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Academic Writing English

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

Unit 1: Subject and Verb Agreement


I. Definition: Subject and verb agreement deals with making two parts of sentence
match or agree; you decide whether the subject is singular or plural and make the
verb form match the subject.
a/ A singular subject takes a singular verb
Example:
-

The book is interesting.


A student at Angkor Language School writes grammar very well.
The window opens easily.
The shop assistant tells me that you are Mr. Satyaks brother.

b/ A plural subject takes a plural verb


Example:
-

The books are interesting.


Students at Angkor Language School write grammar very well.
The windows open easily.
The shop assistants tell me that you are Mr. Satyaks brother.

c/ When the subject follows the verb, as in question and in sentence beginning
with here or there, the subject and the verb must agree.
Example:
-

Where is your stapler?


Here is your stapler.
Where are your shoulder bags?
Here are you shoulder bags.
There is a pencil sharpener in my drawer.
There are six books on the table.

Sentences with compound subjects can cause confusion. To avoid these


errors, study the following rules.
d/ When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by either. or,
neither..nor, not only..but( also), the verb agree with the nearest subject.
either
neither

or
+ noun + nor + singular noun + singular verb

Ex:
-

Neither John nor his friend is going to the beach today.


Either the students or the teacher is studying grammar for writing.
Neither the boys nor Carmen has seen this movie before.
Neither the director nor the secretary wants to help him because he is so lazy.
either

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or
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neither

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

+ noun + nor + plural noun + singular verb

Example:
-

Neither John nor his friend is going to the beach today.


Either the students or the teacher wants to visit the United States of
America.
Either Reaksa or her parent works in ANZ.
Neither brother nor my sister wants to study in Phnom Penh.
not only + noun + but also + singular noun + singular verb

Example:
-

Not only the students but also the teacher works in Cambodia.
Not only my brothers but also my sister travels around the world.

not only + noun + but also + plural noun + plural verb

-Not only the students but also the teachers work in Cambodia.
-Not only my brothers but also my sisters travel around the world.

e/ When a singular subject is joined to other words by interviewing expression


such as as long as, as well as, together with, in addition to, accompanied by,
with, as well as, the verb should be singular.
Example:
-

The actor, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.
Mr. Robin, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.
My teacher, as well as, his students, wants to see the concert.
The students, accompanied by their mothers, have gone to the US to see the football
match.

f/ Most compound subjects joined by and take plural verbs.


Example:
-

The book and the pencil are in my bag.


The cook and the waiters are from Battambang.
Solida and Makara work in the office.
Sophorn and Riam study at Angkor Language School.

g/ A phrase beginning with a verb form ending with ing can be the subject of
the sentence. The phrase like this always takes a singular verb.
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Academic Writing English

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Example:
-

Ridding the horse is the mens favorite sport.


Walking on the mountain makes me happy.
Learning grammar for writing is the best step to know English well.
Running around the house in the morning is my habit.

h / When a relative pronoun is a subject, the verb must agree in number with the
word the relative pronoun stands for.
Example:
-

There are two apples that are still green.


He is a man who tells me the problem.
I can tell you the reason that makes me unhappy.
Can you tell me the student who wants to study academic Writing English?

i/ Often words may not seem clearly singular or plural. The following list will
have you to avoid confusion in determining agreement.
Always singular

always plural

either singular or plural

anybody, anyone, anything


several, few, both, many,..
everybody, everyone, everything
somebody, someone, something
nobody, no one, nothing

all, some, any, most, none, no,..

Example:
-

Every body comes from Phnom Penh.


No one tells me that you are going to USA next week.
Nobody works hard here.
Several students go out without telling me the reason.
None of the students have finished exam yet.
None of the counterfeit money has been found.

The end

Unit 2: Four Traditional Sentence Patterns


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Academic Writing English

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

I. Clauses:
Definition: Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause is a group of
words that contains at least a subject and a verb.
1. Independent/ Main/ Principle Clauses
Kinds of Clauses
2. Dependent/ Subordinate Clauses
1. Independent Clauses:
An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a
sentence by itself.
Form:

sub + verb + (complement)


Example:
-

I want to study academic writing English.


She is my sister.
I am a clever student in Angkor Language School.
Vathana is working in the office.
I have studied English for two years.

2. Dependent Clauses:
A dependent clause begins with a subordinator such as when, while, if, that, as
long as, although, even though, even if, so long as,
Subordinators + sub + verb + (complement)

Example:
.. although students normally spend many years in collage.
.. when she tells me about the problem.
.. if you want to know about the real situation.
.. while I was writing the articles.
.. even though she doesnt love me.
.. even if I dont have money to pay for my school.
.. in spite of the fact that she is angry with me.

II.Clause Connectors:
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Academic Writing English

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a. Subordinators ( Subordinating Conjunctions)


After, before, that, when, which, although, even though, though, whenever, while,
as, how, unless, where, who, as if, if, until, wherever, whom, as soon as, since,
what, whether, whose, because, so that,..
b. Coordinators (Coordinating Conjunctions)

For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.( FANBOYS)


c. Conjunctive Adverbs
Accordingly, furthermore, in contrast, meanwhile, on the other hand, beside, hence,
indeed, moreover, otherwise, consequently, however, in stead, nevertheless,
therefore, for example, in addition, likewise, nonetheless, thus,
III. Four Traditional Sentence Patterns
Sentence is a group of words that are used to communicate your idea. Every
sentence is formed from one or more clauses and expresses a complete thought.
There are basically four kinds of sentences:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex Sentence

1. Simple Sentence:
A simple sentence is one independent clause. A simple sentence has a single
subject-verb agreement. A simple sentence may have more than one subject, more
than one verb or several subjects and verbs.
Example:
-

The children smiled and waved at us.


My brother wants to go to Battambang next week.
The doctor tells me about my serious illness.
Dara and Chanta drove home.
The prime minister and the lawyer are talking about the economic crisis.
The wind and water dried my hair.
Sreyneang and Linda are singing and playing piano.
The students and the teacher in the class are reading, listening, and doing exercises.

2. Compound Sentence:
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A compound sentence is made up of two (or more) simple sentences. The


compound sentences are formed with:
a. / Compound Sentence with Coordinating Conjunctions
independent clause + , + coordinating conjunction + independent clause

Form:

Example:
-

God made the earth, and people made the world.


Our hoard is little, but our heart is great.
He must surrender, or he will die.
You must go to school, for to day it is the exam day.
Many American dont eat a healthy diet, nor do they get enough exercise.
Many Japanese men smoke, yet the Japanese have long life experiences.
Many tourists come to visit Angkor Wat, so the government has to
concentrate on the security problem.

b. / Compound Sentence with Conjunctive Adverb


independent clause + ; + conjunctive adv. + , + independent clause
Example:
- The earthquake damaged the wall structure; moreover, it broke some water pipes.
- Student must take the final exam; otherwise, they will receive a bad result.
- English speakers have different needs; therefore, most schools provide separate
English classes.

c. / Compound Sentence with Semicolons


independent clause + ; + independent clause

Example:
-

I have studied English for along time; I cant speak it well.


I must try hard to study; I will receive a good result.
My mother never study English, she can speak to the foreigners.
I am very old now to continue my studying; I should have time to go to the pagoda.
You should tell your parents about your mistakes; you will be caught by polices.

3. Complex Sentence:
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A complex sentence is made up of one independent clause and one (or more)
dependent clause.
Example:
-

Although woman could own property, they could not vote.


If they win election, they promise to warmly help our people who live in
this village.
We appeal to them for food and water because we are starving to death.
Manufacturers can reduce output if they know this.
Though students have money, he cant buy the knowledge.
Cambodia, which was the peaceful country, is now a land full of dangers.
Children who study at public school dont pay the money
A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend.

4. Compound-Complex Sentence:
A compound-complex sentence is a combination of two (or more) independent
clauses and one (or more) dependent clause.
Example:
-

I want to travel after I graduated from collage; however, I had to go to


work immediately.
Although women could own property, they could not vote, nor do they
are elected to the public office.
The house whose roof has thousand of hole belongs to Molika, but now
they sell it to her uncle because it is very old.
When the power line snapped, Jack was listening to the stereo, and Linda
was reading in bed.
After I returned to school following a long illness, the math instructor
gave me makeup work, but the history instructor made me drop her
course.

Unit 3: Adjective Clause


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Academic Writing English

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

I. Definition: an adjective clause is a dependent clause introduced by relative


pronouns or relative adverbs. It functions as an adjective, that is, it modifies or
describes a noun or pronoun in the independent clause.
Example:
The umbrella which has a broken handle in mine.
The book that I like the most is about ethics.
A man who is honest is admired.
She is the lady whom we all respect.
The time when the train leaves is not yet fixed.
The house where the accident occurred is near by.

The poor students, whom my school provided the scholarship to, when to school.

II. Relative Pronouns:


Relative pronoun is a word that is used to replace a noun or pronoun in the
dependent clause.
Subordinator
who
whom
which
that
whose + noun

meaning
refers only to person and is a subject pronoun.
refers only to person and is an object pronoun.
refers only to things and is a subject or object
pronoun
refers to things or people and is a subject or object
pronoun. ( in defining clause only)
refers to things or people and is a possessive.

III. Relative Adverbs:


Subordinator
where
when
why

meaning
refers to place.
refers to time.
refers to reason.

Note: All nouns in the main clause that are modified by adjective clause are
called antecedent.
Example:
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The students who study at Angkor Language School are very cute.
Battambang, which is a modern country, is very quiet.
I thanked the man who helped me.
The movie which we saw last night wasnt very good.

IV. How to Write Adjective Clauses:


1. Relative Pronouns
A. Subject Case:
noun + who, which, that + verb + (complement)
antecedent

subject case

Example:
We love the man who loves us.
A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend.

Hun Sen, who often colors his opponents to be the Khmer Rough, is sill one active

member of the Khmer Rough.


They never pardon the person who has done the wrong.
We will elect the man who can lead the people.
The moment is lost is lost forever.

B. Object Case:

noun + whom, which, that + verb + (complement)


antecedent

subject case

Example:
-

She lost everything to the man whom she loved.


We will elect the man whom we trust.
Ive just found the book that I lost.
We saw a strange flying object which we have never seen before.
She in a girl whom we meet at Angkor Language School.
2. Possessive/ Genitive Case:
A. Subject Case:
noun + whose+ noun + sub + v + (complement)

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antecedent

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possessive rel.

Example:
-

The house whose roof has thousands of holes belongs to me.


He whose temper is very easily infuriated by criticism must not work to serve the
public.
The teacher whose name Heng comes from Phnom Penh.

B. Object Case:
noun + whose+ noun + sub + v + (complement)

antecedent possessive rel.

Example:
-

The woman whom husband we me yesterday is Mrs. Molika.


My former friend whose name I forgot became a parliamentarian.
He prime minister whose wife went to Australia last week is my brother-in-law.

3. Relative Pronouns as Object of Preposition


Noun + preposition + which + whom + whose+noun + sub + v + ..
Example:
-

The director against whose leading apposes plans to resign.


A man to whom I spoke is the drug lord.
The office in which I work was moved yesterday.
The bus on which I got to Bovel broke down at Kbal Tnol.
The party for which I vote didnt win election.
The swindler with whom you conspired was arrested last night.

4. Relative Adverbs
Noun + when/ where/ why + sub + verb + ..
Example:
- The reason why I live you is you are pretty.
- On the day when you pass the exam, I will invite you to join my party.
-

I dont want to seat on the chair where everyone competes.


I went to Battambang last month where my sister lives.

V. Punctuation of Relative Clause


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Academic Writing English

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1. Non-defining / Non-restrictive/ Non-Essential Clause


Guidelines to remember about non-defining clause
a/ When the antecedent has the modifier preceding it
b/ When the antecedent is the name of specific place
d/ When the antecedent is the name of specific person
Example:
-

The teacher returned my test with a disappointed look, which made me


feel very uncomfortable.
Battambang, which is a beautiful town, has many universities.
Mr. Hak, who is my good teacher, has been to Phnom Penh to work.
The blind man, who is sitting next to my brother, is my teacher.

2. Defining/ Restrictive/ Essential Clause


common noun + relative word + .
Example:
-

The man who is playing the piano is blind.


I want to buy a television which is made from Japan.
The woman who is the director in BBU is very smart.
The girl whom I love lives in Battambang.

VI. Relative Pronouns in Phrase of quantity


Relative pronoun is also often the object of phrase of quantity:
some of which, one of which, all of which, each of whom, one of whom,
all of whom, most of which, most of whom, ..

Form:
Relative pro. In phrase of quantity + sub + verb +
Relative pro. In phrase of quantity + verb +

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Example:
-

The cleverest members meet weekly. Some of them were appointed by the mayor.

The cleverest members, some of whom were appointed by the mayor,


meet weekly.

I bought many expensive books. One of them is stated about how to write
a good proposal.

I bought many expensive books, one of which is stated about how to


write a good proposal.

The television station decided to show only movies. I had already seen
most of them.

The television station decided to show only movies, most of which I had
already.
I have talked to my friends. Each of them is very good at singing.
I have talked to my friends each of whom is very good at singing.

Unit 4: Adverb Clause


I. Definition: An adverb clause is a subordinate clause introduced by an adverb
subordinator. It is used to modify the verb of main clause.
Form 1

Sub + IV + adv. Subordinator + Sub + verb + complement

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Example:
-You may sit where you like.
-He advanced as far as he dared.
- The clock stuck just as I entered the room.
- Will you wait until I return?
Form 2

Sub + TV + Obj. + adv. Subordinator + Verb + Complement


Example:
- No body likes her because she is selfish.
- I keep it if I make a promise.
- Bopha saw galaxies when she looked at the small points.
Form 3

Adv. Subordinator + Sub + Verb + (Complement) +, + Main Clause


Example:
- If I am a bird, I will fly to meet you everyday.
- When I was young, I thought so.
- Although it may be necessary to spend some time in a hospital, most
people dont enjoy the stay.
- As he didnt understand, he asked the teacher to explain.

II. Types of Adverb Clauses:


1. Adverb Clause of Time:
The subordinators: (after, as, before, as soon as, by the time, once, since, till, until,
when, whenever, while)
Example:
- Whenever you come, dont forget to bring your daughter, too.
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- Hun Sen became a prime minister of Cambodia after he made accomplishment of


Paris peace Agreement on October 23, 1986.

After he had lost his wife, he settled in a remote village.


Hey! Shut up while he is singing.
By the time he gets back, the trail document will be ready.
As soon as she saw him, she shout David, darling!
Before you go, let me have one of that.
Democracy in Cambodia has never been better since the 1993 election was completed.

When he arrived, she was off.


Soon after we had escaped the tigers, we uncounted the crocodiles.

2. Adverb Clause of Place:


The subordinators: (where, wherever, everywhere, whence, whither, anywhere,
somewhere)
Example:
- There were stars wherever she looked.
- A crater was formed where the meteor bit the earth.
- I dont know anywhere she lives.
- She wants o meet you somewhere you are able to go to.
- He wrote all things everywhere he went to.
3. Adverb Clause of Purpose:
The subordinators (that, lest, in order that, so that, in order to)
Sub + verb ( present) + .+ lest, that, in order that, so that +
will, can, may + BF
Verb ( past)
would, could, might

Example:

- She turned her face away lest he should see her tears.
- Achar Hem Chiev sacrificed his life that Cambodia might be freed from the French
-

protectorate.
They speak in favor of the strong in order that they might be allowed to keep their
profitable positions longer.
I carved Khmer heroes names on the stone inscription so ( that) future men could
know their bravery.

- He wrote down the numbers, for fear he should forget them.


- He flatters me in order to benefit from me.
4. Adverb Clause of Manner:
The subordinators: ( as, as if, as though, just as, like)
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Example:
- Ancient people used the stars as if they were calendars.
- His health declines every day as though people contain AIDS.
- Your boyfriend lies me just as Im a foolish.
5. Adverb Clause of Cause, Reason, Effect:
The subordinators: (since, because, as, now that, so that, as long as, that)
Example:

- Since some planets are too far away from to spend people, computer operated space
probes are sent.
Spacesuits were designed for astronauts so that they could breathe in the space.
Our flight today has to postpone because the weather is not good.

- As her parents were not at home, she let him enter the house.
- I am very glad that you like it.
6. Adverb Clause of Result:

Adverb clause of result are introduced by subordinating conjunctions that, so, so


that, such. Frequently so or such precedes it in the principle clause.
Form 1:
Sub. + Verb + so + adj. /adv. + that + Clause
Main clause

sub + v +
Sub. clause

Example:

- He is so blind that he can not see things under his nose.


- We are so feed up with our leaders flip-flop talks that we hesitate to believe them.
- We khmer have been so good at killing one another that our solidarity has
-

increasingly deteriorated.
He is so smart that all the students want to study with him.
I am so lazy to do my homework that I fail my exam.
Reaksmey runs so fast that the teacher calls her a good racer.
You work so carefully that you dont have mistakes.

Form 2:
So + adj. / adv. + sub. + v + that + Sub. + v + ..
Adverb clause

Example:
So bravely did they fight that the enemy were driven off.
So beautiful woman she is that most men cant help loving her.
So terrible a disease broke out that very few of the people survived.
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Form 3:

Main clause + So that + Subordinate clause

Example:

- Very heavy rain fell so that rivers were soon in flood.


- Laws were quickly passed so that his abuse was checked.
- My brother has studied English for many years so that he can speak English well.
Form 3:
Sub + Verb + (in) + Such + a/ an + Noun/ Adj.+ Noun + That + Sub + Verb
Example:

- He behaved in such a manner that his reputation suffered.


- He taught his students in such a clumsy method that many of them could
not understand what he had explained.
- They pursued hr such a question she was angry.
- She has such a meant dog that no one goes to visit her house.
7. Adverb Clause of Condition:
The subordinators: (if, provided, provided that, unless, whether, in case that, in the
even that, even if, as far as, so long as, as long as, on the condition that, when, only if)
Example:
- Come in if you wish to.
- If you like it, I will give it to you.
- If you can not beat them, join them, folks.
- When everybody owns everything, nobody will take care of anything.
- When nothing is done, nothing is left undone.
- If one knows that one is ignorant, one is wiser than those who think they
know something that they dont know.
- You can study distance stars provided that you have a radio telescope.
- We will be able to settle our boundary dispute with the Thai so long as
they are willing to respectfully recognize our territorial integrity.
- Dont come unless I call.
- Our life will become orderly and harmonious only if we can discover
reality.
8. Adverb Clause of comparison:
Form: Adverb clause of comparison of degree.

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Sub + Verb ++ than/ as + Sub + verb +


Adv. cl

Example:
- He is older than he looks.
- It is later than I thought.
- She is more beautiful than her photo looks.
- No man on earth is smarter than I (am smart).
- He is not as clever as we think.
Remember that the verb of the adverb clause of comparison of degree is often
understood.
- Nobody knows it is better than I (do).
- Few leaders are better than he (is).
- Not many know the truth of this better than you (know it).
9. Adverb Clause of Concession/ Contrast:
Form:
Sub. + V+ though, although, even though, even if, however,..+ Sub.+V
Example:

I am honest though I am poor.


I always love her though she hates me so.
I would not do it even if you paid me.
Although I forbade this, you have done it.
However annoying his behavior may be, we can not get rid of him.
I am not angry with him in spite of the fact that his car splashes water at me.
Even if I dont go to study to day, I will review the lesson myself at home.
You can tell me about this problem even though I dont have the ability to help you.
Though some of people dont have enough money to support their family, they can
live on earth.
Even though I dont know all about English, I can teach my friends to understand.
Even if the phone is very expensive, Ill try my best to earn the money to buy it.

10.Adverb Clause of Strong Contrast:

Form:

Sub. + Verb + While/ whereas + Sub. + Verb + ..

Example:

- She is getting married while her husband is earning money to treat his mother illness.
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- The workers hold the demonstration whereas the firm is bankrupted in Cambodia.
-

Her husband excels to make money whereas she is good at keeping the family.

Unit 5: Noun Clause


I. Definition
A noun clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun. It has a subject and a verb, and it
can be a subject, an object or subject complement. Because noun clause is dependent, it must be
connected to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. A noun clause used as object is
preceded by an independent clause called and introductory clause. The noun clause is the object
of the introductory clause.
Example:
- I know that the people have different opinions about the Khmer roughs sentence in Cambodia.
- Whether he has signed the contact or not doesnt matter.
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II. Types of Noun Clause


1. That Clause: made from statement
2. Wh-question clause: made form wh-words
3. Yes, no question clause: made from yes, no question
A noun clause is composed of:

Subordinator + subject + (complement)


Noun Clause Subordinator
Subordinators
Statement

Wh-question

Yes, no question

Meaning

that
Who
Whoever
Whom
Whomever
Whose
What
Whatever
Which
Whichever
Where
Wherever
Wherever
When
Whenever
Why
How
How long
How much
How many, etc

whatever person

anything or everything

anyplace
anytime

whether (or not)


if

Sometimes the subordinator is used as the subject of the verb in the noun clause.
Only who, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever can be used as the subject
of verb in the noun clause.

1. That Clause
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Form:

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. That + sub + verb + (complement)

Function of Noun Clause


A/ Subject of Verb
Example:
-

That you should say so surprises me.


That he discovered was very important.
It + be/ seem + adj + that clause
It + be + seem + a/ an + that clause
It + be/ certain adjective/ past participle + that clause

What is certain adjective?


It is original adjective, such as angry, clever, smart, dirty, ..
Example:
-

It is pity that you father divorces.


It was so dismayed that she doesnt identify me.
It seems a nuisance that my aim fails to succeed.
It is an amazing that you want her to meet your parents.
It is wonderful that you get the scholarship to study in the United States.
It is interested that your class is going to start tomorrow.

B/ Object of Verb
Sub + verb + that clause
Sub + verb + to + noun/ pronoun + that clause
Sub + verb + object + that clause
Example:
-

I knew that he was wrong.


I hope that our people will be blessed.
Teacher explains to me that it is very important point.
She replied to you that she cancelled her visitation.
He assured that this work respected workers right.
I inform you that your action is abusing my right.

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Academic Writing English

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

Note group of verbs:


1. agree, answer, conclude, notice, realize, think, acknowledge, confess,
expect,
2. admit, explain, mention, point out, reply, take, .
3. assure, convince, inform, notify, remind, tell, allege, instruct, threaten, ..
4. promise, show, teach, warm, write(to), .
The verbs in group 1 dont take an indirect object.
Example:
-

The jury concluded that she was guilty.


I never thought that I would see her again.

The verbs in group 2 may or may not take an indirect object; however, if an
indirect object follows one o these verbs, to must be preceded.
Example:
-

The president explained (to the nation) that the country faced the deficit.
He mentions (to the press) that he might raise taxes.

The verb in group 3 must be followed by an indirect object.


Example:
-

The province governor told us that the province faced a serious food shortage.
We are pleased to inform you that you have been accepted for a place on our MBA
course.

The verbs in group 4 may or may not take an indirect object.


Example:
-

The mayor promised (the city employees) that they wouldnt lose their job.

He warned (them) that there wouldnt be no raises.

2. Wh-Question Clause
It is a dependent noun clause formed from a direct wh-question that is changed into
a statement and then joined to an introductory clause to form complex sentence. It
can follow two patterns: the subject pattern and the object pattern.
The following sentences are the examples of wh-question clause:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Who went to Vietnam with your parents?


Who is responsible for creating pollution and wasting resources?
What is the responsibilities of the director?
Who is that boy?
Where is the post office?
Whose pen is it?

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Academic Writing English

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7. Who are the students in the classroom?


8. Who is in the room with your sister?
Change the above sentences to wh-question clause:

a/ Wh-Question Word Order


Wh-question word as a subject pattern
Wh-question clause

Introductory Clause

You know

Wh-word

verb

who

is

complement
responsible for creating
pollution and wasting resources.

Note: A noun or a pronoun that follow the main verb be in a question comes in
front of be in a noun clause.
But: Adjective or prepositional phrase doesnt come in front of be in the noun
clause.
Example:
- Where is the post office? I really want to know where the post office is.
- You can tell me who is in the room with you sister.

Wh-question word as an object pattern


Wh-question clause

Introductory Clause

She asks me

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Wh-word

sub

how much

money

verb
is found

complement
in Battambang

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Academic Writing English

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Do, does or did is deleted when it is changed to wh-question clause.


The following are the direct wh-question:
-

How much money is found in Battambang?


How many animals die each year?
How old is Mr. Hak?
Where do you want to visit tomorrow?

Change the above sentences to wh-question clause:

b/ Functions of Wh-Question Clause


+ Wh-Question Clause as a Subject of Verb
Example:
-

What he said was true.


Why she wants me to go with her is not important to her.
That she calls me makes me so happy.
What you want to know is very difficult.

+ Wh-Question Clause as Object


Example:
-

I can not imagine what they promise their people.


I dont know what will happen with your friends tomorrow.
I want you to tell me why you betray your own people and country.
Nobody knows who she is.

+ Wh-Question Clause as Object of Preposition


Example:
-

Dont ask me about where has all this information.


Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.
No one was consulted on who should win the first prize.

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3. Yes, No Question Clause


Yes, no question word order
yes, no question clause

Introductory Clause

subordinator
Do you know

whether

sub

verb

complement

final exam

begins

next month?

The following examples are direct yes, no questions


-

Does final exam begin next month?


Is she a nurse in Battambang?
Does your brother come from USA?
Does she agree to go with you?
Have you ever studied grammar for writing before?

Change the above sentences to yes, no question clause:

Unit 6: Conjunctions
I. Definition
Conjunction is a word that is used to connect words, phrases, sentences, or clauses.

II. Kinds of Conjunctions


1.
2.
3.
4.

Coordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
Conjunctive Adverbs

1. Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunction is a conjunction placed between words, phrases, clause,
or sentences.
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They are:
For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So (FANBOYS)
a. Word + Word
Example:
-

He is poor but generous.


Marry is rich but stingy.
Lany and I want to have a party at the end of this month.
He is poor and stubborn.
I invited Helen, Dany, and David to my birthday party.
I dont want you and your brother to be hurt because of me.

b. Phrase + Phrase
Example:
-

I want to meet your parents and to tell him about your problem.
Bora likes listening to music and reading the articles.
Speaking English and writing English are very difficult to me.
Mary walks across the road and into the house.
I put all my books on the table, in my drawer, and in my bedroom.
My sister likes listening to music, watching TV, and playing football.

c. Sentence + Sentence
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So

: to join sentences when it introduces a reason or cause.


: to loin sentences that are alike.
: to loin two negative sentences
: to join sentences that are opposite or show contrast.
: to join sentences that give choices or alternatives.
: to join sentences when it shows unexpected contrasted.
: to join sentences when it introduces a reason or cause.

Example:
-

The manager was ill, so I went in his place.


It had rained heavily, so we stopped playing football.
David doesnt care about his health, yet he seems to be worried about it.
You go with me, or you stay at home.
Sam wants to marry soon, but he has no ability to save enough money.

2. Subordinating Conjunctions
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Subordinating conjunction is a conjunction which is used to make the subordinate


clause.

After although
Even though
When
Since

as
as if
unless so that
while
provided that

as long as
though
who
where

as though
until
which
how

because
before
than
whether

Example:
- Sophea wont stop shouting until you let her go.
- I dont think you should get married to Miss Vichera unless you love you.
- We dont know what they are thinking.
- Though my girlfriends family gets poor, I still love her.
- The girl who is sitting next to Mr. John is Miss Ranny.
3. Correlative Conjunctions
Either or, neither.. nor, both and, not only . But also
Example:

- Either Dany or Helen goes to Phnom Penh with me.


- Either students or the teachers want to work during holiday.
- Oh, my darling! You can buy either necklace or bracelet.
Note:
When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by either. or,
neither..nor, not only..but( also), the verb agree with the nearest subject.
either
neither

or
+ noun + nor + singular noun + singular verb

Ex:
-

Neither John nor his friend is going to the beach today.


Either the students or the teacher are studying grammar for writing.
Neither the boys nor Carmen has seen this movie before.
Neither the director nor the secretary wants to help him because he is so lazy.
either
neither

or
+ noun + nor + singular noun + singular verb

Example:
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Academic Writing English


-

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach today.
Either the students or the teacher want to visit the United States of America.

Either Reaksa or her parents work in ANZ.


Neither brother nor my sisters want to study in Phnom Penh.
not only + noun + but also + singular noun + singular verb

Example:
-

Not only the students but also the teacher works in Cambodia.
Not only my brothers but also my sister travels around the world.

not only + noun + but also + plural noun + plural verb


Example:
- Not only the students but also the teacher works in Cambodia.
- Not only my brothers but also my sister travels around the world.
- Not only the brothers but also your sisters want to play football with me.

4. Conjunctive Adverbs
Conjunctive adverb is a conjunction which is used to make compound sentence.
also accordingly besides
consequently
furthermore however
hence
instead
indeed
moreover nevertheless
nonetheless otherwise
therefore
in contrast

sentence + ; + conjunctive adverb + , + sentence


Example:
-

I have informed your mother to come to join my party; furthermore, she


wants to buy me a big present.
Dany loves Makara; however, she loves John.

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Academic Writing English


-

BY NHEAN CHANNKRISNA

I havent got time to see the film; beside, I try to earn some money.
Walk slowly on the ice; otherwise, you will fall.
Stop dealing with her; otherwise, you will be deceived by her.

The end

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