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# Basic structural concepts

1.

Force
Force is an influence/action on object which causes/attempts to cause movement

Is a vector

tu
d

Le

ng

th

ag

ni

Arrow = direction

jo

Point of action

2.

Facts:

1kN = 100kg

3.

## Density and unit weight

1.

Load is a force on a part of a structure

1.1

## The weight of permanent portions of a building - self-weight

Material
Reinforced concrete

Unit weight: 24 kN/m3
Therefore a 100 mm thick concrete wall weighs 2.4 kN/m2
Blockwork/Brickwork Unit weight: 22 kN/m3
Therefore a 100 mm thick blockwork wall weighs 2.2 kN/m2
Steel
Unit weight: 78.5 kN/m3
Steel beams weigh between 0.2 and 2.0 kN/m
Aluminium
Unit weight: 27.7 kN/m3 (2771 kg/m3)
Timber
Unit weight: Softwood: 5.9 kN/m3, Hardwood: 12.5 kN/m3
Therefore a 50mm x 200mm (two by eight') softwood joist weighs 0.06 kN/m
Glass
Unit weight: 25 kN/m3
Therefore the weight of glass is 0.025 kN per millimetre thick.
Water
Unit weight: 10 kN/m3

1.2

## Source: Occupants of the building, books, goods, furniture etc

Values of live load depend on the use of the building (or part of the building) concerned. A full listing
appears in British Standard. BS 6399 Part 1. Some values are given below:
Space
Domestic
Offices
Cafes/restaurants
Classrooms
Assembly: fixed seating
Corridors/stairs in hotels, etc.
Exhibitions
Gyms
Bars, concert halls, etc.
Stages
Shops
Parking (cars)
Plant rooms

Live (kN/m2)
1.5
2.5
2 .0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
7.5
4.0
2.5
75
6

1.3

Not critical for low rise buildings

1.4

Others
Lateral load from soil pressure and water pressure

2.

Loads could be one of three types:

## Uniformly varying load (berubah segaya)

Elevation of column
supported on beam

Symbolic representation

## Representation of uniformly-distributed loads on

beams (UDLs)
7kN/m

Span =5m
35kN

Span =5m
7x5=35kN

2.5m
5m

Retained earth
pushes horizontally
behind the wall

## Symbolic representation of a uniformly

varying load on a retaining wall

0.5x6x12=36kN

12kN/m

2.0m
6.0m

10

3.