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identification of the constitutive equation

N. Tounsi a,, J. Vincenti b, A. Otho b, M.A. Elbestawi a

a

McMaster Manufacturing Research Institute (MMRI), McMaster University, JHE 316, 1280 Main Street West, Ham., ONT, Canada L8S 4L7

b

ENSAM, Laboratoire MECASURF, 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix-en-Provence Cedex, France

Received 24 January 2002; received in revised form 12 April 2002; accepted 22 April 2002

Abstract

This paper proposes a methodology to identify the material coefficients of constitutive equation within the practical range of

stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature encountered in metal cutting. This methodology is based on analytical modeling of the

orthogonal cutting process in conjunction with orthogonal cutting experiments. The basic mechanics governing the primary shear

zone have been re-evaluated for continuous chip formation process. The stress, strain, strain rate and temperature fields have been

theoretically derived leading to the expressions of the effective stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature on the main shear plane.

Orthogonal cutting experiments with different cutting conditions provide an evaluation of theses physical quantities. Applying the

least-square approximation techniques to the resulting values yields an estimation of the material coefficients of the constitutive

equation. This methodology has been applied for different materials. The good agreement between the resulting models and those

obtained using the compressive split Hopkinson bar (CSHB), where available, demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology.

2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Modeling; Metal cutting mechanics; Constitutive equation; Orthogonal cutting

1. Introduction

The physical phenomena taking part in metal cutting

are numerous and complex. Chip formation is the result

of material plastic deformation during relative motion

between the tool and the workpiece. Deformations are

large (greater than 1) and the strain rate reaches 104 to

106 s1. Moreover, sliding at the tool/chip interface happens under very hard conditions of pressure, strain rate

and temperature.

To analyze the cutting process and to explain how the

cutting parameters and the material properties influence

this process, both finite element method (FEM) and analytical modeling require flow stress data for the workpiece material as a function of strain, strain rate, and

temperature.

Kumar [1] and Ozel [2] tried to obtain the material

E-mail address: tounsin@mmri.mcmaster.ca (N. Tounsi).

predictions with measured forces in orthogonal cutting.

This approach requires calculation of the average values

of strain, strain rate and temperature in the primary shear

zone using a separate code that can process the FEM

results. Then, the flow stress data are input to the FEM

and tuned in iterative scheme till the prediction error for

cutting force becomes less than a tolerance error.

Shatla [3] used two dimensional (2D) orthogonal slot

milling experiments in conjunction with an analyticalbased computer code to determine the flow stress data as

a function of the high strain, strain rate, and temperature

encountered in machining. The cutting and feed forces

obtained from orthogonal slot milling experiments are

compared to those predicted from OXCUT using an

initial guess of the material constants of the constitutive

equation. OXCUT is a code based on Oxley theory for

orthogonal cutting. The material constants are tuned until

the forces predicted from OXCUT match those obtained

from experiments for all tool rotation angles. Two or three

runs at different orthogonal slot milling conditions will

result in a robust model for the constitutive equation.

0890-6955/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 8 9 0 - 6 9 5 5 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 4 6 - 9

1374

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

Nomenclature

A,B,C0,n,m constants of JhonsonCook model

AB

main shear plane

Cp,K,r specific heat, thermal conductivity, and mass density of the material

primary shear zone thickness, and chip thickness

h,hc

P,PA,PB hydrostatic pressure, hydrostatic pressure at point A and B respectively

q

volumetric heat generation

s

uncut chip thickness

time, and time on plane AB

t,tAB

T,TAB,T0 temperature, temperature on plane AB, and room temperature

Tmelting melting temperature of the material

V,VAB cutting velocity, and cutting velocity on plane AB

Vxfn,Vyfn

components of the cutting velocity along X fn and Y fn directions

W

depth of cut

I,Ixn,Iyn

I AB,Ixfn,Iyfn

Rn,Rxfn,Ryfn

cutting force acting on plane AB, and its components along X fn and Y fn directions

Cartesian coordinate systems

X n,Y n,Z n,X fn,Y fn,Z fn,X gn,Y gn,Z gn vectors of the different Cartesian coordinate systems

xfn,yfn

coordinates along X fn and Y fn directions

a

proportion of the main shear zone

shear angle, and rake angle

fn,gn

s ,s d stress tensor, and deviatoric stress tensor

sfxn,sfyn

standard deviations of the components of the measured cutting forceI .

e ,e ,e AB strain tensor, effective strain, and effective strain on plane AB

e ,e ,e AB strain rate tensor, effective strain rate, and effective strain rate on plane AB

e xy,e 0 shear component of the strain rate tensor, and a reference effective strain rate

t,tAB,t0 shear stress, shear stress on plane AB, and shear stress at main shear zone inlet

b

fraction of the shear plane heat conducted into the work material

m

friction coefficient

the estimated material constants do not reflect only the

behavior of the workpiece material. They are implicitly

affected by the secondary shear zone modeling as well

as by the friction modeling along the tool/chip interface.

There are infinite combinations of friction and constitutive models that give the same predicted machining

force [2].

In this paper, a methodology to identify the material

constants of the constitutive equation is proposed. It is

based on analytical modeling of the primary shear zone

in conjunction with orthogonal cutting experiments. The

remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the basic mechanics describing the primary shear

zone in orthogonal cutting are re-evaluated. The velocity, strain, strain rate, stress, and temperature fields are

analytically described. In Section 3, an experimental

verification will be proposed along with a discussion.

work and a prospectus of further activities.

2. Theory

The re-evaluation of the mechanics of orthogonal

metal cutting is based on an analysis of existing experimental work and FEM results. With reference to Fig. 1,

in the main shear zone, the iso-curves of the physical

quantities such as the effective shear stress, effective

strain rate and temperature are practically along straight

lines parallel to the main shear plane AB [48]. In

addition, both of Oxley [4] and Wu et al.[5] show that

the effective strain rate is maximum on the main shear

plane and vanishes at the boundaries of the primary shear

zone. Therefore, these physical quantities depend only

on one coordinate xfn. This coordinate is in the perpen-

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

Fig. 1.

1375

Distributions of velocity, shear stress, hydrostatic pressure, and effective strain rate in the primary shear zone.

the primary shear zone can be considered as a shear band

of constant thickness h, except near the tool edge [7].

The material flow through this band is analyzed and a

stationary solution is calculated under the following

assumptions:

Quasi-static conditions: many problems in plastic

theory are regarded as quasi-static since it is assumed

that the inertia forces due to the plastic flow may

be neglected.

Plane strain conditions: the depths of cut W are

chosen large enough compared to the uncut chip

thickness, s to ensure that plane strain deformation

conditions are maintained during machining.

Continuous chip formation process.

Sharp cutting edge: although this assumption is not

physically true, the uncut chip thickness is chosen to

be high enough so the edge effects on cutting forces

can be neglected since the ratio of ploughing forces

to the cutting forces becomes negligible.

Viscoplastic workpiece material: the workpiece

material is supposed homogeneous, with isotropic

hardening and governed by thermo-viscoplastic

constitutive equation.

In the primary shear zone, the shear stress, strain,

strain rate, and temperature fields depend only on the

coordinate xfn.

Constant thickness of the primary shear zone. The

main shear plane AB divides the primary shear zone

into two unequal parts characterized by the portion

a [9].

To conduct this study, three Cartesian coordinate sys-

(A,X gn,Y gn,Z gn), and Rfn (A,X fn,Y fn,Z fn). A is the

are tangential and orthogonal directions to the rake face

to the main shear plane respectively.

2.1. Analysis of the velocity, strain and strain rate

fields

The velocity diagram, which defines the relationship

between velocity components in the machining zone, is

a fundamental issue because it defines the deformation

and friction energy spent in the cutting process. Knowing this diagram, all other physical quantities of the cutting process can be defined [9]. In the following, this

diagram along with the strain and strain rate fields are

determined.

Under plane strain conditions, the strain rate tensor is

defined in the frame Rfn by:

Vxfn

xfn

1 Vxfn Vyfn

2 yfn

xfn

1 Vxfn Vyfn

2 yfn

xfn

Vyfn

yfn

(1)

Rfn

The velocity field must satisfy the assumption of plastic incompressibility and, consequently, it obeys the following equation:

1376

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

Vxfn Vyfn

0

xfn

yfn

(2)

xfn, the equation of plastic incompressibility (2) suggests

that the component of velocity normal to the shear plane

to be constant throughout the primary shear zone. The

velocity at the lower bound of the primary shear zone

should be equal to the cutting velocity. Therefore, the

velocity field can be expressed as:

Vxfn Vsin(fn)

where, fn is the shear angle. Eqs. (1) and (3) lead to the

definition of the effective strain rate:

1 Vyfn

2

e:e

3

3 xfn

| |

(4)

rate is adopted as depicted in Fig. 1. The effective strain

rate is maximal at the main shear plane AB, where it is

bound of the primary shear zone. Therefore, the distribution of the effective strain rate can be expressed as:

xfn

e e AB 1

for xfn[0:ah]

ah

e e AB 1

xfn

for xfn[(1a)h:0]

(1a)h

(5)

regard to the variable xfn, the component Vyfn of the

velocity field can be expressed as:

x1

Vyfn

for xfn[0:h]

xfn

(1a)h:0]

x2

xfn=0

Vyfn

for xfn[

xfn

Vyfn|xfn=ah

(7)

xfn=0

This system results in:

x1 x2

(8a)

ah

x13e AB Vcos(fn)

2

(8b)

(1a)h

x13e AB

Vsin(fn)tan(fngn)

2

(8c)

Consequently, the effective strain rate on the shear plane

is expressed as follows:

2 V cos(gn)

e AB

3 h cos(fngn)

(9)

tive strain rate e AB by its expression lead to the definition

of the coefficient a:

a

1 cos(2fngn)

2

2cos(gn)

(10)

x2fn

Vyfn x1 3e AB xfn

VAB for xfn[0:ah]

2ah

Vyfn x2 3e AB xfn

(3)

Vyfn Vyfn(xfn)

expression of the effective strain rate should be continuous through the shear plane AB. The velocity is equal

to the cutting velocity at the lower bound of the primary

shear zone. It is equal to the chip flow velocity at the

upper bound of this zone. Therefore,

x2fn

VAB for xfn[(1a)h:0]

2(1a)h

(6)

where, VAB is the shear velocity on the main shear plane.

In continuous chip formation process, there is no chip

segmentation and therefore there is no velocity discontinuity. If the shear component of the cutting velocity

defined at the lower boundary of the deformation zone

is compared to the shear component of the chip velocity

defined at the upper bound, we notice a change of its

sign. The main shear plane is assumed to be the plane

where the shear velocity is equal to zero. Therefore, VAB

is equal to zero. x1and x2 are introduced in (6) to account

for the sign of the quantity Vyfn / xfn in both parts of

the primary shear zone. To determine these coefficients,

the boundary conditions of the velocity field as well as

the effective strain rate should be considered. The

e xy

1Vyfn

2 xfn

xfn

e xy 3e AB 1

for xfn[0:h]

ah

e xy 3e AB 1

xfn

for xfn[(1).h:0]

(1a)h

(11)

noticed that the shear occurs on parallel planes. Consequently, the main frame remains unchanged during plastic deformation. The physical quantities used in the

constitutive equation are objective independently of the

current configuration. The effective plastic strain e AB on

the main shear plane AB can then be obtained directly

the time variable and along the first part of the primary

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

1377

initiated on the lower bound of the primary shear zone,

i.e. at time t 0, and reaches e AB on the shear plane at

time t tAB:

t

AB

e AB

e dt

(12)

the shear zone is constant throughout this zone, the

increment of time can be related to the increment of

space by the following relationship:

dxfn

dxfn

dt

(13)

Vxfn

dt

Vsin(fn)

Consequently, the effective strain can be determined

by the following expression:

Fig. 2.

ah

e AB

dxfn

e

Vsin(fn)

(14)

expression yields the expression of the effective strain

on the main shear plane:

acos(gn)

(15)

e AB

3cos(fngn)sin(fn)

It should be noticed that the primary shear zone thickness h is needed to evaluate the effective strain rate

range of speed 40250 m/min [10]. His results show that

h is approximately one-quarter of the uncut chip thickness. Dudzenski used a typical value of this parameter,

i.e. h 0.025mm [7]. Based on geometrical analysis of

quick stop micrograph from cutting experiments available in literature [6,11,12], the shear band thickness is

approximately one-half of the uncut chip thickness. The

boundaries of the shear band have been located based

on the grain density and orientation in the case of [11]

and [6] (Figs. 2 and 3). However, they are located based

on a grid deformation in the case of [12] (Fig. 4). Furthermore, if we observe the temperature distributions

depicted in Figs. 11c, 13a and b in the paper published

by Komanduri [8], h can be approximated once again by

one-half the uncut chip thickness. The exact proportion

is reported in Table 5. Therefore, the shear band thickness will be approximated by one-half the uncut chip

thickness throughout this study, i.e. h 0.5s.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

The stress tensor in the frame Rfn is expressed as:

P t 0

s t P 0

0 0 P

Rfn

(16)

stress. Since the shear stress t depends only on the coordinate xfn, the equation of local equilibrium div(s )

0 yields:

1378

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

P

t

0

xfn yfn

(17)

P

0

xfn

boundary conditions should be addressed. The lower

boundary of the primary shear zone is where the plastic

deformation starts to occur. Therefore the shear stress at

this boundary can be derived from the elastic stress se

using the formula t0 (se / 3). The pressure at point

B is denoted PB. The shear stress on the main shear plane

is denoted tAB. These boundary conditions associated to

system (17) yield the stress field in the primary shear

zone:

t (t0tAB)

xfn

tAB

ah

(18)

(t0tAB)

s

P

yfn

PB

ah

sin(fn)

force is supposed to be measured during orthogonal cutting experiments. Let denote the measured cutting force

Ixn

(19)

Iyn Rn

expressed as:

s

I AB

(s X fn)X fndyfn

/ sin(fn)

I AB

/ sin(fn)

(t0tAB)

2ah

s

s2

PB

sin(fn)2

sin(fn)

s

WtAB

sin(fn)

(20a)

(20b)

Rfn

I AB W

(t0tAB) s

s

PB

cos(fn)tABs

2ah sin(fn)2

sin(fn)

(t0tAB)

sin(fn)

(Iyncos(fn)Ixnsin(fn))

Ws

tABscos(fn)

s

s2

PB

sin(fn)

2ah sin(fn)2

sin(fn)

sin(fn) R

n

(21)

(22)

The heat transfer process occurring during orthogonal

machining is governed by the two dimensional heat

transfer equation:

T

T

Vyfn

q 0

KTrCp Vxfn

xfn

yfn

(23)

considered adiabatic [8]. For heat resistant materials, the

thermal conductivity is negligible and the primary shear

zone is considered to be under adiabatic conditions.

Therefore, the volumetric heat generated by conduction

is negligible:

KT0

(24)

the volumetric heat generation rate q will be caused by

the plastic deformation only:

(25)

q s d:e

d

where, s and e are the deviatoric stress and strain rate

tensors respectively. Consequently, and since the temperature depends only on the coordinate xfn, the heat

transfer (23) becomes:

T

s d:e

xfn

(26)

the heat transfer equation may be temperature dependent,

they are assumed to be constant. Indeed, the variation

of these properties with temperature cannot be considered due to the complexity involved in the analytical

method and consequently only average values are taken.

Replacing the stress and strain rate tensors by their

expressions and integrating the resulting equation with

regards to the variable xfn, the temperature in the primary zone can be expressed as:

3e

xfn

results in:

2

tAB

rCpVxfn

(s X fn)Y fndyfn R

fn

applied on main shear plane and acting on the chip, the

Eqs. (27) and (28) lead to the expression of the shear

stress tAB:

tAB 1

Consequently:

xfn

T

dx

xfn fn

rCpsin(fn)V

AB

(t0tAB)

xfn

dx for xfn[0:h]

ah fn

xfn

ah

(27)

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

3e

T(xfn)TAB

AB

rCpsin(fn)V

(tABt0)x3fn (2tABt0)x2fn

tABxfn

3(ah)

2ah

(28)

xfn ah, the temperature is supposed to be equal to the

room temperature T0. Therefore, the temperature on the

main shear plane can be expressed as:

TAB T0

acos(gn)

2tAB t0

rCpsin(fn)cos(fngn)

3

(29)

The constitutive equation can use different models

that express the flow stress t as a function of the effec

tive plastic strain e , the effective strain rate e , and the

temperature T. In this study, the JhonsonCook model

will be explored. It is defined by:

e

n

3t (A Be ) 1 C0ln e 1

(30)

0

TT0

TmeltingT0

is the room temperature. Tmelting is the melting temperature of the material. To determine the material constants

(A,B,n,C0,m) that characterize JhonsonCook model,

orthogonal cutting experiments have been carried out for

different cutting conditions. These experiments provide

an

evaluation

of

the

physical

quantities

the formulae (9), (15), (22), and (29) respectively. A

least-square approximation technique will be applied to

determine the material constants:

(A Be AB(i)n

(A,B,n,C0,m) min

i1

e AB(i)

C0ln

e 0

3t

AB

TAB(i)T0

TmeltingT0

(i)

(31)

of the experiment.

the proposed methodology. Finally, the proportion a and

the temperature on the main shear plane TAB are estimated for different materials and compared with results

obtained by different researchers. The physical characteristics of these different steels are summarized in

Table 1.

Cylindrical turning experiments of thin tube workpiece were carried out under orthogonal cutting conditions. The wall thickness of the tube was very small

compared to its diameter. The cutting velocity can be

therefore considered constant along the cutting edge.

Two materials have been used: Stainless steel 316L and

35NCD16. The cutting conditions composed of the rake

angle gn, the cutting speed V, the depth of cut W, and

the feed S are summarized in Table 2. The three components of the machining force were measured simultaneously with a Kistler dynamometer type 3157B.

The dynamometer holds the turning tool. It is oriented

so that its X-axis is along the axis of revolution of the

workpiece. Each cutting experiment is carried out with

a new major cutting edge. The time of machining is limited to few seconds to avoid tool wear. The different

components of the cutting force are averaged on this period and their standard deviations are estimated. The

shear angle is calculated from the value of the measurement of the chip thickness hc according to the following formulae:

sin(fn)

s

hc cos(fngn)

To verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, orthogonal cutting experiments have been carried

out for two steels: stainless steel 316L, and 35NCD16.

This is followed by the use of additional experimental

data published by Hamann et al. [13] for two different

steels: 42CD4U, and S300. This work provided the

material constants obtained by the use of the compressive split Hopkinson bar (CSHB) for these two steels.

(32)

according to the formulae (9), (10), (15), (22), and (29)

respectively. The results are summarized in Table 3.

The material coefficients of JhonsonCook model are

listed in Table 4 along with those obtained by CSHB,

where available. It can be noticed that the constant A is

approximately equal to the elastic yield strength se.

Indeed, for a null plastic strain, with a strain rate equal

to e 0 and at the room temperature, the Johnson-cook

model reduces to:

3|t| As

3. Experimental verification

1379

(33)

This is coherent with the fact that A depends particularly on the material properties (heat treatment,

hardness). Table 4 shows a good agreement between

the material constants (A,B,n,C0,m) obtained by the proposed methodology and those obtained by the CSHB

demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodology.

In this paper, the main shear plane AB is assumed to

divide the primary shear zone into two unequal parts

characterized by the constant a. Table 3 shows that this

constant is larger than 0.5 for all cutting experiments.

The first part of the primary shear zone is then a wide

1380

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

Table 1

Physical characteristics of the different materials

Material

Hardness HRC

s0 t03 (Mpa)

K (w/(m K) r (Kg/m3)

Cp (J/(Kg K)

Tmelting

35NCD16

Stainless steel 316L

42CD4U

S300

31

28

880

502

693

250

39

14.6

480

500

400

400

1800

1800

1800

1800

7860

7500

7860

7860

Table 2

Results of orthogonal cutting experiments

Test

V (m/min)

1

67.2

2

67.2

3

67.2

4

128.4

5

128.4

6

128.4

7

187.2

8

187.2

9

187.2

35NCD16

1

60

2

60

3

65

4

123

5

123

6

115.2

42CD4U

1

100

2

100

3

100

4

100

S300

1

200

2

200

3

200

4

200

S (mm)

W (mm) gn

hc (mm)

fn

sIxn (N)

sIyn (N)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.25

0.44

0.63

0.25

0.43

0.65

0.25

0.47

0.62

22.0

24.5

25.5

22.0

25.0

25.0

22.0

23.0

26.0

456

605

872

401

593

720

465

523

630

564

881

1394

501

926

1298

547

848

1196

31

74

145

13

34

51

13

19

37

20

55

92

10

22

36

22

16

44

0.81

0.69

0.62

0.80

0.64

0.56

0.85

0.62

0.52

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.23

0.43

0.53

0.20

0.37

0.53

23.5

25.0

29.5

26.5

28.5

29.5

515

691

810

470

561

640

608

964

1293

563

893

1165

26

48

72

25

44

28

19

36

45

20

26

22

0.85

0.72

0.63

0.84

0.63

0.55

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

3

3

3

3

6

6

6

6

0.20

0.39

0.59

0.79

28

28

28

28

550

700

750

800

800

1400

1800

2300

0.85

0.64

0.55

0.47

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

3

3

3

3

6

6

6

6

0.20

0.39

0.59

0.79

28

28

28

28

200

250

275

325

350

625

900

1100

0.72

0.53

0.42

0.40

rate. This part is delimited by the main shear plane, and

the line where the first deformation occurs. The second

part is a small region where this change of velocity takes

place at a higher rate. Furthermore, for different cutting

conditions and for different materials listed in Table 5,

the analytical estimate of the constant a using (10) is

compared to the geometrical estimate from the temperature distributions depicted in Figs. 11c, 13a, and b in the

paper published by Komanduri [8]. The results listed in

Table 5 show good agreement between these estimates.

From Figs. 24, the constant a is geometrically estimated. In addition, the shear angle fn and the rake angle

gn, which are necessary for the analytical estimation of

a, are geometrically determined. The results are listed

in Table 6 and show good agreement between geometrical and analytical estimates of a. Therefore the analytical

is valid.

As far as the temperature on the main shear plane is

concerned, the analytical estimate of the temperature TAB

using (29) is compared to the estimates of different models published in Ref. [8]. These models are composed of

Trigger and Chaos method, Boothroyds method,

Loewen and Shaws method, Leones method, and the

exact analysis proposed by Komanduri. They are

denoted M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 respectively. These

models suppose that there is a fraction b of the shear

plane heat conducted into the work material. However,

the analytical development proposed in this paper supposes that b is nil since it considers the primary shear

zone as adiabatic zone. The materials, the cutting conditions, and the results are listed in Table 5. The analytical prediction of the temperature TAB using the

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

1381

Table 3

Estimation of the physical quantities for the different orthogonal cutting experiments

Test

1

0.862

2

0.829

3

0.815

4

0.862

5

0.822

6

0.825

7

0.862

8

0.847

9

0.810

35NCD16

1

0.841

2

0.822

3

0.757

4

0.800

5

0.774

6

0.757

42CD4U

1

0.823

2

0.823

3

0.823

4

0.823

S300

1

0.823

2

0.823

3

0.823

4

0.823

e AB

1.tAB (Mpa)

h (mm)

TABK

e AB (104 s1)

1.443

1.270

1.212

1.443

1.241

1.251

1.443

1.357

1.193

627

544

603

557

592

583

593

537

555

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.05

0.10

0.15

643

570

579

612

582

580

628

585

557

2.7859

1.4206

0.9550

5.3230

2.7253

1.8144

8.0093

4.0409

2.7538

1.328

1.241

1.020

1.155

1.068

1.020

702

615

596

656

617

574

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.05

0.10

0.15

689

630

566

622

585

559

2.5183

1.2735

0.9554

5.2932

2.6909

1.6984

1.086

1.086

1.086

1.086

701

710

645

647

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

660

663

637

638

4.1287

2.0643

1.3762

1.0322

1.086

1.086

1.086

1.086

337

340

347

325

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

464

465

468

459

8.2573

4.1287

2.7524

2.0643

Table 4

Material constants for different steels

35NCD16

Cutting exp.

CSHB

INOX316L

Cutting exp.

CSHB

42CD4U

Cutting exp.

CSHB

S300

Cutting exp.

CSHB

A (Mpa)

B (Mpa)

C0

848

474

0.288

0.0230

0.540

514

514

0.508

0.0417

0.533

589

598

755

768

0.198

0.209

0.0149

0.0137

0.800

0.807

245

240

608

622

0.35

0.35

0.0836

0.0900

0.144

0.250

the results of the exact analysis proposed by Komanduri.

Therefore, this formulation is valid.

4. Conclusion

A methodology is proposed in this paper to identify

the material constants of the constitutive equation using

analytical modeling of the orthogonal cutting process in

JhonsonCook model for the constitutive equation is

explored.

A re-evaluation of the basic mechanics governing the

primary shear zone has provided analytical expressions

for the fields of velocity, strain, strain rate, stress, and

temperature. The physical quantities such as the effective

stress, effective strain, effective strain rate, and temperature have been expressed on the particular shear plane

AB.

1382

N. Tounsi et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 13731383

Table 5

Estimation of the quantities (TAB, h, a) for different materials, for different cutting conditions, and with different models

gn 20,V 139.2m / min,s 0.06mmW 3.84mm,hc 0.1176mm

r 7860kg / m3,Cp 572J / (KgK)t0 414Mpa,Fxn 125N,Fyn

356N

b

TAB

h/s

a

M1

0.10

470

M2

0.18

491

M3

0.37

439

M4

0.36

443

M5

0.23

478

0.50

0.86

(29)

0.00

489

0.50

0.90

gn 0,V 120m / min,s 0.25mmW 2.5mm,hc 0.833mmr

7860kg / m3,Cp 580J / (KgK)t0 400Mpa,Fxn 667N,Fyn 890N

b

TAB

h/s

a

0.10

506

0.10

548

0.28

492

0.26

500

0.16

531

0.56

0.86

0.00

546

0.50

0.92

Ne 9445 [16]

b

gn 4,V 91.5m /min,s 0.249mmW 2.59mm,hc 0.6637mmr TAB

h/s

7860kg / m3,Cp 500J / (KgK)t0 400Mpa,Fxn 854N,Fyn 1681N

a

0.10

656

0.08

753

0.26

642

0.24

654

0.16

693

0.48

0.68

0.00

698

0.50

0.89

Table 6

Geometrical and analytical estimates of the constant a

Data of Fig. 2

Rake angle gn

Shear angle fn

Geometrical estimate of a

Analytical estimate of a

20

25

0.86

0.95

conditions and different materials have provided an

evaluation of theses physical quantities. The material

constants of JhonsonCook model have been estimated

by applying the least-square approximation techniques

to the resulting values. The material constants estimated

by the proposed methodology are in good agreement

with those obtained by the CSHB, where available, demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodology. Since

the identification of these constants is based only on the

physical quantities expressed on the main shear plane

AB, the tool/chip interface and the secondary shear zone

do not affect this methodology. It is independent from

the tool surface texture and coating.

The constant a that characterizes the location of the

shear plane AB in the primary shear zone is found to be

larger than 0.5 for all cutting experiments. Therefore,

the shear plane divides the primary shear zone into two

unequal parts. The first part is the wide region where the

change of velocity takes place at low rate. The second

part is a small region where this change of velocity takes

place at a higher rate. The analytical estimates of this

constant based on the proposed formula agree well with

the geometrical ones from micrograph and pictures of

the primary shear zone.

The analytical predictions of the temperature TAB,

using the developed formula with different cutting conditions and materials, are in very good agreement with

the results of the exact analysis proposed by Komanduri

Data of Fig. 3

6

31

0.81

0.78

Data of Fig. 4

0

32

0.75

0.72

temperature is valid.

An investigation of the primary shear zone thickness

has to be conducted in order to establish an analytical

expression for it. This thickness influences the estimation

of the strain rate.

The proposed methodology provides the constitutive

equation for continuous chip flow formation. It does not

determine the limit of the yield strength or the maximum

shear stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. This aspect should be investigated in order to

provide the modeling of serrated chip formation process

with an adequate constitutive equation.

References

[1] S. Kumar, P. Fallbohmer, T. Altan, Computer simulation of

orthogonal cutting process: determination of material properties

and effects of tool geometry on chip flow, Technical Paper

NAMRI/SME XXV, 1997, p. 177.

[2] T. Ozel, Investigation of High Speed Flat End Milling Process,

PhD Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,

1998.

[3] M. Shatla, C. Kerk, T. Altan, Process modeling in machining.

Part I: determination of flow stress data, International Journal of

Machine Tools and Manufacture 41 (2001) 15111534.

[4] P.L.B. Oxley, Introducing strain rate dependent work material

properties into the analysis of orthogonal cutting, Annals of the

CIRP 13 (1966) 127138.

[5] J.S. Wu, O.W. Dillon Jr., W.Y. Lu, Thermo-Viscoplastic Mode-

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[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Computational Methods on Materials Processing, Winter Annual

Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering,

Nov. 813 1992. Anaheim, CA, USA, Materials Division

(Publication) MD, 39 (1992) 113128.

I.S. Jawahir, C.A. Van Luttervelt, Recent developments in chip

control research and application, Annals of the CIRP 42 (1993)

659693.

D. Dudzinski, A. Molinari, A modeling of cutting for viscoplastic

materials, International Journal of mechanical Science 39 (4)

(1997) 369389.

R. Komanduri, Z.B. Hou, Thermal modeling of the metal cutting

process. Part I: temperature rise distribution due to shear plane

heat source, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 42

(2000) 17151752.

V.P. Astakhov, M.O.M. Osman, M.T. Hayajneh, Re-evaluation

of the basic mechanics of orthogonal metal cutting: velocity diagram, virtual work equation, and upper bound theorem, International Journal of machine Tools and Manufacture 41 (2001)

393418.

1383

[10] D. Kececioglu, Shear strain rate in metal cutting and its effect

on shear flow stress, Transactions of American Society of Mechanical Engineers 80 (1958) 158.

[11] L. Dechiffre, in: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications,

Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, 1990, pp. 2638.

[12] J. Leopold, Mechanical and physical models of machining, in:

Nantes, 24-25 January, Proceedings of the Second CIRP Workshop on Modeling of Machining Operations, 1999.

[13] J.C. Hamann, V. Grolleau, F. Le Maitre, Machinability improvement of steel at high cutting speedsstudy of tool/work material

interaction, Annals of the CIRP 45 (1996) 8792.

[14] M.C. Shaw, Metal Cutting Principles, Oxford University Press,

Oxford, UK, 1984.

[15] G. Boothroyd, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine

Tools, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1975.

[16] K.J. Trigger, B.T. Chao, An analytical evaluation of metal cutting

temperature, Transactions of the ASME 73 (1951) 5768.

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