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MTNL

CETTM

T818
ITEC - SCAAP Training Programme
Mod Id : TOFCPLT024
Principle of Light Transmission

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

Light Propagation through O.F


CETTM

MTNL

 Rarer to Denser medium

- Refracted rays move towards the normal


 Denser to Rarer medium
- Refracted rays move away from normal

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

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Contd..

MTNL

 Critical angle:- The angle of incidence in the


denser medium for which the angle of
refraction is 90
 When the angle of incidence is greater than
the critical angle, Total Internal Reflection
occurs.
 Refractive Index of core is 1.48
 Refractive Index of cladding is 1.46

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

Total Internal Reflection


(Note:- n1 is greater than n2)
Angle of
incidence

Angle of
incidence

Critical
angle

Angle of
reflection

n1

n1

n1

n2

n2

n2

Angle of
Refraction

Light is bent away


from the Normal

Light does not


enter second
material

Light is reflected in
the same material

MTNL

CETTM

Refractive Indices of Various Materials


Material
Vacuum
Air
Water
Fused Quartz
Glass
Diamond
Silicon
Gallium Arsenide

TOFCPLT024

Index (n)
1.0
1.0003 (1)
1.33
1.46
1.5
2.0
3.4
3.6

Light velocity (Km/s)


300,000
300,000
225,000
205,000
200,000
150,000
88,000
83,000

Principle of Light Transmission

Total Internal Reflection


MTNL

CETTM

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

Fiber Geometry
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MTNL

 Consists of Core and Cladding


 Core and Cladding are made up of same
material
 The material used is optically transparent
 Silica or borosilicate glass will be the usual
material
 The R.I of the core will be slightly higher than
the R.I of the cladding

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Principle of Light Transmission

Fiber Geometry contd


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MTNL

The core and cladding dia in mm

TOFCPLT024

Core (m)

Cladding (m)

125

50

125

62.5

125

100

140

Principle of Light Transmission

Construction of O.F.Cables
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MTNL

 Optical fiber cable needs protection before it


is used.
 Cabling means process to package one or
more fibers in an outer protective structure.
 Cabling improves the mechanical
characteristics of a fiber without causing a
deterioration of its optical properties.

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

MTNL

CETTM

Important parameters, which need


strengthening and protection, are :
 Tensile strength (pull)
 Crushing resistance
 Protection from excess bending
 Abrasion protection
 Twist and
 Chemical protection.
O.F cables are light, small, flexible, flame
retardant and temperature insensitive besides
being mechanically strong and rugged.
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Principle of Light Transmission

10

Main Components of Optical Fiber Cable


MTNL

CETTM

 OF cable is mainly divided into two parts :


- Metallic
- Non-metallic
 Metallic frame cables are those which use
metallic component for protection and also
may be metallic conductors. Non metallic
fiber cables use non-metallic protection
material.There is no metal component
involved in the cable.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

TOFCPLT024

Parts of A Fiber Optic Cable

Principle of Light Transmission

MTNL

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CETTM

Optic Fiber Cable

MTNL

The following components are commonly used in


most of the cables.
 Buffer
 Strength member
 Filler and core wraps
 Jacket and moisture barrier

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Principle of Light Transmission

13

CETTM

Fiber

MTNL

 Optical Fibers used are either


1. Multi-mode (graded index or GRIN fibers)
2. Single-mode (Step index or SI fibers)
 DOT uses Single mode fibers.
 Contain core and clad (core diameter is 8 to 10
micrometers. Cladding diameter is approximately 125
micrometers.
 Difference is in their Refractive Index.
 This is because to achieve Total Internal Reflection.
 Single Mode is preferred for Telecommunication
applications due to its larger information capacity, for
larger distances.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Cable Components

MTNL

Component

Function

Material

Buffer

Protect fiber from


outside stress

Nylon, Mylar
plastic

Central member

Facilitates stranding Steel, Fiber


Temperature stability glass
Anti-Buckling

Primary strength
Member
TOFCPLT024

Tensile strength
Principle of Light Transmission

Aramid yarn,
steel
15

Cable Components

MTNL

CETTM

Component

Function

Material

Cable jacket

Contain and protect


cable core. Abrasion
Resistance

PE, PUR. PVC,


Teflon

Cable filling
Compound

Prevent moisture
Intrusion and
Migration

Water blocking
compound

Armouring

Rodent protection
Crush Resistance

Steel tape

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Buffers

MTNL

 Fibers are coated with a buffer immediately


after being drawn. This buffer known as
primer.
 Primary coating is made of silicon rubber,
Acrylate, or lacquer.
 Applied to the cladding by the fiber
manufacturer. This coating serves as
mechanical protection during the subsequent
stages of the cable manufacturing.
 Typical diameter of the fiber after primary
coating is 250-350 micrometer.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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Buffers

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MTNL

After primary coating fibers are normally


coloured by passing through colouring
machines.
Coloured fibers are passed through the
additional buffers.
Additional buffers are called Secondary
coating.
1. LOOSE BUFFER
2. TIGHT BUFFER
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Loose Buffer

MTNL

 To isolate the optical fiber from external forces


it is placed in a buffer tube.
 The cable fills these tubes with Jelly like
compound which provides additional
cushioning and prevents the intrusion of
moisture.
 The inside diameter of buffer is several times
that of the fiber. One or more fibers lie within
the buffer tube.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Loose Buffer Contd..

MTNL

 Protects the fiber from any mechanical forces


acting on the cable.
 The fiber can adjust itself within the tube when
the cable is distorted. As the cable expands
and shrinks with change in temperature, it does
not affect the fiber much.
 The fiber in the tube is slightly longer than the
tube itself. Thus, the cable itself can easily
expand and contract without stressing the fiber.
 The diameter of this tube is 1.2 to 1.9 mm. The
loose buffer is preferred for almost all outdoor
applications
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Tight Buffer

MTNL

 The tight buffer has a plastic coating directly applied


over the primary coating of the fiber.
 This type of construction provides better crush and
impact resistance.
 Tight buffer is more flexible and allows tighter turn
ratio.
 Tight tube buffers have general application in indoor
cables where temperature variations are mixed and
the ability to make tight turns inside walls is desired.
 They do not protect the fiber from stressing or
temperature variations.
 Single fiber pigtail cables use tight buffer. They are
used for termination in equipment room.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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Strength Member

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MTNL

 Function is to add mechanical strength to the


fiber.
 Strength Member protects the fiber from the
tensions and strains generated during pulling,
shearing and bending of the cable.
 Most common strength members are:
Kevlar
Aramid Yarn
Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
Glass Reinforced Plastic GRP).

 FRP & GRP are used in Multi Mode fibers.


 Kevlar is used for individual fibers.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Fillers and Core Wraps

MTNL

 Fillers are employed to provide cushioning to the


fibers and to give shape to the cable.
 Typical materials are PVC, Polyethylene, low density
cellulose paper, spun bonded polyester.
 Cable core is generally filled with a water blocking or
filling compound for preventing moisture intrusion.
 Binder tapes are applied to hold the assemblies of
coated fibers and fillers, together.
 It also provides a heat barrier to the fiber during the
extrusion process of outer sheath. Usual materials
are polyester, Mylar, cellulose paper, etc.

TOFCPLT024

Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Jacket & Moisture Barrier

MTNL

 The jacket or sheath provides protection from the


effects of cut and abrasion, oil, ozone, acids, alkali,
solvents etc.
 Materials such as low density polyethylene, high
density polythene, poly urethene, polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), nylon, etc. have been successfully employed
in commercial cables.
 The choice of jacket material depends on application
and cost.
 In cable containing several layers of jacketing and
protective material, the outer layers are often called
the SHEATH. The inner layer which directly protects
the fibers becomes the jacket.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Optical Fiber Cable Configurations

MTNL

 Types of cables
- Loose tube structure
- Slotted core structure
 Length of the cable drum is 2 Kms.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Loose tube structure

MTNL

 Uses protective loose tube which is made up of


thermo plastic material.
 Tubes are stranded helically in continuous or
alternate paths around a central strength
member.
 Central strength member is FRP or GRP.
 Tubes are filled with materials which have stable
physical characteristics over a wide range of
temperature.
 Cable interstices are filled with moisture resistant
filling compound to retard ingress and axial
migration of water.
 Cable core is wrapped with a wrapping tape.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Colour code scheme in Seicor cable

Fiber No

Colour code Fiber No

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Colour code

Blue

Red

Orange

Black

Green

Yellow

Brown

10

Violet

Slate

11

Blue/Black

White

12

Orange/Black

 Colour code simplifies fiber identification


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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Optical Fiber Cable Configurations

TOFCPLT024

No of fibers

Fibers in each tube

12

24

48

96

Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Slotted core structure

MTNL

 Consists of a plastic rod abstracted over a


central strength member assuring good
mechanical and thermal performance of the
structure.
 V-grooves or slots are cut in the surface of the
plastic rod.
 These grooves or slots may contain one or
more fibers protected only by primary coating.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Slotted core structure contd..

MTNL

 After insertion of the fiber, the slotted core is


closed by applying plastic or synthetic
covering.
 Wherever necessary, slots are filled with a
filling compound having stable physical
characteristics over a wide range of
temperature.
 Each slotted core may be used alone with
protective outer jacket, or assembled with
similar cable units before providing outer
protection.
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Principle of Light Transmission

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Optical Fiber Construction


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MTNL

Secondary Coating
Primary Coating
Cladding
Core

9 m
125m

400 m

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Optical Fiber Construction


MTNL

CETTM

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Principle of Light Transmission

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O.F Cable Construction


MTNL

CETTM

 Cabling is packing one or more fibres in a


outer protective cover
 Cabling protects environmentally and
mechanically

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Components of Cable

MTNL

 Fibers
 Buffers
 Fillers
 Strength Members
 Core wraps
 Jacket/Moisture Barrier

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Outer Sheath
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MTNL

 Also known as External Sheath


 Nylon sheath of not less than 0.7 mm thick
 Orange coloured -- used by communication
units
 Green / Black coloured -- used by Railways

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Inner Sheath

MTNL

 Also known as inner jacket


 Black coloured sheath
 Not less than 2.0 mm thick

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Principle of Light Transmission

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CETTM

Central Strengthening Member

MTNL

 To add mechanical strength to cable so that


pulling tension and tension at bends can be
with stood.
 Solid GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic) nonmetalic
 Outer dia 2.10.15 mm

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Slotted Core Structure


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MTNL

 Plastic rod extruded over a strength member


with good mechanical and thermal
performance.
 V- Grooves or slots cut on the surface of rod.
 Each group is containing one/more primary
coated fiber.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Fillers & Core Wraps


CETTM

MTNL

 Provides cushioning and give shape.


 Materials- PVC, Polyester, Polyethylene,
Cellulose Paper.
 Filled with PJ like compound for Moisture
Barrier.
 Binder tapes are wrapped around fillers.

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Loose Tube Structure


CETTM

MTNL

 Fibers (normally coloured) placed loosely


in tubes of thermoplastic
 The tubes are helically stranded over a
FRP/GRP central member
 Tubes are filled with PJ compound

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Tight Buffered Cable


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MTNL

 Used for indoor purposes


 Pigtail cable - single tight buffered fiber
whose one end is free and one end is
connectorised
 Free end is for splicing
 Patch Cords - Both the ends are
connectorised.
 It is equivalent for Jumper

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Principle of Light Transmission

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Pigtail cable

MTNL

CETTM

F
D
F
Cable

TOFCPLT024

Fibres

Pigtail

Principle of Light Transmission

Connector

42

Colour Identification Scheme

CETTM

MTNL

Fiber
No.

Colour

Buffer Tube
No.

Colour

Blue

Blue

Orange

Orange

Green

Filler (Natural)

Brown

Filler (Natural)

Slate

Filler (Natural)

White

--

--

Note : Colour codes will be different from Manufacturer to Manufacturer


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MTNL

CETTM

Thank You

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Principle of Light Transmission

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