Examples of macrogeometric effects __________________________________________________________________51
Figure 22 Modified (local) nominal stress near concentrated loads ____________________________________________52
Figure 23 Axial and angular misalignment _______________________________________________________________________52
Figure 24 Structural details and structural stress _______________________________________________________________53
Figure 25 Definition of structural hot spot stress ________________________________________________________________54
Figure 26 Various locations of crack propagation in welded joints _____________________________________________54
Figure 27 Biaxial stress at weld toe _______________________________________________________________________________55
Figure 28 Types of hot spots _______________________________________________________________________________________56
Figure 29 Typical meshes and stress evaluation path for a welded detail ______________________________________57
Figure 30 Reference points at different types of meshing ________________________________________________________58
Figure 31 Examples of strain gauges in plate structures ________________________________________________________60
Figure 32 Effective notch stress concentration factors __________________________________________________________62
Figure 33 S-N Diagram Figure 34 Specific zones of the S-N diagram________________________________________66
Figure 35 Loading parameters ____________________________________________________________________________________67
Figure 36 Correlation of the cycle asymmetry coefficient, amplitude and average stress ______________________67
Figure 37 S-N Diagrams ___________________________________________________________________________________________71
Figure 38 Specific zones of the S N diagram ____________________________________________________________________71
Figure 39 Spectra of aleatory loading. ____________________________________________________________________________72
Figure 40 Curve of cumulated frequencies. _______________________________________________________________________72
Figure 41 Fatigue resistance curve _______________________________________________________________________________74
Figure 42 Fatigue curve domains _________________________________________________________________________________74
Figure 43 Stress-relieving cat pulsed constant strain ____________________________________________________________75
Figure 44 Creep stress-relieving asymmetric cyclic loading and controlled stress _____________________________75
Figure 45 Effect of average stress son fracture mechanisms for controlled stress testing. _____________________76
Figure 46 Influence of average stress son fatigue resistance for different N f values. ___________________________77
Figure 47 Fatigue resistance S-N curves for steel, normal stress ________________________________________________78
Figure 48 Fatigue resistance S-N curves for aluminium, normal stress _________________________________________78
Figure 49 Modified resistance S-N curves of steel for Palmgren-Mine summation _____________________________81

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Figure 50 Modified resustance S-N curves of aluminium for Palmgren-Miner summation ____________________81
Figure 51 Enhancement factor f(R) _______________________________________________________________________________87
Figure 52 Toe distance ____________________________________________________________________________________________88
Figure 53 Examples of joint suitable for improuvement _________________________________________________________89
Figure 54 Examples of joints, at which an improvement might be limited by a possible root crack ___________90
Figure 55 Fatigue strength reduction factor for steel at elevated temperatures _______________________________92
Figure 56 Example of scatter of test data _________________________________________________________________________96
Figure 57 Comparison of engineering and true stree-strain curve ____________________________________________ 125
Figure 58 Dimensions of Charpy V notch standard specimen __________________________________________________ 128
Figure 59 Fracture surfaces of Charpy specimens of mild steel, tested at different temperatures ___________ 129
Figure 60 Transition-temperature curves for a) two steels, b) transition temperature criterion ___________ 130
Figure 61 Instrumented impact test resu1ts obtained with Charpy V specimen for steels A and B __________ 131
Figure 62 Typical load vs. time record showing fracture phases of Charpy specimen ________________________ 132
Figure 63 Fracture appearance vs. temperature for explosion-crack-starter ________________________________ 133
Figure 64 Typical results of explosion bulge test for steels A and B ___________________________________________ 134
Figure 65 Drop weight test conFigureation the anvil stop. ____________________________________________________ 134
Figure 66 Robertson crack-arrest test __________________________________________________________________________ 136
Figure 67 Temperature dependence of yield strength (o), tensile strength (u) _____________________________ 136
Figure 68 Fracture-analysis diagram showing influence of various initial flaw sizes ________________________ 136
Figure 69 Fracture analysis diagram for steel A _______________________________________________________________ 137
Figure 70 Application of DT test result for fracture analysis ___________________________________________________ 137
Figure 71 Different phases of fatigue life and relevant factors ________________________________________________ 138
Figure 72 Laboratory simulation of the multistage fatigue process. __________________________________________ 139
Figure 73 Different scenarios for fatigue crack growth ________________________________________________________ 141
Figure 74 Schematic illustration of variation of fatigue-crack -growth rate, da/dN, with alternating stress
intensity, K, in steels, showing regions of primary crack-growth mechanisms. ______________________________ 141
Figure 75 Schematic of K-based crack resistance, R curve with position of KIc _______________________________ 145

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List of tables
Table 1 Classification criteria and weld type according to EC 3-1-8. _______________________________________10
Table 2 Provisions regarding the correlation of loading and control of welds ______________________________18
Table 3 The partial safety factors M for joints _________________________________________________________________26
Table 4 Type of joint model ______________________________________________________________________________________29
Table 5 Correlation factor w for fillet welds. __________________________________________________________________34
Table 6 Conditions for welding cold-formed zone and adiacent material ___________________________________42
Table 7 Stress raisers and notch effects _______________________________________________________________________43
Table 8 Characteristics, limitations and conditions related to the type of welding. ________________________45
Table 9 The centre to centre spacing of fillet welds all round ________________________________________________48
Table 10 Types of hot spots ______________________________________________________________________________________55
Table 11 Correlation between relatively coase and fine models, to type of model and weld toe ________59
Table 12 FAT data, stress at knee-point of S-N curve, constants of tentative S-N curves and constants
for Palmgren-Miner summation __________________________________________________________________________________81
Table 13 Fatigue resistance against structural hot spot stress ______________________________________________83
Table 14 Effective notch fatigue resistance for steel __________________________________________________________86
Table 15 Thickness correction exponents ______________________________________________________________________87
Table 16 Benefit factors on stress of burr grinding and TIG dressing ______________________________________90
Table 17 Benefit on stress of hammer peening (nominal stress) ____________________________________________91
Table 18 Benefit on stress of needle peening (nominal stress) ______________________________________________92
Table 19 Testing approaches ____________________________________________________________________________________97
Table 20 F-factors for failure of all test specimens ____________________________________________________________98
Table 21 F-factors for the first test specimen to fail ___________________________________________________________98
Table 22 Categorisation and assessment procedure for weld imperfections ____________________________ 100
Table 23 Consideration of stress magnification factors due to misalignment ____________________________ 102
Table 24 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in steel _________________________________________________ 102
Table 25 Acceptance levels for weld toe undercut in aluminium __________________________________________ 103
Table 26 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in steel ________________________________ 104
Table 27 Acceptance levels for porosity and inclusions in welds in aluminium __________________________ 104
Table 28 Fatigue resistance values for structural details in steel and aluminium assessed on the basis
of nominal stresses _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 105
Table 29 Chemical composition and tensile characteristics of tested steels _____________________________ 131
Table 30 The three basic types of fatigue properties _______________________________________________________ 140

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