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MANUAL RESISTANCEMAXIMUM MUSCLE WITHOUT EQUIPMENT

Manual Resistance is an alternative to the more conventional forms of


resistance in the strength training program. The resistance is provided by a
training partner, or spotter, rather than a bar or a machine. This style of training
could be incorporated into your regular workouts or in situations where no
equipment and/or facilities are available.
Here at Toledo we use Manual Resistance (MR) training extensively in all
phases of our strength program. Whether as an exercise in our regular workouts
or as the only available training tool at home, on vacation, or on the road
traveling, MR has definitely proven itself as a valuable form of strength training.
ADVANTAGES OF MANUAL RESISTANCE
There are many advantages to using MR. Some of the more obvious reasons
include:
1.
No equipment is required to perform the exercises. Since no
equipment is needed these exercises can be performed any time and any place.
A coach, for example, can administer the program on the field, court or diamond.
The Physical Education instructor can hold his class indoors or outdoors. The
point to be remembered is that MR exercises can be performed anywhere.
Waiting to use equipment is no longer a problem with MR. Once an individual
has been exposed to MR, conditioning the muscles can be a lifelong activity. No
longer will a lack of equipment be an obstacle
2.
Large numbers of individuals can be trained simultaneously. Two
people or two hundred people can perform the exercises simultaneously. One
person exercises while the other supplies the work load. To the coach or PE
instructor who has experienced the frustration of overcrowded facilities, MR is a
godsend.
3.
The muscles can be worked maximally each rep. Maximum resistance
can be obtained during the raising and lowering phase of each rep. If the lifter
can raise 80 pounds on the first rep, the spotter can apply 80 pounds worth of
resistance. If the lifter can lift five pounds of resistance on the last rep, the
spotter can accommodate this decreasing strength level accordingly. This is an
advantage because it reduces the level of strength closer to the point of zero.
More of the muscle is brought into play, thereby causing a greater overload.
4.
The speed of the MR exercise can be controlled. The rate of
resistance during the raising phase will be dictated by the amount of resistance
applied by the spotter. The lifters partner or the instructor can decide upon the
speed of exercise during the raising phase.

DISADVANTAGES OF MANUAL RESISTANCE


With all of its advantages, MR also has some distinct disadvantages.
Every type of equipment available has advantages and disadvantages. By
recognizing the limitations of MR, it can help provide a safer and more effective
form of exercise. A better understanding of the exercise will also be realized.
The major limitations of MR include:
1.
Two people are needed to perform any MR exercise. A lifter and a
training partner to apply the resistance are required to perform each exercise.
This can be a problem for some fitness enthusiasts (e.g. The working person
may want to work out during the lunch hour and perhaps a training partner is
unavailable; A team or fitness class may have an odd number of students and
this would leave one student without a partner.)
2.
The lifter must learn how to perform each exercise. Before maximum
gains can be obtained, the lifter must learn how to perform each exercise. This is
also a problem when any new exercise using equipment is performed. Due to
the uniqueness of the MR style of exercise, the learning process of performing
the exercise probably creates more problems for the inexperienced lifter than will
a conventional exercise performed on equipment. The lifter must also learn to
coordinate the exercise with the spotter.
3.
The spotter must learn how to safely and effectively apply the
resistance. The spotters job is even more difficult than the lifters. The training
partner is the key to any strength building program but the effectiveness of any
MR exercise is totally dependent upon the abilities of the spotter. Equipment can
help minimize the risk of injury occurring while an individual is performing an
exercise. The risk increases whenever the lifter must rely entirely upon a partner
to provide the resistance. Instructors can minimize the risk by taking the time to
learn how to utilize this form of exercise and then educating their students
sufficiently. Its just like teaching a student-athlete how to block, rebound,
perform somersaults, or to do other potentially dangerous skills. Everything
demands proper instruction. The instructor should initially treat MR exercise as
any other potentially dangerous activity. Remember that it is the ability of the
spotter that dictates the quality of the exercise. There is a specific skill required.
Some spotters develop a high skill level to spot effectively, while some develop
lower skill levels. An educated lifter will immediately notice the skill level of the
spotter. A lower skill level will obviously decrease the effectiveness of the
exercise.
4.
The lifter may be significantly stronger than the spotter. When pairing
off participants, its possible that one training partner may be significantly
stronger than the other. This can present a problem for the weaker individual.

5.
Accountability. The lifter may ask, How will I know how much strength
I am gaining from workout to workout? Unfortunately, accountability will always
be a problem. With MR you cannot record and evaluate strength gains as you
can with a barbell or machine. You are forced to rely upon your spotters to do
their job. When they do, the lifter will be assured of gaining strength.
Note: Sure, there are limitations to manual resistance. However, these
limitations can be overcome by instructors who are willing to invest a little time in
developing the ability to teach these exercises and in providing as much
supervision as possible during their execution.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF INSTRUCTOR
1.
Thoroughly understand the responsibilities of the spotter and lifter.
The instructor should develop and in-depth understanding of how to apply the
MR concepts. These exercises can not be spotted and performed in a
haphazard manner. Unfortunately, more often than not, this is the rule rather
than the exception. If this occurs the potential results from the exercise will be
reduced and the risk of injury to the lifter will be increased.
Note: Thoroughly read the guidelines enclosed and develop a detailed
understanding of how to safely and effectively spot and perform each exercise.
2.
Perform the exercises with another instructor in order to develop the
skills needed to spot and perform each exercise. Its obvious to every coach
and physical educator that doing something is better than talking about it.
Unfortunately, few instructors are willing to actually practice doing the MR
exercises. The exact skills to apply the resistance and perform the exercises will
not be developed unless instructor practices what he preaches.
Note: There is nothing overly demanding about the skills needed to spot and
perform each exercise. Something will be lost, however, from the instructor to
the student if the instructor doesnt experience of the problems encountered.
3.
Minimize the loss in the interpretation of this information from the
instructor to the student. The instructors first responsibility is to adhere to the
aforementioned rules. The eventual quality of MR exercise performed by the
participants will be determined by how well the instructor prepares himself and by
how well that information is taught to the students. This is not the type of
information that is posted on the weight room bulletin board. Initially, constant
supervision by the instructor is necessary to eliminate any confusion. Ideally, the
instructor should discuss all of the concepts enclosed and then spot each student
through the exercises until they have mastered the skills required.

Note: The instructor can teach one thing and the student may interpret it
differently. Instructors must minimize the loss in translation to the students.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LIFTER

For manual resistance to be safe and effective, the lifter must assume
some responsibilities during the execution of each repetition. These
responsibilities include the following four rules:
1.
Communication with the spotter is essential. Total cooperation and
coordination between the lifter and the spotter are essential. For maximum gains
and safety you may have to tell the spotter how to provide more efficient
resistance. Cooperation with the spotter is needed for smooth and even
resistance. Until the spotting and lifting skills have been mastered, the lifter may
have to talk to the spotter. For example, Youre not providing enough resistance
on the lowering phase. Or, Youre pulling too hard in the stretched position.
2.
Keep tension on the muscles. The relief of muscle tension for just an
instant will allow the muscle to momentarily rest - and make the exercise less
productive. Allowing the muscles to relax briefly is a common occurrence during
the lateral raise if the hands are allowed to touch the sides of the legs. This
gives the muscles a brief rest and makes the exercise less productive. Another
example would be the conventional push-up exercise. The muscles are allowed
a brief rest if the chest, thighs, or mid-section touch the ground. Ideally, the
hands should be elevated off the ground to prevent resting between repetitions.
3.
Pause momentarily in the contracted position. The lifter should hold
the contracted position momentarily during the execution of each repetition. If
the lifter doesnt hold this position momentarily, he will not maximally develop the
muscle at each point during that range of motion. The pause also gives the
spotter time to begin applying the more resistance required for the lowering
phase while in the transition from the raising phase of the exercise to the
lowering phase. An example of this concept is the bent over side lateral raise.
The lifter must stop and hold the contracted position momentarily. A good
guideline would be to hold the position for a count 1001. If the lifter does not
concentrate on pausing the contracted position of any exercise, there will be a
bouncing affect or recoil from the raising to the lowering phase.
Note: Hold any contracted position for a count of 1001 and allow the muscles to
develop maximally throughout their full range of motion.
4.
Exert an all-out effort. A sub-maximal effort will produce sub-maximal
results. The lifter must work as hard as possible if maximum gains are to be

obtained. If the lifter exerts an all out effort and the training partner applies the
MR correctly, the lifter will be assured of obtaining maximum benefits.
5.
Allow four seconds for the lowering phase. The lifter can lower more
resistance than he can raise. During the lowering phase of some exercises, the
lifter may by capable of exerting more force than the spotter can apply during the
first few reps. The lifter must cooperate with the spotter and perform the lowering
phase of the exercise. During the lowering phase of some exercises, the lifter
could stop an any point, if he so desired, and hold that position, not allowing the
spotter to push him down. This could invite injury and make the exercise less
effective. Remember that in each succeeding repetition, the person exercising
will grow weaker. Eventually the spotter will be capable of applying more than
enough resistance during the lowering phase. Until this point is reached, the
exerciser must cooperate with the spotter during the lowering phase.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SPOTTER
It should be more than obvious to anyone interested MR of the value of a
properly educated training partner. The effectiveness of MR exercise is almost
totally dependent on the abilities of the spotter. It cannot be over emphasized
enough how important it is for the instructor to thoroughly educate the
participants. For the exercise to be safe and effective, the spotter should strictly
adhere to the following guidelines. The major responsibilities of the spotter
include the following:
1.
Communication whenever necessary and constant coordination with
the lifter. Pay attention to the execution of every repetition. The lifters safety is
the spotters primary concern. How the spotter applies the MR dictates the
quality and safety of the exercise. The spotter should make corrections if needed
and provide verbal encouragement for motivation. If the lifter is not strictly
adhering to the exact methods prescribed, the spotter should correct the lifter
immediately.
2.
Do not apply maximum resistance during the first few reps. The first
few reps of each exercise should be used to warm up the involved muscles. This
will also help to begin gradual fatiguing the muscles so that when the lifter does
exert an all out effort, the muscle will be weaker. This will decrease the potential
for injury.
Note: If maximum resistance is applied on the first few reps injury could result.
Less than maximum resistance is required on the first few reps.

3.
Vary the resistance of each rep during the raising phase. Once the
muscles are warmed up, the spotter should learn to apply as much resistance as

the lifter can safely and effectively handle at each point during the raising phase.
All movements should be smooth and controlled. This is the most difficult aspect
of manual resistance to master. The amount of resistance that a lifter needs
during the raising phase of one rep will actually vary. The bones and
musculature are a system of levers. The changing positions of the bone and
muscles create leverage advantages and disadvantages. These advantages and
disadvantages will require more or less resistance by the spotter.
An example of the leverage system is the conventional push-up exercise.
The lifter requires more resistance as the arms straighten. He requires less
resistance as the arms bend. Another example of the leverage system can be
observed while spotting the side lateral raise. Its obvious that the lifter gradually
grows weaker (requires less resistance) as the arms are raised away from the
body and weakest in the contracted position.
The spotter should learn to gradually increase or decrease the resistance
according to accommodate these changing strength curves. If the resistance is
being applied correctly, the resistance should feel constant to the lifter. The
spotter is adding exactly as much resistance as the lifter can raise at each point
during the raising phase. If too much resistance is applied at any point, the lifter
will be unable to move momentarily. He will be forced to stop the exercise, jerk,
or use cheating movements to continue the exercise. If not enough resistance is
applied the exercise will be less productive than it could be.
The spotter should also be aware that the lifter is gradually fatiguing with each
succeeding repetition. If the resistance is properly applied the amount of
resistance will decrease with each rep. If the spotter applies the resistance
correctly, he will only have to apply a few pounds of resistance on the last rep or
two. On some exercises, the lifter may be unable to raise even the weight of his
arms.
Note: It is the spotters job to apply just the right amount of resistance at each
point during the raising phase.
4.
Smooth transition from the raising phase to the lowering phase. The
person applying the resistance should adjust the amount of resistance at the
point of transition from the raising phase to the lowering phase. It should be
realized that the lifter can lower more weight than he can raise. This is why it is
important for the lifter to pause momentarily in the contracted position. This
gives the spotter time to begin smoothly applying the additional work load for the
lowering phase.
Spotters cannot make a sudden change from the raising to the lowering
phase or the lifter will be unable to hold the contracted position momentarily. The
lifter will not make a smooth transition. There will be a sudden drop, which will

not allow the muscle to be exercised maximally at each point. It may also invite
injury.
5. Add more resistance during the lowering phase. Due primarily to
friction, the lifter can lower more weight than he can raise. The spotter should
learn to apply more resistance during the lowering phase. If not enough
resistance is applied the lifter could stop at any point during the lowering phase
and hold that position for several seconds.
Because the lifter is so much stronger during the lowering phases there must
be mutual cooperation between the lifter and spotter. The same leverage
advantages and disadvantages that exist during the raising phase of each
exercise apply to the lowering phase. The person applying the MR must also be
aware that the lifter is gradually fatiguing each rep.
The spotter should learn to apply as much resistance as the lifter can resist
while allowing four seconds to lower the weight. If too much resistance is applied
during the lowering phase the lifter will be unable to allow four seconds to
perform the lowering movement. This could invite possible injury.
6. Change the angle of resistance being applied. Most movements in the
body are rotary in nature. Most muscles contract about an axis of rotation. They
pull on the bones to form movements that form an arc. For the muscles to be
most effectively exercised the angle of resistance must change through the
execution of each repetition. This must be done to accommodate the changing
angle that the muscle is pulling on the bone.
The MR must be supplied to coincide with the changing angles of each arc
formed by the muscles involved. The changing angle resistance applied can be
observed while performing the side lateral raise. In the starting position the angle
of resistance will be almost perpendicular to the floor. As the lifter raises his/her
arms, the spotter should gradually adjust the angle of resistance. This concept
will apply almost any time a single muscle group is isolated. The spotter should
develop the ability to recognize the correct angle of resistance.
7.
Provide enough resistance to stimulate strength gains. For maximum
gains the spotter needs to apply as much resistance as the lifter can exert during
the execution of both the raising and lowering phase of each repetition.
8.
Do not apply maximum resistance for any exercise in an all out
manner during the first few workouts. Gradual increases the intensity of
exercise in each succeeding workout until the techniques required for each
exercise have been mastered.

9. When necessary, apply less resistance as the lifter approaches the


muscles stretched position. While performing some exercises, the spotter
should learn to gradually decrease the amount of MR being applied as the lifter
approaches and eventually reaches the joints stretched position. Injury could
result if too much resistance is applied in the stretched position of the muscles
being exercised.
The spotter should sacrifice the application of maximum resistance to gain
maximum stretching and prevent injury. A good example is the neck flexion
exercise. The lifter will not relax and stretch the neck if too much resistance is
applied. To get the lifter into a relaxed and stretched position safely, the spotter
should begin to gradually decrease the amount of manual resistance as the lifter
approaches the neck stretched position. It should be a smooth and gradual
transition. The spotter is applying too much resistance near or at the stretched
position if the lifter:
a. Doesnt reach a completely relaxed and stretched position at the end of
each rep.
b. Stops short of the stretched position
c. Feels the need to pull back in the stretched position to prevent hyper
stretching.

PERFORMING MANUAL RESISTANCE EXERCISES


While performing MR exercises, the following guidelines should be used to
perform each exercise:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Perform 12 repetitions or continue exercising for approximately 40 to 70


seconds.
Perform only one set per exercise.
Take four seconds for the lowering phase.
Allow from three to four seconds to execute the raising phase of each
exercise. This will include moving form the starting position and pausing in
the contracted
position momentarily.
Exercise 2-3 times a week while alternating days.
Change the order regularly.

The most important aspect of MR is knowing the proper way to spot and to
lift. All of you have been through our MR program from time to time, but for those
of you who might have missed something along the way, here is a quick review
of the MR exercises we perform at TOLEDO.
The following twenty-two exercises will be explained (i.e. starting position,
description of movement, and spotting form) and illustrated on the next few
pages:

1. Neck Flexion

12. Upright Row

2. Neck Extension

13. Bent-Over Row

3. Shrug

14. Dip

4. One-Legged Squat

15. Chin

5. Hip Adduction

16. Biceps Curl

6. Hip Abduction

17. Triceps Extension

7. Push-ups

18. Leg Curl

8. Side Lateral Raise

19. Leg Extension

9. Front Raise

20. Bent-Arm Fly

10. Seated Press

21. Sit-ups

11. Bent-over Rear


Delt Raise

22. Lat Pulldowns

MANUAL RESISTANCE EXERCISES


There are a variety of MR exercises that can be performed. As discussed on the
preceding page a brief description of each exercise will follow. For maximum
gains attempt to reduce the lifters strength level to zero by performing
approximately 10-12 repetitions on each exercise. Remember to follow the
guidelines we discussed earlier for the Lifter and Spotter.
Note: Be especially cautious with NECK exercises.
EXERCISE #1 - NECK FLEXION - (NECK FLEXORS)
Starting: Lying face up on a flat bench, the shoulders are slightly over the edge
of the bench. The top of the head should be parallel to the floor - At the
beginning of each rep the neck muscles must be totally relaxed.
Movement: Flexing only the neck muscles, raise the head forward and upward
so that the chin is resting on the chest - Pause momentarily and recover to
starting position.
Spotting: Place dominant hand on the lifters forehead and the non-dominant
hand on the lifters chin - Apply as much pressure as is needed to accommodate
for the strength curve of the neck flexors.

EXERCISE #2 - NECK EXTENSION - (NECK EXTENSORS)


Starting: Lying face down on an exercise bench with the head hanging over the
edge of the bench - Neck should be totally relaxed with the chin touching chest Hands should be resting behind the back.
Movement: Raise the head upward and backwards until it is fully extended Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position
Spotting: Form a web with the hands and place them on the back of the Lifters
head - Begin the exercise with mild pressure to stretch the neck and continue to
carry the resistance according to the strength curve on the neck extensors.

EXERCISE #3 - SHRUG (TRAPEZIUS)


Starting: Standing with body erect and arms extended - Hands should be
interlocking and grasping the Spotters wrist - Shoulders and traps should be
relaxed.
Movement: Elevate the shoulder girdle by shrugging shoulders as high as
possible - Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Lay under the Lifter with his hands interlocking and grasping your
wrists.

EXERCISE #4 - ONE -LEGGED SQUAT - (MAJOR MUSCLES OF


LEGS/BUTTOCKS)
Starting: Standing on one leg with right leg extended outward - Balance by
placing right arm around Spotters shoulders and grasping a fixed object with left
hand.
Movement: Lower the body until the upper leg is horizontal to the floor - Pause
momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Stand along side the Lifter and grasp under his right knee joint (lower
hamstring) with your right hand - Place your left arm around the Lifters waist Assistance or resistance may be applied with the left arm - Mirror with the right
leg.

EXERCISE #5 - HIP ADDUCTION - (INNER THIGH)


Starting: Sitting down with arms extended behind body for support - Legs
should be bent at an angle of approximately 90 degrees - Soles of the feet are
facing each other but remain 3-4 inches apart - Knees upward and inward as far
as possible.
Movement: Raise the knees upward and inward as far as possible - Pause
momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Face the Lifter and apply pressure with both hands on the inside
upper portion of the knee throughout the exercise.

EXERCISE #6 - HIP ABDUCTION - (HIPS)


Starting: Lying on left side with upper and lower body in line.
Movement: Raise the right leg as high as possible - Pause momentarily before
recovering to starting position - Mirror with left leg.
Spotting: Kneel or stand near the Lifters knee and place both hands above the
knee on the thigh to apply the resistance.

EXERCISE #7 - PUSHUP - (CHEST/SHOULDERS/TRICEPS)


Starting: Assume the pushup position with only the feet and hands touching the
floor with the body straight - When no longer able to properly perform another rep
drop to the hands and knees position keeping toes off the floor - Hands should
be out in front of the shoulders.
Movement: Lower the chest (Do not touch thighs or stomach) to a position just
short of the floor and recover to starting position.
Spotting: Straddle the Lifter and place both hands on the upper back to apply
resistance - Ideally the Lifter must fail in the hands and knee position.

EXERCISE #8 - SIDE LATERAL RAISE - (MEDIAL DELTOID)


Starting: Standing erect with the arms extended out and palms facing inward.
Movement: Raise the arms sideward and upward overhead - Pause before
recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Stand behind the Lifter with hands on the back of the Lifters wrist.

EXERCISE #9 - FRONT RAISE - (FRONT DELTOID)


Starting: Standing erect with feet staggered and arms extended well back
behind the body. Palms should be facing away from the body.
Movement: Raise the arms forward and upward to a position up and over the
head - Pause momentarily before recovering to staring position.
Spotting: Place hands on back of Lifters wrist - Keep there throughout exercise
- Spotter will have to move closer to Lifter in the starting position and away from
him as the Lifter raises his arm overhead.

EXERCISE #10 SEATED PRESS - (DELTOIDS)


Starting: Sitting with arms bent and upper body leaning back slightly
Movement: Extend arms upward - Pause momentarily before recovering to
starting position.
Spotting: Grasp Lifters hands with the thumbs interlocking and apply the
resistance to the hands.

EXERCISE #11 - BENT - OVER REAR DELT RAISE - (POSTERIOR DELTOID)


Starting: Bending over at waist with arms extended and hanging down at a 90
degree angle. Palms and forearms facing each other not quite touching and
Legs slightly bent. keep upper body parallel to floor throughout exercise.
Movement: Raise arms sideward and upward to a position parallel to floor Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Standing at Lifters head and bent at waist - Place hands on the back
of the Lifters forearms to apply resistance.

EXERCISE #12 - UPRIGHT ROW - (DELTOIDS/TRAPEZIUS/BICEPS)


Starting: Standing with arms extended downward holding a towel in both hands
- A closer grip should be used - Feet shoulder width apart - Head looking
skyward.
Movement: Pull the towel upward touching under the chin - Pause momentarily
before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Sitting under the Lifter - Look skyward with hands grasping both ends
of the towel to provide resistance.

EXERCISE #13 - BENT - OVER ROW - (LATS)


Starting: Bending at the waist keeping the upper body parallel to the floor with
right arm extended - Legs slightly bent with the left forearm resting on the left
thigh to stabilize the upper body.
Movement: Bend arm while driving elbow upward to a position above the upper
body - Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position - More stretching
will be obtained if the Spotter pushes the upper arm to a full stretch position
where the upper arm is touching the chest - Mirror with left arm.
Spotting: Standing on right side of Lifter, place your left hand on his upper back
and your right hand on the upper arm just above the elbow - Apply resistance.

EXERCISE #14 - DIP - (CHEST/SHOULDERS/TRICEPS)


Starting: Mounted on dip bars with arms extended and legs bent to provide full
range during the lowering of the body.
Movement: Bend the arms lowering the body as much as possible and recover
to starting position.
Spotting: Pull on the Lifters hips to provide additional resistance if the Lifter is
capable of performing more than 12 reps.

EXERCISE #15 - CHIN - (LATS/ BICEPS)


Starting: Standing with a bar hanging downward with arms fully extended and
the upper body resting against a wall.
Movement: Raise the bar forward and upward contracting the biceps - Pause
momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Manually vary the resistance during the raising and lowering phases
of the exercise - Allowing the Lifter to move the elbows forward will involve the
biceps but at the expense of allowing the muscles to rest in the contracted
position.

EXERCISE #16 - BICEP CURL - (BICEP)


Starting: Standing with a bar hanging downward with arms fully extended and
the upper body resting against the wall.
Movement: Raise the bar forward and upward contracting the biceps - Pause
momentarily before recovering to the starting position.
Spotting: Manually vary the resistance during the raising and lowering phases
of the exercise - Allowing the lifter to move the elbows forward will involve the
biceps but at the expense of allowing the muscles to rest in the contracted
position.

EXERCISE #17 - TRICEPS EXTENSION - (TRICEPS)


Starting: Lying on back with the right arm bent and the elbow pointing to the sky
- Upper arm must remain perpendicular to the body throughout exercise.
Movement: Raise the forearm forward and upward until the arm is fully
extended - Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Kneeling beside the Lifter with his right thigh resting against the
Lifters upper arm - This will stabilize the Lifters upper arm - Spotter will place his
left hand on the outside of the Lifters elbow and his right hand on the wrist where
the resistance is applied.

EXERCISE #18 - LEG CURL - (HAMSTRINGS)


Starting: Lying face down on the floor with your legs straight and toes pointed.
Movement: Keeping right thigh flat on the ground bring right heel as close to
buttocks as possible - Pause momentarily before recovering to starting position Mirror with left leg.
Spotting: Kneel alongside the Lifter and apply resistance against the heel in
motion.

EXERCISE #19 - LEG EXTENSION - (QUADRICEPS)


Starting: Sitting on a bench or chair so feet do not touch floor.
Movement: Extend right leg up as high as possible - Pause momentarily before
recovering to starting position - Mirror with left leg.
Spotting: Kneel alongside Lifter and apply resistance against heel in motion.

EXERCISE #20 - BENT - ARM FLY - (CHEST/ANTERIOR DELTOID)


Starting: Lying face down on a bench or floor - Place feet on floor and interlock
fingers behind head.
Movement: Bring elbows together in front of face - Pause momentarily before
recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Stand directly behind Lifters head and provide resistance against the
insides of the Lifters elbows.

EXERCISE #21 - SIT-UPS - (ABDOMINAL)


Starting: Lying of the floor and placing backs of legs on a bench or a stool - The
angle between upper body and legs should be about 90 degrees - Fold arms
across chest and lift head off the floor.
Movement: Bring torso up to legs - Pause momentarily before recovering to
starting position.
Spotting: Sit behind Lifter and provide resistance against shoulders.

EXERCISE #22 - LAT PULLDOWNS - (LATS)


Starting Position: Sitting a bench or stool and cross arms behind head.
Movement: Pull arms down toward sides - Pause momentarily before
recovering to starting position.
Spotting: Provide resistance against back of the upper arms while standing
behind the Lifter.

MANUAL RESISTANCE WORKOUTS


Here are three MR workouts that you can use if you cant get to a weight room or
if you just want to add variety to your regular routine. These are made up of the
same exercises reviewed on the proceeding pages. Remember that there is
never an excuse for missing a workout. You can always do manuals no matter
where you are of what time of the day if is!

MR #1

MR #2

MR #3

NECK FLEXION

CHEST FLY

CHINS*/LAT PULLDOWN

NECK EXTENSION

PUSHUPS

DIPS*/PUSHUPS

UPRIGHT ROW

LAT PULLDOWNS

FRONT RAISE

SIDE LATERAL RAISE

SIDE LATERAL RAISE

SIDE LATERAL RAISE

SEATED PRESS

REAR DELT

SEATED PRESS

CHEST FLY

SEATED PRESS

SEATED ROWS

PUSHUPS

UPRIGHT ROW

PUSHUPS

BICEP CURL

BICEP CURL

BICEP CURL

TRICEPS EXTENSION

TRICEPS EXTENSION

TRICEPS EXTENSION

SIT-UPS

GROIN

UPRIGHT ROW

LOW BACK

LATERAL HIP

NECK FLEXION

GROIN

LEG CURL

NECK EXTENSION

LATERAL HIP

LEG EXTENSION

SHRUG

LEG CURL

ONE-LEGGED SQUAT

LEG EXTENSION

ONE-LEGGED SQUAT

SIT-UPS

LEG CURL

SIT-UPS

NECK FLEXION

ONE-LEGGED SQUAT

NECK EXTENSIONS

SIT-UPS

*If chin/dip station is available