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KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
LAB 1

(MEC 2610)

EXPERIMENT 5

Solar Ray
Collector

NAME
: Ahmad Lukman Bin Achmad Joehary
MATRIC : 1323081
SECT
:1

OBJECTIVE

To determine the efficiency of the solar ray collector under


various conditions.

BACKGROUND
A solar ray collector is used to heat water by means of
radiant energy. In order to be able to make statements
concerning the efficiency of a collector or a solar installation it
is essential to be aware not only of its construction but also of
the weather situation, the mounting angle relative to the sun
and other operating conditions, such as the temperature of the
absorber.
In the experiment a halogen lamp and a stream of cold air
reproducibly simulate the weather. The collector is optimally
aligned with the halogen lamp in each series of measurements.
The mean absorber temperature can be approximately pre-set
by means of the selected reservoir temperature. The glass
covering of the collector absorbs or reflects the incident radiant
energy to a small extent. The portion passing through impinges
on the absorber and is to a very large extent absorbed by it.

EQUIPMENT
1. Solar ray collector
2. Lab thermometer
3. Circulating pump w. flowmeter
4. Power supply
5. Heat exchanger
6. Solar coll.stand
7. Immersion heater
8. Hot-/Cold air blower
9. Halogen lamp
10.
Tripod base
11.
Support rod
12.
Right angle clamp
13.
Universal clamp
14.
Glass beaker, tall, 2000 ml
15.
Glass beaker, short, 5000 ml
16.
Safety gas tubing
17.
Measuring tape
18.
Stopwatch, digital
19.
Connecting cord

PROCEDURE
Part A
i) 4.5L of water at room temperature is poured into the 5 l
beaker.
ii) The heat exchanger is put into the beaker of water.
iii) Halogen lamp is placed 70cm away from the solar ray
collector.
iv) The initial temperature of the water, the inlet and the outlet
of the absorber is taken, before switching on the heat
exchanger.
v) The heat exchanger is exchange and the volume flow is set.
vi) Temperature of water, inlet and outlet of the absorber is
recorded every minute for 15 minutes.
vii) Steps i) to vi) is repeated but with the glass plate removed.
Part B
i) Water is obtain at a temperature of 60 c , by mixing hot and
cold water, and 4.5Lis poured into the 5L beaker.
ii) Put the heat exchanger into the beaker of water.
iii) Place a 1000W halogen lamp 70cm away from the solar ray
collector.
iv) Take the initial temperature of the water, the inlet and the
outlet of the absorber, before switching on the heat exchanger.
v) Switch on the heat exchanger and set the volume flow to
100cm3/min.
vi) Record temperature of the water, inlet and outlet of the
absorber every minute for 15 minutes.
vii) Repeat steps i) to vi) but with a hot air blower (with cold
setting) placed at the side at a distance of approximately 30cm
so that the air impinges the collector at an angle of
approximately 30o, with the glass plate removed without
blower, and with the glass plate removed and with blower.

DISCUSSION
A flat-plate collector consist of an absorber, a transparent
cover, a fram and insulation. Simultaneously, only very little of
the heat emitted by the absorber escapes the cover.
Transparent cover prevents wind and breezes from carrying the
collected heat away. Together with the frame, the cover
protects the absorber from adverse weather conditions.
In order to reduce energy loss through heat emission, the most
efficient absorbers have a selective surface coating. This
coating enables the conversion of a high proportion of the solar
radiation into heat, simultaneously reducing the emission of
heat.
From the data, we can see the experiment with blower and with
glass have very increasing in temperature but the waters
temperature decrease. This is because the blower and the glass
give more heat to the surrounding.

The useful power, PN and efficiency for each case.

ERROR
-

The eye did not perpendicular to the thermometer.


Did not take the reading at exact minutes.
The water did not flow at a constant speed.

SUGGESTION TO REDUCE ERROR

- The eye must be perpendicular to the thermometer


- Must ensure to take the reading at exact time of minutes for 15
-

minutes.
Ensure the water flow at constant speed.

CONCLUSIONS
Alhamdulillah, our group has been successfully collecting
all data of this experiment. First of all, our lamp broken and
cannot bright the light, but it has being change by the lab
assistant. Then, we done it although it took 3 hours and more
to complete it.
From this experiment, I have learned knowledge about the
efficiency of the solar ray collector under certain condition. The
purpose of doing this experiment to our majoring, automotive
engineering is to know the relationship between the weather
and the car. How much heat absorb by the car during certain
temperature.
By the experiment, a few invention of the car can be made
repated to the weather outside. What I know, that lamp will
certainly make the water, absorber inlet, absorber outlet
increase the temperature but at certain time it will remain
constant.
Although, the aimed of this project have been fulfilled,
there are still a lot of things I have learned in order to improve
my skills and knowledge. For now, Im satisfied with what I have
done so far. But, InsyaAllah in the next experiment will try my
best to produce something valuable.

REFERENCES
- AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING LAB 1 (MEC 2610) Laboratory
manual page 35-38
- http://www.solarserver.com/knowledge/basicknowledge/solar-collectors.html

CALCULATION
TIME (min)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

TIME (min)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
TIME (min)

With glass
Pn
0
1046.5
1255.8
1465.1
1674.4
1674.4
418.6
627.9
837.2
1465.1
1883.7
2302.3
2511.6
2720.9
2511.6
2720.9

EFFICIENCY

Without glass
Pn

EFFICIENCY

Natural Air With glass


Pn

EFFICIENCY

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

TIME (min)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
TIME (min)
0
1

Natural Air Without glass


Pn
EFFICIENCY

With blower With glass


Pn

EFFICIENCY

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
With blower Without glass
TIME (min)
Pn
EFFICIENCY
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15