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TEACHING READING BY COMBINING

ANTICIPATION GUIDE AND PYRAMID DIAGRAM STRATEGY


FOR EIGHTH GRADE OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Oleh
Rafika Wati *)
**) Lili Perpisa, S.S M.Pd Staff Pengajar Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa
Inggris STKIP PGRI Sumatra Barat
ABSTRAK
Membaca adalah salah satu ketrampilan bahasa yang perlu di kembangkan
oleh berbagai
jenjang pendidikan, karena membaca adalah salah satu hal
penting di antara berbicara, mendengar dan menulis. Dengan membaca kita lebih
banyak mengetahui hal-hal yang dulunya tidak kita ketahui menggunakan bahasa
inggris. Dari teks yang di baca tersebut kita dapat memperoleh informasi yang
berhubungan dengan hal-hal yang kita senangi. Minat yang timbul itu merupakan
doromgan yang membuat kita meras tertarik untuk membaca dan memahami apa
yang disampaikan oleh penulis melalui tulisan nya. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk
membantu mengatasi salah satu dari sekian banyak permasalahan yang ada dalam
pengajaran membaca (reading) pada sekolah menengah pertama (SMP). Selain itu
makalah ini juga dimaksudkan sebagai masukan bagi guru-guru bahasa inggris
dalam melaksanakan pelajaran sehingga siswa tertarik dan termotivasi untuk
belajar membaca khususnya dalam pemahaman narrative text. Untuk proses
belajar mrngajar Bahasa Inggris, diperlukan adanya suatu strategi pembelajaran
yang tepat dan efektif, yang bisa membantu siswa untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan mereka didalam belajar Bahasa Inggris. Anticipation guide and
pyramid diagram strategy adalah sebagai salah satu dari strategy dalam
pengajaran membaca di kelas, yang dapat membantu siswa menjadi lebih aktif
untuk mengidentifikasi konsep dan pernyataan yang berhubungan dengan teks,
dan siswa dapat memahami teks dengan mudah. Tujuan dari pengabungan dua
strategi ini agar siswa termotivasi untuk membaca dan siswa menjadi lebih aktif
dan kreatif dalam belajar bahasa inggris khususnya membaca.
Key words: Reading, Anticipation Guide and Pyramid Diagram Strategy

*)penulis
**)pembimbing

INTRODUCTION
The skill of reading should be

the teacher did not attractive medium

learned by students in learning

facial expressions and intonation in

English. Students need this skill in

reading. In teaching reading the

learning process. Whereas, this skill

teacher

should be taught well. In teaching

students, so the students did nit

reading especially junior high school

boring in teaching reading.

to teach the students and did not have

gave

good

example

to

level, the teacher have purpose to

Based on the problem above,

make students become better reader

the teacher needs the new strategy

but some of them can understand

that can be change that situation. The

what is the text about they can get

teacher hopes the new strategy can

the ideas when they readers because

help

they dont the same ability.

understand about the material in

In

fact,

the

writers

students

teaching

and

English,

teacher

especially

to

in

experience during teaching practice

teaching reading. There are many

at junior high school 1 Bayang

strategies

Pesisir Selatan, the writer found

through strategy, Give One Get One

some

Strategy,

problems

reading.

First,

of
the

students

in

students

of

teaching

3-2-1

reading

Strategy,

Anticipation Guide Strategy and

vocabulary. The writer found some

Pyramid

students did not understand meaning

Anticipation Guide Strategy is a

from vocabulary in the text. The

strategy that use by the teacher to

students

in

help the students to consider their

interpreting the word because the

thoughts and opinion about a text.

students lazy to check dictionary.

Pyramid Diagram Strategy is a

Second, students are lazy to read

strategy that used by the teacher to

because the text is long.

help

were

Other

very difficult

problem

from

the

teacher. First, the teacher gave some


reading material very long so, the
students are lazy to read. Second, the
teacher only gave the text and did not
explain meaning from the text. Third,

the

Diagram

students

Strategy.

to

determine

important detail from reading.


REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE
Reading
is

RELATED
a

process

transferring idea, opinion, massage


from the text. Reading is one of the

most important for students because

that the process need the language

through the reading the students get

skill and critical thinking in which

information. It means that in reading

there is communication between

activity the reader will involve

reader and writer directly.

themselves to the text when they read


and they will use their cognitive to

Teaching Reading

comprehend the text. According to

Teaching reading is a process

Biel (1999:2) reading is a complex

of read in the English classroom that

process.

about

can understanding the text easily and

identifying words but also about

improves interaction between the

understanding them.

teacher and students to find meaning

It

is

not

just

Furthermore,

harmer

or

information

from

the

text.

(2003:6)defines reading is useful for

According to Davies and Pears

other purpose too: any exposure to

(2000:92), the teaching of reading is

English

students

similar to the teaching of listening,

understand it more or less) is a good

but in teaching English, teaching

thing for language students.

reading consider as most important

(provided

Meanwhile, Nunan (2003:68)

than teaching reading. It means that,

states that reading is a fluent process

in teaching reading, the teacher asks

of readers combining information

students to read and other ask to

from

listen.

background

text

and

knowledge

their

own

to

build

In

here

the

students

understand what the students read.

meaning. On the other hand, Seller

Then, Nona (2003:68) says

(2004:3) adds that reading is the

that teaching reading usually has at

process of obtaining or constructing

last to aspect. First, it can refer to

meaning from a word or cluster of

teaching learners who are learning to

word.

read for the very first time. A second


Based on the explanation

aspect of teaching reading in there

above, it can be concluded that

refers to teaching learners who

reading is one of ways to get the

already have reading skills in their

meaning

firs language.

as

information

or

knowledge from the text. It means

However, Harmer (2003:69)

for

teachers

because

the

states that, there are many reason in

teachers way to help the

teaching reading skill. First, reading

students understand to the

is language acquisition of other

text and help them to acquire

purposes

knowledge

such

as

the

process.

about

get

Second, English writing for provided

information that the students

good models in reading text.

get in the text classroom.

Moreover, teaching reading


involves principle of science that can

Anticipation Guide Strategy

help the students in learning. Harmer

According to Herber

(2003:70) states that teaching reading

(1992:45)

writes

that

consists of six the principle of

Anticipation Guide is strategy

follows:

that helps students to active

a) Reading is not passive skill.

prior knowledge. the guide

b) Students need to be engaged

also focuses and motivates

with what they are reading.


c) Students

should

students

reading

and

be

Anticipation Guide strategy is

encouraged to respond to the

a front loading strategy that

content of a reading text, not

forecasts major ideas in parts.

just to the language.

Furthermore, Gunning

d) Predication is a major factor


in reading.

(1996),

Bonikowski

and

Mchrings (1999) state that

e) Match the task to the topic.

this strategy allows students

f) Good teacher exploit reading

to consider thoughts and

texts to the full.


Based

on

explanation

opinion

the

experts

have

about

variations topics in order to

it

create an interest in the

teaching

material that is being covered

reading is a learning process

and to establish a purpose for

to extracting and constructing

reading the material.

concludes

above,

that

that

new knowledge contained in


the text. It is very important

In
Duffelmeyer

addition,
(1994:257),

Wood, Taylor,

Drye

and

the group says. The group does not

Brigman (2007:257) describe

need to reach consensus. Last, at the

that Anticipation Guide is a

end of the session, read each

before

self

statement aloud. After each one,

that

elicit a report from the reporter in

contains a list of true or false

each group. Finally, revisit the

statements related to the topic

anticipation guide after the reading

or the text your students will

of the text. And compare the

be

students thoughts and ideas before

reading

assessment

activity

reading.

Anticipation

guides can include statement


that

trigger

and after the reading.

disagreement

among students and challenge

Advantages of Anticipation Guide

their

Strategy

own

something

beliefs
they

about

will

be

reading.

In

addition,

Brigman

(2007:257)describe that anticipation


guide is a before reading self

Procedure of Anticipation Guide

assessment activity that contains a

Strategy

list of true or false statements related

There

some

experts

that

to the topic or the text your students

express procedures of anticipation

will be reading. Anticipation guide

guide strategy to identify in the

can include statements that trigger

classroom. Daffelmeyer (1994:275)

disagreement among students and

state that there are six procedures of

challenge their own beliefs about

anticipation guide strategy. First,

something they will be reading.

procedure is grouping your students


in pairs or in small heterogeneous
groups of four or five. Second, give
each

students

copy

of

Pyramid Diagram Strategy


Strategy can be defined by

the

the teacher as a tool or way to get the

anticipation guide. Third, ask the

teaching process runs well. Besides

reader to read each statements; the

that, a good strategy that is used by

leader should lead the discussion.

the teacher will help students to do

Then, ask the scribe to record what

their reading process by using an

appropriate strategy in teaching. The

that is designed to help the reader to

teacher can determine how affective

understand summarize the text. This

the reading process to be done. Solon

strategy is

(1990:137) adds that the pyramid

requires readers to focus on the

diagram is another strategy that not

major elements of a text and to

only help students recognize which

decide what is important when

concepts and details are important to

reading longer text. This strategy

remember about a topic but also help

help readers to study a topic kind of

them process those fact and details as

text. This is a simple strategy to be

the done conclusions about the

applied in classroom.

good

to

summarize

materials and finally create a well


developed summarize of what was

Procedure of Pyramid Diagram

read.

There
Furthermore, Boehl (1995)

procedures

are
of

some

experts

pyramid

diagram

states that the pyramid diagram

strategy. According to Solom

guides

selecting

Boehl (2001), mention that there are

from

seventh

students

appropriate

in

information

procedures

of

and

pyramid

reading to be analyzed and helps

diagram strategy. First, develop a

them consider possible implication of

focusing question for students to use

this material.

as they read the assigned. Second,

In addition, Solom as found

instruct students that, as they read,

in Boehl says that pyramid diagram,

they

this strategy asks students to search

pertinent to the focusing question on

out important facts and then, from

ideas card. There cards will become

those facts, draw conclusions and

layer 4 in the pyramid diagram.

develop a summary of what was

Third, when students have competed

read. And pyramid diagram is to help

the reading. Next, students should

students determine important detail

arrange their fact cards under the

prom their reading.

appropriate category card. Next,

Based on explanation above,

should

when all

the

record

facts

information

have been

it can be concluded that pyramid

appropriately

categorized.

Ask

diagram strategy is a reading strategy

students to develop a title for the

pyramid that reflects the overall

The result of the combining of these

topic. This card will become layer 1

strategies. The writer used only

in the pyramid diagram. Then, using

expert

all the information in the pyramid

Anticipation Guide and Solom and

diagram, instruct students to write a

Boehl

brief summary of what they have

Strategy are:

Duffelmeyer

from

Pyramid

from

Diagram

learned on an index card. And place

(1) Group the students in pair or

this card atop the category level.

small heterogeneous groups

These cards will become layer 2 in

of four or five (one group six

the pyramid diagram. Last, utilizing

people)

the entire pyramid diagram, students


develop a full paragraph conclusion
relating to the focusing question by
using layer 2 of the pyramid diagram

(2) Choose or let them chose


roles for each person
(3) Give each students a copy of
the anticipation guide.

as the topic sentence, items in layer 3

(4) Asks the reader to read each

to expand on the topic sentences, and

statement; the leader should

items in layer 1 to supply details to

lead the discussion.

illustrate the points made.

(5) Asks the scribe to record


what the group say. The

Advantages of Pyramid Diagram


Solom and Boehl (2001) say

group does not need to reach


consensus.

that pyramid diagram strategy asks

(6) At the end of the session,

students to search out important facts

read each statement aloud.

and then, from those facts, draw

After each one, elicit a report

conclusions and develop a summary

from the report in each group.

of what was read. And pyramid

(7) Revisit the anticipation guide

diagram is to help students determine

after the reading of the text,

important details from their reading.

and compare the students

Teaching Reading by Combing

thoughts and ideas before and

Anticipation Guide and Pyramid

after the reading.

Diagram Strategy

(8) Develop a focusing question


for students to use as they

read the assigned. Instruction

(13)

Utilizing the entire

students that, as they read,

pyramid

they

develop

should

record

diagram,
a

full

student
paragraph

information pertinent to the

conclusion relating to the

focusing question on ideas

focusing question by using

card.

will

layer 2 of the pyramid as the

the

topic sentence, items in layer

These

become

cards

layer

in

pyramid diagram.
(9) When

3 to expand on the topic

students

have

competed the reading.


(10)

Students

sentence, and item in layer 1


to supply detail to illustrate

should

the point made.

arrange their fact cards under


the appropriate category card.
(11)

When all the facts

have

been

appropriately

categorized. Asks students to


develop

title,

pyramid

that

for

the

reflects

the

overall topic. This card will


become

layer

in

the

pyramid diagram.
(12)

Using

all

the

information in the pyramid


diagram, instruct students to
write a brief summary of
what they have learned on an
index card. And place this
card atop the category level.
These cards will become
layer

diagram.

in

the

pyramid

CONCLUSION
reading is a skill that needs
attention by the English teacher,
reading is not only skill that asks the
students have fluency in reading, but
also the skill that the students should
understand what they read. For
example, the readers know the
meaning from what they read. Then,
the students are able to find
information from what they read.
Besides that, the students are able to
share what they get to the others. So,
that is why the English teacher
should be aware about the process of
teaching and learning.
By reading the students get
information from ideas, opinions,
and massages from printed word.
However many students still have
difficulty in reading. Because of that,
to
improve
students
reading
comprehension, the writer chooses
Anticipation
Guide
combining
Pyramid Diagram Strategy, because

these strategy that can be assist


students to be more comprehending
text.
In applying Anticipation
Guide Strategy, teacher has to know
some procedures. In confirmation
step, teacher can apply these strategy
base on the procedures to get know
whether the students understand or
not about the lesson that they
learned. In applying these strategies,
so the students enjoy and are not
tired of studying, teacher should be
able to make students interest. In this
strategy, teacher instruction the
students to give statement before
reading and determine main ideas in
pyramid diagram. After the students
determine statement and main ideas,
the teacher check work students
based what teacher read.
Both of these strategies that
help the students to find information
from the text. These strategy make
the students are able to share the
ideas to others. Then , the students
are accustomed to think quickly in
short of time. Besides that, it makes
the students have confident in putting
out the ideas during the discussion.
So, if the teacher does these
strategies well and uses suitable
procedure, it will increase students
reading ability.

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