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Lecture 5c

Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the


field that studies the rates and mechanisms of
chemical reactions and the design of the reactors in
which they take place.

Lecture 5c
Balances in terms of molar flow rates
Block 1: Mole Balances
Balance Equation on Every Species
Block 2: Rate Laws

Relative Rates
Transport Laws
Block 3: Stoichiometry
Block 4: Combine

Review Lecture 1

Reactor Mole Balances Summary


The GMBE applied to the four major reactor types
(and the general reaction AB)
Reactor

Differential

Algebraic

Integral
NA

dN A
t=
rV
N A0 A

Batch

NA

CSTR
PFR

FA

dFA
= rA
dV

V
PBR
3

W=

FA

FA 0

dFA
rA

FA

Review Lecture 2

Building Block 1: Mole Balances


in terms of conversion, X
Reactor

Differential

Algebraic

Integral

X
Batch

N A0

dX
= r AV
dt

t
FA 0 X
V=
rA

CSTR

dX
V = FA0
rA
0

PFR

X
PBR
4

dX
FA 0
= rA
dW

Using CA (liquid) and FA (gas) in the


Mole Balances and Rate Laws
There are a number of instances when it is much more convenient

to work in terms of the number of moles (NA, NB) or molar flow


rates (FA, FB, etc.) rather than conversion.

The main difference is that when conversion is used as our variable

to relate one species concentration to that of another species


concentration, we needed to write a mole balance on only one
species, our basis of calculation. When molar flow rates and
concentrations are used as our variables, we must write a mole
balance on each species and then relate the mole balances to one
another through the relative rates of reaction

Membrane Reactors
Membrane reactors can be used to achieve
conversions greater than the original equilibrium
value. These higher conversions are the result of
Le Chateliers principle; you can remove the
reaction products and drive the reaction to the right.
To accomplish this,

Membrane Reactors
Dehydrogenation Reaction:

Thermodynamically Limited:
exothermic
Xe
Xe

X
T

Membrane Reactors

Cross section of IMRCF

Inert membrane reactor with catalyst pellets on the feed side

Cross section of CRM


Catalytic Membrane Reactor

Membrane Reactors

Schematic of IMRCF for mole balance

Membrane Reactors
sweep
FA0

B
A,B,C
B

CBS
CB
A,C stay behind since they are
too big
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Membrane Reactors
Mole Balance on Species A:

dFA
= rA
dV

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Membrane Reactors
Mole Balance on Species B:
Species B:

In out out membrane + generation = 0

FB V FB V + V RB V + rB V = 0

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Membrane Reactors
molar flow rate through membrane mol
'
WB = kC (CB CBS ) =
m 2 s
surface area of membrane

RB = WB a = kC' a[C B C BS ]
kC = kC' a

RB = kC [C B C BS ]
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mol
m3 s

Neglected most of the time

Membrane Reactors
Mole Balances:

(1 )
(2 )

dF A
= rA
dV
dFB
= rB RB
dV

Rate Law:

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Membrane Reactors
Relative Rates:
Net Rates:
Transport Law:
Stoichiometry:

(5)
(6)
(7 )
(8)

(10)
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Parameters:

rA = rB , rA = rC
RB = kC C B
F
C A = CT 0 A
FT
F
C B = CT 0 B
FT

(isothermal, isobaric)

FT = FA + FB + FC

Membrane Reactors
Example: The following reaction is to be carried out
isothermally in a membrane reactor with no
pressure drop. The membrane is permeable to
product C, but impermeable to all other species.
H2 (C)
C6H12 (A)
C6H6 (B)
For membrane reactors, we cannot use conversion. We
have to work in terms of the molar flow rates FA, FB, FC.
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Membrane Reactors
Mole Balances
dFA
= rA
dW

Inert Sweep Gas

dFB
= rB
dW
dFC
= rC kC CC
dW
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Inert Sweep Gas

C6H6 (B)

Membrane Reactors

Relative Rates:

Net Rates:

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rA rB rC
=
=
1 1
3

Membrane Reactors
Stoichiometry:
Isothermal, no Pressure Drop

P0
CT 0 =
RT0
FA
C A = CT 0
FT
FB
CB = CT 0
FT

FT = FA + FB + FC
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Membrane Reactors
Combine: - Use Polymath

mol
FA0 = 10
s

Parameters:

dm 3
k A = 10
kg cat s

mol 2
K C = 200
dm 6
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Membrane Reactors
C6H12 (A)
C6H6 (B)

Ci

H2 (C)

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End of Lecture 5c

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