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REF;

Clay wrks
catalogue

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: ROOF BATTERN
DEAD LOAD;
1)Roof covering material:
Pitch,=
23 degrees
Roof covering materials:
=
0.40 radians
Batten spacing=
300 mm
Common rafter spacing =
600 mm
Unit mass of tile=
3.1 kg
Unit weight of tile= 3.1x9.81
30.42 N
No. of Units per m2=

14 units/m2

Weight of tiles/m2=14 xUnit


14x30.42=
weight
=
2
Hence,weight of Tiles=weight of tiles/m x Batten
spacing=
2)Self weight,s/w:
Size,Lxw=

bs 6399

50x50

Crossectional area=

7.2

Table 8

0.0025
=

1.5 KN/m2
0.45 KN/m
28 m/s
1.0

Height ground to eaves,h=

5.2.1

Wood density,=
500 Kg/m3
self weight=xAx9.81=
Therefore,Total dead load=
0.02+0.13
gk=
0.15 KN/m
LIVE LOAD;
Type of roof=
with access

-1998 prt 3 Imposed load,LL=


Chapter4.2
qk= 1.5x300/1000=
WIND LOAD;
Basic Wind speed,V=
Pt 4.3
Topography factor,S1=
5.5

0.43

Building Class =
Ground roughness =

5.10 m

Height eaves to apex=


1.59 m
Total height(ground to apex)
6.69 m
Design wind speed,Vd=VxS1XS2XS3=28x1x0.84x1=
23.52
Dynamic pressure,q=kVd2 where k=0.613=
0.613x23.52x23.52=
q=
339.11 N/m2=
0.34 KN/m2
Pressure coefficients;
External pressure coefficient
width,w=
7.51 m
Cpe= -0.55
height to eave,h=
5.10 m
Cpe= -0.50
h/w=
0.68
Internal pressure coefficient=
Wind load,F=(Cpe-Cpi)qA
Max uplift= (-0.8-0.2)x0.34x300/1000KN/m=
Min uplift= (-0.5--0.3)x0.34x300/1000KN/m=
Assuming each span simply supported for critical design
1

Load cases
1.4gk+1.6qk=1.4x0.15+1.6x0.45
1.4gk+1.2WL=1.4x0.15x1.2x-0.11
Therefore,max loading on battern at udl,W=

0.93
0.08
0.93

REF;

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: ROOF BATTERN
1)Check for deflection;
Species of timber
CYPRESS GS

2.10.7

Allowable deflection=0.003L or 14mm whichever is less

M.O.P.W

0.003L=
Max deflection for udl,max=

Table 5

Emean=

1.80

I= bh3/12=
5WL4 =
384EI

max=

5x0.93x(600/1000)^4
384x7401X520833.33

0.41 mm<14mm or 0.003L

2)Checking for bending stresses


Actual bending stress,m,a,II=Mmax/Zxx
Mmax= WL2/8

0.93x(600/1000)^2/8=
For rectangular sections Zxx=bh2/6=

0.04
20833.33 mm2
m,a,II=Mmax/Zxx =

Actual bending stress parallel to grain=


Therefore Max permissible bending stress parallel to grain
m,adm,II= m,g,IIxK3xk7xK8xK2xK6=
M.O.P.W
table 5

m,g,II=

5 N/mm2

2.10.6

load duration factor,K3

Depth factor,K7=

2.9

Long-term
1.0
Therefore,m,adm,II6.435
=

Load sharing factor,K8=

N/mm2 >
2.01
3)Check for shear stress
Max shear at the supports,V=WL/2=0.93x600/2000 =
Max shear stress at applied at N/A, a,II=(3/2)x(Vmax/bh)
M.O.P.W
Table 5

Table 5

1.1

Grade shear stress parallel to grain g,II=

1.10
Max allowable shear stress parallel to grain
adm,II= g,IIxK3xK8=
1.1x1.0x1.1
Therefore,adm,II=
4)Check for bearing
Max bearing stress applied at the supports
c,a,= R/bb'=0.28/(50x50)

M.O.P.W

1.17

1.21 N/mm2>

0.11

N/mm2

Grade comp. stress pe


1.6 N/mm2
Max allowable bearing stress perpendicular to grain, c,adm,=c,adm,xK3xK8
Therefore,c,adm,=

1.6x1.0x1.1

COMMON RAFTER
Analysis
Size=
50x100
Self weight(dead load)=

1.76 N/mm2>

Length of rafter= 4.08


0.03
KN/m
3

Crossectional area of member=


5000 mm2
At uls=1.4 x 0.03=
0.04 KN/m
Battern reactions at uls=
udl on common rafter due to battern reactions at uls=
Battern reaction =
Battern spacing
=
0.94

REF;

M.O.P.W

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: Common rafter
Total udl on rafter,w=Selfweight at uls + loading from batterns at uls
=
0.97 KN/m
No. of purlins each on rafter=
2
Purlin spacing=
Length of common rafter
=
1.36
No. of purlin on each rafter
1)Check for deflection;
Allowable deflection=0.003L or 14mm whichever is less
0.003L=
4.08
Therefore allowable de
4.08 mm
Emean=
7400.0
I= bh3/12=
4166666.667

Table 5

Max deflection for udl,max=

2.10.7

5W(L)4/384EI

5x0.97x(1.36)^4
384x7400x4166666.667

max=

1.40 mm<14mm & 0.003L


2)Checking for bending stresses
Mmax= W(L)2/8
0.97x1.36x1.36=

0.23

8
For rectangular sections Zxx=bh /6=
2

83333.33
Actual bending stress parallel to grain=m,a,II=Mmax/Zxx=
=
M.O.P.W
Table 5

m,g,II=

mm3
0.23x1000x1000
83333.33

2.76 N/mm2

5 N/mm2

Max permissible bending stress parallel to grain,= m,adm,II='m,g,IIxK3xk7xK8xK2xK6


2.10.6
2.9

load duration factor,K3=


Depth factor,K7=

Long-term
1
Load sharing factor,K8=

1.17

m,adm,II=

5x1x1.17x1.1=
6.435 N/mm2 >
3)Check for shear stress
Max shear at the supports,Vmax=WL/2=0.97x1.36/2
Max shear stress at N/A
a,II=(3/2)x(Vmax/bh)=
0.20 N/mm2
M.O.P.W
Table 5

Grade shear stress parallel to grain g,II=

600 mm
0.66 KN
5

2.76

1.10 N/mm2

Max allowable shear stress parallel to grain


adm,II= g,IIxK3xK8
=1.1x1x1.1
Therefore,adm,II= 1.21 N/mm2>
0.20
UNDERPURLING AND RIDGE
Common rafter spacing=
Loading from rafter at uls=

1.1

Udl at uls=
W=
Size of rafter=
Truss spacing=

Loading from rafter at uls


Common rafter spacing
1.10 KN/m
50x100
Purling spacing=
1800 mm

REF;

M.O.P.W
table 5

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: underpurlin and Ridge
1)Check for deflection;
Assume member is simply supported between supports
Length between supports trusses=
1800 mm
Allowable deflection=0.003L or 14mm whichever is less
0.003L=
5.40 mm
Allowable deflection=
Emean=
I= bh3/12=
7401 N/mm2
Max deflection for udl,max=

5WL4
384EI

=5x0.66x1800^4
384x7401x4166666.67x1000^4

max=

4.88 mm<14mm or 0.003L


2)Checking for bending stresses
Mmax= WL2/8=
1.1x1800^2=

0.45

8
For rectangular sections Zxx=bh /6 =
2

83333.33 mm3
m,a,II=
Mmax =

Actual bending stress parallel to grain,

Zxx
=
m,g,II=

table 5

5 N/mm2
load duration factor,K3

2.10.6

Long-term
Depth factor,K7=

M.O.P.W

2.9

5.35 N/mm2

Max permissible bending stress parallel to


m,adm,II= m,g,IIxK3xk7xK8xK2xK6
1.0
1.17

Load sharing factor,K8=

1.1

3)Check for shear stress


Max shear at the supports = WL/2 =
Max shear stress at N/A
a,II=(3/2)x(V/bh)
M.O.P.W
Table 5

= 5x1.0x1.17x1.1=

=
0.30 N/mm2
Grade shear stress parallel to grain g,II=

1.1x1800
2000
bh= 5000

=
=

1.10 N/mm2

Max allowable shear stress parallel to grain


adm,II= g,IIxK3xK8=
1.1x1.0x1.1=
=
1.21 N/mm2>
TRUSS
Pitch=
23 degrees
0.40 radians
Length of bottom cord=
7.51 m
Length of truss rafter=
Length of bottom cord=
7.505=
2COS
2COS23
7

Number of panels=
4
Length of each rafter panel=

Length of truss rafter=


Number of panels
length of king post= Length of truss rafter x Sin =

4.08
4
4.08xSin23=

REF;

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: TRUSS
Try top cord=
100x150
Bottom cord=
50x150
Internal members=
50x100
Underpurlings=
50x100
No. of underpurlings/truss,up
4
Wood density=
Assume finishes=
Truss spacing=

500

Kg/m3

0.5
1800

KN/m2
m

Member
1--2
3--4
5--6
7--8

Length
0.32
0.80
1.20
1.59

Weight
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03

Force
0
0.84
1.81
2.77

C--1
D--3
E--5
F--7
A--1
A--2
A--4
A--6

1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04

16.87
14.19
11.87
9.50
-15.53
-15.53
-13.06
-10.93

2--3
4--5
6--7

0.99
1.23
1.52

0.02
0.02
0.03

-2.60
-2.80
-3.53

Sum
Total,s/w

0.59
1.18

x2
KN

1.18
6.75
7.93
11.10
3.96
15.07

KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN

1)Dead load on Truss


Self weight=
Finishes=0.5x1800/1000x7.505
Sum
1.4xsum=
Underpurlings at uls=
Total truss load at ULS=
Support reactions,R=15.07/2
Nodal load on span,NL=15.07/(2x4)
9

7.54 KN
1.88 KN

Support nodal load=NL/2=1.88375/2)

10

0.95 KN

REF;

BS 5268
-2 2002

2.11.3
Table 21
2.11.4

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: TRUSS
RAFTER DESIGN
1)Check for compression
Critical member =
C--1
F=
16.87
KN
L=
1.02
KN
Support conditions,Le/L
Le=
1.00
1.02
=
1020.00
Slenderness ratio,=Le/r
Where r is the radius of gyration,r='I/A

A=

15000

I=bh /12

r=
=

43.30
23.56

28125000 mm
>5
c=
CYPRESS GS
Emean=
3

2.11.5

N/mm2

3600

1/2 + ((1+)" E" )/2N2c "-"


K12= ([(1/2+(1+)"" ^2 E)/2N2c]^2
2
K(""
= ^2 E)/N
0.47 c) ^(1/2)
12
2

Annex B

K3= 1.25
Emin=

3600

dadm,c= dgx K3K12

dadm,c=

3.50 N/mm2(Perm. Comp. Stress)

N/mm

da(c)

F/A =
N/mm2(Applied)
1.12
<
3.50
2)Check for Combined Compression and Bending for Rafter
Assume nodal load,NL at midspan for critical loading
NL=
1.88
KN
L=
1.02
m
Le=
Axial load,F16.87
KN
1.02
m
K3 = 1.25
K7 = 1.08
load duration factor
K7 = (300/d)^0.11

K8 = 1.1

Mmax=NL x Le/4
= 0.48
M.O.P.W
Table 5

dg =

KNm

Max moment

N/mm2

dadm(b) =

dg x K3K7K8 =

da(b)=

M/Z

Z=

da(b)=

1.28

N/mm2

2E/(Lc/i)2= 2E/2=
=

7.4

35494.56
554.88
63.97

_(a(b))/(_(adm(b)) x
(11.5_((,)))/ x_12
11
) + _(,)/_(,)

N/mm2
bh2/6=

375000

2.11.6

_(a(b))/(_(adm(b)) x
(11.5_((,)))/ x_12
) + _(,)/_(,)

12

0.500

REF;

TECH ASSOCIATES
PROJECT : Proposed commercial development on plot No. Thika
CLIENT:
DACKTARI
ELEMENT: TRUSS
BOTTOM TIE
Critical me A--1
Axial load,F-15.53
L=
0.94
Le=
0.94

M.O.P.W
Table 5
2.12

KN
m
m

(Tension)

Crossectional area,b x h =

da,c=F/A

-2.07

N/mm2(Applied stress)

dg,c=

N/mm2(Grade stress)

1.08

Form factor

K14
dadm,c=

dg,c x K14

3.24

N/mm2
2.07

>

INTERNAL MEMBERS
Tension
Critical member
=

-0.71

N/mm2(Applied stress)

dg,c=

3.00

N/mm2(Grade stress)

1.17

Form factor

3.51

7--8
2.77

compression
KN
Where r is the radius of gyration,r=

1.59

I=bh3/12

4166666.667

1.59
1593

m
mm

A=
r=

5000
28.87

55.20
>5

dadm,c=

table 21

2.11.4

Crossectional area,b x h =
KN(Tension)

da,c=F/A

K14

2.11.3

6--7
F= -3.53

dg,c x K14

Compression
Critical member
F=
L=
Le=
=
=Le/r

c=

CYPRESS GS

>

0.55 N/mm2

Emin=

3600

1/2 + ((1+)" E" )/2N c "-" ([(1/2+(1+)""


K12=
^2 E)/2N2c]^2 ("" ^2 E)/N2c) ^(1/2)
2

Annex B

N/mm2

K3=

Where;N=1.5, =0.0052

adm,c= g,c
M.O.P.W
Table 5

g,c=
Therefore,

6
adm,c=

N/mm2
7.46

N/mm2
13

K12=

1.25
x K3 x K12

>

0.55

14

OUTPUT

Mangaloe clay tiles

KN/m2
0.43x300/1000
0.13 KN/m
m2
500x0.0025x9.81
0.02 KN/m

ding Class =
und roughness =

A
2
S2=

0.84

S3=

1.0

m/s

Cpe= -0.80
Cpe= -0.72
Cpi= 0.20
-0.30
-0.11 KN/m
-0.03 KN/m

15

KN/m
KN/m
KN/m

16

OUTPUT

7401 N/mm2
520833.3 mm4

OK

KNm
2.01 N/mm2

OK
0.28 KN
0.17 N/mm2

0.17

OK

50x50
0.11

OK

17

ern reaction =
ern spacing
KN/m

0.28 KN
0.28x1000
300

18

OUTPUT
0.94+0.03 KN/m

mm4

97x(1.36)^4
x7400x4166666.667
OK
KNm

x1000x1000

K3xk7xK8xK2xK6

OK
0.66 KN

50x100
OK

19

0.66x1000
600
1.36 m

20

OUTPUT

5.40

mm

4166667 mm4

66.67x1000^4
OK
KNm

0.4455x1000^2
83333.33

ending stress parallel to grain


6.435 N/mm2 >
5.35

OK

0.99 KN

0.30

50x100
OK

4.08 m

21

1.02 m
1.59 m

22

OUTPUT
0.07
0.04
0.02
0.02

KN/m
KN/m
KN/m
KN/m

23

24

OUTPUT

m
mm
mm2
mm
< 180

OK

m2(Perm. Comp. Stress)

OK

Form factor
Load sharing factor

mm3

100x150
25

<1

OK

26

OUTPUT

7500

mm2

50x150
OK

5000

mm2

0.71

OK

us of gyration,r=

I/A
mm4
mm2
mm
< 180

0.994

x K3 x K12
50x100
27

OK

28

Isolate joint 1
fy=R-NL/2+Fc1Sin=0Fc1=(R-NL/2)
Sin
Fc1=

(7.535-0.95)
Sin23

Fc1=

-16.87
fx=F1A+Fc1Cos=0

KN
F1A=-Fc1Cos

F1A=

-16.87Cos23

F1A=

15.5

KN

Isolate joint 2
fy=F12=0

fx=F1A+F2A=0

Therefore,F12=0

Therefore,F1A=-F2A

F2A=

-15.53

Isolate joint 3
fx=Fc1Cos-FD3Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3)=0eqn 1
fy=-NL+F12-FC1Sin+FD3Sin-F23(L1--2/L2--3)=0eqn 2
Frm eqn 1,
FDE=(Fc1Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3))/Cos
Substituting for FDE in eqn2
fy=-NL+F12-FC1Sin+(Fc1Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3))/Cos x Sin-F23(L1--2/L2--3)=0eqn 2
-(Fc1Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3))/Cos x Sin+F23(L1--2/L2--3)=-NL+F12-FC1Sin
-Fc1Sin-F23(L2--A/L2--3)/Cos x Sin+F23(L1--2/L2--3)=-NL+F12-FC1Sin
-Fc1Sin+NL+F12+FC1Sin=F23(L2--A/L2--3)/Cos x Sin+F23(L1--2/L2--3)
F23((L2--A/L2--3)/Cos x Sin+(L1--2/L2--3))=Fc1Sin-NL+F12-FC1Sin
F23=

(Fc1Sin-NL+F12-FC1Sin)

-1.88

((L2--A/L2--3)/Cos x Sin)+(L1--2/L2--3)

0.72

From eqn1
fx=Fc1Cos-FD3Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3)=0

FD3Cos=Fc1Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3)

FD3=(Fc1Cos-F23(L2--A/L2--3))/Cos

FD3=

Isolating joint 4
Fx=-F2A+F4A-F23(L2--A/L2--3)=0

FY=F34+F23(L1--2/L2--3)=0

F4A=F23(L2--A/L2--3)+F2A

F34=-F23(L1--2/L2--3)

F4A=

F34=
13.06
KN
0.84
Isolating joint 5
Fx=FD3Cos-FE5Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5)=0eqn 1
Fy=NL+FD3Sin-FE5Sin+F45(L3--4/L4-5)+F34=0..eqn 2
From eqn 1
FE5Cos=FD3Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5)

29

-14.19

KN

FE5=(FD3Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5))/Cos
Substituting for FE5 in eqn 2
Fy=FD3Sin-(FD3Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5))/Cos x Sin+F45(L3--4/L4-5)+F34=0..eqn 2
(FD3Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5))/Cos x Sin+F45(L3--4/L4-5)=-FD3Sin-F34
FD3Sin+F45 x Sin/Cos x (L4-A/L4-5)+F45(L3--4/L4-5)=-FD3Sin-F34
F45 x Sin/Cos x (L4-A/L4-5)+F45(L3--4/L4-5)=-FD3Sin-F34-'FD3Sin
F45( Sin/Cos x (L4-A/L4-5)+(L3--4/L4-5))=-FD3Sin-F34-'FD3Sin
F45=

FD3Sin-NL-F34-'FD3Sin

30

-2.72

( Sin/Cos x (L4-A/L4-5)+(L3--4/L4-5))

0.97

From eqn1
Fx=FD3Cos-FE5Cos+F45(L4-A/L4-5)=0

FE5=(FDECos-F45(L4--A/L4--5))/Cos

FE5Cos=FDECos+F45(L4--A/L4--5)

FE5=

Isolating joint 6
Fx=-F4A+F6A-F45(L4--A/L4--5)=0

FY=F56+F45(L3--4/L4--5)=0

F6A=F45(L4--A/L4--5)+F4A

F56=-F45(L3--4/L4--5)

F6A=

F56=
10.93
KN
1.81
Isolating joint 7
Fx=FE5Cos-FF7Cos+F67(L6-A/L6--7)=0eqn 1

-11.87

KN

Fy=NL+FE5Sin-FF7Sin+F67(L5--6/L6--7)+F56=0..eqn 2
From eqn 1
FF7Cos=FE5Cos+F67(L6-A/L6-7)
FF7=(FE5Cos+F67(L6--A/L6--7))/Cos
Substituting for FF7 in eqn 2 making F67 the subject of the formular
F67=

FE5Sin-NL-F56-'FE5Sin

-3.70

( Sin/Cos x (L6-A/L6-7)+(L5--6/L6-7))
From eqn 1
FF7Cos=FE5Cos+F67(L6-A/L6-7)

1.05
FF7=FE5Cos+F67(L6-A/L6-7)/Cos

FF7=

-9.50
KN
Isolating joint 8
Fx=-F6A+F8A-F67(L6--A/L6--7)=0

FY=F78+F67(L5--6/L6--7)=0

F8A=F67(L6--A/L6--7)+F6A

F78=F67(L5--6/L6--7)

F8A=

8.75

Member
1--2
3--4
5--6
7--8

Length
0.32
0.80
1.20
1.59

C--1
D--3
E--5
F--7

1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02

A--1
A--2
A--4
A--6

0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94

F78=

KN
Forces

31

-2.77

KN

2--3
4--5
6--7

0.99
1.23
1.52

32

33

KN

)=0eqn 2

23

-2.60

KN

(L2--A/L2--3)
KN

34

0..eqn 2

-2.80

KN

35

4--A

6-A

/L4--5))/Cos
KN

-3.53

KN

/L6-7)/Cos

36

37

38

iron sheets
concrete tiles
Mangaloe clay tiles

building class
A
B
C

50x50
50x100

ground roughness
1
2
3
4

with access
with no access

Grade stresses
timber

grade
CYPRESS SS
CYPRESS GS

bending //
N/mm^2
7.1
5

tension
per //
4.3
3

Compress.N/mm^2
per //
perp
7
6

1.8
1.6

Duration of loading Value of K3


Long-term
Medium-term
Short-term
Very short-term

Support conditions
Restrained at both ends in position and in direction
Restrained at both ends in position and one end in direction
Restrained at both ends in position but not in direction
Restrained at one end in position and in direction and at the other end in direction but not in position
Restrained at one end in position and in direction and free at the other end
1
2
3
4
5

panels

oughness

truss member
2
50x50
3
50x100
4
50x150
5
100x100
6
100x150
Err:504

shear
per //

MOE
1.1
1.1

rection but not in position

Mean
8200
7400

Min
4000
3600

1
1.25
1.5
1.75

Le/L
0.70
0.85
1.00
1.50
2.00

weight(KN/m
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.07