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Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Lab Overview

The reactivity of the halogen family of elements with halides is related to their Periodic Table positions
and their electron configuration. Each halogen atom has one electron less than the noble gas that follows
it in the periodic table. There is, a marked tendency on the part of halogen atoms to assume a noblegas
configuration by the formation of a negative ion with a charge of negative one or a single covalent bond.
Characteristics of the Halogens
1. Physical state. Under ordinary conditions, the halogens exist as diatomic molecules with a single
covalent bond joining the atoms of a molecule. The molecules are held together in the solid and liquid
states by London forces. Of all the halogen molecules, I2 is the largest, has the most electrons, and is the
most polar. It is not surprising, therefore, that the intermolecular attractions between I2 molecules are the
strongest and that I2 has the highest melting point and boiling point. At ordinary temperatures and
pressures, I2 is a solid, Br2 is a liquid, and Cl2 and F2 are gases.
2. First ionization energy. Within the group, ionization energy decreases with increasing atomic radius
as expected. The first ionization energy of fluorine is the highest of the group and iodine has the lowest
of the group. The halogen of each period has a relatively high ionization energy, second only to that of
the noble gas of the period. There is, therefore, little tendency for a halogen atom to form a positive ion
(although such ions as I2+, Br2+, Cl2+, and I3+ are know to exist).
3. Electronegativity. Each halogen is the most reactive nonmetal of its period, and fluorine is the most
reactive of all the nonmetals. Fluorine has the highest electronegativity of any element and is one of the
strongest oxidizing agents known. The electronegativity of the halogens decreases in the order F > Cl >
Br > I, and the oxidizing power of the halogens decreases in the same order.
4. Bond energy. Bond energy decreases from Cl2 to Br2 to I2 since the increasing size of the halogen
atom makes it easier and easier to break the bond between the atoms of the X2 molecule. The bond
dissociation energy of the F2 molecule is, however, unusually low and out of line in comparison to the
other values. The reason for this relatively low value is thought to be due to the effect of the nonbonding
electrons in the F2 molecule. A repulsion between the highly dense electron clouds of the small fluorine
atoms is believed to weaken the bond and lower the energy required to break it.
The bond formed between fluorine and an element other than itself is always stronger than the bonds
formed by any of the other halogens with the same element. The bond energies of the hydrogen halides,
for example, are HF, 565 kJ/ mol; HCl, 431 kJ/mol; HBr, 364 kJ/mol; and HI, 297 kJ/mol. The high
order of chemical reactivity of F2 in reactions with other nonmetals is the result, therefore, of the low
bond energy of the F2 molecule (energy required), coupled with the high bond energies of the new
bonds (energy released).

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Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Characteristics of the Hydrogen Halides


Each of the hydrogen halides can be prepared by the direct reaction of hydrogen with the corresponding
free halogen:
H2 + X2 2HX
The vigor of this reaction is studied in this lab, and will decrease chlorine to iodine. The reactions serve
as important industrial sources of HCl, HBr, and HI. The hydrogen halides are colorless gases at room
temperature compared to sulfuric acid which is a highboiling liquid.
Hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide cannot be made by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on
bromides and iodides because hot, concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes these anions to the free halogens.
Bromide and iodide ions are easier to oxidize than the fluoride and chloride ions:
2NaBr(s) + 2H2SO4(l) Br2(g) + SO2(g) + Na2SO4(s) + 2H2O(g)
Since iodide ions are a stronger reducing agent (more easily oxidized) than bromide ions, S and H2S, as
well as SO2, are obtained as reduction products from the reaction of Nal with hot concentrated sulfuric
acid.
Hydrogen fluoride molecules are attracted to each other through hydrogen bonding. The HF vapor
consists of aggregates up to (HF)6 at temperatures near the boiling point (19.4C), but is less highly
associated at higher temperatures. Gaseous HCl, HBr, and HI consist of single molecules. Liquid HF
and solid HF are more highly hydrogen bonded than gaseous HF, and the boiling point and melting point
of HF are abnormally high in comparison with those of the other hydrogen halides.
All hydrogen halides are very soluble in water; water solutions are called hydrohalic acids. Aqueous HI,
for example, is called hydroiodic acid. The HF bond is stronger than any other HX bond; HF is a
weak acid in water solution, whereas HCl, HBr, and HI are completely dissociated and are strong acids.
HF(aq) H+(aq) + F(aq) (Partial Reaction; Weak Acid)
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl(aq) (Complete Reaction; Strong Acid)
HBr(aq) H+(aq) + Br(aq) (Complete Reaction; Strong Acid)
HI(aq) H+(aq) + I(aq) (Complete Reaction; Strong Acid)
Because F2 and HF are so reactive, they will not be experiment with in this laboratory activity.

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No portion of these materials may be reproduced or redistributed in any form without the express written permission of Apex Learning Inc.

Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Pre-Lab Questions
1.
Draw Lewis electron dot diagrams for I2, Br2, Cl2, F2, I,Br, Cl, and F.
2.
Write equations showing the reactions where:
Cl2 dissolves in water
NaBr dissolves in water.
I2 dissolves in water.
NaF dissolves in water.
Be sure to indicate the state (solid(s), liquid(l), gas(g), or aqueous(aq) of each species.
3.
HF is a weak acid. HCl, HBr, and HI are strong acids. Explain this difference in terms
chemical bonding and intramolecular bonding forces.
Materials
droppers
6inch test tubes
Procedure
I.
Data Collection: Solubility of the Halogens and the Halides
Read and carry out the procedure in Parts A E of Experiment F-2 in Inquiries into
Chemistry.
II.
Data Collection: Reactions between the Halogens and the Halides
Read and carry out the procedure in Parts A D of Experiment F-2 in Inquiries into
Chemistry.

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No portion of these materials may be reproduced or redistributed in any form without the express written permission of Apex Learning Inc.

Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Pre-Lab Questions (3 points)

1.

Draw Lewis electron dot diagrams for I2, Br2, Cl2, F2, I,Br, Cl, and F.

2.

Write equations showing the reactions where:


Cl2 dissolves in water
NaBr dissolves in water.
I2 dissolves in water.
NaF dissolves in water.
Be sure to indicate the state (solid(s), liquid(l), gas(g), or aqueous(aq) of each species.

3.

HF is a weak acid. HCl, HBr, and HI are strong acids. Explain this difference in terms
chemical bonding and intramolecular bonding forces.

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No portion of these materials may be reproduced or redistributed in any form without the express written permission of Apex Learning Inc.

Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Results (27 points)


Part I.
Data Collection: Solubility of the Halogens and the Halides (13 points)
Summarize the colors and solubility of the halides and halogens in the chart. This
information is used in Section II to identify the reaction products.
Cl

Br

Cl2

Br2

I2

In Water
In Cyclohexane
Part II.

Data Collection: Reactions between Halogens and Halides (14 points)


Record observations in the water and after adding cyclohexane.
If the cyclohexane test indicates there is no reaction, write NR.
If the cyclohexane test indicates there is a reaction, write a balanced reaction equation for this
reaction.
Br2 + Cl

I2 + Cl

Cl2 + Br

Cl2 + I

In Water
In Cyclohexane
(Color Change)
In Cyclohexane
(Reaction equation)

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No portion of these materials may be reproduced or redistributed in any form without the express written permission of Apex Learning Inc.

Lab
Wet Lab: Properties of Halogens

AP CHEMISTRY

Part III. Data Analysis (10 points)


A.
Fill in the table showing whether the halide and halogen react. (5 points)
Use NR for No Reaction and put the color of the cyclohexane solution (e.g. brown)
where there is a reaction.
Cl

Br

Cl2
Br2
I2
Part III. Data Analysis
Answer Question B in Part III: Data Analysis. (5 points)

Copyright 2009 Apex Learning Inc. All rights reserved. This material is intended for the exclusive use of registered users only.
No portion of these materials may be reproduced or redistributed in any form without the express written permission of Apex Learning Inc.