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Electronics And Communication
Institute Of Technology, NIRMA UNIVERSITY

Application of electronic circuits concepts in
designing and implementation of a hardware
BC557, Diode 1N4007, IC NE555, 8 PIN IC
Socket, Red and White LED, LDR
A BC547 transistor is a negativepositive-negative (NPN) transistor that is used
for many purposes.
Together with other electronic
components, such as resistors, coils, and
capacitors, it can be used as the active
component for switches and amplifiers.
BC547 is one of a series of related
transistors: BC546 to BC550. These have
broadly similar ratings and the same collector
current and hfe, but their breakdown voltage
ratings VCEO and VCBO vary across the
range. -548 has a 30 V VCBO, the -547 50 V
and the -546 80 V. The -549 and -550 variants
are low-noise versions.
DIODE 1N4007
The 1N4001 series (or 1N4000 series) is a
family of popular 1.0 A (ampere) general
purpose SCRs commonly used in AC adaptors
for common household appliances. Blocking
voltage varies from 50 to 1000 volts. This
diode is made in an axial-lead DO-41 plastic
IC NE555
This timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip)
used in a variety of timer, pulse generation,
and oscillator applications. The 555 can be
used to provide time delays, as an oscillator,
and as a flip-flop element. The standard 555
package includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and
15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8).
The 555 has three operating modes:
Monostable mode: In this mode, the 555
functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator.

Applications include timers, missing pulse

switches, frequency divider, capacitance
measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM)
and so on.
Astable (free-running) mode: The 555 can
operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and
lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks,
tone generation, security alarms, pulse position
modulation and so on. The 555 can be used as
a simple ADC, converting an analog value to a
pulse length. E.g. selecting a thermistor as
timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a
temperature sensor
Bistable mode: The 555 can operate as a flipflop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no
capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free
latched switches.
A photoresistor or light-dependent resistor
(LDR) or photocell is a light-controlled
variable resistor. The resistance of a
photoresistor decreases with increasing
incident light intensity; in other words, it
exhibits photoconductivity. A photoresistor
can be applied in light-sensitive detector
The circuit activates a LED lamp upon
detecting the absence of light on an LDR. It is
particularly well suited to outside lighting as
used for driveways and garage entrances.
Contrary to its normal use as an astable or
monostable multivibrator, the type of 555IC in
this circuit functions as a comparator. To
explain this rather unusual application, it is
necessary to note that the operation of a 555 is
normally as follows: the output goes high upon
receipt trigger (start) pulse on input pin2. This
pulse is a voltage whose level is lower than 1/3
of the supply voltage. The output goes low
again when the voltage at the second input,

pin6, has briefly exceeded 2/3 of the supply level.

In the present design, the second input is not used
but the output of the chip can none the less revert to
the low state, since pin6, is connected direct to the
positive supply rail. This set up is accounted for by
the accompanying table taken from the 555s data
sheets. Do not apply
more than 16V,
however, as this may
damage the 555. The
current consumption
of the circuit is very
low, at a supply
Components R2 and
C1 ensure a delay of
about 10s before the
relay is energized so
rendered insensitive
to rapid changes in
the light intensity.
Basically, the circuit
has no hysteresis
when the supply is
not regulated the
actuation of the
relay will lower the
supply level somewhat. This lowers the internal
threshold of the IC since the trigger point is defined
as 2/3 of the supply level (pin2). Therefore, the
hysteresis of required by fitting a resistor in series
with the supply. It is also possible to fit a resistor
between pin 5 and 6 of the 555, as shown in the
circuit diagram. The amount of hysteresis is
inversely proportional to the value of the resistor.C2
make full wave rectifier to convert the AC voltage
to DC voltage. LED is the power indicator and R5 is
current limiter for LED.

When enough voltage passes through the
circuit and absence of light is detected on the LDR,
the led glows.

Hence the circuit activates a LED lamp

upon detecting the absence of light on an LDR. It is
particularly well suited to outside lighting as used
for driveways and garage entrances.