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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering

School of Engineering and Physical


Sciences

PROCESS INDUSTRIES A
SITE VISIT REPORT
COVER SHEET

Name: Muzaffarov Samir


Date of Visit: 3.12.2014
Special Topic: Energy efficency
Report Marker:
Date of Submission:
Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 2
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Synopsis............................................................................................................................... 2
Heydar Aliyev Baku Oil Refinery:.......................................................................................... 3
History.................................................................................................................................. 3
What does the site do?......................................................................................................... 3
Development........................................................................................................................ 3
Technical Content:................................................................................................................ 3
Distillation............................................................................................................................ 3
Separator.............................................................................................................................. 4
Compressor.......................................................................................................................... 4
Control room......................................................................................................................... 4
ENERGY EFFICIENCY............................................................................................................. 5
How to Save Energy in Compressors, Separators, and Distillation process?.........................5
Compressors......................................................................................................................... 5
Separators............................................................................................................................ 5
Distillation............................................................................................................................ 6
Personal impression.............................................................................................................. 6
References............................................................................................................................ 6

Introduction
Azerbaijan is one of the countries which mainly known for its oil. Oil is playing a crucial role in the
industrial stage. The primary budget of country derives from oil production. Thats why it is given the
priority to plants belonging to oil field. So, The Baku Oil Refinery named after Heydar Aliyev (former
Baku Oil Refinery) is one of the biggest and foremost companies in Azerbaijan.

Synopsis
The aim of this report is intended to depict site visit to the Heydar Aliyev Baku Oil Refinery. In this
report it will be encompassed technical issues at this factory such as distillation, separations,
compressor, control room and energy efficiency. Moreover, the history of the plant will be embraced as
well as personal impression at the end.

Heydar Aliyev Baku Oil Refinery:


History
The site was established by order of the Ministry of the Oil Industry of the former
USSR on July 29, 1953. From the first days of its establishment, the plant became
the largest and most advanced enterprise in the Azerbaijan Republic's fuel sector.

What does the site do?

The refinery is processing 21 out of 24 grades of Azerbaijan crude and 15 different


petroleum products, including automotive gasoline, aviation kerosene, diesel fuel,
black oil, petroleum coke, and others. The plant is meeting the republics entire
demand for petroleum products completely. 45% of its petroleum products are
exported.

Development
Efficiency of the site has been increased to 92%.

Technical Content:

Distillation
Distillation is a method of separating mixtures participating liquid. Separating via distillation depends
on the differences in boiling points of the individual components, volatility, and the concentrations of
the component present. Distillation is based on this fact that vapor of a boiling mixture will be richer in
components that have lower boiling point. Therefore when this vapor is cooled and condensed, the
condensate will contain more volatile components. Spontaneously, original mixture will contain more
material which is less volatile. Distillations columns are formulated to achieve this separation efficiently.

Separator

A separator is a device used in several industrial applications to separate a vapourliquid mixture. As is


shown in the picture, separators contains of feed inlet, inlet diffuser, de-entrainment mesh pad, liquid
level control valve, liquid outlet, and vapour outlet. Liquid is collected in the liquid accumulation sector.
Liquid level control valve has minimum distance with the liquid and via this equipment valve changes
its position and then heavy solids such as sand, clay outlets. Gas raises through the separator carrying
some liquid in the form of mist. This mixture passes the mist extractor (de-entrainment mesh pad) and
mist is extracted from the gas.

Compressor
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
Gas compressors have 2 rotators and these rotators decrease the volume of gas. As volume of gas
decreases, pressure of the gas increases and then gas is transported.

Control room
The control room is a central place serving where it is possible to observe all information gathered from
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process and manipulate them by multiple electronic displays. Control room is secured strictly and is not
accessible to the general public. Many control rooms are manned during the whole day and may have
extra people on duty to ensure vigilance.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Global demand for energy is growing while population rises and economy growths. Over the past three
decades, world energy use has more than doubled in absolute terms. It is impossible to run a shop, drive
a car, deliver goods and, of course, operate a factory without using some energy.
Energy use in petroleum extraction covers a range of activities, including: driving pumps to extract
hydrocarbons and to reinject water; heating the output stream to allow separation of the oil, gas and
water; producing steam and reinjection gas for enhanced oil recovery; powering compressors and pumps
for transporting oil and gas through gathering pipelines to processing plants; and driving turbines to
generate the electricity and heat needed for on-site operations and living quarters.
To improve energy efficiency by executing more effective heat exchange and heat implementation, it is
used heat exchanger. Energy efficiency is important for oil and gas industry in terms of economy and
environment. As environmental issue, 20% of greenhouse gas emissions derive from burning fossil
fuels, and gaining or producing more efficiently is one of the most significant goals for every company.

How to Save Energy in Compressors, Separators, and


Distillation process?

Compressors
The best way to improve energy efficiency in compressors is to replace on/off control with variable
speed drive (VSD).VSD maintains the pressure in air pipes stable and supplies the required air flow. The
system decreases compressor motor starts, service requirements, and increases the compressors life
time. VSD also detects the leakage.

Separators
Filters are the key device saving energy in separators because some of them have a very high per5

square-inch-density when loaded with solids. As a result, pumps which are in the system must be sized
for the greatest high per-square-inch-density of the barrier, but there are such type of devices like
LAKOS that has steady pressure drop, and it is not necessary to oversize the pump while filtration
process.

Distillation
Distillation process is the most energy user in the plant therefore energy efficiency of distillation process
is significant. There are many ways to improve efficiency and one of them is operating in right pressure.
As it is written in above pressure of the column is less than pressure of the pre-heater therefore when
product moves to the column it vaporizes. It also safes energy because pre-heater uses less energy in
other words pre-heater does not boil product. If the pressure of the column is high distillation column
must operate in high temperature and it is a waste of energy.

Personal impression.
It was fascinating to visit the oil plan. Till now I did not have more information about the oil area. This
site visit helped to broaden my horizon in the oil sector. Real observing plant, units, engineers and some
processes encouraged me.

References
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2.
3.
4.
5.

http://www.carbontrust.com/resources/guides/energy-efficiency/compressed-air
http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk3/1983/8312/831208.PDF
http://www.chem.info/news/2009/11/10-steps-reduce-air-compressor-energy-costs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_room
http://lorien.ncl.ac.uk/ming/distil/distil0.htm