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Basic structural concepts

1.

Force
Force is an influence/action on object which causes/attempts to cause movement

Is a vector

tu
d

Le

ng

th

ag

ni

Arrow = direction

jo

Point of action

Unit: Newtons (N); kiloNewtons (kN)

2.

Mass & Weight

Mass = amount of matter in an object

Mass unit: grams (g); kilograms (kg)

Weight = Mass Acceleration due to Gravity

Mass 1kg is subjected to acceleration of 9.81m/sec2 ( 10 m/sec2), weighs (110)=10 N

Facts:

10N = 1kg (a bag of sugar)

1kN = 100kg

1000kg = 10kN (a weight of a small car)

3.

Density and unit weight

Load
1.

Types of loads
Load is a force on a part of a structure

1.1

Dead load

Permanent load, always present

The weight of permanent portions of a building - self-weight

Material
Reinforced concrete

Load
Unit weight: 24 kN/m3
Therefore a 100 mm thick concrete wall weighs 2.4 kN/m2
Blockwork/Brickwork Unit weight: 22 kN/m3
Therefore a 100 mm thick blockwork wall weighs 2.2 kN/m2
Steel
Unit weight: 78.5 kN/m3
Steel beams weigh between 0.2 and 2.0 kN/m
Aluminium
Unit weight: 27.7 kN/m3 (2771 kg/m3)
Timber
Unit weight: Softwood: 5.9 kN/m3, Hardwood: 12.5 kN/m3
Therefore a 50mm x 200mm (two by eight') softwood joist weighs 0.06 kN/m
Glass
Unit weight: 25 kN/m3
Therefore the weight of glass is 0.025 kN per millimetre thick.
Water
Unit weight: 10 kN/m3

1.2

Live load

Not always present, fluctuate

Source: Occupants of the building, books, goods, furniture etc

Values of live load depend on the use of the building (or part of the building) concerned. A full listing
appears in British Standard. BS 6399 Part 1. Some values are given below:
Space
Domestic
Offices
Cafes/restaurants
Classrooms
Assembly: fixed seating
Corridors/stairs in hotels, etc.
Exhibitions
Gyms
Bars, concert halls, etc.
Stages
Shops
Parking (cars)
Plant rooms

Live (kN/m2)
1.5
2.5
2 .0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
7.5
4.0
2.5
75
6

1.3

Wind load
Not critical for low rise buildings

1.4

Others
Lateral load from soil pressure and water pressure

2.

Nature of load
Loads could be one of three types:

Point load (titik)

Uniformly distributed load (teragih segaya)

Uniformly varying load (berubah segaya)

Point load

Elevation of column
supported on beam

Symbolic representation
of point load

Uniform distributed load

Representation of uniformly-distributed loads on


beams (UDLs)
7kN/m

Span =5m
35kN

Span =5m
7x5=35kN

2.5m
5m

Uniformly varying load

Retained earth
pushes horizontally
behind the wall

Symbolic representation of a uniformly


varying load on a retaining wall

0.5x6x12=36kN

12kN/m

2.0m
6.0m

10

3.

Load Path
A

Part of structural floor


plan

Load path

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