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Judul Asli: ASME-132-2010-Vibration Analysis of a Floating Roof Subjected to Radial Second Mode of Sloshing

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Utsumi

Department of Machine Element,

Technical Research Laboratory,

IHI Corporation,

1 Shinnakaharacho, Isogo-ku,

Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture 235-8501,

Japan

K. Ishida

Energy and Plant,

IHI Corporation,

1-1 Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku,

Tokyo 135-8710, Japan

Roof Subjected to Radial Second

Mode of Sloshing

In a previous paper, a cost-efficient modal analysis method for the vibration of a floating

roof coupled with nonlinear sloshing in a circular cylindrical oil storage tank is presented. This method is extended to the case in which the out-of-plane deformation of the

roof-deck caused by the radial second mode of sloshing induces an elliptical deformation

of the pontoon around the deck. First, the radial contraction of the deck is calculated

from the slope of the out-of-plane deformation of the deck, and the following two points

are confirmed: (i) the circumferential variation in this radial contraction results in the

elliptical deformation of the pontoon, and (ii) the present theoretical prediction for the

radial contraction is in good agreement with a numerical result obtained by LS-DYNA.

Based on these points, the stresses arising in the pontoon are calculated by considering

the contraction of the deck as an enforced displacement of the pontoon. Numerical results

show that (a) the elliptical deformation of the pontoon causes a large circumferential

in-plane stress, (b) reduction achieved by the increase in the thickness of the deck is

larger for the radial contraction of the deck and the stresses in the pontoon than for the

out-of-plane deformation of the deck, and (c) the radial contraction of the deck for a fixed

value of the out-of-plane deformation of the deck increases with the decrease in the

radius of the deck. DOI: 10.1115/1.3148083

Introduction

cylindrical tank is a subject of great importance in estimating the

safety of large oil storage tanks 1,2. The oscillatory motion of a

floating roof coupled with liquid sloshing is near resonance with

low-frequency components of earthquake ground motions, and

thus can lead to serious accidents such as flood, fire, and structural

failure. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the

nonlinear sloshing problem with a free liquid surface 310, the

vibration analysis of a floating roof has been conducted using the

linearized theory under the assumption of a small amplitude sloshing 1117. However, a floating roof oscillates with finite amplitude due to the resonance behavior and thus the nonlinearity of

sloshing should be considered in the vibration analysis. In previous papers 18,19, the vibration of a floating roof subjected to

nonlinear sloshing was analyzed, and it was shown that neglecting

the nonlinearity of sloshing significantly underestimates the

stresses arising in the floating roof, even when the nonlinear effect

is small for the vertical displacement of the floating roof. This

underestimation becomes more marked when internal resonance

due to the nonlinearity of sloshing is present 19. These previous

works focused on the case in which the radial first mode of sloshing with circumferential wave number 1 is excited. However, the

radial second mode of sloshing as well as the first mode is near

resonance with low-frequency components of earthquake ground

motions. The second mode causes the out-of-plane deformation

and radial contraction of the deck 20. Because this contraction

has modal components with circumferential wave numbers 0 and

2, it causes an elliptical deformation of the pontoon around the

deck. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the stresses caused by

this elliptical deformation for estimating the safety of the floating

by extending the previously reported nonlinear analysis method

incorporating the radial contraction of the deck.

Analysis

shown in Fig. 1. The floating roof consisting of deck, pontoon,

and stiffeners is modeled as an axisymmetric elastic shell. In Fig.

1, a is the radius of the tank and h is the liquid-filling level. The

detailed parameters for the floating roof geometry are given in the

section that is dedicated to the description of the numerical examples. The analysis is performed under the assumption that the

liquid motion is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational and that

the wall and bottom of the tank are rigid. The nonlinearity of the

boundary conditions at the interface between the liquid and the

floating roof is considered. The static position of the interface is

considered a plane expressed by z = h and 0 r a in formulating

the nonlinear boundary conditions because the variation in the z

coordinate of the static position is very small compared with the

liquid-filling level and the difference between the radii of the tank

wall and the floating roof is much smaller than the tank radius.

2.2 Variational Form of Governing Equations. To apply a

computationally efficient Galerkin method to the problem, a variational form of the governing equations is presented in this section.

From the equality of the Lagrangian density with the liquid pressure pl 21, the Lagrangian Ll of the liquid can be expressed as

Ll =

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication

in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 27,

2008; final manuscript received February 22, 2009; published online March 30, 2010.

Review conducted by Spyros A. Karamanos.

pldV

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and Xmy are displacement components excited by the x and y components of the

excitation, respectively; Mm

and Km are the mass and stiffness

matrices that are common for Xmx

and Xmy; le is the length of the

generatrix of each shell element; s is the local coordinate defined

along the generatrix of each shell element; and r and hr are the

density and thickness of the element. Because the variations in the

velocity potential, the floating roof displacement, and the arbitrary

time-dependent function are arbitrary and independent of one another, we obtain the system of governing equations. The first

through third terms of Eq. 3 yield the condition of continuity in

the liquid domain and the boundary conditions on the liquid-tank

interface as follows:

2 = 0

pl = f

+ gz h + r cos f xt + r sin f yt

t

1

t

+ 2 + G

2

describes the liquid motion relative to the moving tank, g is the

gravitational acceleration, f xt and f yt are the earthquake acceleration inputs in the x and y directions, respectively, and Gt is an

arbitrary time-dependent function, which arises due to the spatial

integration of the equation of motion for the liquid. This function

is determined from the condition that the mean value of the residual for the equation of motion of the floating roof over the

liquid-roof interface vanishes. By adding the Lagrangian of the

floating roof determined by the finite element method and applying the mathematical procedures explained in the previous papers

18,22 to the calculus of variations, the variational form of the

governing equations can be obtained. In this paper, the linearized

variational form is presented by neglecting the nonlinear terms

and evaluating the liquid pressure and the kinematic condition on

the undisturbed position of the liquid-roof interface because the

effect of the nonlinearity of sloshing on the stresses caused by the

radial contraction of the deck is small as is shown in the computational results. The linear formulation simplifies the analysis. The

linearized variational principle can be written as follows:

2dV f

+ f

r=a

t

mx

mx

z=h

elem

f G

u

rdrd = 0

t

mnxtcos

m + Amnytsin m

coshmnz

coshmnh

Empxt,

Tmkp

t =

Xmyk

mkpEmpy t

p=1

where Tmkp

is the kth component of the pth eigenvector obtained

by solving the eigenvalue problem 2Mm

+ Km = 0, while

Empxt and Empyt are the modal coordinates. In terms of these

modal coordinates, the floating roof displacement at an arbitrary

position s in each element can be expressed as

rhr f xtcos

s

Empxtcos m + Empytsin mU

mp

s

vs, ,t =

Empxtsin m Empytcos mV

mp

m=0 p=1

s, ,t

w

where u, v, and w

roof in the z, , and r directions, respectively; m is the circum021303-2 / Vol. 132, APRIL 2010

m=0 n=1

us, ,t

le

f ytsin w

2

r, ,z,t =

p=1

+ r cos f xt

gu

+ r sin f yt urdrd +

2.3 Differential Equations. From Eqs. 4 and 5, we express the velocity potential as follows:

t =

Xmxk

Xmx

Xmy

t Mm X my

+ Km Xmy

+ Km

z=h

=0

z=0

z=hrdrd

m=0

mth order Bessel function of the first kind, mn is the nth positive

root of Jm

a = 0.

The kth components of Xmx

and Xmy can be expressed as

z=0rdrd

X M X

condition that on the disturbed interface between the liquid and

the floating roof, their normal velocity components are equal to

each other; the fifth to seventh terms of Eq. 3 lead to the equation of motion for the floating roof subjected to the liquid pressure

and the inertial force due to the excitation; and the last term of Eq.

3 yields the volume constant condition. Because the damping

effect is not considered in Eq. 3, modal damping terms are introduced into the ordinary differential equations to be derived

later.

Note that the terms with Mm

and Km are not the finite element

model equations for the nodal displacements Xmx and Xmy, but

modified equations with much smaller dimension size. This modification is explained in the previous work 18 and is helpful for

reducing computation time and cost.

r=aadzd

r=a

Jmmnr

z=0

u

+

t

z

= 0,

s, V s, and W

s are the modal functions of the

where U

mp

mp

mp

displacement components in the z, , and r directions,

respectively.

Substituting Eqs. 68 into the variational principle 3 leads

Transactions of the ASME

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These equations can be expressed in the following matrix form.

M1x 1 + K1x1 = Fft

Mmx m + Kmxm = 0

9a

m = 0,2

9b

and normal direction , respectively. The positive directions of

these local coordinates s and are defined such that cosz , s is

negative and cosr , is positive.

The strain energy of the pontoon can be expressed as

= 1 , 2 , . . . for each value of m and ft is the tank excitation vector

given by f xt , f ytt. The coefficients Mm, Km, and F are presented in the previous paper 18.

2.4 Stress Analysis for Elliptical Deformation of Pontoon.

The eigenfrequencies of the linearized system can be determined

by solving the eigenvalue problem 2Mm + Km = 0 for each

value of m, as can be seen from Eq. 9. For lower modes, the

eigenfrequencies are close to gmn tanhmnh1/2, which are the

eigenfrequencies of sloshing without the floating roof. Therefore,

the out-of-plane deformation of the deck due to the radial second

mode of sloshing with circumferential wave number1 is expressed

as follows from Eq. 8.

u = E12xtcos + E12ytsin F12r

10

s

where the modal function F12r can be determined from U

12

by transforming the local coordinate s into the global coordinate r.

This mode of the roof has one nodal circle so it is strongly excited

when the liquid oscillates in the radial second mode of sloshing.

The radial contraction of the deck due to this out-of-plane deformation can be calculated as

S,t =

b1

U=

le

16

hr/2 16

jj 1u j u j 1drdsd

u1

u4

u

u5 =

v ,

s

u6

w

u2 = v ,

u3

w

u11

u7

u

u8 =

v ,

u9

w

u14

u12 =

v ,

s

u13

w

2

u10 =

2

E12y

t

1/4E212xt

+ 1/2E12xtE12ytsin 2

2

E12y

tcos

2

11

Eq. 11, let us consider the case in which the tank excitation is in

the x direction and thus E12y is not excited. In this case, the coefficients of cos 0 and cos 2 are identical and the coefficient of

sin 2 vanishes. This indicates that the pontoon around the deck

undergoes elliptical deformation. The equality between the coefficients of cos 0 and cos 2 meets the Japanese Fire Service

Law, which requires the modal components with circumferential

wave numbers 0 and 2 be considered in the earthquake-proof design of the pontoon. Furthermore, the radial contraction of the

deck determined from Eq. 11 is in good agreement with a numerical result obtained by LS-DYNA 2, as is shown in Sec. 3.

Based on these points, the contraction of the deck given by Eq.

11 is considered as an enforced displacement of the pontoon for

an approximate estimation of the stress caused by the elliptical

deformation of the pontoon.

This paper addresses the case in which the continuity condition

of the radial displacement between the deck and the pontoon is

satisfied. That is, the presented procedure does not include the

case in which the edge of the deck moves away from the pontoon

or bumps each other.

In the subsequent analysis, the change in the variation in the

strain energy due to the enforced displacement is transformed into

nonlinear functions of the generalized coordinates. These nonlinear functions are added to the right-hand sides of Eq. 9 because

Eq. 9 is derived from Hamiltons principle.

The enforced displacement components of the pontoon are

u = S cosr,s,

v = 0,

w = S cosr,

12

where cosa , b is the cosine of the angle between a and b directions and u, v, and w are the displacement components of the shell

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

14

terms of the generalized coordinates as follows:

us, ,t

vs, ,t

m=0 p=1

15

b1

dF12/dr2dr

2w

s2

u15 = 2 v

u16

w

2

1/4E212xt

13

where is the coordinate measured along the normal of the midplane of the shell, B jj1 are the coefficients that appear in the relations between the stress-strain and strain-displacement components, and u j are the displacement components defined as

ws, ,t

1/2u/ r2dr

elem

U =

elem

le

16

hr/2 16

jj 1u j u j 1

+ u ju j1drdsd

16

U =

elem

le

16

hr/2 16

jj 1u j u j 1drdsd

17

where C jj1 = B jj1 + B j1 j. By virtue of this transformation, the number of terms including variation can be decreased, thereby reducing the hand calculation effort. Using Eq. 17, the change in the

variation in the strain energy can be expressed as

U =

elem

le

hr/2 16

16

jj 1u j u j 1

+ u ju j1

drdsd

18

From Eq. 12, we evaluate the changes in the displacement components defined by Eq. 14. Noting that the direction cosine values are constant within each element, we obtain

u1

u2 =

u3

S cosr,s

0

u4

S cosr,

u5 = 0 ,

0

u6

u7

u8

u9

S/cosr,s

0

u10 = 0

S/cosr,

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u11

u14

u12 = 0 ,

0

2S/2cosr,s

u15 =

u13

u16

0

2S/2cosr,

19

given by a lengthy equation. Therefore, heavy hand calculation

effort is required for expanding U into many terms with u j,

u j, u j, and u j and expressing them in terms of the generalized coordinates through the substitution of Eqs. 11 and 15.

To overcome this difficulty, thereby presenting an efficient formulation, we introduced the concise expressions 13 and 18 using

the index j. To further enhance the efficient formulation, we express u j given by Eqs. 14 and 15 in the following form:

uj =

E

m

mptmj Umjps

j = 1 16 20

=x,y

s; for example = cos m, = sin m, and

U

mjp

m1x

m1y

s = U s. By using these circumferential modal functions,

U

m1p

mp

we can express Eq. 11 as

S,t =

Hmtm1

m=0,2 =x,y

b1

dF12/dr2dr

Radius of tank a

41.7 m

Liquid-filling level h

20.3 m

Liquid density f

887 kg/ m3

Radius of floating roof b

41.42 m

Radius of deck b1

36.08 m

Distances among compartments b2 = b3 = b4

1.78 m

Distance between deck and upper end of inner rim H1

0.272 m

Distance between deck and lower end of inner rim H2

0.272 m

Height of outer rim H

0.918 m

Slope tan1dz / dr of deck

0.002 deg

Slope tan1dz / dr of top of pontoon

4 deg

Slope tan1dz / dr of bottom of pontoon

0.002 deg

Thickness deck

0.0045 m

Thickness pontoon except inner rim

0.006 m

Thickness inner rim of pontoon

0.020 m

Radial coordinates of stiffeners

5.5+ 6i i = 0 4

Height and breadth of stiffeners

0.2 m, 0.4 m

Thickness of stiffeners

0.0045 m

Density of floating roof

7850 kg/ m3

Youngs modulus of floating roof

2.1 1011 N / m2

Poissons ratio of floating roof

0.3

21

where

2

H0xt = 1/4E212xt + E12y

t,

H0yt = 0

22

H2yt = 1/2E12xtE12yt

2

t,

H2xt = 1/4E212xt E12y

with circumferential wave number 1. Using Eq. 21, the changes

in the displacement components given by Eq. 19 can be expressed in the following form:

u j1 =

tank

m1=0,2 1=x,y

Hm11tm1 j11U

j1

23

the form E12xEm1p11 O3 are added to the appropriate components of the right-hand side of Eq. 9a.

On the other hand, B of Eq. 25 leads to the time-dependent

factors EmpHm11 with m = m1 = 0 and m = m1 = 2. From Eq. 22,

these factors have the form E212xEmp m = 0 and 2. Therefore,

the nonlinear terms proportional to E212x O2 are added to the

appropriate components of the right-hand side of Eq. 9b.

Thus, the second term of the brace in Eq. 25 is predominant to

the first term and describes the elliptical deformation of the pontoon caused by the radial contraction of the deck with modal

components of circumferential wave numbers 0 and 2.

where U

j1

= cosr,s

U

1

b1

dF12/dr2dr

24

U =

elem

le

hr/2 16

16

jj 1A

+ Bdrdsd

25

where

A=

m=0,2 =x,y

mt

m1

p1

1=x,y

Em1p11t

mjm1 j11 U

j m1 j 1 p1s

B=

E

m

=x,y

mpt

m1=0,2 1=x,y

26

Numerical Examples

storage tank. Parameters of this tank are presented in Table 1. The

detailed geometry of the floating roof used for the numerical example is shown in Fig. 2. The damping term z=h is added to

the pressure term of Eq. 3 and the constant is determined as

2

= 2mnmn mn = 0.01, mn

= gmn tanhmnh for each modal

component of given by Eq. 6. Furthermore, for the radial

displacement of the outer rim of the pontoon relative to the tank

wall, the spring and damping support constants per unit area

86,000 N / m3 and 5000 N s / m3 were taken into account. The

excitations were given as f xt = 0.24 sin12t 0 t 3T, f xt

= 0 3T t, and f t = 0 0 t, where T is the period of the

y

Hm11t

sU

mjm1 j11 U

mjp

j1

27

the first and second terms in the bracket on the right-hand side of

Eq. 18.

From A in Eq. 25, the terms with m = m1 = 0 and m = m1 = 2

arise due to the orthogonality condition of the circumferential

modal functions. Hence, the arising time-dependent factors

HmEm1p11 have the form E12xE12xEm1p11, as can be seen from

Eq. 22. Because the generalized coordinate subjected to varia021303-4 / Vol. 132, APRIL 2010

and pontoon and radial contraction of deck thin solid line, radial displacement at = 0 deg; dotted line, radial displacement

at = 180 deg; thick solid line, radial contraction at = 0 deg

deck due to radial second mode of sloshing with circumferential wave number 1: a radial contraction at = 0 deg and b

Out-of-plane deformation at r = 18.9 m and = 0 deg

= 2 / g12 tanh12h1/2 = 5.65 s using 12a = 5.33, a = 41.7 m,

and h = 20.3 m.

Figure 3 shows the radial contraction and out-of-plane deformation of the deck due to the radial second mode of sloshing with

circumferential wave number 1. The out-of-plane deformation is

evaluated at the position where the deformation is maximum. It

can be seen that the radial contraction shown in Fig. 3a varies

in-phase with the absolute value of the out-of-plane deformation

presented in Fig. 3b. The responses shown in Figs. 3a and 3b

reach their maximum values at t = 19.5 s after the sinusoidal excitation ends at t = 17 s. The amplitude variation in the radial contraction shown in Fig. 3a is larger than that of the out-of-plane

deformation presented in Fig. 3b because in Eq. 11 u / r is

raised to the second power.

The analysis does not include the effect of the extensional rigidity of the deck on reducing the out-of-plane deformation of the

deck because the radial contraction of the deck evaluated from the

modal function of the deck is considered as an enforced displacement of the pontoon. To check the accuracy of the relation between the radial contraction and the out-of-plane deformation of

the deck, their values that arose during the time response analysis

are plotted in Fig. 4. For the sake of comparison, the relation

predicted by a program LS-DYNA 2 is shown in Fig. 4. It can be

confirmed that the results obtained by the present analysis and

LS-DYNA are in good agreement.

Figure 5 shows the responses of the radial displacement of the

joint between the deck and the pontoon at = 0 and = , together

with the response of the radial contraction of the deck at = 0.

Within the initial time interval, during which the system under-

deformation of deck shown in Figs. 3a and 3b; , result cited

from Fig. 2.6 in Ref. 2

goes the sinusoidal excitation, the responses of the radial displacement at = 0 and = are out-of-phase to each other. The reason

for this can be explained as follows. The present analysis allows

for the radial displacement restricted by the spring and damper

supports of the seal between the pontoon and the tank wall.

Hence, the translational motion in the x direction with circumferential variation cos prevails over the radial contraction of the

deck shown by the thick line in Fig. 5. Thus, the responses of the

radial displacement at = 0 and = are out-of-phase to each

other within the initial time interval.

After the sinusoidal excitation ends at t = 17 s, the out-of-phase

relation rapidly decays due to heavy damping of the seal and thus

the radial displacement is mainly contributed by the radial contraction of the deck, whose circumferential variation is represented by cos 0 and cos 2 Eq. 11. Therefore, for times

larger than, say, t = 20 s, the responses of the radial displacement

at = 0 and = become in-phase to each other and out-of-phase

with the radial contraction of the deck at = 0, as shown in Fig. 5.

The decaying of the responses contributed by the radial contraction is slow due to the light damping property of sloshing.

We should note that from the responses of the radial displacement at = 0 and = , the radial contraction with cos 0 and

cos 2 components seems to appear after the excitation ends. This

is because while the excitation is applied, the radial contraction is

difficult to observe due to the predominant translational motion

with cos component. The radial contraction appears over the

interval 0 t, as is shown in the thick line in Fig. 5, in proportion

to the square of the out-of-plane deformation shown in Fig. 3b.

Figure 6 shows the circumferential variation in the radial displacement of the joint between the deck and the pontoon at t

= 31 s, at which the contraction of the deck reaches its local maximum. The initially excited mode with circumferential variation

cos is superposed. However, it can be confirmed that the modal

components represented by cos 0 and cos 2 with the same

magnitude are predominant the magnitude is found from the

mean and amplitude of the circumferential variation. This result

is based on the fact that the coefficients of cos 0 and cos 2 are

identical in Eq. 11.

Figure 7 illustrates the responses of the in-plane stresses that

arise in the inner rim at the joint between the deck and the pon-

between deck and pontoon t = 31 s

joint between deck and pontoon = 0 deg: a stress in the

vertical direction acting on the horizontal cross section of the

inner rim and b circumferential stress

can be calculated as the mean of the stress values at = 0.5hr and

= 0.5hr, where hr is the thickness and the positive direction of

measured along the normal of the midplane of the shell is +r. It

can be seen from Fig. 7 that the radial contraction of the deck

results in very large circumferential in-plane stress. This numerical result is useful to explain the past structural damage due to the

elliptical deformation of the pontoon.

Conventional analysis using the program LS-DYNA is very timeconsuming and expensive, so that accurate computation is more

difficult for the stress than for the deformation. To avoid this

problem, the stress was evaluated by approximating the pontoon

shell as a curved beam subjected to the deformation computed by

LS-DYNA and evaluating the resultant moment exerted on the cross

section of the beam. The stress value predicted by these procedures also attains the order of several hundred megapascals 1,2.

The present modal analysis method requires a small amount of

computation time and cost to predict such a high stress and to

determine the thickness of the deck required for avoiding the

structural damage of the pontoon. The analysis using LS-DYNA

requires several days while the present method requires only a few

seconds.

Figure 8 shows the circumferential variations in the in-plane

stresses at t = 31 s, at which the stresses reach their local maximum. The absolute values of cos 0- and cos 2-modes are identical due to the fact that these modes are equally contained in the

radial contraction given by Eq. 11. In the stress variations illus-

in inner rim at joint between deck and pontoon t = 31 s; thin

line, stress in the vertical direction acting on the horizontal

cross section of the inner rim; thick line, circumferential stress

deck due to radial second mode of sloshing with circumferential wave number 1 the case in which thickness of deck is

increased to 0.08 m: a radial contraction at = 0 deg and b

out-of-plane deformation at r = 15.0 m and = 0 deg

trated in Fig. 8, cos -mode is not included unlike the displacement variation shown in Fig. 6. This is because cos -mode of the

displacement is approximately a rigid-body mode and thus its

contributions to the stresses are very small.

In this example, the difference between the stresses evaluated

by the linear and nonlinear sloshing analyses can be neglected, in

contrast to the case in which the radial first mode of sloshing is

mainly excited 18,19. Thus, the radial contraction of the deck is

more important than the nonlinearity of sloshing.

Figures 9 and 10 show results for the case in which the thickness of the deck is increased to 0.08 m. These results are compared with Figs. 3 and 7, respectively. The increase in the thickness of the deck reduces the out-of-plane deformation of the deck,

radial contraction of the deck, and the stresses in the inner rim.

Note that the reduction is larger for the radial contraction of the

joint between deck and pontoon = 0 deg; the case in which

thickness of deck is increased to 0.08 m: a stress in the vertical direction acting on the horizontal cross section of the inner rim and b circumferential stress

30,000 m3 oil tank

between upper and lower plates

deck and the stresses than for the out-of-plane deformation of the

deck. This is because in Eq. 11, u / r is raised to the second

power. However, the radial contraction and therefore the stresses

do not necessarily decrease in proportion to the square of the

out-of-plane deformation of the deck because the mode function

of u varies with the thickness of the deck.

The flexural rigidity Dr of the roof-deck with thickness hr is

h3. When the deck is formed by two plates

proportional to D

r1

r

r2

Hr + 0.0045 23 Hr3, where Hr is the distance between the

plates. The relation between hr and Hr determined from the con =D

is illustrated in Fig. 11. The reduction in the outdition D

r1

r2

of-plane deformation obtained by the increase in the thickness hr

from 0.0045 m to 0.08 m can be achieved by two plates with the

original small thickness 0.0045 m, when the distance Hr is 0.13 m.

Thus, the use of double-deck-type floating roofs is effective for

avoiding the structural failure caused by the radial contraction of

the deck due to the radial second mode of sloshing.

Figure 12 shows the relation between the radial contraction and

the out-of-plane deformation of the deck for a floating roof with a

smaller radius. The parameters for this case are presented in Table

2. The radius of deck is 18.9 m and the out-of-plane deformation

is evaluated at r = 10.2 m and = 0. It can be seen from Fig. 12

that the result obtained by the present analysis agrees with a past

simulation result 2. Comparing the results shown in Figs. 4 and

12 shows that when the radius of the deck decreases, the radial

contraction of the deck for a fixed value of the out-of-plane de-

deformation of deck the case in which radius of deck is decreased; , result cited from Fig. 2.6 of Ref. 2

Radius of tank a

Liquid-filling level h

Liquid density f

Radius of floating roof b

Radius of deck b1

Compartment in pontoon is not present

Distance between deck and upper end of inner rim H1

Distance between deck and lower end of inner rim H2

Height of outer rim H

Slope tan1dz / dr of deck

Slope tan1dz / dr of top of pontoon

Slope tan1dz / dr of bottom of pontoon

Thickness deck

Thickness top and bottom of pontoon

Thickness outer rim of pontoon

Thickness inner rim of pontoon

Radial coordinates of stiffeners

Height and breadth of stiffeners

Thickness of stiffeners

Density of floating roof

Youngs modulus of floating roof

Poissons ratio of floating roof

21.35 m

21.75 m

845 kg/ m3

21.2 m

18.9 m

0.335 m

0.075 m

0.71 m

0.002 deg

3 deg

4.4 deg

0.0045 m

0.0045 m

0.006 m

0.015 m

2.75+ 3i i = 0 4

0.1 m, 0.2 m

0.0045 m

7850 kg/ m3

2.1 1011 N / m2

0.3

formation increases. The reason for this can be explained as follows. Let us express the function F12r in Eq. 11 in the following form:

F12r = F12.max fr

28

fr is a function of the dimensionless radial coordinate defined

by r = r / b1. Substituting Eq. 28 into the r-integral of dF12 / dr2

in Eq. 11 gives

b1

dF12

dr

2

2

dr = F12.max

df

dr

2

= F12.max

1

b1

df

dr

dr

dr

2

dr

b1dr

29

strongly dependent on the radius b1 of the deck, the radial contraction of the deck for a fixed value of the out-of-plane deformation F12.max is roughly proportional to 1 / b1. Thus, the increase in

the radial contraction with decreasing the radius is due to the fact

that the radial contraction is proportional to the squared slope of

the out-of-plane deformation.

floating roof subjected to nonlinear sloshing was applied to the

case in which the pontoon undergoes elliptical deformation due to

the radial contraction of the deck caused by the radial second

mode of the sloshing. It was confirmed that i the radial contraction calculated by integrating the squared slope of the out-of-plane

deformation over the deck has modal components with circumferential wave numbers 0 and 2 that result in elliptical deformation

of the pontoon around the deck, and ii the present theoretical

prediction for the radial contraction is in good agreement with a

numerical result obtained by LS-DYNA. Based on these points, the

stress due to the elliptical deformation of the pontoon was analyzed by considering the radial contraction of the deck as an enforced displacement of the pontoon. The change in the variation in

the strain energy due to this displacement was transformed into

nonlinear functions of the generalized coordinates using the

Galerkin method, and was introduced into the ordinary differential

APRIL 2010, Vol. 132 / 021303-7

equations which govern the sloshing and the floating roof oscillation. Numerical results showed that a due to the elliptical deformation of the pontoon, a large circumferential in-plane stress

arises; b reduction achieved by the increase in the thickness of

the deck is larger for the radial contraction of the deck and the

stresses in the pontoon than for the out-of-plane deformation of

the deck; and c the radial contraction of the deck for a fixed

value of the out-of-plane deformation of the deck increases with

the decrease in the radius of the deck because the radial contraction of the deck is proportional to the squared slope of the out-ofplane deformation of the deck.

References

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