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396

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 31, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1989

Accuracy of Approximate Transmission Line Formulas


for Overhead Wires

is the series impedance of the wire due to the magnetic field in


ground.
The geometric factor for the ground impedance A is [5]

KENNETH C. CHEN AND KENNETH M. DAMRAU


Abstract-Errors resulting from two approximations of the transmission line parameters of overhead wires are determined. Sundes simple
approximation is found to be more accurate than the Hankel function
approximation.

I. INTRODUCTION
The classical transmission line solution for overhead wires was
obtained by Carson [l] in 1926. Since then, numerous authors have
treated the same problem and obtained similar results for the
transmission line mode. For example, Wait [2] considered a general
formulation for an i n h i t e wire over ground and obtained Carsons
results in the low-frequency limit. King et al. [3] derived transmission line parameters by taking an appropriate limit for an eccentric
insulated antenna. Recent interest in overhead wires arises from the
need to calculate the coupling of high-altitude nuclear burst electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to overhead power lines. Many workers in the
EMP field are unfamiliar with Carsons results and rely on other
approximations. A paper by Bridges and Shafai [4] compares the
numerical results from the exact solution of the overhead wire current
and results from Carsons theory for plane wave EMP and demonstrates very favorable agreements for physical parameters of practical
interest. This paper compares Sundes simple approximation and a
common, more elaborate Hankel function approximation to Carsons
solution and shows that the simple approximation is more accurate
than the Hankel function approximation.

2
A =A
7+2i

1;

2Kl(A)
A

( l - ~ ) exp
~ ( - A x ) dx--

(5)

and

A=2k4d, k 4 = d ~ p ( ( i o ~ + + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ )
is the wavenumber of ground, and K I is the modified Bessel function
of the second kind. Note that (5) is very convenient for the numerical
determination of A.

HI. APPROXIMATIONS
TO A AND THEIRACCURACIES
Sunde [6] gave a simple engineering formula for A without
derivation as

Vance [7] included in his book both (6) and a formula based on a
transmission line mode existing between the wire and an outer
cylindrical conductor with the wire height as radius, which results in

(7)

11. CARSONS
TRANSMISSION
LINETHEORY
The transmission line wavenumber and characteristic impedance
are given as (e-dependence)

k = (- ZY)12

(1)

and

Z,=(Z/Y)2
where

y= - j&=

- i02ae0
arccosh (&a)

where H is the Hankel function. Vance also included the ground


admittance, which is very small unless the wire almost touches the
ground. Workers [SI-[lo] in the EMP field preferred using (7).
In Figs. 1 and 2, we show that (6) is somewhat more accurate than
(7), which is as complicated as the exact formula (5). Both figures
were obtained by using a VAX (32-bit) machine and verified by a
Cray (@-bit) machine. Next, a simple derivation [ll] is included to
explain the accuracy of (6). The small argument approximation of (5)
is

(3)

.7r

a is the wire radius, d is the wire height, and

z=z,+z,

(4)

A-impo arcosh (d/a)


2a

2s

Manuscript received December 16, 1988; revised April 10, 1989.


The authors are with the Electromagnetic Analysis Division, Sandia
National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185.
IEEE Log Number 8930251.

2i
A

Approximating (8) by dropping - y

(9)

1/2 gives

A
a
A - -In - + i 2
2

is the series impedance of the wire due to the magnetic field in air,
and

z2=--iupA

where y is Eulers constant; the large argument approximation of A is

where

z1= -

A--ln;+i;-y+;

Equation (6) is a simple formula matching (9) and (10) for both
limits.
Finally, an explanation for the larger error of (7) is in order. A
small argument approximation of (7) gives
A - - 1 1 1 -A- - y + l n 2 + i ~ .
2
2

OO18-9375/89/11OO-0396$01 .OO 0 1989 IEEE

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397

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 31, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1989

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Real Approximation
Real Approximation

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[6] E. D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems.


New York: Dover, 1968.
[7] E. F. Vance, Coupling to Shielded Cables, R. E. Krieger, 1987.
[8] F. M. Tesche, A study of overhead line responses to high altitude
electromagnetic pulse environments, AFWL Interaction Note 458,
Dec. 1986.
[9] F. M. Tesche and P. R. Barnes, Development of a high altitude
electromagneticpulse (NEMP) environmentand resulting overhead line
responses, Electromagnetics, vol. 8, no. 2-4, 1988.
[lo] D. Hansen et al., Response of an overhead wire near a NEMP
simulator, AFWL Interaction Note 470, Sept. 1988.
[ l l ] K. C. Chen and K. M. Damrau, EMP-induced, time-domain grazing
solution for an infinite wire over the ground, SAND85-0222, May
1985; AFWAL Interaction Note 448, Oct. 1984.

00

Fig. 1. Comparison of approximation 1 (6) and approximation 2 (7) to the


exact formula (5) for dielectric half space (k4is real).

A Transmission Line Model of Cable to Antenna


Coupling Inside a Screened Room

0.8

STEPHEN GOODWIN AND ANDREW C. MARVIN, MEMBER, IEEE

5.0
0.6

4.0

.d

0.4

2
E
c.
a

Real Approximation 1
Real Approximation 2

0.2

Imae Appmximation 2

Abstract-This paper presents a coupled transmission-line model that


evaluates emissions from a cable coupling to an antenna when both are
located within a screened room. The cable is positioned over a conducting
bench in the room. The model developed is valid over the frequency range
10 kHz IQ 30 MHz. A method for evaluating the coupling parameters of
the model is given. This involves the use of conformal transformations
and image techniques.
Key Words-Screened room, cable, emissions, transmission line,
conformal transformations, image techniques.

0.0

10

I. INTRODUCTION

Id

lo
IAl

Fig. 2. Comparison of approximation 1 (6) and approximation 2 (7) to the


exact formula (5) for conducting half space (k4 = (k41eJr4).

Notice the real part of A in (1 1) has a slightly larger error than the
real part in (lo), which results in the discrepancy shown in Figs. 1

and 2.

IV.CONCLUSIONS
We recommend that if the exact formula in (5) is not used, (6)
should be used to avoid the extra computation and inaccuracies
involved in using (7). Although (7) has the larger error, it is valuable
since it approximates a complicated physical problem with a simpler
physical problem having cylindrical symmetry, and it is fairly
accurate.
REFERENCES

J. R. Carson, Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground


return, Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 5, pp. 539-554, 1926.
J. R. Wait, Theory of wave propagation along a thin wire parallel to
an interface, Radio Sci., vol. 7, pp. 675-679, 1972.
R. W. P. King, T. T. Wu, and L. C. Shen, The horizontal-wire
antenna over a conducting dielectric half-space: Current and admittance, Radio Sci., vol. 9, pp. 701-709, July 1974.
G. J. Bridges and L. Shafai, Plane wave coupling to multiple
conductor transmission lines above a lossy earth, IEEE Trans.
Electromagn. Cornpat., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 21-33, Feb. 1989.
K. C. Chen, Time harmonic solutions for a long horizontal wire over
the ground with grazing incidence, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,
vol. AP-33, no. 3, pp. 233-243, Mar. 1985.

The propagation of electromagnetic energy inside screened rooms


can be modeled by the use of various numerical techniques. Examples
include the method of moments [l], the boundary-element method
[2], finite difference, finite element, and transmission-line modeling
(TLM) [3]. However, these techniques require a large number of
elements in order to accurately model even the smallest screened
room. This necessitates the need for long run times on powerful
computers. Moreover, the results of these numerical codes are not
always easy to interpret in terms of the propagation phenomena
involved. This paper describes a theoretical model of the coupling of
energy from a cable to an antenna inside a screened room. The model
takes separate account of the propagation phenomena involved and
thus aids interpretation of the results. An important part of the
development of the model was a parallel measurement program to
validate the results at each stage.
The photograph in Fig. 1 shows a typical setup as defined in
various radiated emission specifications for use up to 30 MHz. A
conducting bench is bonded to the end wall of the enclosure, with a 1m-long conducting extension bonded to the bench, on which a
monopole antenna is placed.
The received signals are fed by super-screened cable to a receiver
in the anteroom. Equipment under test (EUT) is placed on the bench,
100 mm from the front edge. Cables that feed necessary power and/or
Manuscript received June 2, 1988; revised May 15, 1989.
The authors are with the Department of Electronics, University of York,
York, England.
IEEE Log Number 8930252.

0018-9375/89/1100-0397$01.OO 0 1989 IEEE