angles, bearings, and azimuths

© All Rights Reserved

151 tayangan

angles, bearings, and azimuths

© All Rights Reserved

- Mathematical Treasure Hunting
- DGS-PU-301-Rev-0
- MT Presentation
- r5210105-surveying
- CK-12 Flexbooks on Polygon
- Year 9 Core 3 Task 1 2012
- Alpha Shape Angle Activity
- Technical Notes on Surveying-Concept 2
- CE2259 SET1
- lect2
- 2017-02-03 Bug Paths #2
- Analysis of Skew Single Lane Shear Connected Concrete Plank Br June 2004
- Presentation
- NH4N
- Pa 361125
- Autocad
- mr.
- 10th సోషల్ బిట్స్.జి సైదేశ్వర రావు.
- Chapter 6 Wkst1+Ans
- Unit 22 - Cadastral Land Surveyor (I)

Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Introduction

Determining the locations of points and orientations of lines frequently depends on

the observation of angles and directions. In surveying, directions are given by

azimuths and bearings. And angles measured in surveying are classified either as

horizontal or vertical, depending on the plane in which they are observed.

There are three basic requirements to determine an angle. And these are these are

the following:

a. Reference or Starting Line

b. Direction of Turning

c. Angular Distance

Units of Measurement

A purely arbitrary unit defines the value of an angle. The sexagesimal system used

in United States and many other countries is based on degrees, minutes, and

seconds, with the last unit further divided decimally. In Europe the grad or gon is

commonly used. Radians may be more suitable in computer computations, but

sexagesimal system continues to be used in most surveys.

The kinds of horizontal angles most commonly observed in surveying are:

a. Interior Angles

b. Angles to the right

c. Deflection Angles

Interior angles, shown in the figure are observed on the inside of a closed

polygon. A check can be made on their values because the sum of all interior angles

in any polygon must equal (n 2) 180, where n is the number of angles. Polygons

are commonly used for boundary surveys and many other types of work. Surveyors

normally refer to them as closed traverses.

Exterior angles, located outside the polygon, are explements of interior angles. The

advantage to be gained by observing them is their use as another check, since the

sum of the interior and exterior angles at any station must total 360.

Angles to the right are measured clockwise from the rear to the forward station.

As survey progresses, stations are commonly identified by consecutive alphabetical

letters (As shown on the figure above, or by increasing numbers. Thus, the interior

angles of Figure A are also angles to the right. Most data collectors require that

angles to the right are observed in the field. Angles to left, turned counterclockwise

from the rear station, are illustrated in Figure B. To avoid this confusion, it is

recommended that a uniform procedure of always observing angles to the right be

adopted and direction of turning noted in the field book with a sketch.

Angles to the right can be either interior or exterior angles of a closed-polygon

traverse. Whether the angle is an interior or exterior angle depends on the direction

the direction the instrument proceeds around the traverse. If the direction

around the traverse is counterclockwise, then the angles to the right will

be interior angles. However, if the instrument proceeds clockwise around

the traverse, then exterior angles will be observed. If this is the case, the

sum of exterior angles for a closed-polygon traverse will be (n + 2)180. Analysis of

a simple sketch should make these observations clear.

Deflection Angles are observed from extension of the back line to the forward

station. They are used principally on the long linear alignments of route surveys. As

illustrated in the figure, deflection angles may be observed to the right (clockwise)

or to the left (counterclockwise) depending on the direction of the route. Clockwise

angles are considered plus and counterclockwise are minus, as shown in the figure.

Deflection angles are always smaller than 180 and appending an R or L to the

numerical value identifies the direction of turning. Thus the angle at B in the figure

is , and that at C is (L).Deflection angles are the only exception where

counterclockwise observation of angles should be made.

AZIMUTHS

Azimuths are horizontal angles observed clockwise from any reference

meridian. In plane surveying, azimuths are generally observed from north, but

astronomers and military have used south as the reference direction. Examples of

azimuths observed from north are shown in the figure below are shown on the

figure below. As illustrated, they can range from 0 to 360 in value. Thus the

azimuth of OA is 70; of OB, 145; of OC, 235; and of OD, 330. To avoid confusion,

it is necessary to state in the field notes, at the beginning of work, where the

azimuths were observed, whether from north or south.

In plane surveying, forward azimuths

are converted to back azimuths and

vice versa, by adding or subtracting

180. For example, if the azimuth of

OA is 70, the azimuth of OA is 70 +

180 = 250. If the azimuth of OC is

235, the azimuth of CO is 235 - 180

= 55.

Figure 4: Azimuths

A lines forward direction can be

given by it forward azimuth and its

on the graduated circle of a total

station

instrument

after

the

instrument has been oriented properly.

Azimuths are used advantageously in

boundary, topographic, control, and

other kinds of surveys, as well as in

computations.

BEARINGS

Bearing are another system for designating directions of lines. The bearing of

a line is defined as the acute horizontal angle between a reference meridian and the

line. The angle is observed from either the north or south toward the east or west,

to give a reading smaller than 90. The letter N or S preceding the angle, and E or

W following it, shows the proper quadrant. Thus, a properly expressed bearing

includes quadrant letters and an angular value. An example is N80E. In the figure

below, all bearing in quadrant NOE are measured clockwise from the meridian. Thus

the bearing of line OA is N70E. All bearings in quadrant SOE are counterclockwise

from the meridian, so OB is S35E. Similarly, the bearing of OC is S55W and that of

OD, N30W. When lines are in the cardinal directios, the bearing should be listed as

Due North. Due East, Due South, or Due West.

Example:

Solution:

The azimuth places the line in the southeastquadrant. Thus, the bearing

angle is

180 - 1281345 = 514614

And the equivalent bearing is S514614E

b. The first course of a boundary survey is written as N3713W. What is its

equivalent azimuth?

Solution:

Since the bearing is in the northwest quadrant, the azimuth is

360 - 3713 = 32247

COMPUTING AZIMUTHS

Most types of surveys, but especially those that employ traversing, require

computation of azimuths (or bearings). A traverse is a series of connected lines

whose lengths and angles at the junction points have been observed. Example of

traverse are shown in figure 2 and 3. Traverses have many uses. To survey the

boundary lines of a piece of property, forexample, a closed-polygon type traverse

like that of figure 2(a) would normally be used. A highway survey from one city to

another would usually involv a traverse like that of figure 3. Regardless of the types

used, it is necessary to compute the directions of lines.

made with the aid of a sketch. The

figure illustrate computations for

azimuth BC in figure 2(a). Azimuth BA

is found by adding 180 to azimuth AB:

180 + 4135 = 22135 to yield it

back azimuth. Then the angle to the

right at B, 12911, is added to

azimuth BA to get azimuth BC: 22135

+ 12911 = 35046. This general

process of adding (or subtracting)

180 to obtain the back azimuth and

then adding the angle to the right is

repeated for each line until the

azimuth of the starting line is

recomputed. If a computed azimuth

exceed 360, then 360 is subtracted

from it and the computations are

continued.

azimuths are computed. As noted, earlier, in a closed-polygon traverse, the sum of

interior angles equals (n-2)180, where n is the number of angles or sides. If the

traverse angles fail to close by say 10 and are not adjusted prior to computing

azimuths, the original and computed check azimuth of AB will differ by the same

10, assuming there are no other calculating errors. The azimuth of any starting

course should always be recomputed as a check using the last angle. Any

discrepancy shows that (a) an arithmetic error was made or (b) the angles were not

properly adjusted prior to computing azimuths.

COMPUTING BEARING

Drawing sketches similar to those in the figure below showing all data

simplify computations for bearings of lines. In the Figure 7(a), the bearing of line AB

from Figure 2(a) is N4135E, and the angle at B turned clockwise (to the right) from

known line BA is 12911. Then the bearing angle of line BC is 180 - (4135 +

12911) = 914, and from the sketch the bearing of BC is N914W.

In the Figure 7(b), the clockwise angle at C from B to D was observed as

8835. The bearing of CD is 8835 - 914 = S7921W. Continuing this technique,

the bearings in the table below have been determined for all lines in Figure 2(a).

Figure 7:

(a) Computation of Bearing BC of Figure 2(a)

(b) Computation of Bearing CD of Figure 2(a)

In the table below, note that the last bearing computed is for AB, and it is

obtained by employing the 11510 angle observed at A. It yields a bearing of

N4135E, which agrees with the starting bearing. An alternate method of

computing bearings is to determine the azimuths, and then convert the computed

azimuths to bearings using techniques discussed previously. For example on the

first table, the azimuth of line CD is 25921, the bearing angle is 25921 - 180 =

7921, and the bearing is S7921W.

- Mathematical Treasure HuntingDiunggah olehMichael de Villiers
- DGS-PU-301-Rev-0Diunggah olehBobbi Middleton
- MT PresentationDiunggah olehSubarn Dev Pant
- r5210105-surveyingDiunggah olehsivabharathamurthy
- CK-12 Flexbooks on PolygonDiunggah olehCK-12 Foundation
- Year 9 Core 3 Task 1 2012Diunggah olehNovaeus
- Alpha Shape Angle ActivityDiunggah olehTracieandJoe Skok
- Technical Notes on Surveying-Concept 2Diunggah olehIsaac Muganda
- CE2259 SET1Diunggah olehkaliappan45490
- lect2Diunggah olehnakul_kansal
- 2017-02-03 Bug Paths #2Diunggah olehsamjshah
- Analysis of Skew Single Lane Shear Connected Concrete Plank Br June 2004Diunggah olehAliyu Abdullahi
- PresentationDiunggah olehFatin Nur'ain
- NH4NDiunggah olehPratik Khadka
- Pa 361125Diunggah olehmiltonc
- AutocadDiunggah olehKen Andrie Dungaran Guariña
- mr.Diunggah olehapi-122235418
- 10th సోషల్ బిట్స్.జి సైదేశ్వర రావు.Diunggah olehNavadeep Navadeep
- Chapter 6 Wkst1+AnsDiunggah olehsex01
- Unit 22 - Cadastral Land Surveyor (I)Diunggah olehJose Corelli
- Information for the 3D PST Tube Geometry DesignDiunggah olehKathiravan Kuralmani Kala
- teacher reflection on content standards topic progressionDiunggah olehapi-227641016
- yr12_4u_trials_2007Diunggah olehThanh Huy Doan
- Delivery Plan (Old)Diunggah olehElizabeth Santiago
- WhatisDiunggah olehMuhammad Labib Subhani
- UISmappingGrades.pdfDiunggah olehRasyid Wisnuaji
- Presidential Decree No 972Diunggah olehJayson Yutuc Catajan
- Dot Product and ProjectionsDiunggah olehMatthew Wiese
- Appendix B - Site Boundary SurveyDiunggah olehRiverheadLOCAL
- BestStudentPaper_BogdanoiuCristianaDiunggah olehTee Si

- 1. Intro to SurveyingDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- angarianDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Questionnaire ThesisDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Chapter 7 BoltDiunggah olehRamesh P Koirala
- Some BOD problems.pptDiunggah olehMohamed Mo Galal Hassan-Ghariba
- Vertical Parabolic CurvesDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- FLYER-NEWDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Construction HardwareDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 8. Area MeasurementDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 2. Horizontal Distance MeasurementDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- cmpmDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Staffing RequirementDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 6. TraversingDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 7. Traverse ComputationsDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- ORG-CHARTDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Bridge SpecsDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Lec 13 - TriangulationDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 9. Missing DataDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- MAP OF DAMSDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Water engineeringDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Bored PilesDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 5. Angles, Bearings and AzimuthDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 2b. Other Surveys With TapeDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 3. Stadia SurveyingDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 2. Horizontal Distance MeasurementDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- 1. Intro to SurveyingDiunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Consistency of Soil (Atterberg Limits)Diunggah olehMarc Dared Cagaoan
- Stability of Floating BodiesDiunggah olehAbdull Sulaiman Ismil

- Performance Appraisal (Ppt) by p.rai87@GmailDiunggah olehPRAVEEN RAI
- vibration control measuresDiunggah olehapi-270822363
- ch10-Statistical Sampling for Substantive Testing.pdfDiunggah olehNor Hanna
- 10 Chapter 2Diunggah olehAkshay Jiremali
- 7-Analysis of CovarianceDiunggah olehhuynhthanhliem
- assessing-cox.pdfDiunggah olehkusumawardati
- COMPARISM OF THE POWER OF SOME SPECIFICATION ERROR TESTSDiunggah olehImpact Journals
- curakovic.pdfDiunggah olehHepicentar Niša
- GE 221-Higher Surveying SyllabusDiunggah olehpicefeati
- Afghanistan Survey 2009Diunggah olehpkryan
- Employee Satisfaction Survey VRPLDiunggah olehArvind Mittal
- CallThesisFinal.pdfDiunggah olehAhmed Adel Moemen
- Subject Matter ExpertDiunggah olehAnkita Rk
- Deep Moor Landfill Site, High Bullen, Torrington, DevonDiunggah olehWessex Archaeology
- Pid Srp 1501Diunggah olehAlelie de Torres
- Change_of_entry_mode a Case Study of Swedish Retail Firm in the United Arab EmirateDiunggah olehWesam Alagha
- ReferencesDiunggah olehAllen Allen
- Locus of Control and ProcrastinationDiunggah olehNanang Hardiansyah
- Introduction to StatisticsDiunggah olehDante Pena
- A_PROJECT_REPORT_ON_THE_LUXURY_CAR_SEGME.pdfDiunggah olehyogi9998
- 07 Sec VIII-D1-NDE(Rev 1).pdfDiunggah olehnguyenvanphu1977
- InterviewDiunggah olehAnonymous r9b4bJU
- humor in organizationsDiunggah olehC0ghi
- 004Drill Deep & Wide Workshop Training 6.0Diunggah olehpatima_sv4875
- Arete Healthcare Solutions [Work Plan Template].xlsxDiunggah olehAnonymous LXybkBd
- unit 7 brief 2018Diunggah olehapi-289444071
- EdEt 780 Research ProjectDiunggah olehjanessasenn
- Power and Politics1Diunggah olehtafseer_rizvi
- The Makran Accretionary Wedge off Pakistan: Tectonic Evolution and Fluid Migration. Hannover 1997Diunggah olehPaolo Biagi
- Salvation Army_B. Murray_7.pdfDiunggah olehltuominen