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A PROJECT REPORT

ON

AUTOMATIC FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM IN RAILWAYS


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Giving Wings to Thoughts

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

ST. PETERS ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University-Hyderabad)
Opp. A.P. Forest Academy, Dhoolapally (V), Medchal (M), R.R. District, Hyderabad
2012-2016

CERTIFICATE

Tin partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University- Hyderabad during the academic year 2012-2016.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

INTERNAL GUIDE

Prof. R. PRAKASH RAO

Prof .S.ISWARIYA

M. Tech, (Ph.D.)

M. E,

ECE Department

ECE Department

PRINCIPAL
EXTERNAL EXAMINER

Dr. E. L. NAGESH
B.Tech, M.Tech, Ph.D, MISTE, FIE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives us immense pleasure to express our deepest sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to
our highly respected and esteemed principal DR.E.L.NAGESH, for providing the necessary
facilities to complete the project successfully.

We deeply express our sincere thanks to our Head of the Department Prof.R.PRAKASH
RAO Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering for encouraging and allowing
us to present the project.
We also take the opportunity to express our profound gratitude and deep regards to our guide
S.ISWARIYA Assistant professor, for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant
encouragement throughout the course of this thesis. The blessings, help and guidance given by
him time to time shall carry us a long way in the journey of life on which we are about to
embark.
It is our privilege to express our sincerest regards to our project coordinator
K.B.MADHAVI Assistant professor, for his valuable inputs, able guidance, encouragement,
whole-hearted cooperation and construction criticism throughout the duration of our project.
We take this opportunity to thank all our lecturers of our department for their support and
encouragement towards our project.

N.VENKATA KRISHNA

12BK1A04B3

V.BABU NAIK

13BK5A0423

V.KURUMAIAH

13BK5A0424

INDEX
Page nos
1.INTRODUCTION:
1.1 Block diagram9
3

1.2 Fire detection and control 10


1.3 Circuit diagram and description11
1.4Pin diagram of 4049 and 405013
2.POWER SUPPLY:
2.1 Over view14
2.2 AC waveforms 15
2.3 Rectification unfiltered power supplies 16
2.4 Rectification filtered power supplies 19
2.5 Average DC value21
2.6 Diode conduction and peak diode current22
3.LM35 HEAT SENSOR:
3.1 LM35 Description

24

3.2 Working of an LM35

25

3.3 Using of an LM35

25

3.4 Advantages of LM35

27

4. SEQUENTIAL SWITCHING ICLM3914


4.1 IC LM3914 description
4.2 LM3914 features

28
29

4.3 LM35 and LM3914 interfacing circuit diagram29


Page nos
5.RELAY WITH RELAY DRIVER:
5.1 Description of relay 31
5.2 DC relay driver circuit 31
4

5.3 AC relay driver circuit 33


5.4Generic Relay driver circuit 34

6. UM3561 SIREN GENERATOR:


6.1 UM3561 description

36

6.2 Pin diagram of UM3561

37

6.3 Tone selection37

WORKING AND ADVANTAGES

OUTPUT

40-42

FUTURE SCOPE AND CONCLUSION

42

REFERENCES

43

List of figures:
Fig no.Figure name

Page no.

Fig 1.1 Block diagram

Fig 1.2 Process of control10


5

Fig 1.3Circuit diagram of fire control system11


Fig 1.4

Pin diagram of 4049 and 4050

13

Fig 2.1Two cycles of sinusoidal waveforms15


Fig 2.2Half wave rectifier circuit17
Fig 2.3Full wave rectifier with center tapped transform17
Fig 2.4Full wave or bridge rectifier18
Fig 2.5Filtered power supply circuit diagram19
Fig 2.6Filtered waveforms20
Fig 2.7Average dc waveforms

21

Fig 2.8Diodes D1 & D2 waveforms

22

Fig 3.1 Pictorial representation of LM35

24

Fig 3.2LM35 on circuit board26


Fig 3.3LM35 pin diagram
Fig 4.1

pictorial representation of LM3914

26
28

Fig 4.2LM3914 pin description

28

Fig 4.3

LM35 and LM3914 interfacing circuit diagram

30

Fig 5.1

Pictorial representation of reley driver

31

Fig 5.2

DC relay driver circuit diagram33

Fig 5.3

AC relay driver circuit diagram

34

Fig 5.4

Relay driver circuits

35

Fig 6.1

Internal block diagram of UM3561

36

Fig 6.2

Pin diagram of UM3561

Fig 6.3

Circuit diagram for tone selection

37
37
6

Abstract
Fire alarm system plays an important role in maintaining and monitoring the safe
of all kind environments and situations. The main objective of this project is to make a fire
control system with low cost
7

The Present project will help the railways to safe guard from the Fire Accidents
automatically in Sequential manner. A remedy to reduce the death loss occurring due to fire
accidents in trains is presented. Fire on a running train is more catastrophic then on a stationary
one, since fanning by winds helps spread the fire to other coaches. When these accidents are
occurring in remote areas or during night times the loss or damage being caused is at higher
rates, the damage is heavier due to improper reach of service at right time due to improper
communication. This time delay is causing heavier damage, thus eliminating the time between
when an accident occurs and when first responders are dispatched to the scene decreases the
damage, this project help in notifying the passengers and emergency services.
It consists of sensors. Once the sensors attached in the compartments of train
sense the smoke detection, it assumes a fire accident. The controller assumes it has an emergency
and starts the buzzer Whenever fire occurs the sensor will detects and starts alerting the security
people for further controlling.
It has three main systems, 1) the detection system, 2) the monitoring system, 3)
the appliance system. The detection system operates as the fire detector. The appliance system
has components like buzzer for alarming and motor pump to stop the fire. The system detects the
smoke, heat sensed by the detector. Finally when the sensors from each level triggered
individually, the water flushes to the affected zone to stop the fire.

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Regulated Power
Supply (5V)

LM35 Heat Sensor

Sequential Switching
Using LM3914

Siren Using UM3561

Relay Drivers with


relays

LED Indication

Flasher and water


pump.

Fig 1.1 Block diagram of automatic fire control system in railways

1.2 FIRE DETECTION AND CONTROL


BLOCK DIAGRAM:

FIRE
SENSOR

IC
SECTION

RELAY
DRIVERS

INDICATOR

Fig 1.2 Process of fire control

Fire is the most hazardous natural forces. Sensing fire and fighting it in the early
stages can prevent losses to a great extent. Sensing fire electronically has become one of the
most reliable fire-fighting techniques today. Sensing fire needs reliable smoke/fire sensors.
Thermisters can sense fire depending on temperature increase principle. We can also use opto
devices to sense smoke. Some sensors like figaro TGS gas sensors are used for fire sensing
which is expensive and are not easily available.
The system pretends here uses the most common yet very reliable bimetallic strip
of a tube light starter as a heat sensor. The system, besides giving an alarm, also visually
indicates the exact position where the fire has taken place. This system becomes very necessary
in large multinational companies, hotels etc. It is very flexible and can take inputs from any
number ofsensors. It is very simple to construct and is quite economical too.

1.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

10

Fig 1.3 Circuit diagram of fire control system

CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION:

The entire system works on a very simple principle. The bimetallic strip acts as a
switch on the corresponding latch circuit. Here latching property is needed so that once the fire is
11

sensed the alarm remains on until adequate precautions are taken. When the bimetallic strip
gets heated due to the fire flame, it connects the positive supply line to the input of digital latch
circuit, thus latching the latch. The digital latch circuit is built around easily available CMOS
inverter CD4049 ICs.
When sensor A is operated, the input of gate N2 (pin5) is at logic 1 through the
680-ohm limiting resistor. After two inversions, output of N1 (pin2) is at logic 1 which fed back
through switching diode IN4148 to the input of N2, thus latching the circuit. LED2 connected
across the output of N1 and ground indicates the particular position where sensor A is installed,
indirectly indicating the phase where the fire has occurred. At this same time, diode D8 conducts
and provides base bias to transistors T1 and the relay operates the hooter or an electric bell. The
0.01mF capacitor at input of latch circuit filters the noise pick-up by long wires leading to
sensors, thus preventing any false triggering of the alarm.
Switch S1 acts as master reset switch. OR logic is implemented at the base of
transistor T1 to sense signal from each sensor. In this circuit only six sensors are shown but they
can be increased without changing the main circuit.

1.4 PIN DIAGRAM:

12

Fig 1.4 Pin diagram of 4049 and 4050

13

2.POWER SUPPLY
2.1 Overview
Requirements
Before designing any power supply the load requirements must be known. It is always a
good idea to take the worst case scenario when making this decision. For example if the circuit is
designed to draw 1 amp at 12 volts, assume that component tolerances are 20% and design to
meet these requirements with at least 20-50% reserve current, in this example we design a power
supply which could safely deliver 12 volts at 1.5 amps without overheating.
Transformer Regulation and Efficiency
A transformer is very efficient at converting AC voltages and currents from one value to
another. In practice efficiencies of 98% may be achieved, the losses being due to heating effects
of the transformer core, winding loss and leakage flux.
Transformers have VA ratings which is simply the secondary voltage multiplied by secondary
current -- this is strictly true only if the attached load is purely resistive (i.e. has a power factor of
1.0). A reactive load containing capacitors or inductors (which one would expect for such a
power supply) has a low power factor (i.e. less that 1.0) and thus de-rates the transformer's power
capacity to the stated VA multiplied by the power factor because it draws more current than a
purely resistive load. So, when choosing a transformer for a reactive load, one needs to divide
the load in watts by the load's power factor to arrive at the VA needed which has sufficient
"headroom" to accommodate the low power factor.
Not often published are the regulation figures for a typical transformer. A transformer rated at 20
V , 1 A secondary will only measure 20 volts when it is actually delivering 1 A. The figures
below show typical regulation figures for some common VA rated transformers:-

VA Rating

12

20

50

100

% Regulation

25

12

10

10

10

For example a 12 VA rated transformer would have a no-load voltage which is 12% higher than
the rated value. If the transformer was rated at 12 V @ 1 A, when measuring the secondary RMS
voltage with a high impedance meter, you would measure approximately 13.44 Volts.

2.2AC Waveforms:
14

Before looking at rectification, some general information about AC wave forms. Figure 1
below shows two cycles of a sinusoidal waveform. The vertical axis shows amplitude and the
peak to peak value (VPP), shown by the pink arrow is 20 V pp. The peak value (VPK) is half the
peak to peak value and is shown by the red arrow. The horizontal axis shows time.
One complete sinusoidal cycle consists of a positive "peak" and a negative peak or
"trough". One cycle is also 360 or 2 radians, a half cycle (V PK or -VPK) is 180 or in radians.
Usually waveforms are displayed with horizontal axis in units of time.
The waveform below shows two cycles each with a duration of 1ms. As frequency is the
reciprocal of time, then this waveform has a frequency of 1 kHz.
Figure
1

Value
Fig 2.1 two cycles of sinusoidal wave forms

The RMS or ROOT MEAN SQUARED value is the equivalent DC ( voltage or current )
which would provide the same energy to a circuit as DC voltage or current. In other words, if an
15

AC sine wave has a value of 10 Volts RMS it will provide the same energy to a circuit as a DC
supply of 10 volts.
VPK

VRMS =

or VPK * 0.707

Average
Value
The AVERAGE value is normally taken to mean the average value of only half cycle of a
sine wave. The average value of a complete sine wave is of course zero, as both halves are
symmetrical about zero. Using only half a cycle, the average value (voltage or current) is always
0.637 of the peak value.
VAVG =

2* VPK

or VPK * 0.637

Peak

Value
The Peak value of a sine wave is the maximum positive peak. Defined in terms of RMS
voltage its value is:
VPK = 2 * VRMS or VPK = 1.414 * VRMS
Peak

to
Peak
Value
The peak to peak value, VPk is simply twice the peak value. The peak to peak value is the
waveform that is displayed on an oscilloscope. RMS values are displayed by an AC multimeter.
Periodic
Time
The time taken for one complete sinusoidal cycle, (both positive and negative peaks) is
known as the periodic time,(T). The frequency,(F) of the wave is the reciprocal of 1 cycle.
Conversely, the reciprocal of frequency gives the periodic time.
T=

1
F

or F =

1
T

Examples

2.3 Rectification unfiltered power supplies:


This is the process where alternating current is converted to direct current. Unfiltered,
means that there is no smoothing capacitor present and the dc output will contain "ripples" at the
line (mains) frequency. There are two types of rectification, half wave and full wave, also known
as a bridge rectifier.
R
The half wave rectifier circuit is shown in below:
RRRR

16

fig
f

Fig 2.2 Half wave rectifier circuit

The DC output across a resistive load, is approximately the value of a half cycle, less one
diode drop. Rectifier diodes have a forward voltage that varies from about 0.7V to 1.1 Volts in
high current rectifiers. Conduction occurs for only one cycle, so is not very efficient, also
without a smoothing capacitor, the output is quite "lumpy". Often these are used in cheap car
battery charges where the quality of the supply is not too important.
A full wave rectifier circuit using a center tapped transformer is shown below in Figure 3.
This circuit uses just two diodes each one conducting on alternate half cycles. The positive side
is marked with a "+" and the output waveform shown in figure 5. Notice that the output ripple is
now doubled.
Figure 3

f
or B
Fig 2.3 full wave rectifier with center tapped transformer.
The bridge rectifier is the most popular rectifier circuit. It uses four diodes arranged in a
ring, but complete four terminal bridge rectifiers are also available. The circuit is shown in figure
4 below:

17

Figure

Fig 2.4 full wave or bridge rectifier


There are twice the amount of "peaks" compared to the half wave rectifier because alternate
diode pairs conduct for each half cycle of the AC input. A typical waveform is shown below
figure
Figure 5

The blue trace is the peak to peak voltage of the transformers secondary winding, and the red
trace is the unfiltered DC voltage. The DC output is approximately: 1.41 x VRMS - (2 x 0.7)

2.4 Rectification filtered power supplies:


18

The "raw" DC produced after rectification is OK to charge a battery or light a lamp but
any electronic circuit needs a smooth DC supply. In the case of audio circuits, particularly
amplifiers, any unfiltered DC will be heard as a "hum" in the equipment's loudspeakers. The hum
is proportional to the AC power supply's frequency. A filtered or smoothed supply is achieved by
placing a large value electrolytic capacitor at the rectifiers output,
Figure

Fig 2.5 filtered power supply circuit diagram


The resulting waveforms are drawn in fig.2.6 below. The "brown" waveform represents
the filtered DC feeding the load resistor.

19

Figure

Fig 2.6 filtered waveforms


Ripple Voltage
The rectifier diodes will charge up the filter capacitor, C1 to the peak DC value, and
between non conducting cycles of the diodes, will discharge into the load resistor. This creates
the saw tooth waveform known more commonly as ripple voltage. The value of the ripple
voltage is dependent on load current, power supply frequency and capacitor value. Approximate
ripple voltage is calculated using:
V=

2fC
where V is ripple voltage (mV), I is DC load current (mA), f is frequency of AC supply
and C is smoothing capacitor value (F).
V=

10I
C

The bridge rectifier circuit above had a load current of about 191mA. Feeding this value
into the first equation results in 191/(2 x 50 x 2200 e-6) =868.1 mV and the bottom equation
(10x191)/2200=0.868V or 868mV.

20

2.5 Average DC Value:


The mean or average dc value is the value measured by a meter or multimeter. An
oscilloscope shows the peak to peak waveforms and the oscilloscope horizontal cursor can be
used to measure the dc value. The mean dc value for a full wave or half wave unregulated supply
is difficult to predict because as the load current changes, so does the peak to peak ripple
voltage.However with reference to below figure
h8

Fig 2.7 average dc waveforms


The mean or average dc value (shown in yellow) lies midway between the peak
to peak ripple (shown as a blue dash line). For a half wave rectified supplies the average dc value
is calculated by using
VDC VP

2Cf
For full wave or bridge rectified circuits the average dc voltage is calculated by:

VDC VP

I
4Cf

21

VP is the peak voltage value (also the maximum ripple voltage), C is capacitance (F),I is
load current(A) and f is the supply frequency(in Hz).

2.6 Diode Conduction and peak Diode Current:


This is not often seen but is illustrated with this small diagram below. It shows an output
load voltage (in brown) with a little over 0.7 volts peak to peak ripple. It represents a full wave
rectifier circuit with a 2200uF capacitor and two rectifier diodes, D1 and D2 have their current
waveform superimposed onto the graph shown below
Fi
9

Fig 2.8 diodes D1 & D2 wave forms


As can be seen, both diodes conduct rapidly on the leading edge of the ripple waveform
charging the smoothing capacitor. D1 will charge the capacitor on the positive half of the input
cycle, the capacitor then discharges through the load before the next half cycle where D2 will
charge the smoothing capacitor and so on. The time interval T1 is the time each rectifier diode
conducts The peak current through each rectifier is much higher than the load current and can be
calculated with the following equation

22

Ipeak =

T1

Idc

Where:

RMS
T1
T
Idc
Ipeak

=
=
=
=

Diode conduction time


1/f f being line frequency
Average load current
Peak current through the rectifier

Load Regulation:
Because the output voltage will drop, when any load current is drawn, load regulation is the term
used to describe this fall. The load regulation of a power supply is defined as the percentage
change in output voltage when the load current is increased from zero to full rated output.

23

3. LM35 HEAT SENSOR


3.1 LM35 Description:
LM35 is a precision IC temperature sensor with its output proportional to the temperature
(in oC). The sensor circuitry is sealed and therefore it is not subjected to oxidation and other
processes. With LM35, temperature can be measured more accurately than with a thermistor. It
also possess low selfheating and does not cause more than 0.1 oC temperature rise in still air.
The operating temperature range is from -55C to 150C. The output voltage
varies by 10mV in response to every oC rise/fall in ambient temperature, i.e., its scale factor is
0.01V/ oC.
The LM35 is an integrated circuit sensor that can be used to measure temperature with an
electrical output proportional to the temperature (in oC)

LM35s As a Measuring Temperature:


o You can measure temperature more accurately than a using a thermister.
o The sensor circuitry is sealed and not subject to oxidation, etc.
o The LM35 generates a higher output voltage than thermocouples and may not
require that the output voltage be amplified.

Pictorial Representation Of An LM35:


o Here it is.

24

Fig 3.1 pictorial representation of LM35

3.2 Working of LM35:

Working Of An LM35:
o It has an output voltage that is proportional to the Celsius temperature.
o The scale factor is .01V/oC
o The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming and maintains an
accuracy of +/-0.4 oC at room temperature and +/- 0.8 oC over a range of 0 oC to
+100 oC.
o Another important characteristic of the LM35DZ is that it draws only 60 micro
amps from its supply and possesses a low self-heating capability. The sensor selfheating causes less than 0.1 oC temperature rise in still air.

The LM35 comes in many different packages, including the following.

TO-92 plastic transistor-like package,

T0-46 metal can transistor-like package

8-lead surface mount SO-8 small outline package

TO-202 package.

3.3 Using of an LM35:


o Here is a commonly used circuit.
o In this circuit, parameter values commonly used are:

Vc = 4 to 30v

5V or 12 V are typical values used.

Ra = Vc /10-6

Actually, it can range from 80 KW to 600 KW , but most just use 80 KW.

25

o Connection of LM 35 wired on a circuit board.

The white wire in the photo goes to the power supply.

Both the resistor and the black wire go to ground.

The output voltage is measured from the middle pin to ground l

LM 35 on circuit board

Fig 3.2 LM35 on circuit board


Pin Diagram:

26

Fig 3.3LM35 pin diagram


Pin Description:

3.4 Advantages of LM35:

Advantages of Use in LM35:


o Calibrated directly in Celsius(centigrade)
o The output voltage is converted to temperature by a simple conversion factor.
o The sensor has a sensitivity of 10mV / oC.
o Operating temperature range -55C to 150C
o Suitable for remote applications
o Low cost due to wafer level trimming
o Operates from 4V to 30V
o Low self- heating 0.08oC in still air.
27

o Low impedance output, 0.1 for 1mA load


o Less than 60 A current drain.

4.SEQUENTIAL SWITCHING IC LM 3914


4.1 IC LM 3914 description:
LM3914 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives 10
LEDs providing a linear analog display. A single pin changes the display from moving dot to a
bar graph. Current drive to the LEDs is regulated and programmable, eliminating the need for
resistors. This feature is one that allows operation of the whole system from less than 3V.
28

Fig 4.1 Pictorial representation of LM3914

LM3914 Pin diagram

Fig 4.2 LM3914 pin description

4.2 LM3914 features:

Drives LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescents

Bar or dot display mode externally selectable by user

29

Expandable to displays of 100 steps

Internal voltage reference from 1.2V to 12V

Operates with single supply of less than 3V

Inputs operate down to ground

Output current programmable from 2 mA to 30 mA

No multiplex switching or interaction between outputs

Input withstands g35V without damage or false outputs

LED driver outputs are current regulated, open-collectors

Outputs can interface with TTL or CMOS logic

The internal 10-step divider is floating and can be referenced to a wide range of voltages

4.3 LM 35 and LM3914 Interfacing Circuit Diagram:


This temperature meter uses the precision micro power centigrade sensor IC LM35. The
output voltage of the IC is linearly equal to 10Mv per degree centigrade. The temperature level is
displayed through LED readout. The circuit uses the precision temperature IC LM35. This
three pin transistor like IC give output linearly equal to10mV per degree rise in temperature. It
can measure temperature between 4 degree to 110 degree centigrade. Its related type LM34 is
Fahrenheit sensor and its output is equal to -10mV per degree Fahrenheit. Output of IC1 is
directly given into the input of the display driver IC LM3914.It is a monolithic integrated circuit
with 10 active low outputs that can drive 10 LEDs directly without a current limiting resistor.
The internal circuitry of the IC adjusts the current passing through the LEDs. The input of
LM 3914 is very sensitive and its outputs 18 10 sinks current one by one as the input receives
an increment of125millivolts. Here only 6 outputs are used to drive 6 LEDs. More LEDs can be
included in the remaining outputs if required. As the IC LM35 senses temperature rise, LEDs one
to six light up. If the sensitivity is not high, VR2 can be omitted. Then output of IC1 should be
directly connected to the input of IC2.

30

Temperature Meter Circuit diagram

Fig 4.3 LM35 and LM3914 interfacing circuit diagram

Calibration
When power is applied, some of the LEDs will glow. Calibrate the circuit by
giving different temperature to IC1. For this a thermometer and hot water of different
temperature is required. Sock some cotton with warm water of around 37degree (normal room
temperature) and gently make contact with IC1. Adjust VR1and VR2, till LED1 glows.

5.Relay with Relay Driver


5.1 Description of relay driver:

31

A relay driver circuit is a circuit which can drive, or operate, a relay so that it can
function appropriately in a circuit.
The driven relay can then operate as a switch in the circuit which can open or
close, according to the needs of the circuit and its operation.
Here both DC and AC relay drivers were build. Since DC and AC voltages
operate differently, to build relay drivers for them requires slightly different setup. We will also
go over a generic relay driver which can operate from either AC or DC voltage and operate both
AC and DC relays.

Fig 5.1 Pictorial representation of Relay driver

5.2 DC Relay Driver Circuit:


To drive a DC relay, we require sufficient DC voltage which the relay is rated for and a zener
diode.
All relays come with a voltage rating. This is called on a relay's datasheet its rated coil voltage.
This is the voltage needed in order for the relay to be able to operate and be able to open or close
its switch in a circuit. In order for a relay to function, it must receive this voltage at its coil
terminals. Thus, if a relay has a rated voltage of 9VDC, it must receive 9 volts of DC voltage to
operate. So the most important thing a DC relay needs is its rated DC voltage.
A diode is needed usually because it functions to eliminate voltage spikes from a
relay circuit as the relay opens and closes. The coil of a relay acts an inductor. Inductors are
basically coils of wires wrapped around a conductive core. This is what relay coils are as well.
Therefore, they act as inductors. Inductors are electronic components that resist changes in
current. Inductors do not like sudden changes in current. If the flow of current through a coil is
suddenly interrupted, for example, a switch opening, the coil will respond by producing a
sudden, very large voltage across its leads, causing a large surge of current through it. From a
physics or physical perspective, this phenomenon is a result of a collapsing magnetic field within
the coil as the current is terminated abruptly. Mathematically, this can be understood by noticing
how a large change in current (dI/dt) affects the voltage across a coil (V=LdI/dt). Since we are
opening the switch, in this case, the current literally goes from full mode to 0 instantaneously.
This creates a large voltage spike. Surges in current that result from inductive effects can create
very high voltage spikes (as high as 1000V) that can cause damage to the other components on
the circuit board, such as switches and transistors getting zapped. Not only are these voltage
spikes damaging to other electronic components in a circuit but they are also damaging to the
relay's switch contacts. The contacts will suffer from these spikes as well.

32

So for preventing these voltage spikes we are using diodes. A diode is placed
reverse biased in parallel with the relay. The diode acts as a transient suppressor. A transient is a
spike. A transient suppressor suppresses these spikes. Placing a diode in reverse bias across a
relay's coil eliminates voltage spikes by going into conduction before a large voltage can form
across the coil. In other words, a diode will conduct current in reverse bias once the voltage
reaches a certain threshold and shunt the current to ground. Once the diode begins conducting, it
no longer holds voltage. So that the relay in parallel will not receive the excess voltage. So the
diode functions to shunt excess power to ground once it reaches a certain threshold. Diodes are
devices that do not conduct in reverse. However, if the voltage reaches a certain level, called the
breakdown voltage, it will conduct. This is a good thing, when we need the diode to act as a
transient suppressor, because it forces all excess power to ground, as to not affect any other parts
of the circuit.
The diode must be rated to handle currents equivalent to the maximum current
that would have been flowing through the coil before the supply current was interrupted.
Therefore, if the relay normally passes a certain amount of current through it during normal
operation, the diode must be rated for a current rating above this value, as to not stop normal
operation.

Components Needed

DC Relay

Zener Diode

DC Voltage Source

Again, the DC relay must receive its rated voltage value in order to operate.
The DC power source can be either batteries, wall wart power, or a DC power supply, any
DC power source.
The zener diode is placed reverse biased in parallel to the relay.

DC Relay Driver Circuit Schematic:

33

Fig 5.2 Dc relay driver circuit diagram


The relay which we use in this case is rated for 9V. Therefore, a 9-volt DC voltage source
feeds the resistor. To suppress transients that may be caused by the relay opening and closing, we
place a zener diode reverse biased in parallel with the relay. This will shunt all excess power to
ground once it reaches a certain threshold. This is all that is needed to operate the relay. With
sufficient power, the relay will now closed, driving the loads that are connected to its output.

5.3 AC Relay Driver Circuit:


This is a relay which is run, not off of DC power, but AC power.
To drive an AC relay, all we need is sufficient AC voltage which the relay is rated for and
again a transient suppressor.
Unlike DC relays, however, we cannot use a diode to eliminate voltage spikes.
With AC power, the diode will conduct on alternate half-cycles. Using 2 diodes in reverse
parallel will also not work because the current will not make it to the coil of the relay. The
current will just go through the diodes. Instead, to create a working transient voltage suppressor
with an AC circuit, we use an RC series network placed across the coil in parallel. The capacitor
absorbs excessive charge and the resistor helps to control the discharge.

Components Needed

AC relay

0.05F capacitor

100 Resistor

AC Voltage Source

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AC Relay Driver Circuit Schematic:

Fig 5.3 AC relay driver circuit diagram


The AC power switch circuit senses the presence of AC current in one outlet of a
multi outlet power strip and switches power to the remaining outlets. It utilizes a current
transformer, single transistor amplifier, voltage doubler detector, robust relay and capacitor
limited AC power source. If we use a relay with a rated voltage of 110VAC, we must give an
input of 110V from an AC power source. The capacitor and resistor in series acts as the transient
voltage suppressor to suppress voltage spikes. This first half of the circuit serves as the relay
driver. With the relay now having sufficient power, it will turn on and power the loads it is
connected to.

5.4 Generic Relay Driver Circuit:


This is a relay driver circuit which can be driven by either AC or DC input
voltage. And unlike the other circuits, a specific voltage, such as the rated voltage values we used
to drive the others, does not need to be used. Because this circuit contains a transistor, much less
power needs to used on the input side to drive it.

Components Needed:

6-9V Relay

2N2222 Transistor

Zener diode

1K Resistor

9V Battery or DC Power Supply


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Another input voltage source

Relay Driver Circuit:


The circuit is shown below:

Fig 5.4 Relay driver circuit


Here transistor is used to drive the relay, we can use considerably less power to
get the relay driven. Because a transistor is an amplifier, we just have to make sure that the base
lead gets enough current to cause a larger current to flow from the emitter of the transistor to the
collector. Once the base receives sufficient power, the transistor will conduct from emitter to
collector and power the relay.
With no voltage or input current applied to the transistor's base lead, the
transistor's emitter-to-collector channel is open, hence blocking current flow through the relay's
coil. However, if sufficient voltage and input current are applied to the base lead, the transistor's
emitter-to-collector channel will open, allowing current to flow through the relay's coil.

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The benefit of this circuit is a smaller and arbitrary (DC or AC) current can be
used to power the circuit and the relay.

6. UM3561 SIREN GENERATOR


6.1 UM3561 description:
UM3461 a an excellent ROM IC that can generate Multi siren tones
simulating Police siren, Ambulance siren, fire brigade siren and machine gun sound. This 8 pin
low power IC can work down to 2.4 volts
The UM 3561 is a low cost siren generator designed for use in toy applications.
The IC has an inbuilt oscillator and tone selection pins. It is easy to make a siren generator with
only a few external components. Only one external resistor and a speaker driver transistor are
sufficient to make a simple siren generator.

Internal structure of UM3561:


Inside the IC, there is an oscillator circuit and the frequency of oscillations is controlled by the
external resistor connected to OSC 1(Pin 7) and OSC2 (Pin 8). A 220 K resistor will give the
satisfactory results. The oscillations thus generated will be then transferred to a control circuit
which function based on the tone selection through the connections of SEL 1 (Pin 6) and SEL2
(Pin 1) . The control circuit passes the signal to an address counter and then to the ROM. The
tone pulses thus generated will be available from the output pin 3. Since the sound is weak, an
amplifier is necessary to get loud sound. A single NPN transistor will amplify the sound.

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Fig 6.1 Internal block diagram of UM3561

6.2 Pin diagram of UM3561:

Fig 6.2 Pin diagram of UM3561

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Pin Assignment
Pin 1 Tone Sel.2
Pin 2 Gnd
Pin 3 Output
Pin 4 NC- Used for testing purpose
Pin 5 +3V
Pin 6 Tone Sel .1
Pin 7 Osc 1
Pin 8 Osc 2

6.3 Tone Selection:


By changing the pin connections of Sel.1 (Pin6) and Sel. 2(Pin 1) it is easy to change the siren
tones.
Sel 1Sel 2Tone
Pin 6 Pin 1
NC NC Police siren
+3V NC Fire Engine sound
Gnd NC Ambulance Siren
NC +3V Machine Gun sound

Circuit diagram for tone selection:

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Fig 6.3 circuit diagram for tone selection

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WORKING:
It has three main systems, 1) the detection system, 2) the monitoring system, 3) the
appliance system. The detection system operates as the fire detector. The appliance system has
components like buzzer for alarming and motor pump to stop the fire.The system detects the
smoke, heat sensed by the detector. Finally when the sensors from each level triggered
individually, the water flushes to the affected zone to stop the fire.

Advantages:
1. This project can be useful for automatic control of fire in many applications such as railways,
shopping malls, hospitals, colleges, theaters etc.
2. By this design we can control and monitor the study of fire.
3. Reducing of fire accidents in different fields.

Output:
We achieved 100% output what we planned in design.

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FUTURE SCOPE:
Fire accidents can be controlled to a great extent in a places such as forests,
homes, colleges, industries, trains and some other public places. Fire accidents leads to death of
excess of people, by using this technique we can save those lives easily.

The system can be modified with the use of graphical LCD panel so that the analysis is
done by the system itself. The number of analog channels and Zeros can be increased to
monitor more sensor outputs.
We can even also combine the IR sensor, Light sensor, Smoke detector, pressure sensor,
gas sensor with this project to make this project more efficiet.

Conclusion:
In this work an attempt has been done to control the fire accidents to save lives, as
well as government property. It will help to reduce the percentage of fire accidents occurring
indifferent fields.
The present model with some of the changes in outputs and sensing we can apply
to real time process.

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REFERENCES:
1.IEEE standard notes.
2. Internet.

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