Anda di halaman 1dari 45

Course : Statistika Bisnis I (1509SB04)

online.uwin.ac.id
Bachelor in Economics (S.E): Manajemen

UWIN eLearning Program

Session Topic : Pengukuran Nilai


Course: Statistika Ekonomi & Bisnis

By Burhan Primanintyo, B.Sc., M.Eng.

Content

Part 1

Nilai Rata2

Part 2

Nilai Tengah

Part 3

Dispersi

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 3

Part1: Nilai Rata2

Pengukuran Nilai: Tujuan Pembelajaran

1. Mengkalkulasi nilai rata2(mean), nilai tengah (median), & nilai


modus (mode)
2. Menjelaskan karakteristik, penggunaan, keuntungan & kerugian
dari tiap pengukuran lokasi
3. Menentukan posisi nilai
a. Rata2 (mean),
b. Tengah (median), &
c. Modus (mode)
yg simetris (symmetric) maupun dgn kemencengan (skewed
distributions)
4. Mengkomputasikan jangkauan (range), deviasi rata2 (mean
deviation), variance & deviasi standar (standard deviation)
5. Memahami karakteristik, penggunaan, keunggulan & kekurangan
dari tiap pengukuran dispersi
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 5

Nilai Rata2: Karakteristik

Karakteristik dari Nilai Rata2 (Mean)


1. Perhitungan nilai rata2 (mean) adalah,
yg paling banyak digunakan utk pengukuran lokasi atau
pengukuran tendensi sentral (central tendency) dari sebuah
distribusi.
2. Pengukuran nilai rata2 memerlukan data skala interval
3. Karakteristik utama dari pengukuran ini:
a. Semua nilai dapat digunakan
b. Bersifat unik
c. Penjumlahan deviasi dari nilai rata2 adalah 0 (nol)
d. Nilai rata2,
dihitung dgn menjumlahkan nilai data &
membaginya dgn banyak (jumlah) nilai data

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 6

Nilai Rata2 Populasi: Definisi

Utk data yg belum dikelompokkan (raw data/ungrouped data),


>>Nilai rata2 populasi (population mean). Defn:
Penjumlahan dari seluruh nilai2 di dalam populasi...
...dibagi dgn total jumlah (banyaknya) nilai2 populasi.
Nilai Rata2 Populasi (Population Mean): =

Dimana:

: mu mewakili nilai rata2 populasi


N
: merupakan jumlah (banyak) nilai di dalam populasi
X
: mewakili suatu nilai tertentu

: sigma mengindikasikan operasi penjumlahan


X : penjumlahan dari nilai2 X di dalam populasi
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 7

Nilai Rata2 Populasi: Contoh

Terdapat 10 perusahaan produsen kendaraan di sebuah negara.


Daftar berikut menunjukkan banyak (jumlah) paten yg diberikan oleh
pemerintah negara tersebut...
...kepada tiap perusahaan di dalam suatu tahun.
No

Nama Perusahaan

Jumlah Paten yg diberikan

General Motors

500

Nissan

380

Daimler Chrysler

270

Toyota

255

Honda

240

Ford

234

Mazda

210

Mitsubishi

50

Volvo

36

10 BMW

23

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 8

Nilai Rata2 Populasi: Contoh (Lanjut)

1. Apakah informasi di atas termasuk suatu sampel atau populasi ?


2. Berapa nilai rata2 dari paten yg diberikan ?
500 + 380 + 270 + 255 + 240 + 230 + 210 + 50 + 32 + 23
=
=

10
2190
=
=
10

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 9

Pengukuran Nilai: Parameter & Statistik

Suatu pengukuran karakteristik dari suatu...


1. Populasi dikenal dgn Parameter.
2. Sampel dikenal dgn Statistik
Population
All Items

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

Sample
Items selected from
the population

-1509SB04-

Hal 10

Pengukuran Nilai: Sifat Nilai Rata2 (Mean)

1. Setiap set dari tingkat data interval & tingkat data rasio memiliki
suatu arti.
2. Semua nilai2 dimasukkan ke dalam perhitungan nilai rata2.
3. Nilai rata2 bersifat unik.
4. Penjumlahan deviasi2 dari setiap nilai dari nilai rata2 adalah 0 (nol ).

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 11

Nilai Rata2 Sampel: Definisi

Utk data data mentah (raw data/ungrouped data),


>>Nilai rata2 sampel (sample mean). Defn:
Semua nilai sampel dibagi dgn jumlah (banyak) nilai2 sampel
Nilai Rata2 Sampel (Sample Mean): =

Dimana:

: X bar mewakili nilai rata2 Sampel


n
: merupakan jumlah (banyak) nilai di dalam Sampel
X
: mewakili suatu nilai tertentu

: sigma mengindikasikan operasi penjumlahan


X : penjumlahan dari nilai2 X di dalam Sampel

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 12

Nilai Rata2 Sampel: Contoh

Sebuah perusahaan telekomunikasi,


sedang mempelajari lama waktu penggunaan telepon genggam yg
digunakan oleh pelanggannya setiap bulan.
Suatu sampel acak dari 12 pelanggan bulan lalu menunjukkan hasil
sebagai berikut:
90
91

77
110

94
92

89
100

119
113

112
83

Berapa nilai rata2 dari banyaknya menit yg digunakan ?



=

90 + 77 + + 83 1170
=
=
=
= .

12
12
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 13

Pembobotan Nilai Rata2: Formulasi & Contoh

Pembobotan nilai rata2 (weighted mean),


Dari nilai2 X1, X2, ..., Xn dgn nilai/faktor pembobotan w1, w2, ..., wn
dihitung dgn formulasi:
Pembobotan Nilai Rata2 (Weighted Mean):
+ + + +
=
+ + + +

Contoh:
1. Sebuah perusahaan konstruksi,
membayar per-jam gaji pegawainya sebanyak $16.50, $20.00, & $25.00
per jam.
Terdapat 26 pegawai perusahaan,
a. 14 pegawai digaji pada
$16.50,
b. 10 pegawai pada
$20.00, &
c. 2 pegawai pada
$25.00.
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 14

Pembobotan Nilai Rata2: Contoh

Berapa nilai rata2 gaji per-jam yg dibayarkan kepada ke-26 pegawai ?


14($16.50) + 10($20.00) + 2($25.00) $481
=
=
= $.
14 + 10 + 2
26

2. Seorang Mahasiswa ingin,


menghitung nilai oktan rata2 antara 2 jenis bbm (premium & pertamax) yg
digunakan pada sepeda motor dgn kapasitas tangki 4 liter.
Nilai oktan...
a. Premium adalah 88 &
b. Pertamax adalah 92.
Mahasiswa mengisi 2 liter premium & 2 liter pertamax.
Berapa nilai oktan rata2 diperolehnya ?
=

2(88) + 2(92) + 2($25.00) 176 + 184 360


=
=
=
2+2
4
4

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 15

Part2: Nilai Tengah

Nilai Tengah: Definisi

Nilai Tengah (The Median). Defn:


Nilai yg diperoleh setelah diurutkan dari,
a. nilai terkecil ke nilai terbesar atau sebaliknya
b. dari nilai terbesar ke nilai terkecil.
Sifat/Karakteristik Nilai Tengah:
Nilai tengah
1. Memiliki keunikan utk setiap set data.
2. Tidak terpengaruh oleh,
nilai yg sangat besar atau kecil & pengukuran suatu harga dari
...tendensi sentral (central tendency) ketika nilai diperoleh.
3. Dapat dihitung utk,
Tingkat data
a. Rasio,
b. Interval &
c. Ordinal.
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 17

Nilai Tengah: Contoh

Contoh 1:
Suatu sampel umur dari 5 mahasiswa sebagai berikut: 21, 25, 19,
20, 22
Pengaturan data dgn urutan pertambahan (ascending order)
menjadi:
19, 20, 21, 22, 25
Sehingga nilai tengah (median) yg diperoleh adalah 21
Contoh 2:
Suatu sampel tinggi badan dari 6 pemain bola basket dalam
centimeter sebagai berikut: 130, 120, 115, 124, 128, 110
Pengaturan data dgn urutan pertambahan (ascending order)
menjadi:
110, 115, 120, 124, 128, 130
Sehingga nilai tengah (median) yg diperoleh adalah 122
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 18

Modus: Definisi

Modus (Mode). Defn:


Nilai dari observasi/pengamatan yg paling sering terjadi/muncul.

Jumlah responden yg menyukai aroma minyak utk mandi


Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 19

Modus: Contoh

The annual salaries of,


quality control managers in selected states are shown below.
What is the modal annual salary ?
State
Arizona

Salary

State

$35,000 Illinois

Salary
$58,000

State
Ohio

Salary
$50,000

California

49,100 Louisiana

60,000

Tennessee

60,000

Colorado

60,000 Maryland

60,000

Texas

71,400

Florida

60,000 Massachusetts

40,000

West Virginia

60,000

Idaho

40,000 New Jersey

65,000

Wyoming

55,000

A perusal of the salaries reveals that,


the annual salary of $60.000 appears more often (6 times) than any
other salary.
The mode is, therefore, $60,000
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 20

Pengukuran Nilai: Mean, Median & Mode

The Relative Positions of the Mean, Median & the Mode

x
Mean = 20
Median = 20
Mode = 20

Years

Zero Skewness
mode = median = mean

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

Frequency

Skewed to the right


(positively skewed)
y
x

Weekly
Mode Median Mean Income
$300 $500

$700

Positive Skewness
mode < median < mean

-1509SB04-

Skewed to the left


(negatively skewed)

Frequency

Frequency

Symmetric
(zero skewness)

Tensile
Mean Median Mode Strength
2,600 2,800

3000

Negative Skewness
mode > median > mean
Hal 21

Geometric Mean: Formula

a. Useful in finding the average change


of percentages, ratios, indexes, or
growth rates over time.
b. It has a wide application in business &
economics because,
we are often interested in finding
the percentage changes in sales,
salaries, or economic figures,
such as the GDP, which compound or
build on each other.
c. The geometric mean will always be
less than or equal to the arithmetic
mean.
d. The formula for the geometric mean
is written:
GEOMETRIC MEAN
=

Example:
Suppose you receive a 5 percent
increase in salary this year & a 15
percent increase next year.
The average annual percent
increase is 9.886, not 10.0.
Why is this so ?
We begin by calculating the
geometric mean.
=

(. )(. ) = .

( )( ) ( )

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 22

Geometric Mean: Example

The Geometric Mean Finding an Average Percent Change Over Time


Example:
During the decade of the 1990s, & into the 2000s,
Las Vegas, Nevada, was the fastest-growing city in the United States.
The population increased from 258,295 in 1990 to 552,539 in 2007.
This is an increase of 294,244 people or a 113.9 percent increase over
the 17-year period.
What is the average annual increase ?
AVERAGE PERCENT
INCREASE OVER TIME
=

17

Value at end of period


1
Value at start of period
552,539
1 = 1.0457 1 = .
258,295

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 23

Dispersion: About

a. A measure of location,
such as the mean or the median, only describes the center of the data.
It is valuable from that standpoint, but it does not tell us anything about
the spread of the data.
b. For example,
if your nature guide told you that the river ahead averaged 3 feet in
depth,
would you want to wade across on foot without additional information ?
Probably not. You would want to know something about the variation in
the depth.
c. A second reason,
for studying the dispersion in a set of data is
to compare the spread in 2 or more distributions.
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 24

Dispersion: About (Cont.)

Histogram of Years of Employment at


Hammond Iron Works, Inc.

Hourly Production of Computer


Monitors at the Baton Rouge & Tucson
Plants
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 25

Part3: Dispersi

Dispersion: Formula

Measures of Dispersion

a. Range
Range = Largest value Smallest value

b. Mean Deviation
=

c.

Variance & Standard Deviation


Population Variance

)
=

Population Standard Deviation =

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

( )

Hal 27

Range: Example

The number of cappuccinos,


sold at the Starbucks location in the Orange Country Airport
between 4 & 7 p.m.
for a sample of 5 days last year were 20, 40, 50, 60, & 80.
Determine the range for the number of cappuccinos sold.

Range = Largest - Smallest value


= 80 20
= 60

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 28

Mean Deviation: Formula

MEAN DEVIATION: The arithmetic mean of the absolute values of the


deviations from the arithmetic mean
a.

b.

A shortcoming of the range is,


that it is based on only 2 values, the highest & the lowest,
it does not take into consideration all of the values.
The mean deviation,
measures the mean amount by which the values in
a population, or sample, vary from their mean
MEAN DEVIATION

Where:
X

n
||

: is the value of each observation


: is the arithmetic mean of the values
: is the number of observations in the sample
: indicates the absolute value

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 29

Mean Deviation: Example

The number of cappuccinos,


sold at the Starbucks location in the Orange Country Airport between
4 & 7 p.m.
for a sample of 5 days last year were 20, 40, 50, 60, & 80.
Determine the mean deviation for the number of cappuccinos sold.
Step
a) 1: Compute the mean
20 + 40 + 50 + 60 + 80
=
=
= 50

b) 2: Subtract the mean (50),


from each of the observations,
convert to positive if difference is negative

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 30

Mean Deviation: Example (Cont.)

c) 3: Sum the absolute differences found in step 2 then divide by the


number of observations
Number of
Cappuccinos Sold Daily

(X - )

Absolute Deviation

20

(20 50) = -30

30

40

(40 50) = -10

10

50
(50 50) = 0
60
20 + 40 + 50 + 60(60
+ 80
50)
= 10
=
=
= 50
80
5
(80 50) = 30

0
10
30
Total

80

80
=
= 16

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 31

Arithmetic Mean: Variance & Standard Deviation

VARIANCE: The arithmetic mean of the squared deviations from the


mean.
STANDARD DEVIATION: The square root of the variance.
a. The variance & standard deviations are nonnegative & are zero only if
all observations are the same.
For populations whose values are
b. near the mean, the variance & standard deviation will be small.
c. dispersed from the mean, the population variance & standard
deviation will be large.
d. The variance overcomes the weakness of the range by using all the
values in the population

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 32

Variance: Formula & Computation

POPULATION VARIANCE

)
=

Where:

: is the population variance ( is the lowercase Greek latter


sigma). It is read as sigma squared
X
: is the value of an observation in the population

: is the arithmetic mean of the population


N
: is the number of obervations in the population
Steps in Computing the Variance
Step
a) 1: Find the mean.
b) 2: Find the difference between each observation & the mean, & square
that difference.
c) 3: Sum all the squared differences found in step 3
d) 4: Divide the sum of the squared differences by the number of items in the
population.
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 33

Variance & Standard Deviation: Example

The number of traffic citations issued last year in Beaufort County, South
Carolina, is reported below:
Month

Jan

Feb

March

April

May

June

July

August

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citations

19

17

22

18

28

34

45

39

38

44

34

10

What is the population variance ?


Step
a) 1: Find the mean.
b) 2: Find the difference between each observation & the mean, &
square that difference.
c) 3: Sum all the squared differences found in step 3
d) 4: Divide the sum of the squared differences by the number of items in
the population.

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 34

Variance & Standard Deviation: Example


Citations
(X)

X-

( )

January

19

-10

100

February

17

-12

144

March

22

-7

49

April

18

-11

121

May

28

-1

June

34

25

July

45

16

256

August

39

10

100

September

38

81

October

44

15

225

November

34

25

December

10

-19

361

348

1,488

Month

Total
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

19 + 17 + + 34 + 10
=
12
348
=
=
12

)
=

1,488
=
=
12

-1509SB04-

Hal 35

Sample Variance: Formula

SAMPLE VARIANCE

)
=

Where:

: is the sample variance


X
: is the value of each
observation in the sample

: is the mean of the sample


n
: is the number of obervations
in the sample

Example:
The hourly wages for a sample
of part-time employees at Home
Depot are:
$12, $20, $16, $18, & $19.
What is the sample variance ?
Hourly Wage (X)

X -

( )

$12

-$5

25

20

16

-1

18

19

$85

40

)
40

=
=

51

= 10 in dollars squared
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 36

Sample Standard Deviation: Formula

SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION

S=

()

Where:

: is the sample standard deviation


X
: is the value of each observation in the sample

: is the mean of the sample


n
: is the number of obervations in the sample

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 37

Arithmetic Mean: Chebyshevs Theorem

The arithmetic mean,


biweekly amount contributed by the Dupree
Paint employees to the companys profit-sharing
plan is $51.54, &
the standard deviation is $7.51.
At least what percent of the contributions lie
within plus 3.5 standard deviations &
minus 3.5 standard deviations of the mean?

Chebyshevs Theorem
For any set of observations (sample or population),
the proportion of the values that lie within k
standard deviations of the mean is
at least 1-1/k2, where k is any constant
greater than 1.

Pafnuty L. Chebyshev
Professor Mathematics
in Moscow

1
1
=1
=1
= 0.92
2

(3.5)
12.25
Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 38

Empirical Rule: About

Empirical Rule
For a symmetrical,
bell-shaped frequency
distribution, approximately,
68% of the observations will lie
within plus & minus one standard
deviation of the mean;
about 95% of the observations
will lie within plus & minus 2
standard deviations of the mean
&
practically all (99.7%) will lie
within plus & minus 3 standard
deviations of the mean

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

A Symmetrical,
Bell-Shaped Curve Showing
the Relationships between
the
a. Standard Deviation &
b. Observations
-1509SB04-

Hal 39

Arithmetic Mean: Grouped Data

ARITHMETIC MEAN OF GROUPED DATA

Where:

M
f
fM
fM
n

: is the designation for the sample mean


: is the midpoint of each class
: is the frequency in each class
: is the frequency in each class times the midpoint of the class
: is the sum of these products
: is the total number of frequencies

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 40

Arithmetic Mean: Grouped Data (Cont.)

Example:
From a car dealer selling price information data of their products,
we constructed a frequency distribution for the vehicle selling prices.
Determine the arithmetic mean vehicle selling price.
Selling Prices
($ thousands)

Frequency

15 up to 18

18 up to 21

23

21 up to 24

17

24 up to 27

18

27 up to 30

30 up to 33

33 up to 36

Total

80

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 41

Arithmetic Mean: Grouped Data (Cont.)

Selling Prices
($ thousands)

Frequency (f)

Midpoint (M)

fM

15 up to 18

$16.5

$132.0

18 up to 21

23

19.5

448.5

21 up to 24

17

22.5

382.5

24 up to 27

18

25.5

459.0

27 up to 30

28.5

228.0

30 up to 33

31.5

126.0

33 up to 36

34.5

69.0

Total

80

$1,845.0

Solving for the arithmetic mean using formula, we get:

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

$1,845
= $23,1 (thousands)
80
-1509SB04-

Hal 42

Standard Deviation: Grouped Data

Standard Deviation of Grouped Data


STANDARD DEVIATION, GROUPED DATA

Where:

M
f
n

S=

()

: is the symbol for the sample standard deviation


: is the midpoint of each class
: is the class frequency
: is the number of observations n the sample
: is the designation for the sample mean

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 43

Standard Deviation: Grouped Data (Cont.)

Refer to the frequency distribution for the Whitner Autoplex data used earlier.
Compute the standard deviation of the vehicle selling prices
Selling Prices
($ thousands)

Frequency
(f)

Midpoint
(M)

(M - )

(M - )2

f(M - )2

15 up to 18

$16.5

-6.6

43.56

348.48

18 up to 21

23

19.5

-3.6

12.96

298.08

21 up to 24

17

22.5

-0.6

0.36

6.12

24 up to 27

18

25.5

2.4

5.76

103.68

27 up to 30

28.5

5.4

29.16

233.28

30 up to 33

31.5

8.5

70.56

282.24

33 up to 36

34.5

11.4

129.96

259.92

Total

80

S=

()

Powered by HarukaEdu.com

1,531.80
1,531.8
801

=4.403
-1509SB04-

Hal 44

Course : Statistika Bisnis I (1509SB04)

online.uwin.ac.id
Associate Partners :
Powered
by HarukaEdu.com
Powered
by HarukaEdu.com

-1509SB04-

Hal 45