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Math Connects

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and Statistics

Focal Point

Represent and use rational

numbers in a variety of

forms and use statistical

representations to analyze

data.

CHAPTER 1

Number Patterns and

Functions

Use letters as variables in

mathematical expressions to describe

how one quantity changes when a

related quantity changes.

Use letters to represent

unknowns in an equation.

CHAPTER 2

Statistics and Graphs

Use statistical

representations to analyze data.

20

Chabruken/Getty Images

People, People, and More People Have you ever looked around

you and wondered just how many people live in the United States?

How many of them live in your state? Are there more males or

females? How ethnically diverse is our nation? Well, put on your

research gear, because we are about to jump into a sea of data to

find answers to these and other related questions. Youll look at our

nations population, past and present, and make some predictions

about its future. Prepare to learn more than you ever thought

possible.

Log on to tx.msmath1.com to begin.

21

Functions

1

Knowledge

and Skills

mathematical expressions

to describe how one

quantity changes when a

related quantity changes.

TEKS 6.4

Key Vocabulary

area (p. 63)

evaluate (p. 42)

function (p. 49)

variable (p. 42)

Real-World Link

Stadiums Sun Bowl Stadium, home of the University

of Texas at El Paso Miners, has a seating capacity of

51,500. You can use the equation x + 21,500 = 51,500

to find what the seating capacity of the Sun Bowl

was on opening day in 1963.

Number Patterns and Functions Make this Foldable to help you organize your notes. Begin with

five sheets of notebook paper.

1 Stack the pages, placing

the sheets of paper

3

_

inch apart.

4

the fold.

All tabs should be the

same size.

topics from the chapter.

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22

Kelly-Mooney Photography/CORBIS

Diagnose Readiness You have two options for checking Prerequisite Skills.

Option 2

Take the Online Readiness Quiz at tx.msmath1.com.

Option 1

Take the Quick Quiz below. Refer to the Quick Review for help.

1. 83 + 129

2. 99 + 56

3.

67 + 42

4.

79 + 88

5.

78 + 97

6.

86 + 66

Line up the digits at the ones place.

11

+ 88 Add the tens. Put the 4 in the tens place

447 and place the 1 above the hundreds

place. Then add the hundreds.

Subtract.

7. 43 - 7

8.

75 - 27

9.

128 - 34

10.

150 - 68

11.

102 - 76

12.

235 - 126

13.

for a total of $89. If one shirt costs

$24 and another costs $31, how

much did the third shirt cost?

14. 25 12

15. 18 30

16.

42 15

17.

27 34

18.

50 16

19.

47 22

20. 72 9

21. 84 6

22.

126 3

23.

146 2

24.

208 4

25.

504 8

Line up the digits at the ones place.

7 14 13 Since 9 is larger than 3, rename 3 as 13.

/

8/

5/

3 Rename the 5 in the tens place as 14

- 79 and the 8 in the hundreds place as 7.

Then subtract.

774

15

23

45 Multiply. 15 3 = 45

+ 300 Multiply. 15 20 = 300

345 Add. 45 + 300 = 345

Example 4 Find 318 6.

53

318 Divide in each place-value position from

6

left to right.

- 30

18

- 18 Since 18 - 18 = 0,

0 there is no remainder.

23

1-1

Main IDEA

Solve problems using the

four-step plan.

Targeted TEKS 6.11

The student applies

Grade 6 mathematics

to solve problems

connected to everyday

experiences, investigations in

other disciplines, and

activities in and outside of

school. (B) Use a problemsolving model that

incorporates understanding

the problem, making a plan,

carrying out the plan, and

evaluating the solution for

reasonableness. 6.13 The

student uses logical reasoning

to make conjectures and

verify conclusions. (A) Make

conjectures from patterns or

sets of examples and

nonexamples. Also addresses

TEKS 6.2(C), 6.11(C).

FUN FACTS If you lined up pennies side by side, how many would

be in one mile? Lets find out. Begin by lining up pennies in a row

until the row is 1 foot long.

in.

10

11

1.

(Hint: There are 5,280 feet in one mile.)

2.

find the value.

When solving math problems, it is often helpful to have an organized

problem-solving plan. The four steps below can be used to solve any

problem.

1. Explore

What facts do you know?

What do you need to find out?

Is enough information given?

Is there extra information?

2. Plan

Plan a strategy for solving the problem.

Estimate the answer.

3. Solve

If your plan does not work, revise it or make a

new plan.

What is the solution?

4. Check

Reasonableness In

the last step of this

plan, you check the

reasonableness of

the answer by

comparing it to the

estimate.

24

12

Does the answer fit the facts given in the problem?

Is the answer close to your estimate?

Does the answer make sense?

If not, solve the problem another way.

Method of

Computation To

solve a problem,

some methods you

can choose are paper

and pencil, mental

math, a calculator, or

estimation.

multiplying, or dividing. Key words and phrases play an important

role in deciding which operation to use.

Addition

plus

sum

total

in all

Subtraction

minus

difference

less

subtract

Multiplication

times

product

multiplied by

of

Division

divided by

quotient

1 BASKETBALL Refer to the graph below. How many more threepoint field goals did Katie Smith make than Crystal Robinson?

All-Time Three-Point Field Goal Leaders*

Katie Smith

425

Crystal Robinson

Tina Thompson

Real-World Link

Katie Smith plays for

the Detroit Shock of

the WNBA. In 2004,

she scored 432 points,

made 98 out of

109 free throws,

made 60 three-point

field goals, and played

800 minutes.

Source: wnba.com

366

335

Mwadi Mabika

319

Ruthie Bolton

314

Source: WNBA

Explore

the number of three-point field goals made by many

players. You need to find how many more field goals

Katie Smith made than Crystal Robinson.

Plan

question asks for an exact answer, use mental math or

paper and pencil. Before you calculate, estimate.

Estimate 430 - 370 = 60

Solve

425 - 366 = 59

Katie Smith made 59 more three-point field goals than

Crystal Robinson.

Check

a.

Since 59 + 366 is 425, the answer is correct.

field goals attempted by Mwadi Mabika is about 3 times the

number she actually made. About how many three-point field

goals did Mabika attempt?

Jerry S. Mendoza/AP/Wide World Photos

25

number of laps he swims in the first four days of practice. If the

pattern continues, how many laps will he swim on Friday?

Day

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Laps

11

Explore

need to find the number of laps for Friday.

Plan

contains a pattern, use mental math.

Solve

+1

11

+2

+3

should increase by 4. So, if Julian continues at this rate,

he will swim 11 + 4 or 15 laps.

Check

b.

the answer is correct.

increases based on her age. If the pattern continues, how much

allowance will Kaylee receive when she is 13 years old?

9

10

11

12

13

$3.25

$4.00

$4.75

$5.50

Age

Weekly Allowance

For Exercises 1 and 2, use the four-step plan to solve each problem.

Example 1

1.

female walrus weighs about 1,835 pounds. How much less does an

adult female walrus weigh than an adult male walrus?

2.

ANALYZE TABLES The table shows how the number of a certain bacteria

increases. At this rate, how many bacteria will there be after 2 hours?

(Hint: There are 60 minutes in one hour.)

(p. 25)

Example 2

(p. 26)

26

Time (min)

20

40

60

80

100

120

Number of Bacteria

10

20

40

80

For

Exercises

3, 4

5, 6

See

Examples

1

2

For Exercises 38, use the four-step plan to solve each problem.

3.

TIME A bus departed at 11:45 A.M. It traveled 325 miles at 65 miles per

hour. How many hours did it take the bus to reach its destination?

4.

ANALYZE GRAPHS

Refer to the graph.

How many more

year-round schools

were there in

20022003 than

in 19981999?

5.

PATTERNS Complete

the pattern: 6, 11, 16,

21, , , .

Education in the U.S.

20022003

3,181

20012002

3,011

20002001

Year

(/-%7/2+ (%,0

3,059

19992000

2,880

19981999

19971998

2,856

2,681

6.

SCHOOL The first

Number of Schools

five bells at Eds

Source: nayre.org

middle school ring at

8:50 A.M., 8:54 A.M.,

9:34 A.M., 9:38 A.M., and 10:18 A.M. If this pattern continues, when should

the next three bells ring?

7.

MONEY The Corbetts are buying a 36-inch television for $788. They plan

to pay in four equal payments. Find the amount of each payment.

Self-Check Quiz at

8.

SCIENCE Jupiter orbits the Sun at a rate of 8 miles per second. How far

does Jupiter travel in one day?

9.

%842!02!#4)#%

tx.msmath1.com

H.O.T. Problems

10.

11.

*/ -!4( When using the four-step plan, explain why you

(*/

83 *5*/(

should compare your answer to your estimate.

7 minutes. At this rate, how long

will it take him to run 8 miles?

A 58 min

C 54 min

B 56 min

D 15 min

13.

42 3

14.

12.

the next figure in the pattern?

F upper left

H lower left

G upper right

J lower right

(Page 658)

126 6

15.

49 7

16.

118 2

27

1-2

Prime Factors

Main IDEA

Find the prime

factorization of a

composite number.

Targeted TEKS 6.1

The student

represents and uses

rational numbers

in a variety of equivalent

forms. (D) Write prime

factorizations using

exponents.

different rectangles. The table shows the different rectangles that

can be made using 2, 3, or 4 squares. A 1 3 rectangle is the same

as a 3 1 rectangle.

Copy the table.

Number of

Squares

NEW Vocabulary

factor

prime number

composite number

prime factorization

Sketch of Rectangle

Formed

Dimensions of

Each Rectangle

12

13

1 4, 2 2

15

1 6, 2 3

..

.

20

1.

2.

3.

you notice about the dimensions of the rectangle?

factor of the product.

17=7

READING

in the Content Area

For strategies in reading

this lesson, visit

tx.msmath1.com.

28

The factors of 7

are 1 and 7.

1 6 = 6 and 2 3 = 6

The factors of 6 are 1 and 6,

and 2 and 3.

A whole number that has exactly two unique factors, 1 and the

number itself, is a prime number. A number greater than 1 with

more than two factors is a composite number.

Tell whether each number is prime, composite, or neither.

1 28

2 11

Factors of 28: 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28

Since 28 has more than two

factors, it is a composite

number.

Factors of 11: 1, 11

Since there are exactly two

factors, 11 is a prime number.

a.

48

b.

c.

81

numbers. This is called a prime factorization of the number. A

factor tree can be used to find the prime factorization of a number.

3 Find the prime factorization of 54.

54

writing the prime

factorization, it is

customary to write

the prime factors in

ascending order, that

is, from least to

greatest.

being factored at the top.

54

2 27

number factors of 54.

3 18

23 9

number that is not prime.

329

2333

prime factors are the same.

3233

d.

34

e.

72

+%9#/.#%04

READING Math

Infinite Infinite means

endless.

Number

Definition

Examples

prime

factors, 1 and the number itself.

11, 13, 23

composite

two factors.

6, 10, 18

neither prime

nor composite

0 has an infinite number of factors.

0, 1

29

Examples 1, 2

(p. 29)

Example 3

(p. 29)

1.

10

2.

3.

4.

61

8.

19

5.

36

9.

has 46 counties. Write 46 as a product of

primes.

6.

81

7.

65

3/54(

#!2/,).!

(/-%7/2+ (%,0

For

Exercises

1021, 36,

37

2235

10.

17

11.

12.

15

13.

44

14.

23

15.

57

16.

45

17.

29

18.

56

19.

93

20.

53

21.

31

See

Examples

1, 2

3

22.

24

23.

18

24.

40

25.

75

26.

27

27.

32

28.

49

29.

25

30.

42

31.

104

32.

55

33.

77

Exercises 3438, use the table.

34. Which speed(s) have a

prime factorization of

exactly three factors?

35.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

30

Speed (mph)

70

60

50

43

40

Animal

rabbit

giraffe

grizzly bear

elephant

squirrel

Speed (mph)

35

32

30

25

12

36.

Of the cheetah, antelope, lion, coyote, and hyena, which have speeds

that are prime numbers?

37.

Of the rabbit, giraffe, grizzly bear, elephant, and squirrel, which have

speeds that are composite numbers?

38.

Name three speeds that have exactly two prime factors in common.

%842!02!#4)#%

See pages 662, 695.

prime factorization whose

factors are all equal?

Animal

cheetah

antelope

lion

coyote

hyena

39.

125

40.

114

41.

179

42.

291

H.O.T. Problems

43.

All odd numbers greater than or equal to 7 can be expressed as the sum

of three prime numbers. Which three prime numbers have a sum of 59?

Justify your answer.

44.

SHOPPING Amanda bought bags of snacks that each cost the same. She

spent a total of $30. Find three possible costs per bag and the number of

bags that she could have purchased.

45.

OPEN ENDED Select two prime numbers that are greater than 50 but less

than 100.

46.

NUMBER SENSE Twin primes are two prime numbers that are consecutive

odd integers such as 3 and 5, 5 and 7, and 11 and 13. Find all of the twin

primes that are less than 100.

true. Find a counterexample for the statement below. Explain your

reasoning.

All even numbers are composite numbers.

*/ -!4( Explain how you know a number is prime.

(*/

48.

83 *5*/(

47.

49.

51.

A 7

B 31

C 39

D 47

50.

can be found by multiplying the

length, width, and height of the

prism. Which of the following could

be the possible dimensions of the

rectangular prism below?

F 22257

G 2357

H 2257

A 2 ft 6 ft 6 ft

J 357

B 3 ft 5 ft 7 ft

C 5 ft 5 ft 7 ft

D 3 ft 5 ft 5 ft

52.

53.

SCHOOL Each class that sells 75 tickets to the school play earns an

ice cream party. Marios class has sold 42 tickets. How many more

must they sell to earn an ice cream party? (Lesson 1-1)

54.

222

55.

55

(Lesson 1-1)

(Page 658)

56.

444

57.

10 10 10

31

1-3

Main IDEA

Use powers and

exponents in expressions.

product of prime factors.

The student

represents and uses

rational numbers

in a variety of equivalent

forms. (D) Write prime

factorizations using

exponents. Also addresses

TEKS 6.2(C).

half and make one hole

punch. Open the paper

and count the number

of holes. Copy the

table below and record

the results.

Number of

Folds

NEW Vocabulary

Number of

Holes

Prime

Factorization

1

.

.

.

5

base

exponent

power

squared

cubed

record the results in the table.

Fold another piece of paper in half twice. Then make one

hole punch. Complete the table for two folds.

Complete the table for three, four, and five folds.

1.

2.

the prime factorization of the number of holes?

3.

you folded it eight times.

base. The base is the number used as a factor. The exponent indicates

how many times the base is used as a factor.

5 factors

exponent

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

32 = 2 2 2 2 2 = 25

base

5 = 51.

32

Horizons Companies

Powers

Words

25

32

103

Calculator You can

use a calculator to

evaluate powers.

To find 34, enter

4 ENTER 81.

The value of 34

is 81.

The base is 3. Since 3 is used as a factor four times, the exponent

is 4.

3 3 3 3 = 34

Write as a power.

2 Write 45 as a product of the same factor. Then find the value.

The base is 4. The exponent is 5. So, 4 is used as a factor five times.

45 = 4 4 4 4 4

Write 45 as a product.

= 1,024

Multiply.

a.

777

b.

10 10 10 10 10

Write each power as a product of the same factor. Then find the

value.

c.

23

d.

82

Moon can be written as 28 degrees Fahrenheit. What is this

temperature?

28 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Real-World Career

How Does an

Astronomer Use

Math? An astronomer

uses math to represent

great distances between

galaxies.

For more information,

go to tx.msmath1.com.

= 256

Write 28 as a product.

Multiply.

e.

of 53?

f.

has 4 choices, there are 47 ways the test can be answered. What

is the value of 47?

Personal Tutor at tx.msmath1.com

Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit

33

Write the prime factorization of each number using exponents.

23

32

33

5 135

135 = 3 3 3 5

=

r

w

q

r

w

q

6 300

300 = 2 2 3 5 5

=

r

w

q

4 72

72 = 2 2 2 3 3

22 3

52

g.

Example 1

(p. 33)

Example 2

(p. 33)

Example 3

(p. 34)

34

h.

45

i.

120

1.

2222

2.

666

Write each power as a product of the same factor. Then find the value.

3.

26

5.

value of 35?

6.

Carolina. About how many people live in Charleston?

(p. 33)

Examples 46

24

4.

37

7.

20

8.

48

9.

90

For

Exercises

1015

1623

24, 25

2633

See

Examples

1

2

3

46

10.

99

11.

8888

12.

3333333

13.

55555

14.

11 11 11

15.

777777

Write each power as a product of the same factor. Then find the value.

16.

24

17.

32

18.

54

19.

105

20.

93

21.

65

22.

81

23.

17

24.

What whole number does 73 represent?

25.

Chinese. About how many people speak this language?

26.

25

27.

56

28.

50

29.

68

30.

88

31.

98

32.

560

33.

378

34.

cube-shaped aquarium holds, find

the cube of the measure of one side of

the aquarium. Express the amount

of water the aquarium shown holds

as a power. Then find the amount in

cubic units.

18 units

18 units

18 units

Write each power as a product of the same factor. Then find the value.

35.

seven squared

38.

contains 6 vegetable plants. How many total vegetable plants does

Mrs. Locaputo have in her garden? Write using exponents, and then

find the value.

39.

each made up of 20 rows of 20 stitches. How many total stitches does

the scarf contain? Write using exponents, and then find the value.

40.

41.

%842!02!#4)#%

36.

eight cubed

37.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

H.O.T. Problems

35

42.

FIND THE ERROR Anita and Tyree are finding the value of 64. Who is

correct? Explain your reasoning.

64 = 6 6 6 6

= 1,296

64 = 6 4

= 24

Anita

Tyree

refer to the table at the right.

43.

powers of 3. Find 30.

44.

powers of 5. Find 50.

45.

Powers of 5

54

34 = 81

33 = 27

32 = 9

31 = 3

30 =

= 625

104 = 10,000

53 = 125

52 = 25

103 = 1,000

102 = 100

51 =

101 =

100

50

=

which value represents the seventh

figure in the pattern?

48.

360?

F 22 3 5 2

H 2 2 33 5

12

22

J 2 32 5

32

A 72

C 77

B 17

D 37

63

53.

in a minute. (Lesson 1-1)

50.

36 3

55.

51.

52.

71

(Page 658)

45 5

29

(Lesson 1-2)

49.

36

(*/

83 *5*/(

G 2 3 32 5

54.

Powers of 10

powers of 10. Find 101 and 100.

46.

47.

Powers of 3

56.

104 8

57.

120 6

1- 4

Order of Operations

Main IDEA

Find the value of

expressions using the

order of operations.

Targeted TEKS 6.2

The student adds,

subtracts, multiplies,

and divides to solve

problems and justify solutions.

(E) Use order of operations

to simplify whole number

expressions (without

exponents) in problem

solving situations.

the number of Calories

burned in one minute for

two different activities.

Calories Burned

per Minute

8

10

Activity

1.

would you burn by

walking for 5 minutes?

by running for 15 minutes?

2.

for 5 minutes and then running for 15 minutes.

3.

how to find the answer to Exercise 2 using these operations.

NEW Vocabulary

numerical expression

order of operations

numbers and operations. The order of operations tells you which

operation to perform first so that everyone finds the same value for

an expression.

+%9#/.#%04

Order of Operations

2. Find the value of all powers.

3. Multiply and divide in order from left to right.

4. Add and subtract in order from left to right.

Find the value of each expression.

1 4+35

4+35

= 4 + 15

= 19

Multiply 3 and 5.

Add 4 and 15.

2 10 - 2 + 8

10 - 2 + 8

=8+8

= 16

Add 8 and 8.

a.

10 + 2 15

b.

16 2 4

Lesson 1-4 Order of Operations

37

Find the value of each expression.

3 20 4 + 17 (9 - 6)

20 4 + 17 (9 - 6) = 20 4 + 17 3

= 5 + 17 3

= 5 + 51

= 56

4 3 62 + 4

3 62 + 4 = 3 36 + 4

= 108 + 4

= 112

Subtract 6 from 9.

Divide 20 by 4.

Multiply 17 by 3.

Add 5 and 51.

Find 62.

Multiply 3 and 36.

Add 108 and 4.

c.

25 (5 - 2) 5 - 12

d.

24 23 + 6

buys a movie ticket, a snack, and a soda. Write an expression for

the total cost of the trip to the movies. Then find the total cost.

Cost of Going to the Movies

Item

ticket

snack

soda

Cost ($)

Real-World Link

The top-grossing movie

of 2003 made about

$377 million. The topgrossing movie of

2004 made about

$437 million.

To find the total cost, write an expression and then find its value.

Words

Expression

5 $7

5 $3

5 $2

Source: movieweb.com

5 $7 + 5 $3 + 5 $2

= $35 + 5 $3 + 5 $2

Multiply 5 and 7.

= $35 + $15 + 5 $2

Multiply 5 and 3.

Multiply 5 and 2.

= $60

e.

SHOPPING A bath and body store sells lotions for $5, candles for

$7, and lip balms for $2. Write an expression for the total cost of

3 lotions, 2 candles, and 4 lip balms. Then find the total cost.

Personal Tutor at tx.msmath1.com

38

CORBIS

Examples 14

(pp. 3738)

1.

9+3-5

2.

10 - 3 + 9

3.

(26 + 5) 2 - 15

4.

18 (2 + 7) 2 + 1

6.

19 - (32 + 4) + 6

5. 52

Example 5

7.

(p. 38)

+82

THEATER Tickets to a play cost $10 for members and $24 for nonmembers.

Write an expression to find the total cost of 4 nonmember tickets and

2 member tickets. Then find the total cost.

For

Exercises

811

1217

1821

22, 23

See

Examples

1, 2

3

4

5

8.

8+4-3

9.

9 + 12 - 15

10.

38 - 19 + 12

11.

22 - 17 + 8

12.

7 + 9 (3 + 8)

13.

(9 + 2) 6 - 5

14.

63 (10 - 3) 3

15.

66 (6 2) + 1

16.

27 (3 + 6) 5 - 12

17.

55 11 + 7 (2 + 14)

18.

53 - 12 3

19.

26 + 62 4

20.

15 - 23 4

21.

22 2 32

22.

Texas, is $6 for adults and $3 for children. Write an expression to find

the total cost of 3 adult tickets and 4 childrens tickets. Then find the

total cost.

23.

MUSIC A store sells DVDs for $20 each and CDs for $12. Write an

expression for the total cost of 4 DVDs and 2 CDs. Then find the total

cost of these items.

%842!02!#4)#%

See pages 663, 695.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

24.

8 (24 - 3) + 8

25.

12 4 + (52 - 6)

26.

9 + 43 (20 - 8) 2 + 6

27.

96 42 + (25 2) - 15 - 3

28.

She has covered 3 dozen pretzels. If she wants each friend to receive

exactly 3 pretzels and have no pretzels left over, write an expression

to find how many more pretzels she should cover. Then find this

number.

its value.

29.

30.

Lesson 1-4 Order of Operations

39

H.O.T. Problems

31.

numbers and two different operations.

32.

FIND THE ERROR Haley and Ryan are finding 7 - 3 + 2. Who is correct?

Explain your reasoning.

7-3+2=7-5

=2

7-3+2=4+2

=6

Ryan

Haley

33.

34.

35.

(*/

83 *5*/(

order of operations. Then solve the problem.

Arleta is 2 years younger than Josh, and Josh is 5 years older than

Marissa who is 9 years old. Which table could be used to find

Arletas age?

A

Name

Arleta

Josh

Marissa

Age (years)

9+5

9+5-2

9

Name

Arleta

Josh

Marissa

Age (years)

5

4

9

Name

Arleta

Josh

Marissa

Age (years)

2

5

9

Name

Arleta

Josh

Marissa

Age (years)

9+5-2

9+5

9

PHONE TREE Four members of a certain phone tree are each given

4 people to contact. If the phone tree is activated, the total number

of calls made is 44. How many calls is this? (Lesson 1-3)

36.

42

37.

40.

40

26 + 98

41.

75

38.

110

39.

130

42.

61 + 19

43.

54 + 6

(Page 657)

23 + 16

(Lesson 1-2)

CH

APTER

1

1.

2.

Mid-Chapter Quiz

Lessons 1-1 through 1-4

and music videos listed below onto a

recordable CD that holds 700 megabytes

of data. How much storage space is left on

the CD? (Lesson 1-1)

song or video

size (MB)

song #1

35

song #2

40

song #3

37

number using exponents. (Lesson 1-3)

9.

12.

22

10.

40

11.

75

for a dog is about 35 dollars. What is this

cost? (Lesson 1-3)

video #1

125

video #2

140

13.

10 - 6 + 20

14.

25 (15 - 10) 2

15.

32 + 32 2

16.

12 - (43 8) + 1

17.

and 4 children, went to the county fair.

Admission to the fair was $7.75 for

an adult and $5.50 for a child. Arrange

the problem-solving steps below in the

correct order to find the total cost of

the tickets.

144 computers for 24 classrooms. How

many computers will be in each classroom

if each classroom is to have the same

number of computers? (Lesson 1-1)

A 6

B 24

C 120

D 3,456

composite, or neither. (Lesson 1-2)

(Lesson 1-4)

ticket by the number of

children.

3.

57

4.

97

5.

ticket by the number of adults.

6.

onto more than one shelf so that each shelf

has the same number of books and has

more than one book per shelf? Explain

your reasoning. (Lesson 1-2)

adults and the number of

children that are going to the

county fair.

Which list shows the steps in the correct

order? (Lesson 1-4)

F N, L, M, K

factor. Then find the value. (Lesson 1-3)

7.

34

8.

63

G N, M, K, L

H K, M, N, L

J M, K, N, L

1-5

Algebra: Variables

and Expressions

Main IDEA

Evaluate algebraic

expressions.

Targeted TEKS 6.2

The student adds,

subtracts, multiplies,

and divides to solve

problems and justify solutions.

(C) Use multiplication and

division of whole numbers

to solve problems including

situations involving equivalent

ratios and rates. (E) Use

order of operations to

simplify whole number

expressions (without

exponents) in problem

solving situations. Also

addresses TEKS 6.11(A),

6.11(D).

NEW Vocabulary

algebra

variable

algebraic expression

evaluate

some crayons. There are also

two crayons outside of the box.

The total number of crayons is

the sum of two and some number.

The two crayons represent the

known value 2, and the box

represents the unknown value.

1.

2.

Find the value of the expression the sum of two and some number

if some number is 14.

3.

Assume you have two boxes of crayons each with the same

number of crayons inside. Write an expression that represents

the total number of crayons in both boxes.

variable. A variable is a symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a

number. The expression 2 + n represents the sum of two and some

number.

Algebraic expressions are combinations of variables, numbers, and

at least one operation.

at least one

operation

Vocabulary Link

used as a variable.

2+n

r

w

q

Variable

Everyday Use able to

change or vary, as in

variable winds

Math Use a symbol

used to represent a

number

first letter of the value you are representing.

The variables in an expression can be replaced with any number.

Once the variables have been replaced, you can evaluate, or find the

value of, the algebraic expression.

In addition to the symbol , there are other ways to show

multiplication.

42

23

5t

st

2 times 3

5 times t

s times t

1 Evaluate 16 + b if b = 25.

16 + b = 16 + 25

Replace b with 25.

= 41

x - y = 64 - 27

Replace x with 64 and y with 27.

= 37

Multiplication

In algebra, the

symbol is often

used to represent

multiplication, as the

symbol may be

confused with the

variable x.

3 Evaluate 5t + 4 if t = 3.

5t + 4 = 5 3 + 4 Replace t with 3.

= 15 + 4

Multiply 5 and 3.

= 19

Add 15 and 4.

a. a + 8

b. a - b

c. a b

d. 2a - 5

is 3 units longer than its base is (b + 3) b 2, where b is the

measure of the base. Find the area of such a triangle with a

base 8 units long.

B 25 units2

C 44 units2

D 88 units2

A 20 units2

Read the Test Item

You need to find the value of the expression given b = 8.

Preparing for the

Test In preparation for

the test, it is often

helpful to familiarize

yourself with important

formulas or rules such

as the rules for order of

operations.

(b + 3) b 2 = (8 + 3) 8 2 Replace b with 8.

= 11 8 2

Add 8 and 3.

= 88 2

Multiply 11 and 8.

= 44

Divide 88 by 2.

The area of the triangle is 44 units2. The answer is C.

e.

$2, the total cost for admission and t ride tickets is 7 + 2t. Find

the total cost for admission and 5 ride tickets.

F $9

G $17

H $35

J $45

Extra Examples at tx.msmath1.com

43

Examples 13

(p. 43)

Example 4

1.

3+m

2.

z+5

3.

z-m

4.

m-2

5.

4m - 2

6.

2z + 3

7.

$20 dollar bill after Malina buys 4 party favors for p dollars each

is 20 - 4p. Find the amount remaining if each favor costs $3.

(p. 43)

A $4

C $17

B $8

D $48

For

Exercises

819

2027

5153

See

Examples

1, 2

3

4

8.

m + 10

9.

n+8

10.

9-m

11.

22 - n

12.

n4

13.

12 m

14.

n3

15.

6m

16.

m+n

17.

n+m

18.

n-6

19.

m-1

20.

b-a

21.

c-b

22.

5c + 6

23.

2b + 7

24.

3a - 4

25.

4b - 10

26.

where r represents rate and t represents time. How far did a hot air

balloon travel at a rate of 15 miles per hour for 6 hours?

27.

where d represents distance and t represents time. Find the speed s of a

racecar that travels 508 miles in 4 hours.

Real-World Link

The average speed at

the 2005 Daytona 500

was 135.2 mph.

Source: nascar.com

44

CORBIS

28.

c2 + a

29.

b2 - 5c

30.

3a 4

31.

4b 5

32.

5b 2

33.

2ac

34.

35.

36.

PLANES The expression 500t can be used to find the distance traveled by

a DC10 aircraft. The variable t represents time in hours. How far can a

DC10 travel in 4 hours?

37.

4z + 8 - 6

38.

6x - 9 3

39.

15 + 9x 3

40.

7z 4 + 5x

42.

z2 - (5x)

41. y2

43.

(3z)

expression w, where represents the length, and

w represents the width of the rectangle. What is

the area of the rectangle shown?

7 ft

16 ft

44.

MUSIC As a member of a music club, you can order CDs for $15 each.

The music club also charges $5 for each shipment. The expression

15n + 5 represents the cost of n CDs. Find the total cost for ordering

3 CDs.

45.

degrees Fahrenheit, first multiply the Celsius temperature by 9. Next,

divide the answer by 5. Finally, add 32 to the result. Write an expression

that can be used to change a temperature from degrees Celsius to

degrees Fahrenheit. Then use the information in the table below to

find the difference in average temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit for

San Antonio from January to April. (Hint: Convert to degrees

Fahrenheit first.)

%842!02!#4)#%

See pages 663, 695.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

for San Antonio, Texas

Month

Temp. (C)

January

10

April

20

July

29

Source: infoplease.com

H.O.T. Problems

46.

that have the same meaning.

47.

CHALLENGE Elan and Robin each have a calculator. Elan starts at zero

and adds 3 each time. Robin starts at 100 and subtracts 7 each time.

Suppose Elan and Robin press the keys at the same time. Will their

displays ever show the same number? If so, what is the number?

Explain your reasoning.

48.

Which of the following techniques might Ichiro use to evaluate the

expression? Justify your selection(s). Then use the technique(s) to solve

the problem.

mental math

number sense

estimation

Sandy Felsenthal/CORBIS

45

49.

Which One Doesnt Belong? Identify the expression that does not belong

with the other three. Explain your reasoning.

3+4

5x

50.

51.

ab

7x + 1

(*/

83 *5*/(

algebraic expressions. Use examples in your explanation.

the diameter of a circle, where r is

the length of the radius. Find the

diameter of the compact disc.

53.

survey in which people were asked to

name the place they use technology

when away from home.

Where People Use Technology

Number of

Place

Responses

on vacation

57

while driving

57

outdoors

42

mall

x

gym

17

public restrooms

10

radius

12 cm

diameter

A 3 cm

C 12 cm

B 6 cm

D 24 cm

52.

be used to find the perimeter of a

square where s represents the length

of a side. What is the perimeter in

inches of the square below?

number of people who participated

in the survey?

F x - 183

H x + 183

G x + 173

J 2x + 183

26 in.

55. 52

(Lesson 1-4)

54.

12 - 8 2 + 1

+ (20 2) - 7

57.

SCIENCE The distance from Earth to the Sun is close to 108 miles.

How many miles is this? (Lesson 1-3)

58.

many did he get correct? (Lesson 1-1)

59.

46

18 - 9

60.

5 + 18

56.

21 (3 + 4) 3 - 8

(Page 657)

61.

14 + 7

62.

21 - 15

Explore

1- 6

Main IDEA

Illustrate functions using

technology.

Targeted TEKS 6.4

The student uses

letters as variables

in mathematical

expressions to describe how

one quantity changes when a

related quantity changes.

(A) Use tables and symbols

to represent and describe

proportional and other

relationships such as those

involving conversions,

arithmetic sequences (with a

constant rate of change),

perimeter and area.

Function Machines

A function machine takes a value called the input and performs one or

more operations on it according to a rule to produce a new value

called the output.

3

expression. For the function machine above, an input value of x

produces an output value of x + 3. You can use the TI-83/84 Plus

graphing calculator to model this function machine.

rule x + 3. Then use this machine to find the output values for

the input values 2, 3, 4, 9, and 12.

The graphing calculator uses X for input and Y for output values.

Enter the rule for the function into the function list. Press

to access the function list. Then press X,T,,n

3 to

enter the rule.

TblSet to display the table setup screen. Press

ENTER to highlight Indpnt: Ask. Then press

ENTER to

highlight Depend: Auto.

Graphing

Calculators

Indpnt means

independent variable

and is the input or

x-value. Depend

means dependent

variable and is the

output or y-value.

Explore 1-6 Graphing Calculator Lab: Function Machines

47

will display an empty function table.

Now key in your input values, pressing ENTER after each

one.

of the following rules. Use the input values 5, 6, 7, and 8 for x.

Record the inputs and their corresponding outputs in a table.

a.

x-4

b.

x+5

c.

x-2

d.

x-3

e.

x2

f.

x3

1.

What pattern do you observe in the column of inputs? What

pattern do you observe in each column of outputs?

2.

inputs was reversed to be 8, 7, 6, and 5?

3.

What patterns do you observe in the column of outputs?

4.

for Exercises e and f. What do you notice?

make a conjecture about the rule for each set of input and output

values. Explain your reasoning.

5.

48

Input (x)

Output (y)

6.

Input (x)

Output (y)

10

12

11

12

13

14

3

4

5

6

3

4

5

6

18

24

30

36

1- 6

Algebra: Functions

Main IDEA

Complete function tables

and find function rules.

can eat 600 mosquitoes an hour.

The student uses

letters as variables

in mathematical

expressions to describe how

one quantity changes when a

related quantity changes.

(A) Use tables and symbols

to represent and describe

proportional and other

relationships such as those

involving conversions,

arithmetic sequences (with a

constant rate of change),

perimeter and area. Also

addresses TEKS 6.11(D).

1.

number of mosquitoes a brown bat can

eat in 2 hours; in 5 hours; in t hours.

one input value. The number of mosquitoes eaten (output) depends

on the number of hours (input). You can organize the input-output

values in a function table.

Input

Function Rule

Output

Number of

Hours (t)

600t

Mosquitoes

Eaten

600(1)

600

600(2)

1,200

600(3)

1,800

NEW Vocabulary

function

function table

function rule

defining the variable

the relationship between

each input and output.

1 The output is 4 more than the input. Complete a function table

for this relationship.

The function rule is x + 4. Add 4 to each input.

Input (x)

Output (x + 4)

Input (x)

Output (x + 4)

10

10

14

12

12

16

14

14

18

a.

Input (x)

Output (x - 2)

2

5

8

Joe McDonald/CORBIS

b.

Input (x)

Output (2x)

2

5

49

Check for

Reasonableness

To see if your function

rule is correct, test

more than one input

value.

Study the relationship between each

Input (x) Output ()

input and output. Each output is three

2

6

times the input.

5

15

So, the function rule is 3 x, or 3x.

7

21

c.

d.

Input (x)

Output ()

16

10

Input (x)

Output ()

you first choose a variable to represent the input. This is called

defining the variable.

performs. Define a variable. Then write a function rule that

relates the total charge to the number of hours it performs.

Determine the function rule. The cost of the performance depends

on the number of hours. Let h represent the number of hours.

Words

Variable

Expression

70 h

e.

50

purchase for shoppers from 6 A.M. to 7 A.M. Define a variable.

Write a function rule that relates the final cost to the total

purchase amount.

Example 1

(p. 49)

Example 2

(p. 50)

Example 3

1.

For

Exercises

67

813

14, 15

See

Examples

1

2

3

Output (x + 3)

0

2

4

2.

Input (x)

Output (4x)

3

6

3.

5.

(p. 50)

(/-%7/2+ (%,0

Input (x)

1

3

5

4.

2

4

3

6

6

12

JELLY BEANS Lamar is buying jelly beans for a party. He can buy them in

bulk for $3 a pound. Define a variable. Write a function rule that relates

the total cost of the jelly beans to the number of pounds he buys.

6.

Input (x)

Output (x - 4)

4

8

11

7.

Input (x)

Output (x 3)

8.

11.

9.

10.

10

15

10

16

20

15

22

11

35

25

34

17

12.

13.

14.

AGES Ricardo is 8 years older than his sister. Define a variable. Write a

function rule that relates Ricardos age to his sisters age.

15.

FOOD Whitney has a total of 30 cupcakes for her guests. Define a variable.

Write a function rule that relates the number of cupcakes per guest to the

number of guests.

Lesson 1-6 Algebra: Functions

51

16.

17.

4

5

18.

13

28

13

43

11

19

12

58

2

3

For Exercises 1921, define a variable and write a function rule. Then

solve each problem.

19.

MOOSE Moose can swim up to 6 miles per hour. At this rate, find the

total number of miles a moose can swim in two hours.

20.

has a coupon for $3 off his total purchase, how much will he spend for

the greeting cards?

21.

music program. It also charges $1 for each song you download. How

much will it cost if you download 46 songs in a year?

22.

FIND THE DATA Refer to the Texas Data File on pages 1619. Choose

some data and write about a real-world situation that can be described

by a function rule.

23.

project, Sarah and her friends

made hair scrunchies to sell for

$3 each and friendship bracelets

to sell for $4 each. Write a

function rule to represent the

total selling price of s scrunchies

and b bracelets. Then use the

function rule to find the price of

10 scrunchies and 12 bracelets.

24.

OPEN ENDED Create a function table. Then write a function rule. Choose

three input values and find the output values.

25.

FIND THE ERROR Nicole and Olivia are finding the function rule when

each output is 5 less than the input. Who is correct? Explain.

%842!02!#4)#%

See pages 663, 695.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

H.O.T. Problems

Function rule:

x-5

Olivia

52

Function rule:

5-x

Nicole

26.

jugs or bottles of coins around their homes put coins back into

circulation at a rate of $10 a year. Create a function table showing the

amount that would be recirculated in 1, 2, and 3 years.

27.

an input of 4. Which of the following tools might Courtney use to

determine the output? Justify your selection(s). Then use the tool(s) to

solve the problem.

real objects

28.

29.

paper/pencil

graphing calculator

(*/

83 *5*/(

table.

y values in terms of the x values?

x

11

13

15

A 2x + 3

C 3x - 2

B x+3

D 6-x

30.

$5 for each sweatshirt sold. Which

expression best represents the profit

on 25 sweatshirts?

F 5 25

H 25 5

G 5 + 25

J 25 - 5

31.

b-a

34.

FOOD A deli sells wraps for $5 and soup for $3 a bowl. Write and

solve an expression for the cost of 3 wraps and 2 bowls of soup.

32.

3c + a

(Lesson 1-5)

33.

bc + 12

(Lesson 1-4)

35.

AREA CODES California has 52 area codes. What is the value of 52?

(Lesson 1-3)

36.

average amounts consumers spent on

back-to-school merchandise in a recent year.

How much more did consumers spend on

clothing, accessories, and shoes than on school

supplies? Use the four-step plan. (Lesson 1-1)

Back-to-School Spending

Merchandise

Amount ($)

Clothing/Accessories

219

Electronic Equipment

101

Shoes

90

School Supplies

73

53

1-7

Problem-Solving Investigation

MAIN IDEA: Solve problems by using the guess and check strategy.

Targeted TEKS 6.11 The student applies Grade 6 mathematics to solve problems connected to everyday experiences, investigations

in other disciplines, and activities in and outside of school. (C) Select or develop an appropriate problem-solving strategy from a

variety of different types, including . . . guessing and checking . . . to solve a problem. Also addresses TEKS 6.11(A), 6.11(B).

e-Mail:

problem.

THE PROBLEM: How many packages of new and used

comic books did Trent receive for his birthday?

EXPLORE

PLAN

SOLVE

CHECK

books in packages of 5 and new comic books

in packages of 3. My sister bought me a

total of 16 comic books for my birthday.

You know that the store sells 3-book packages and 5-book packages. You need to

find the number of packages of each that were bought.

Make a guess until you find an answer that makes sense for the problem.

Number of

3-book

packages

Number of

5-book

packages

1(3) + 1(5) = 8

1(3) + 2(5) = 13

2(3) + 1(5) = 11

2(3) + 2(5) = 16

Total Number of

Comic Books

So, Trents sister bought two 3-book packages and two 5-book packages.

Two 3-book packages result in 6 books. Two 5-book packages result in 10 books.

Since 6 + 10 is 16, the answer is correct.

Explain when to use the guess and check strategy to solve a problem.

*/ -!4( Write a problem that can be solved using guess

(*/

2.

83 *5*/(

and check. Then tell the steps you would take to find the solution of

the problem.

1.

54

John Evans

Exercises 36.

3.

4.

5.

6.

9.

$1.50. What are the coins?

10.

pattern.

has 27 bones. There are 6 more bones in

your fingers than in your wrist. There are

3 fewer bones in your palm than in your

wrist. How many bones are in each part of

your hand?

11.

+, -, , or to make the following math

sentence true. Use each symbol only

once.

numbers from 1 through 9 whose sum is

23. Find the numbers.

MONEY A wallet contains 14 bills worth

$150. If all of the money was in $5 bills,

$10 bills, and $20 bills, how many of each

bill was in the wallet?

Some strategies are shown below.

3 4 6 1 = 18

operation(s) to solve the problem.

Justify your selection(s) and solve the

problem.

12.

for a jump-a-thon. His goal is to collect

$85. So far he has collected $10 each

from two people and $5 each from

six people. How far away is he from

his goal?

13.

students were on the 6th grade honor

roll in the 3rd trimester than in the

1st trimester?

G STRATEGIES

PROBLEM-SOLVIN

tep plan.

Use the four-s

eck.

Guess and ch

7.

is 20. Find the numbers.

Mount Hood than Mount Marcy?

Mountain

Elevation (ft)

Mount Marcy

5,344

Mount Kea

Mount Mitchel

Mount Hood

13,796

6,684

11,239

1st Trimester

40

2nd Trimester

3rd Trimester

37

31

Source: worldatlas.com

8.

in five days. How many words did she

study each day if she studied the same

amount of words each day?

14.

bicycle store. Her hourly wage is $6.

If Felisa works 32 hours, how much does

she earn?

55

Topic Sentences

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main idea in a

paragraph. It is usually found near the beginning of the paragraph

and is followed by supporting details. Heres the beginning of a

paragraph about Mrs. Garcias math class.

Topic sentence

Mrs. Garcias math class was doing research about wild horses

living on public lands. They found that there are about 30,000

wild horses living in Nevada, 4,000 living in Wyoming, and 2,000

living in California.

However, in a word problem, the topic sentence is usually found

near the end. It is the sentence or question that tells you what you

need to find. Heres the same information, written as a word problem.

Mrs. Garcias math class was doing research about wild horses

that live on public lands. They found that there are about 30,000

wild horses living in Nevada, 4,000 living in Wyoming, and 2,000

living in California. How many more wild horses live on public

lands in Nevada than in California?

Topic sentence

Step 1 Skim through the problem, looking for the topic sentence.

Step 2 Go back and read the problem more carefully, looking for the

supporting details you need to solve the problem.

Refer to pages 59 and 60. For each exercise below, write the topic

sentence. Do not solve the problem.

1.

Exercise 29

2.

Exercise 30

3.

Exercise 32

4.

Exercise 39

5.

Exercise 40

6.

Exercise 41

56

CORBIS

1-8

Algebra: Equations

Main IDEA

Solve equations by using

mental math and the

guess and check strategy.

Targeted TEKS 6.11

The student applies

Grade 6 mathematics

to solve problems

connected to everyday

experiences, investigations in

other disciplines, and activities

in and outside of school.

(C) Select or develop an

appropriate problem-solving

strategy from a variety of

different types, including

drawing a picture, looking for

a pattern, systematic

guessing and checking,

acting it out, making a table,

working a simpler problem,

or working backwards to

solve a problem. (D) Select

tools such as real objects,

manipulatives, paper/pencil,

and technology or techniques

such as mental math,

estimation, and number

sense to solve problems.

NEW Vocabulary

equation

equals sign

solve

solution

of a scale are equal, the scale is

balanced.

Place three centimeter

cubes and a paper bag

on one side of a scale.

Place eight centimeter cubes

on the other side of the scale.

1.

bag. What equation represents this situation?

2.

Replace the bag with centimeter cubes until the scale balances.

How many centimeter cubes did you need to balance the

scale?

Let x represent the bag. Model each sentence on a scale. Find the

number of centimeter cubes needed to balance the scale.

3.

x+1=4

4.

x+3=5

5.

x+7=8

6.

x+2=2

examples are shown below.

2+7=9

10 - 6 = 4

14 = 2 7

2+x=9

4=k-6

15 m = 3

sentence, you solve the equation. That value for the variable is the

solution of the equation.

The equation

is 2 + x = 9.

2+x=9

2+7=9

variable that results in

a true sentence is 7.

So, 7 is the solution.

9=9

57

1 Is 3, 4, or 5 the solution of the equation a + 7 = 11?

Value of a

3

4

5

a + 7 11

3 + 7 = 11

10 11

4 + 7 = 11

11 = 11

5 + 7 = 11

12 11

no

yes

no

a.

2 Solve 12 = 3h mentally.

12 = 3h

THINK 12 equals 3 times what number?

12 = 3 4 You know that 12 = 3 4.

12 = 12

The solution is 4.

b.

Solve 24 w = 8 mentally.

a squirrel. Let s represent the speed of a squirrel. Solve the

equation s + 49 = 61 mentally to find the speed of a squirrel.

Use the guess and check strategy.

Real-World Link

The combined head

and body length of a

ground squirrel can

range from 4 inches to

14 inches.

Try 10.

Try 11.

Try 12.

s + 49 = 61

?

10 + 49 = 61

59 61

s + 49 = 61

?

11 + 49 = 61

60 61

s + 49 = 61

?

12 + 49 = 61

61 = 61

Source: infoplease.com

c.

Let v represent Georgias number of electoral votes. Solve

15 - v = 9 to find Mississippis number of electoral votes.

Personal Tutor at tx.msmath1.com

58

Example 1

(p. 58)

Example 2

(p. 58)

Example 3

1.

9 + w = 17; 7, 8, 9

2.

d - 11 = 5; 14, 15, 16

3.

4 = 2y; 2, 3, 4

4.

8 c = 8; 0, 1, 2

5.

x + 6 = 18

8.

and the number of breakfast bars in a kitchen cabinet. If b is the number

of breakfast bars, how many breakfast bars are there?

(p. 58)

(/-%7/2+ (%,0

For

Exercises

916

1728

29, 30

See

Examples

1

2

3

6.

n - 10 = 30

7.

15k = 30

a + 15 = 23; 6, 7, 8

10.

11.

35 = 45 - n; 10, 11, 12

12.

13.

6w = 30; 5, 6, 7

14.

63 = 9k; 6, 7, 8

15.

36 s = 4; 9, 10, 11

16.

x 7 = 3; 20, 21, 22

9.

%842!02!#4)#%

17.

j + 7 = 13

18.

m + 4 = 17

19.

22 = 30 - m

20.

12 = 24 - y

21.

15 - b = 12

22.

25 - k = 20

23.

5m = 25

24.

10t = 90

25.

22 y = 2

26.

d3=6

27.

54 = 6b

28.

24 = 12k

29.

pair of in-line skates for $45 and a set of kneepads. If k is the cost of the

set of kneepads, find the cost of the set of kneepads.

30.

where b is the height of the grizzly bear in inches. What is the height of

the grizzly bear in inches?

31.

RESEARCH Use the Internet or another reference source to find the only bear

species that is found in the Southern Hemisphere. What is the approximate

length and weight of this bear?

32.

School was 575. There are 650 students attending this year. The equation

575 + n = 650 shows the increase in the number of students from one

year to the next. Find the number of new students n.

33.

to 3? Explain.

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

59

H.O.T. Problems

34.

35.

never true.

Equations like a + 4 = 8 and 4 - m = 2 have exactly one solution.

CHALLENGE For Exercises 36 and 37, tell whether each statement is true or

false. Then explain your reasoning.

In m + 8, the variable m can have any value.

37.

38.

(*/

83 *5*/(

solve the equation a + 12 = 30.

of certain mammals. Which equation

can be used to find the difference d

between the number of years a blue

whale lives and the number of years a

gorilla lives?

Years

39.

36.

80

76

70

35

W Kill

Bl hal er

ue e

W

ha

le

Hu

m

an

El Af

ep ric

ha an

nt

Go

ril

la

A d + 35 = 80

90

100

80

60

40

20

0

B d - 35 = 80

C 80 + 35 = d

D d - 80 = 35

40.

worth 2 points each and 2 problems worth 4 points each, find the

number of problems of each type Ivan answered correctly. (Lesson 1-7)

41.

Write a function rule that relates the total allowance to the number

of weeks. Find the total allowance she earns in 8 weeks. (Lesson 1-6)

42.

3rst + 14

43.

45.

60

8 12

46.

(Lesson 1-5)

93s+t

44.

4 + t r 4s

(Page 658)

6 15

47.

4 18

48.

5 17

Explore

1-9

Main IDEA

Use tables of data to

generate formulas.

Targeted TEKS 6.4

The student uses

letters as variables

in mathematical

expressions to describe how

one quantity changes when

a related quantity changes.

(B) Use tables of data

to generate formulas

representing relationships

involving perimeter, area,

volume of a rectangular

prism, etc.

Math Lab

Writing Formulas

The number of square units needed to cover the surface of a figure is

called its area. In this activity, you will explore how the area and side

lengths of rectangles and squares are related. You will then express

this relationship as an equation called a formula.

and shade a rectangle with a length of

2 centimeters and a width of 3 centimeters.

2 cm

3 cm

find the area of the rectangle. Then

record this information in a table like the one shown.

READING Math

Units Area is measured in

square units. Read cm2 as

square centimeters.

Rectangle

Length (cm)

Width (cm)

whose dimensions are shown in the table.

1.

2.

length and width in words.

3.

each of the following dimensions? Test your conjecture by

modeling each rectangle and counting the number of shaded

squares.

a.

4.

b.

equation that describes the relationship between the rectangles

area A, length , and width w.

Explore 1-9 Math Lab: Writing Formulas

61

2 For each step below, draw new rectangles on grid paper and find

the areas. Organize the information in a table.

Using the original rectangles in Activity 1, double each

length, but keep the same width.

Using the original rectangles in Activity 1, double each

width, but keep the same length.

Using the original rectangles in Activity 1, double both the

length and width.

Compare the areas you found in each step to the original areas.

Write a sentence describing how the area changed. Explain.

5.

Step 1

6.

Step 2

7.

Step 3

and shade a square with a length of

2 centimeters.

2 cm

find the area of the square. Record this

information in a table like the one shown.

Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for

squares B and C, whose

dimensions are shown in

the table.

Square

Side Length

(cm)

Area

(sq cm)

8.

9.

side lengths of 8 centimeters? Test your conjecture.

10.

62

equation that describes the relationship between the squares

area A and side length s.

1-9

Main IDEA

Find the areas of

rectangles and squares.

found on game boards and flags.

The student adds,

subtracts, multiplies,

and divides to

solve problems and justify

solutions. (C) Use

multiplication and division

of whole numbers to solve

problems including situations

involving equivalent ratios

and rates. 6.8 The student

solves application problems

involving estimation and

measurement of length,

area, time, temperature,

volume, weight, and

angles. (B) Select and use

appropriate units, tools, or

formulas to measure and to

solve problems involving

length (including perimeter),

area, time, temperature,

volume, and weight. Also

addresses TEKS 6.12(A).

1.

NEW Vocabulary

area

formula

table below.

Object

Squares Along

the Length

Squares Along

the Width

Squares Needed to

Cover the Surface

flag

game board

2.

What relationship exists between the length and the width, and

the number of squares needed to cover the surface?

units needed to cover a surface. The rectangle

shown has an area of 24 square units.

4 units

6 units

rectangle. A formula is an equation that shows

a relationship among certain quantities.

+%9#/.#%04

Words

24 square

units

Area of a Rectangle

product of the length and

width w.

Model

w

Formula A = w

Area Units When

finding area, the units

are also multiplied.

So, area is given in

square units.

and width 7 feet.

A = w

Area of a rectangle

A = 12 7

A = 12 ft 7 ft

A = 84

Multiply.

A = 84 ft2

7 ft

12 ft

63

12 in.

a.

b.

6 in.

of 10 meters and a width

of 2 meters

The formula for the area of a square is also written with an exponent.

Interactive Lab tx.msmath1.com

+%9#/.#%04

Area of a Square

length of a side s squared.

Words

Formula A =

Model

s

s2

2 Find the area of a square with side length 9 inches.

A = s2 Area of a square

A = 92

Replace s with 9.

9 in.

A = 81 Multiply.

9 in.

c.

length 5 meters

d.

length 7 feet

3 SPORTS Use the information at the left. What is the area of a high

school volleyball court?

The length is 60 feet, and the width is 30 feet.

A = w

Area of a rectangle

Real-World Link

A high school volleyball

court is 60 feet long

and 30 feet wide.

A = 60 30

A = 1,800

Multiply.

Source: NFHS

e.

and 50 feet wide. What is the area of this court?

Personal Tutor at tx.msmath1.com

64

Example 1

(p. 63)

1.

2.

5 cm

8 ft

3 cm

15 ft

Example 2

(p. 64)

3.

4.

1 yd

4 ft

4 ft

Example 3

5.

(p. 64)

(/-%7/2+ (%,0

For

Exercises

613

1417

18, 19

See

Examples

1

2

3

1 yd

is the area of the viewing screen?

8 yd

6.

7.

14 ft

8.

9 in.

6 ft

4 yd

10 in.

9.

16 m

10.

25 cm

11. 17 ft

48 ft

20 cm

32 m

12.

12 inches.

13.

width of 30 centimeters?

14.

15.

10 in.

16.

12 cm

3m

3m

17.

10 in.

12 cm

Lesson 1-9 Algebra: Area Formulas

65

18.

area of the front cover of the binder?

19.

HOBBIES Meagan and her friends are knitting small squares to join

together to form a blanket. The side length of each square must be

7 inches. What is the area of each square?

12 ft

20.

8 ft

21.

15 cm

22.

5m

4 ft

9 ft

5m

8 cm

11 m

15 cm

7 cm

7m

%842!02!#4)#%

23.

FIND THE DATA Refer to the Texas Data File on pages 1619. Choose

some data and write a real-world problem in which you would find the

area of a square or a rectangle.

24.

with ceramic tiles. They are deciding between 12-inch square tiles and

6-inch square tiles. What is the difference in the area of the two tiles

they are considering?

25.

shown. The square footage of Cage 1 is

large enough for one guinea pig. For each

additional guinea pig, the cage should be

1 square foot larger. How many guinea pigs

should be kept in Cage 2?

Self-Check Quiz at

tx.msmath1.com

H.O.T. Problems

1 ft

2 ft

2 ft

2 ft

26.

OPEN ENDED Draw and label a rectangle that has an area of 48 square

units.

27.

have the same area.

28.

FIND THE ERROR James and John are finding the area of the square with

a side of 8 feet. Who is correct? Explain your reasoning.

A = s2

A = 82

A=82

A = 16 m2

James

66

Cage 2

Cage 1

A = s2

A = 82

A=88

A = 64 m2

John

31.

29.

3 units. Would the area of the rectangle increase by 6 square units?

Use a model in your explanation.

30.

*/ -!4( Explain how to use the formula for the area of a

(*/

83 *5*/(

square. Include the formula for the area of a square in your explanation.

54 square units?

32.

A

6 units

8 units

4 units

garden in their backyard and planted

grass in the rest of the yard. The

rectangular backyard is 110 feet by

70 feet, and the garden is 14 feet by

6 feet. What is the area of the

backyard that is planted with

grass?

Backyard

9 units

6 ft

14 ft

70 ft

8 units

110 ft

8 units

F 360 sq ft

G 7,616 sq ft

6 units

H 7,700 sq ft

J 7,804 sq ft

9 units

33.

x + 4 = 12

34.

(Lesson 1-8)

9-m=5

36.

Input (x)

0

3

5

Output (5 + x)

35.

k - 8 = 20

(Lesson 1-6)

37.

Input (x)

2

Output (x 2)

38.

39.

SCIENCE The Milky Way galaxy is about 105 light years wide. What is

the value of 105? (Lesson 1-3)

(Lesson 1-5)

67

CH

APTER

Study Guide

and Review

Download Vocabulary

Review from tx.msmath1.com

Key Vocabulary

algebra (p. 42)

Concepts are noted in your

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Key Concepts

(Lesson 1-2)

area (p. 63)

the number itself.

with more than two factors.

composite. 0 has an infinite number of factors

and is neither prime nor composite.

Order of Operations

(Lesson 1-4)

symbols, like parentheses.

Step 2 Find the value of all powers.

Step 3 Multiply and divide in order from left to

right.

Step 4 Add and subtract in order from left to right.

Vocabulary Check

State whether each sentence is true or

false. If false, replace the underlined word

or number to make a true sentence.

(Lesson 1-9)

1.

length and width w.

rectangle.

2.

multiplied, each number is called a

factor.

3.

square units needed to cover a

surface.

4.

value.

5.

exactly one output value to one input

value.

Area Formulas

squared.

s

s

68

see page 695.

Lesson-by-Lesson Review

1-1

(pp. 2427)

problem.

6.

7.

1-2

cost $4 each. If $352 was collected,

how many tickets were sold?

HISTORY In the 1932 presidential

election, Franklin Roosevelt won

472 electoral votes while Herbert

Hoover won 59. How many electoral

votes were cast?

Prime Factors

44

9.

67

number.

1-3

number of hours.

Plan

Multiply 2 by 10.

Solve

2 10 = 20

So, Esteban studied 20 hours.

Check Since 20 2 = 10, the answer

makes sense.

(pp. 2831)

composite, or neither.

8.

each day for 10 days. How many hours

has he studied?

10.

42

13.

numbers to encode secure bank

account information. Suppose Sukis

bank account was encoded with the

number 273. What are the prime

number factors of this code?

11.

75

12.

96

factorization of 18.

Make a factor tree.

Write the number to be factored.

18

2 9

233

is not prime until you have a row

of prime numbers.

2 3 3.

(pp. 3236)

Then find the value of the power.

14.

5555

15.

12 12 12

16.

in grams for a walrus is 210. Find

this value.

Example 3 Write 4 4 4 4 4 4

using an exponent. Then find the value

of the power.

The base is 4. Since 4 is a factor 6 times,

the exponent is 6.

4 4 4 4 4 4 = 46 or 4,096

69

CH

APTER

1-4

Order of Operations

(pp. 3740)

1-5

17.

46+23

18.

8 + 33 4

19.

10 + 15 5 - 6

20.

112 - 6 + 3 15

21.

Lone Star Motorcycle Museum, Maria

counted 3 groups of motorcycles, each

with 5 motorcycles and an additional

7 lone motorcycles. Write an

expression for the number of

motorcycles Maria saw on the

freeway. Then find the number of

motorcycles she saw.

28 2 - 1 5

= 14 - 1 5

= 14 - 5

=9

22.

ab

23.

a2 b

24.

3b2 + a

25.

2a - 10

y = 8, and z = 12.

2x + 4y

27. 3z2

70

+ 4x

28.

z 3 + xy

29.

kitchen floor with square ceramic tile.

He knows the number of tiles needed

is equal to a2 b2, where a is the

floor length in inches and b is the

length of the tile in inches. If a = 96

and b = 8, how many tiles are

needed?

Divide 28 by 2.

Multiply 1 and 5.

Subtract 5 from 14.

The value of 28 2 - 1 5 is 9.

(pp. 4246)

b = 6.

26.

28 2 - 1 5.

Example 5

Evaluate 9 - k3 if k = 2.

9 - k3 = 9 - 23 Replace k with 2.

= 9 - 8 23 = 8

=1

Subtract 8 from 9.

Example 6

and n = 5.

Evaluate 10 + mn if m = 3

10 + mn = 10 + (3)(5)

= 10 + 15

= 25

m = 3 and n = 5

Multiply 3 and 5.

Add 10 and 15.

see page 695.

1-6

Algebra: Functions

(pp. 4953)

30.

31.

32.

Input (x)

Output (x - 1)

Input (x)

Output (x + 5)

Input (x)

Output (3x)

Input (x)

Output (x 2)

10

input.

33.

function table.

x

2

8

34.

Input (x)

Output (x + 5)

14

function table.

x

13

12

18

10

12

15

35.

to Tucson. Define a variable. Write a

function rule that relates the number

of miles traveled to the hours driven.

36.

sister. Define a variable. Write a

function rule that relates the age of

the boy to the age of his sister.

input and output. Divide each input by

3 to find the output.

So, the function rule is x 3.

71

CH

APTER

1

1-7

(pp. 5455)

37.

1-8

cars. It sells red cars for $2 each and

black cars for $3 each. If the company

sold 44 cars total and made $105,

how many red cars were sold?

38.

is 22 and their product is 117. Find

the numbers.

39.

friends, Alex caught 3 more catfish

than he did trout. If the total number

of catfish and trout was 19, how

many catfish did he catch?

Algebra: Equations

40.

p+2=9

41.

20 + y = 25

42.

40 = 15 + m

43.

16 - n = 10

44.

27 = x - 3

45.

17 = 25 - h

46.

represents the sum of Pedros and

Evas ages, where p represents

Pedros age. How old is Pedro?

47.

Owens

Height

Lisas

Height

Sum of

Heights

68 inches 60 inches 128 inches too high

66 inches 58 inches 124 inches

So, Owen is 66 inches tall.

Example 10 Solve x + 9 = 13

mentally.

x + 9 = 13

4 + 9 = 13

x=4

You know that 4 + 9 is 13.

The solution is 4.

(pp. 6367)

below.

13 cm

2 cm

48.

correct. Adjust the guess until it is

correct.

(pp. 5760)

1-9

than his sister, Lisa. If the sum of their

heights is 124 inches, how tall is

Owen?

that measures 4 feet by 4 feet.

Example 11

Find the area of

the rectangle.

A = w

13 m

Area of a rectangle

= 65

The area is 65 square meters.

72

5m

CH

APTER

1

1.

Practice Test

by mowing lawns and raking leaves

for a total of 43 hours. He raked leaves

for 18 hours and earned $108. Arrange

the steps below in a correct order to find

how much he earned per hour mowing

lawns.

12.

13.

spent mowing lawns.

Which list shows the steps in the correct

order?

A

B

C

D

P, Q, R

R, Q, P

Q, R, P

R, P, Q

or neither.

2.

57

5.

6.

was her birthday. Each of those 3 friends

told 3 other students. By noon, 35 students

knew it was Mirandas birthday. Write this

number as a product of the same factor.

Then find the value.

3.

4.

(2 1.50 + 2 12.99 + 3.50) 2

2 (1.50 + 12.99 + 3.50)

(2 1.50 + 12.99) + 3.50 2

F

G

H

J

and the amount Justin earned

raking leaves.

Step Q: Find the quotient of $200 and the

number of hours Justin spent

mowing lawns.

ordered two beverages for $1.50 each, two

dinners for $12.99 each, and a dessert for

$3.50. Which of the following expressions

can be used to find the amount each

should pay, not including tax?

14.

7

11

12

16

8

16

1

2

15.

of carbohydrates. Define a variable. Write

a function rule that relates the amount of

carbohydrates to the number of potatoes.

16.

dimes, and nickels. He has the same

amount of nickels as quarters, and one

more dime than nickels. How many of

each coin does he have?

31

17.

d + 9 = 14

19.

the rectangle.

18.

56 = 7k

17 ft

8 ft

7.

12 - 3 2 + 15

8.

72 23 - 4 2

9.

a + 12

10.

27 b

11.

a3 - 2b

20.

room. The length of each side of the rug is

42 inches. Find the area of the rug.

73

CH

APTER

Texas

Test Practice

Chapter 1

correct answer on the answer document

provided by your teacher or on a sheet

of paper.

1.

2.

roller blades are rented. Which equation

can be used to find, c, the cost in dollars of

the rental for h hours?

sixth-grade homerooms and approximately

22 students in each homeroom. About

how many sixth-grade students attend the

middle school?

A 250

C 400

B 325

D 650

A c = 4h + 3.5

B c = 3.5 - 4h

C c = 3.5(h + 4)

D c = 3.5h + 4

5. Mr. Weiss started painting the kitchen at

About how many hours elapsed between

the time he started painting and the time

he finished painting the kitchen?

vacation spot. Her total drive time is nine

hours. How would you find Samanthas

average speed for the trip?

F 2h

her total drive time.

G 3h

from the total miles driven.

J 5h

by the total drive time.

H 4h

A 33 52

by her total drive time.

3.

by 10-foot rectangular wall that has a

9-foot by 5-foot rectangular window at

its center. How many square feet wall

does she need to paint?

B 27

C 23 32 5

D 3 2 5 72

7. Jeremy was asked to find two integers that

said that the integers were 39 and 36. Why

was Jeremys answer incorrect?

not 3.

FT

FT

FT

FT

8.

74

45 (7 + 2) - 1?

Get Ready

for the Texas Test

For test-taking strategies and more practice,

see pages TX1TX23.

8 feet. Find the area of the garden.

A 16 ft2

B 32 ft2

C 64

Number of

Meatball Subs Sold

40

25

30

45

65

70

50

Day

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

ft2

D 80 ft2

formulas that you have learned before

you take the test.

that week?

F 150 subs

G 200 subs

H 300 subs

J 350 subs

Mollys Age, x

(years)

2

3

4

5

Maxs Age, y

(years)

5

6

7

8

Pre-AP

Record your answers on a sheet of paper.

Show your work.

13. The table shows how much Kyle has

four weeks.

in terms of Mollys age?

F y+3

H x+3

G 3x

J 3y

Week

1

2

3

4

5

About how many boxes of computer paper

does Jack use in 36 working days?

Amount

($)

2

3

5

9

17

A 8

C 21

Kyle expect to earn in the sixth week?

B 15

D 108

If You Missed Question...

10

11

Go to Lesson...

1-1

1-1

1-9

1-5

1-1

1-3

1-1

1-4

1-9

1-6

12

1

13

1

75

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