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The Audi Technology Magazine

Issue 1/2012

The Audi Technology Magazine


Lightweight Design
How Audi intelligently combines
state-of-the-art materials

How Audi facilitates
at the touch of a button

How Audi is working on the
new networking

Assistance Systems
How new in-car intelligence
helps to avoid accidents

Test in Munich
How Audi is gathering
experience with
electromobility in everyday use

The Audi Technology Magazine


Encounter Augmented Reality
Experience video footage with your iPhone,
iPad or Android smartphone.

Download the junaio app from

the App Store or Android
Marketplace to your phone or
mobile device.

Start up the junaio app and

search for Audi.

Audi Encounter

Open the channel

Audi Encounter.

Scan this magazines images

tagged with the Audi Augmented
Reality Logo.

Working on the future of the automobile is surely one

of the most exciting jobs of our time. The challenges have never
been so great, the path to solutions so complex and the technological approaches so varied.
Yet our task is clear to secure an individual mobility for
the future that conserves resources. And we will be successful, because we will make determined use of technological progress
across all disciplines in new kinds of drive, as well as the opportunities presented by the networking of knowledge and functions.
Vorsprung durch Technik is the genetic core of the Audi brand
and a challenge set for our employees every single day.
It is in this spirit that we at Audi are working on a great
many good ideas on technologies and functions that, just a short
time ago, seemed impossible. But the enormous progress made in
electrics and electronics in particular has given the automobile a
whole new kind of intelligence. It communicates with its environment, it recognizes the threat of danger and it avoids accidents.
Over the next few years we will see a whole host of new assistance
systems that not only add significantly to comfort levels, but, more
importantly, deliver a whole new level of road safety.

Working on the future of the automobile

is one of the most exciting jobs of our time.

Michael Dick

In this new issue of the Audi Technology Magazine we

present you with a great many of our ideas. We would like to show
you that we are working on new mobility concepts, how issues like
efficiency and lightweight design shape our thinking and our actions, and how we use state-of-the-art technology to increase the
level of driving fun while, at the same time, significantly reducing
fuel consumption.
Every Audi is a unique product with a clear character and
distinct genes. But it should also fit perfectly to the individual lifestyle of its owner and driver. At time of purchase, an Audi can be
designed from a virtually inexhaustible range of options and possibilities to suit his very own style. With Audi drive select, the vehi
cle can be adapted to the preferred driving style every day and at
any given moment. And in future, it will be possible to individualize
even the sound of the vehicle or its display systems and operating
Take a look through this magazine and discover a few of the ideas
with which we are approaching the future. Happy reading.
Yours truly,

Michael Dick, Member of the Board of Management of AUDI AG,

Technical Development

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In by-wire technology, steering, braking and shift commands are
transmitted by wire. Electrical components replace mechanical and hydraulic parts.
Audi is researching all aspects of this topic.

is the scale of the
by-wire technology model.
page 54

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Exterior Refinements
The Audi R8 e-tron high-performance sports car has a battery-electric drive.
Its refined aerodynamics make a significant contribution to its intelligent energy
management and to its range.

is the current cd figure
for the technology showcase.
page 24

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An Audi as personal as a finger print

In its Audi exclusive division, quattro GmbH fulfils even the
most unusual customer desires. Individual one-offs are created in the workshop
at the Neckarsulm plant.

hours is the time it takes to clad a
steering wheel manually with leather.
page 124

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The right material in the right place
Audi is extending its leadership in lightweight design.
A team of experts is developing the new Multimaterial
Space Frame, which brings together metal and fiber-reinforced polymers.

kilograms is the weight of the R8 bodyshell
made from CFRP and aluminum.
page 60


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Light becomes 3-dimensional
With MID technology, Audi is opening up the third
dimension of vehicle lighting. And the lighting engineers still have plenty
more irons in the fire.

LEDs are in the two hemispheres
of the the MID light unit.
page 84


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It was the courage to innovate that put Audi at
the top. The company wants to build on that progress, with a constant
flow of new ideas and with a clear approach.

16 Out of the box

24 e-rodynamic
30 China Daily
38 Science Faction
44 Powered Up

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of the box

As head of think tank Bauhaus Luftfahrt,
Prof. Dr. Mirko Hornung is one of the foremost minds in the field
of aviation. He speaks with Audi Board Member for Technical
Development Michael Dick about lifecycles, regenerative fuels and
cars that can find their own parking spot or even fly.

Ideas for new mobility Michael Dick (left)

in conversation with Professor Mirko Hornung.


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Hermann Reil

Todays new aircraft models will still

be flying in 2040. After that, however, there
will have to be some very different aircraft concepts most likely with a radical
departure from the current designs.

Mirko Hornung

Myrzik und Jarisch

Herr Hornung, Herr Dick, you are both

working on the future of mobility, on the
road and in the air. And you both have to think beyond the familiar construct. How will we fly tomorrow and how will we drive?
Hornung: For civil aviation passengers rather little
is likely to change over the next few decades. This is due to the
product cycle being far longer than for, say, automobiles. Todays
new aircraft such as the Boeing 787 or the Airbus A 350 will still
be flying in the year 2040. After that, however, there will have to
be some very different aircraft concepts most likely with a radical
departure from the current designs.
You have brought along a model that looks very
unusual indeed.
Hornung: The Claire Liner is an aircraft concept developed by Bauhaus Luftfahrt for transfer between the mega-cities of
the future. With its circumferential airfoils and decoupled drive,
we were able to reduce significantly its kerosene consumption and
noise emissions. Our drive concept separates the core drive unit
and thus the power generation from the means of forward propulsion, known in the trade as fans. This enables the use of a larger
proportion of the airflow for propulsion and delivers a far higher
degree of efficiency. Two turbines at the rear drive the four fans.
We now have the first gearboxes actually capable of transmitting
these hundreds of megawatts of power.
Dick: What is the purpose of the unusual wing shape?
Hornung: These box-wing airfoils deliver greater efficiency, less drag and less weight. With a conventional wing, the
turbulence at the tips generates the largest proportion of drag. A
closed wing eliminates this turbulence.
Dick: When can we expect to see a prototype?
Hornung: For us, the Claire Liner is primarily an integration platform for new technologies. A flying prototype would call
for a great deal more development work and financial investment.
Herr Dick, you, too, have brought an unusual idea
with you in one-to-one scale.
Dick: With the Audi urban concept, we have presented
a proposal for how we might imagine tomorrows driving in these
metropolitan areas as a new, young mobility concept with electric
drive, with a high standard of safety and with a clear promise of
driving fun. During the development process we showed the project
to our children, who gave a lot of good input. At the end of the day,
the urban concept is a minimalist concept for young people, to suit
their habits and their changed approach to many of lifes issues.
The reaction at the Frankfurt Auto Show was amazingly good
and, since then, we have discussed it with more potential customer groups like parents with children. We are still working on this
concept, which could enter series production, although we have yet
to reach a decision on that.

Professor Dr.-Ing. Mirko Hornung heads up the Bauhaus

Luftfahrt e.V. in Munich as Director of Research and
Technology. Hornung is also a professor in the Aviation
Systems Department at the Technical University of
Munich. Previously, Hornung held management positons
with aerospace group EADS.

With the Audi urban concept, we have presented an idea of how we envisage the
way we might drive in metropolitan areas in
future with electric drive, a high level
of safety and a clear promise of driving fun.

Michael Dick

1 Idea for new flying the Claire Liner concept airplane promises considerably lower emissions.
2 Idea for new driving the Audi urban concept is a
young mobility concept for metropolitan areas.


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* See glossary, p. 142


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A vehicle like the Audi urban concept is surely not the

only path to the future.
Dick: We have a lot of ideas. Our individual product cycles are, of course, shorter than they are in aviation. The breadth of
options is far greater, although the innovation steps themselves
are initially more modest. Nevertheless, absolutely nobody has a
firm scenario for the year 2040 or even 2030. There is certainly also
no linear path that will take us there.
So, for the moment, the situation is primarily about
building bridges to a future that nobody knows.
Dick: Naturally we have to work through a lot of things
in parallel now, which costs a lot in terms of resources. Our objectives are clear CO-free mobility in the metropolitan areas;
CO-neutral mobility cross-country. The one can be a battery-electric car, the other perhaps a plug-in hybrid fueled by regenerative
energy. We are working intensively on both of these and both will
be available to customers within the foreseeable future. And it
really is not that important what the final scenario actually looks
like, the electrification of the automobile is in no way a wasted effort
whether the long-term outcome is all-electric drive, with hydrogen or whatever else.
Is a commercial aircraft with electric drive
Hornung: In principle, it is not completely impossible.
What we are looking at right now are concepts for short distances
of up to 1,000 kilometers, which covers most flights these days. A
class like the Dornier 328, like the one we are sitting in, would be
the first to be considered for electrification. But we face even
tougher constraints than the automobile, because we require the
combination of energy volume for long distance and concentration
of power for the take-off phase. One conceivable option would be
a hybrid system using battery storage for take-off and a fuel cell
for distance travel.
But surely batteries like that would be far too heavy.
Hornung: Right now we have many tons of kerosene on
board. Although, it is fair to say that electric drive for aviation will
not be feasible until we achieve an energy density of 1.2 kilowatt
hours per kilogram. Below that would be a pointless exercise, and
were currently a long way away from there.
Dick: Sometime, there will be an energy storage medium that will give an electric car the range of a conventional vehicle.
But for the foreseeable future, energy storage technology is not
likely to change much. Battery manufacturers have invested in the
current technology and our research engineers are not giving us
any real hope that we will see any revolutionary progress in the next
ten years.
The target for CO reduction is extremely demanding
in aviation, too, isnt it?
Hornung: The aviation industry set its own target to cut
the CO emissions of 2009 in half by 2050 from a current level of
600 million to around 300 million tons. When you extrapolate
the current emissions with the expected growth in air traffic, we
would be at 2.2 billion tons by 2050. The defined target, however,
is 300 million.

Our objectives are clear CO-free mobility

in the metropolitan areas; CO-neutral
mobility cross-country. We are working intensively on both of these, and both will
be available for customers in the foreseeable future.

Michael Dick

The short and mid-term solution for CO

reduction is the same aircraft, different fuel. Energy generated from renewable
sources is our bridging technology for
the next 20 to 30 years.

Mirko Hornung

And how are you supposed to achieve that when the

aircraft remain the same?
Hornung: The aircraft now entering service will fly
for the next 40 years. A completely new airplane delivers a 15
percent improvement in efficiency. On average for the fleet that
means an annual improvement of around 1.5 percent. But the expected growth rate stands at 4.5 percent per year i.e. three times
that amount. The short and mid-term solution is, to put it simply
the same plane, different fuel. Energy generated from renewable sources is our bridging technology for the next 20 to 30
years. The next major step for the airplanes themselves will not
come before 2030. Everything until then is already technologically set in stone.
Dick: We call our idea for that Balanced Mobility. We
will generate natural gas from available wind energy and use an
available infrastructure for its distribution i.e. the natural gas
network. The seriousness of this concept was doubted by some in
the beginning, but now it is finding an increasing amount of support. With the generation of natural gas from renewable sources,
we can continue to use the highly developed technology of the
internal combustion engine in a way that is CO neutral. That seems
to us like a highly intelligent way forward.
Hornung: In the aviation industry, we are working with
similar targets. In a project with ETH Zrich, we are researching
a concept whereby synthetic gas can be produced directly from
solar energy using a catalytic process and then converted into synthetic kerosene. This is looking like a highly promising approach.
We, too, have an enormous bandwidth of possibilities and ideas
from which we are trying to identify the right ways forward.
How much potential for optimization is there still
within current aircraft technology?
Hornung: A great deal has already been done and almost everything has been teased out. Since the Boeing 707, the
mother of modern commercial airliners, consumption and emissions have been reduced by more than 70 percent. A fully loaded A
380 now consumes around 3.3 liters per 100 passenger kilometers. We are now at the limit in all individual disciplines such as
aerodynamics. There is not much left to be gained. We are now
making increased use of synergy effects for example, the wings
on the latest aircraft designs are constructed with a great deal
more flexibility. This doesnt deliver any aerodynamic benefits,
but reduces structural loads as part of the design criteria, meaning
that the aircraft can be more lightweight. One interesting potential
at the moment is in the drives. The new engines for the future A 320
New Engine Option promise savings of around 15 percent.
Dick: We can match that. Audi has developed a new
generation of the 1.8 liter TFSI with virtually every refinement
the very latest engine technology has to offer. We have been able
to reduce the average fuel consumption of the facelifted Audi A4
by 19 percent.
One major issue for commercial aircraft is currently
carbon-fiber design. What does that have to offer?
Hornung: Considered purely on the basis of efficiency
improvement, carbon-fiber structures have relatively little to offer
compared with improvements in drive technology, perhaps three
to four percent. When it comes to weight, the current aluminum
approach is already very good. Fiber composite technology, however, can help in other areas to reduce mass for instance, through
new climate control concepts for the cabin.
Dick: When it comes to lightweight design, we work on
the basis of an intelligent mix fiber-reinforced materials in combination with aluminum and high-strength steels. In future, we
will take the entire energy requirement of a vehicle into consideration, including the materials used and this is where CFRP has
considerable disadvantages.

Experience Michael Dick and Mirko Hornung

live in conversation.


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* See glossary, p. 142

Hornung: What are the areas in automotive design with

a high degree of potential for innovation?
Dick: Drive-by-wire technologies would be one example. They are already a lot further on in the aircraft sector. For us,
steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire are particularly interesting, because they enable us to take weight out of the car. We will also have
more flexibility when it comes to packaging when we no longer
need a steering column. Electromechanical brakes have a very fine
degree of control and improve recuperation performance with electric drive, plus we can dispense with brake fluid. These technologies
are also helpful on the road a future featuring piloted driving.
Hornung: We have had assistance systems in the cockpit for a long time, but we are extremely cautious when it comes to
the operational introduction of unmanned flying. The question
of situation awareness, ensuring that the system acts correctly in
any given situation, is very important. In road traffic, with the large
number of players involved, I imagine that would be far more
Dick: We are already very far on in the development process. We are working with radar systems, lasers and cameras enabling the vehicle to orientate itself within its environment. The
sensors can, for example, identify pedestrians with a high degree
of reliability. This will be the next major step toward greater driving
safety. The final responsibility, however, will always remain with
the driver.
Hornung: Assisted driving or flying means an ever
increasing level of communication between road users. In aviation,
we are already experiencing problems with overloaded frequencies.
Dick: Initially, we are using existing infrastructures,
such as the swarm intelligence of the cell phone network, for our
new online traffic information for the first time it delivers precise
traffic information in real time. We are also speaking with the
manufacturers of traffic light controls. The vehicle will be able to
retrieve information on the control of green light phases from the
citys traffic management system. We originally wanted to make
it possible to retrieve information from every traffic light, but that
is financially unfeasible. In a few years, the driver will know from
the navigation system how to drive perfectly through the green
wave. This extends further to parking lots the driver gets out of
the car at the entrance to the parking garage and the car searches
for a space on its own.

Hornung: That would help us a lot, too airports and

their connection to the roads network are increasingly becoming
bottlenecks. Cars that you can drive up in and that then search
autonomously for a parking spot would save a great deal of time.
Dick: We must think a lot more about the connection
and combination of the different traffic systems. A new mobility concept includes, for example, a navigation system that also
incorporates public transport. You enter your destination and
the desired arrival time and then the system searches for the optimum mix of transportation. That can vary depending on the
time of day. We now have a large team at Audi that is working on
this kind of mobility concept. In many large cities we are seeing
ownership demand turn into usership demand, in which case we
also have to develop our business model. When I secure a lease
contract, I can in future perhaps gain access to a variety of vehicle
types depending on my requirements a cabrio here, a station
wagon there.
Hornung: In the USA, the first flying car has been registered, for both road and air. Could you imagine something
like that?
Dick: When I think of the traffic density on the roads
and apply that to the air as well, I think rather not.
Hornung: The sky is only full above an altitude of ten
kilometers, and a flying car wouldnt climb that high anyway.
If such flying vehicles could independently agree their position
and control themselves to a large extent autonomously, I think
it would be highly conceivable.
Dick: Perhaps that is a blockbuster innovation for the
years to come. But we are not working on it at this point in time.

Airports and their connection to the

roads network are increasingly becoming
bottlenecks. Cars that you can drive up
in and that then search autonomously for
a parking spot would save a great deal
of time.

Mirko Hornung

With Balanced Mobility we can take advantage of natural gas generated from renewable energy to continue using the
highly developed technology of the internal
combustion engine in a way that is CO
neutral. That seems to us like a highly intelligent way forward.

Michael Dick

Das Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V. is a research institute founded

in Munich in 2005 by the three aerospace companies
EADS, Liebherr-Aerospace and MTU Aero Engines, as well
as the Bavarian Department of Commerce. The team
of around 35 scientists operates as an international think
tank focused on the future of mobility and of civil aviation in particular.


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* See glossary, p. 142


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Wind Resistance
On the electric-powered Audi R8 e-tron, the role played
by drag is hugely significant. It makes a major contribution to
its energy management and to its range.


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Airflow around, beneath and through:

The Audi R8 e-tron in the wind tunnel.


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1 New ways the air intakes on

the front hood play a major role in the
R8 e-tron.

Audis Wind Tunnel Center

2 Lord of the wind Dr. Moni Islam,

Head of Development, Aerodynamics/
Aeroacoustics at Audi.
3 Flow expert Dr. Martin Brennberger
designed the aerodynamic
concept for the Audi R8 e-tron.

Audis Wind Tunnel Center in Ingolstadt comprises three hi-tech installations. The largest of them is the aeroacoustic wind
tunnel, which can reproduce wind speeds of up to 300 km/h.
In the Thermal Wind Tunnel, the cars are heated to as much as 55 degrees
Celsius, and the Climatic Wind Tunnel can generate virtually every one of the
worlds climates it even incorporates a rain machine.

The development of an electric car presents

very specific challenges. In order to bring
range and performance into line with each other, engineers must
ensure that not a single Joule of energy is lost needlessly. A crucial field of technology in this respect is aerodynamics.
With the R8 e-tron, which is of course based on the R8
series-production vehicle, we began with the corresponding cd
figure of 0.348, says Dr. Martin Brennberger. He is the lead engineer on the aerodynamic concept for the electric-powered highperformance sports car, which is scheduled to enter low-volume
series production at the end of 2012. On the technology showcase
unveiled at the Frankfurt Auto Show, we already achieved a cd of
0.32. And we assume that we can shave another chunk off of that.
The more smoothly a car glides through the air, the less
energy it consumes. On the R8 e-tron, whose electric motors deliver 230 kW (313 hp), the improvement has a direct impact on
range. The first study from 2009 was based on a range of 248 kilometers from a single battery charge. Each thousandth in the cd
figure each point, as the aerodynamicists say brings around 0.2
kilometers more.
The leap from 0.35 to 0.32 increased the range by
around 6 kilometers, reckons Dr. Moni Islam, Head of Develop
ment, Aerodynamics/Aeroacoustics. On electrified vehicles, aerodynamics in general have a far greater role to play than with conventional drives, continues Islam. In contrast to the energy used

to accelerate the vehicle, the energy required to overcome drag

cannot be recuperated*, meaning that the cd figure has a more
profound impact on the range of the vehicle.
Electric drive opens up a whole new range of highly interesting opportunities for engineers. Because the R8 e-tron requires no air for combustion and has no oil cooler, they were able
to close off the side air intakes at the front and the sideblades
along the flanks. The absence of the big V8 engine, transmission
and exhaust system allows for a completely smooth underbody.
At its rear, a long, slightly upward sloping diffuser channels the air
so that it harmonizes perfectly with the airflow around the back of
the vehicle.
The luggage compartment has moved from the front
to the area behind the cabin above the electric motor and the
battery, which is maintained at a temperature of around 30 degrees
Celsius and thus does not present any thermal problems. At the
front of the car are all the components required for the R8 e-trons
sophisticated thermal management. They include the heat exchanger that cools the motor, the power electronics and the battery, as well as the condenser for the air conditioning, which works
together with the heat pump to control the temperatures of the
interior and battery.
All of these components are supplied intensively with
cooling air. It flows in a closed channel through the front of the car
and exits through openings on the front cover panel an all-new
solution for a road vehicle that also increases the downforce on the
front axle, similar to that on the R8 race car for the GT3 category.
Carefully thought-through, effective thermal management is the
cornerstone of electrification, sums up Dr. Brennberger. On the
R8 e-tron, it works perfectly together with the aerodynamics.
Before the Audi R8 e-tron is launched, the aerodynamic experts will carry out a lot more refinements. This extends to the
classic details like wheels, tires and exterior mirrors to ensure that
not a single Joule is lost needlessly.


* See glossary, p. 142

Johannes Kbler

Stefan Warter

Efficiency each improvement of

one hundredth in the cd figure
delivers two kilometers more range.


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Experience the Audi Q3 Trans China Tour in fast forward.
Off-road testing The Audi Q3 also masters challenging
terrain with ease.

China Daily

The happy caravan
China is different in many aspects, different from all
that we know in the West. 20 new Audi Q3s took part in the Trans China Tour
through a land in a state of flux.

Beijing Shanghai

Wave 1 the first four stages of the Trans
China Tour connect the rapidly growing urban
centers in the east of the country.

1 Rare bicycles have become a less frequent

feature of city roads.

Development with huge bridges and

brand new highways, China is making enormous
expansions to its traffic infrastructure.

2 Splendor the capital Beijing with the

distinctive kinked CCTV tower on the right.
3 Upheaval economic change is clearly
evident in small towns, too.

Markus Stier


Shanghai Shenzhen

Wave 2 heading into southern China,
mega-cities continue to mark the staging
posts along the way.

Number three. Three is good. Eight would

have been better, but it could have been
worse with number four or 14. Because, in the Middle Kingdom,
anything that includes a four stands for all sorts of bad luck. The
number 8, on the other hand, is something the Chinese cant get
enough of, which is why those who can afford it book suite number
8888 in the Seven Star Hotel in Zhaoqing even though the building only has six floors.
We will spend the next three weeks in car number three
one of 20 new Audi Q3s brought together in Beijing for the Trans
China Tour. Today is Sunday, and it is a matter of sheer luck whether you are able to make it out of the city in reasonable time. This
morning marks the start of a long journey, and it could begin very
slowly indeed if too many Beijing inhabitants choose exactly this
time to visit family or do a bit of power-shopping.


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The bicycle bell symphony on the streets of the Chinese

capital has long ceased. These days it is the horns of countless automobiles that set the tone. China is motorizing itself at least in
the major cities and to such an extent that new vehicle registrations in Beijing have been limited to just 17,000 per year. It goes
without saying that the suitably solvent car buyer seeks to acquire
a license plate with as many eights in it as possible, but even that
does not protect him from taking mandatory breaks. Because, depending on their license plate, the locals must leave their automotive pride and joy at home on certain weekdays. Only at weekends
is everybody free to drive as they wish.
Were in luck, however. The traffic heading south leaves
the city without problem, which is a good thing, as we have a lot to
do. Audi has invited around 160 journalists to take part in the Trans
China Tour. They will travel this huge country from north to south
in four groups covering a total of 5,700 kilometers in 16 stages,
from Beijing, through Shanghai, Shenzhen and Guilin to the finish
line in Hong Kong. The intention is for the journalistic fraternity to
gain a wide-ranging impression of China, which is now Audis biggest market and a significant element in its future growth strategy.

1 Powerful Mao Zedong has become a

rare sight. A large-scale version greets us in the
city of Fuzhou.

Shenzhen Guilin

2 Lush green subtropical vegetation in

South China. The Audi Q3s travel between rice
paddies and banana plants.

Wave 3 from the huge economic area surrounding city of ten million Shenzhen, the route heads
into the natural scenery around Guilin. The fourth
wave then drives in the opposite direction back to
Shenzhen and the Tour finale in Hong Kong.

3 Contrast fascinating landscapes deliver the

perfect contrast to the modern cities.

4 Fast roads in South China, too, the network

of highways and roads has undergone enormous

Popular Yangshuo is one of the most preferred

destinations among Chinese tourists.

The Audi Q3 is the perfect companion for the big tour.

With its compact format and excellent visibility, it moves effortlessly through urban traffic. Its sporty character, powerful and efficient engines and high comfort level also turn long journeys into
a pleasurable experience. And thanks to its versatile handling characteristics, Audis compact SUV is just as much at home on rough
terrain. The tour participants learn to appreciate all of these characteristics immensely.
Thanks to uninterrupted economic growth, a burgeoning middle class is emerging in the Peoples Republic. The Audi Q5
is extremely successful here and the clear market leader, providing
the best possible prerequisites for the compact Q3, which will be
available for sale here as of 2012 as an import model and will also
later be produced in China.
The European guests also get a feel for the growing
wealth here, and not just from the sight of forests of constructions
cranes stretching skyward on the outskirts of every city, tirelessly
pulling enormous high-rise residential blocks upward out of the
earth. The roads network in China is developing at a rapid rate, too.
There are already 70,000 kilometers of highway crisscrossing primarily the densely populated eastern part of this huge land. In just
a few years it will leave the current record holder the USA with its
76,000 highway kilometers trailing in its wake.
The government is planning ahead. Over the next two
decades 400 million people will make the transition from the low
to the mid-income bracket, making the roads network in many
provinces in contrast to the cities seem extremely generous
at the moment. The brand new highways with very little traffic are
a huge help for the long daily distances covered by the Trans
China Tour.


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However, the most decisive help en route to the evening

stopover destinations is delivered by the MMI navigation in the Audi
Q3. Drivers from the West are initially surprised by how well and
detailed the Chinese network of roads and even tracks are stored
on the hard drive. A total of around three million kilometers are
digitized to a very high degree of data precision. It may sound surprising, but a navigation system in China must operate far more
accurately than, say, in Germany. Several roads are often located
very close to each other. On and off ramps are far more frequent
and the multi-level concrete roads present very particular challenges. In Shanghai there is a four-level road with circular ramps
and several off-shoots on each level a true challenge for every
navigation device.
And there is one more problem the enormous speed
with which new roads and bridges are being built here. On the Tour,
the Audi Q3s drive over several bridges or through tunnels that the
system does not yet know, in fact cannot yet know because the
authorities in China are faster at completing new building work
than they are at approving updates to map software. Thus, the
navigation voice falls silent when the Q3 seems to drive over the
sea through the expansive Jiazhou Bay near Qingdao. No wonder,
the bridge was opened just a couple of months ago. At around 42
kilometers long, it claims to be the worlds longest sea bridge.

Guilin Hong Kong

1 The other side in China, it often takes

just an hour to drive from urban prosperity to hard labor in the rice paddies.

3 Completed the finish ramp of the Trans

China Tour in Shenzhen.
4 Finale Hong Kong is once again a
real high point for the tour participants.

2 Mystical landscape the unique karst

hills around Guilin are often shrouded in
a misty haze.


This country, with its 1.3 billion inhabitants is, in many

ways, a land of superlatives. Car number three passes the worlds
highest TV tower all 600 meters of it in Guangzhou. Some of the
highest buildings are in Shanghai. This is also the planets largest
urban conurbation, occupying around three times the area of the
German state of Saarland. And while only one million people live
there, Shanghai is home to 23 million perhaps even more, no one
really knows for sure. The traffic jam in the city center is 16 kilometers long however, we thankfully manage to avoid this particular
Every provincial capital in China is at least the size of
Berlin, most of them twice the size. The hand-to-hand combat on
the congested roads is a constant challenge. Le Mans champion
Andr Lotterer, who joins the Trans China Tour for a while, speaks
of freestyle driving. Like the Audi works driver, virtually all of the
tour participants derive a certain satisfaction from lane surfing,
from the restrained but energetic jostling and from the search for
unconventional solutions to circumnavigate an emerging traffic
snarl-up. The nimble power of the Audi Q3 with its 211 hp TFSI
engine and S tronic transmission is, of course, a big help. Overall,
the traffic in China is chaotic and hectic, but largely free from aggression. With a certain racing-driver attitude in these head-toheads, you ultimately earn that decisive little bit of space. Plus, the
Chinese may sound their horns like mad, but there is not a hint of
rage on their faces as they look through their car windows.
In fact, it is generally apparent that the Chinese adopt
a very relaxed attitude to lifes hardships. The often close juxtaposition of wealth and poverty is one of the more compelling images
of the Tour. The people have been used to laborious toil in the rice
paddies for thousands of years. Handcarts are pulled with stoic
calm, until you can afford a motorized three-wheeler or even a car.


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This is nothing to dampen the spirits. Be it at a popular card game

or at a meeting with long-nosed foreigners laughter is frequent
and loud, even when the highway between Hangzhou and Fuzhou
is closed for a couple of hours to enable a visiting dignitary from
abroad a clear run through.
Alongside rapid wealth and a long life, there is nothing
more important to the Chinese than food. The participants sit at
countless round tables during the tour. On the lazy susans are an
amazing array of dishes Peking duck in Beijing, fish cooked in beer
in Guilin and dumplings filled with caramel in Zhaoqing. Not necessarily everything is to European tastes boiled jellyfish and
braised frog are declined by most.
The third and fourth groups also have the chance to
experience the robust potential of the new SUV with quattro permanent all-wheel drive off-road. From the expansive industrial
region around Shenzhen, the route leads mainly along small roads
and tracks into the impressive scenery of the region around Guilin,
with its unique karst hills and miles of rice paddies. In the southernmost province of Guanxi, just before the border to Vietnam,
thousands of cone-shaped rock formations rise up to 700 meters
out of the earth. School children all over the country sing songs
about the beauty of a landscape that is often shrouded in a mystical
haze. Those who can afford it make a once-in-a-lifetime trip to see
the most beautiful formations along the Li River from a caravan of
river steamboats, or they treat themselves to a bamboo raft tour
on the Yulong.
In the last group, the cars are driven largely by Chinese
journalists, and it goes without saying that there is no longer a
car 4. It now bears the number 88 a sure-fire guarantee of luck.
Nevertheless, the luck remains reasonably well distributed. Like
all the others, car three crosses the finish line with barely a
scratch, although unwashed and proudly displaying the dust of
eight provinces.
With an increasing number of Chinese able to afford it,
many will surely take the tour into the beautiful south of the country in their own cars one day accompanied by a pioneering tingle,
as our parents once felt when they first set of in a VW Beetle for the
Adriatic or Lake Garda. Or as we did because every day of the Trans
China Tour was a little adventure. And thanks to growing prosperity, the market for premium automobiles will continue to grow
above the market average. In 2011, Audi sold around 300,000 cars
in China, and soon it will be 400,000. But perhaps 388,888
should be announced first



Agnes Happich


Seeing with the eyes of a city
How will we get around in cities in future? What role will be played by
cars in mega-cities? The Audi Urban Summit is a forum where architects, sociologists and
trend researchers take a look into the crystal ball. Despite different visions of the future,
the experts are united on one thing the cities of the world are talking to us; they are giving
the answers themselves to the questions of future mobility. We just have to listen.

The end of yours and mine what will we still own in future?
The consumption model for the 21st century will be collaborative. We will learn to use our internet access
to share goods in a new and different way.

The ticket model will we buy journeys instead of cars?

We will have a new system of consumption. In this system, the unit will no longer be the car,
but the journey.

Alison Brooks, Architect

Charles Leadbeater, Architect and Computer Scientist


A look inside the car of the future more room, fewer buttons?
The appearance of the car will change dramatically with battery-operated drive. The heavy driveline
disappears, leaving lots of free space in the interior. We must design these new interiors to be
as minimalist as possible. When reduced to the bare essentials, spaces appear light and roomy. One thing is
certain despite the new functions, despite all the networking, an Audi will remain utterly simple
and intuitive to operate in future, too.

No more red-amber-green a world without traffic lights?

The digital tsunami that is currently rolling into our cities will sweep away a great many things
that we have always taken for granted, like traffic lights for instance. A digitalized car
that communicates with other cars and with its environment no longer needs traffic lights.
Jrgen Mayer H., Architect

Stefan Sielaff, Head of Design AUDI AG *

Parking, washing, charging will the car become its own butler?
Imagine you are driving through the city with your electric car looking for a parking spot. Your car shows
you a selection of parking garages and you make your selection. When you arrive there, you select
services such as charge or wash, climb out of the car and go shopping at your leisure. The car takes care of
the rest for you. It searches for an empty parking spot on its own, charges itself via induction and
then has itself washed.

of the earths
crust is
covered by

In Mexico City, every inhabitant spends an average of 38 days per

year in a traffic jam that is more than the annual leave of most
Europeans. Mexico City is a so-called mega-city, which means a city with more than five
million inhabitants far more. Around 20 million people live in Mexicos capital, although
nobody knows exactly how many. An increasing number of people worldwide are moving
to cities like this they are growing at breakneck speed. More people, more cars for individuals, this means less and less space to live, less air to breath. The pressing problems of
the worlds mega-cities are presenting city planners and architects with completely new
challenges and the same applies to auto makers. In order to understand these problems,
you have to see with the eyes of a city, says Saskia Sassen, the renowned sociologist from
Columbia University, New York.


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Ricky Hudi, Head of Development, Electrics/Electronics AUDI AG


* until january 2012

Experience the Audi Urban Future Summit.

Roads turn into walkways, then into flower beds and then back again the surface of a city as a chameleon?
Imagine 20 years from now that the entire surface area of the city, its roads and walkways,
curbstones and flowerbeds along the roadside, all its signposts are exchanged for a new digital and elastic
surface area. It can change continuously to fit life on the streets. The space between buildings
can adapt to suit the new, flowing form of transportation.
Andreas Klok Pedersen, Architect

percent of energy
is consumed by
the worlds cities.


Few automakers are actually prepared to adopt this perspective, because addressing the problems of the urban future demands a new way of thinking. Rupert Stadler,
Chairman of the Board of Management of AUDI AG considers the city of the future: There
are currently seven billion people on earth living, working, eating, driving 70 percent
in so-called mega-cities. I ask myself: What are the urgent problems facing these cities?
What energies change a city? To find answers to these questions, the automaker founded
the Audi Urban Future Summit. It is one pillar of the Audi Urban Future Initiative, which
has become a fixed element of Audi as a company.
The summit is a symposium, a forum on the topic of future urban mobility. It
took place for the first time during the lead up to the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show. Topranking experts from architecture, city planning, trend research and computer science
discussed their visions of these cities and of future mobility. And all 450 guests in the
audience were able to join the discussion.

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percent of
CO emissions are
generated in
the worlds cities.


A whole lot of brainpower came together at the Audi Urban Future Summit,
said engineer and architect Carlo Ratti, one of the speakers at the event. Brainpower from
very diverse disciplines. Rupert Stadler underlined how important this multi-disciplinary
dialogue is for Audi: We understand that Audi cannot answer the question of mobility in
the city of the future on its own. No company, no city planner and no government can do
that. We must network. We must enter new cooperations, this time with players from the
urban environment.
Each one of the experts at the summit used the platform to present their vision
of mobility in the cities of the future and to open them up for discussion. The questions
posed by the experts functioned like a window to the future. Will we drive ourselves in
future? What does it mean for the driver, when he/she hands over the steering wheel to a
digital system, when cars drive autonomously and are constantly networked? How can we
work with decreasing resources, space and time? Must we rethink the concept of sharing
and take it much farther?
As varied as the approaches of the summit experts were, they were all united on
one issue there can be no single solution for mobility in the cities of the future. There will
be many different models, as varied as the cities of the world. The path to these solutions
will be defined by the cities themselves they are speaking to us. The city talks back, said
Saskia Sassen in her opening address. And Audi is listening and learning.

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Experience the Audi A1 e-tron in action.

1 Designed specifically for the job

the instruments.
2 Enthusiastic A1 e-tron driver
Christian Thomaschefsky at the wheel.


Electric cars on fleet test
The first 20 Audi A1 e-trons have been driving through
Munich since September. They are part of a test fleet used by Audi to research
how its customers handle electric cars.


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Anyone who pays attention to their fuel consumption

in a regular car will have no problem working with electricity.

Christian Thomaschefsky
A1 e-tron tester

Range with
range extender

Range with


A car that feels at home in the city

the Audi A1 e-tron at the Siegestor in Munich.

Daniel Schuster

Stefan Warter

Its 5.3 kilometers to the Viktualienmarkt, almost 20 to the

Riem shopping mall and around 35 to Terminal 2 of
Munich Airport for the past two weeks, Stefanie
Ostermayer has been counting every kilometer when
she climbs into her glacier white Audi A1. She is a test
driver in Audis electromobility fleet test. Like 19 other
testers, she is driving an electric prototype, the Audi A1
e-tron, for several months.
Audi is looking forward to gaining a lot of
information from the fleet test on how people handle
the new drive technology. The objective is to learn more
about the behavior, as well as the expectations of the
customer. For Stefanie Ostermayer, the silent ride is a
completely new driving experience. She notices it especially in the morning, when things are still relatively
quiet in Munichs Schwabing district.

1 The range of the e-tron

the range extender multiplies the range.
Arrival is guaranteed.
2 Power source the city works
department has installed a charging infrastructure in Munich.


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The Audi e-tron is parked in a small underground parking lot across the street from Ostermayers
apartment. From the outside, it looks virtually identical
to its series-production sibling, only the lettering on
the side and the absence of an exhaust pipe at the rear
give it away as an electric car. Ostermayer climbs in and
pushes the start button. The instruments light up and
a quiet hum is audible. Thats all, and the A1 e-tron is
ready to drive. It glides out of the parking garage and
onto the road with virtually no sound into the daily
hustle and bustle of the city, heading for Riem, where
the business studies graduate works. Once there, the
car can be connected once more to a charging station.
The charging infrastructure necessary for
the fleet test was installed in Munich by project partners. E.ON handled mainly the more outlying areas,
while the Works Department of Munich City dealt with
the Bavarian capital itself. Overall, the two energy providers installed around 100 charging points each. All
are fed with eco-electricity generated from renewable
energy sources an important aspect. At the end of the
day, Audi doesnt want to transfer the CO emissions to
electricity production, but rather reduce it in a sustainable manner. The project is being supported by the
German Ministry of Transport as part of the Modellregion Elektromobilit Mnchen program, a largescale real-life test in which Christian Thomaschefsky is
also participating.

The planning was a little unfamiliar at first.

But once you rethink things, it works very well.

Stefanie Ostermayer
A1 e-tron tester

Modern automobile the Audi A1 e-tron is urban,

intelligent and forward-looking.

Thomaschefsky has been driving the A1

e-tron since September and is totally enamored. Together with his girlfriend, the economist underwent
training for the fleet test, as did all the other test
drivers after all, this is a prototype with a highvoltage system. Alongside a practical introduction,
there was also a theoretical briefing on the technology and system. How is the A1 e-tron operated?
Where is the vehicle charged? And what do you do
in the event of an accident? If he has questions or
problems, Thomaschefsky can call the hotline number set up specifically for the project at any time.
A data logger in the car gathers all the important figures. When and where is the car charged?
Which routes and distances are covered? This is supplemented by questionnaires, monitoring labs and group
discussions with the participants. All 20 testers first
spent several weeks driving the A1 with an internal
combustion engine before they were then able to take
to the wheel of the A1 e-tron with electric drive. This
way, Audi gains more detailed information on whether
the customer behaves differently when driving an electric car than one with a conventional drive.

1 Day trip the range extender facilitates

longer journeys, too.
2 Business vehicle the A1 e-tron has become
part of Thomaschefskys everyday life.


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Thomaschefsky had no real difficulty adapting to the change. He drives short distances completely as usual, even enjoying some occasional bursts of
very sporty driving. When driving in the city, he is a little
more careful, accelerating more modestly and using
the recuperation* function by braking with the electric
motor to charge the battery. For him, this is not difficult at all. Anyone who pays attention to fuel consumption can do it with electricity, too, is his opinion.
And when the energy in the battery is insufficient, there
is always the range extender*.
When required, the battery of the 75 kW
(102 hp) Audi A1 e-tron can be charged by a compact
internal combustion engine in the rear of the car. This
range extender charges the battery while driving and
increases the range to up to 250 kilometers. The battery takes the form of a pack of lithium-ion modules
integrated within the floor assembly in front of the rear
axle. The A1 e-tron is a premium vehicle with four seats
and a fully usable luggage compartment conceived for
use in urban areas.
The adjustment was no problem for Ostermeyer either. It was just the route planning that was
a little unfamiliar at first, she explains to a curious
passer-by as she plugs her A1 into the charging station.
You have to rethink things a little, but then it works
very well. The only thing that still seems a little difficult is the search for a charging station. In contrast to
fuel stations, very few passers-by know where the nearest charging point is. However, help is at hand in the
form of an app, which displays all the electricity charging points installed by E.ON and the Munich City Works
Department. There are no less than 20 in the city center
inside the middle ring road.

* See glossary, p. 142


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Audi A1 e-tron
Peak power / continuous rating

75 kW (102 hp) / 45 kW (61 hp)

Max. torque

240 Nm

Energy, lithium-ion battery

12 kWh

Range extender

single-rotor Wankel engine

0100 km/h

10.2 s

Top speed

130 km/h


1.9 l/100 km*

CO emissions

45 g/km*

Range with battery

ca. 50 km

Range with range extender

ca. 250 km

*In accordance with standards set for range extender vehicles

The app also serves as an interface between

the project partners, the testers and the A1. If required,
it shows the battery charge status, the location of the
car and a wide range of other useful information. The
pre-heating of the interior via the external power connection can also be initiated via the app, as can the vehicle charging itself. When using high-voltage current,
the message that the A1 e-tron is charged is sent to the
cell phone just 1.5 hours later and after around three
hours using a normal outlet.
With a full battery, Ostermayer heads back
into the city in the early afternoon to do some grocery
shopping at the Viktualienmarkt. The people seem interested when the electric car glides silently by, and
there are always questions. Ostermayer is used to it
from friends and neighbors. Everyone wants to come
along for the ride to experience the new feeling. There
is no shortage of positive feedback, but the issue of
range gives rise to a certain degree of uncertainty. It
depends what you want to use the electric car for,
is Ostermayers standard response. She, too, has
switched to an Audi with a conventional TDI or TFSI
drive for a longer weekend trip. However, for everyday
driving, the range of the e-tron is plenty something
she intends to emphasize in the debriefing at the end
of the test.

1 Shopping cart the A1 e-tron on a

visit to the Viktualienmarkt.
The trunk offers plenty of space.
2 Experience in everyday life
the compact Audi is an urban all-rounder.


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For Audi and the other project partners, this

is an important signal, as this issue still comes with a
great many unanswered questions. Which vehicle concept does the customer really need? Is an e-tron being
used as a first or second vehicle? User behavior when
it comes to charging and range will be particularly important for future development work. From a statistical standpoint, a range of 50 kilometers is more than
enough. However, will customers also understand that
a limited range doesnt have to restrict them especially as the range extender is a reliable way to avoid
being stranded? The fleet test should yield results.
Until then, Ostermayer and Thomaschefsky will be
among the very few exotics on the roads driving toward
shaping the future.



Among Audis greatest strengths is the expertise of every single one of its employees.
It forms the basis for perfection and innovation.

54 Wired for Action

60 Weight Watchers
66 Networker
72 The Strong Silent Type
78 Light Work
84 Simply Red
86 Magazine
88 Made-to-measure
96 The Layered Look
98 Better by Half
106 Print Preview
112 Change Extender

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Technology model the chassis of the

Audi R8 e-tron minus steering column and with
electromechanical brakes.

by-wire technology
When the transmission of steering, braking and shift
commands is carried out via cable, mechanical and hydraulic components
can be dispensed with. Audi is researching by-wire technology.

Wired for


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Electric motors on the steering box and at the
steering wheel replace the steering column.

In the technology model, an electromechanical
system implements the drivers commands.


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Johannes Kbler

Myrzik und Jarisch

Aluminum wishbones, electric motors front

and rear, bundled hi-tech in 1:1 scale the
technology model looks highly attractive. The most interesting
aspects of the Audi R8 e-trons chassis are those parts that are
absent the steering column, brakes on the rear wheels, the braking hydraulics and shifting mechanism. The term by-wire means
that we replace mechanical and hydraulic components with electrical and mechatronic parts, thus separating the force and signal
paths from one another, says Peter Kunsch, Head of Advanced
Chassis Development, who is responsible for this particular discipline. When we only have to transmit signals, by wire if you will, a
whole host of opportunities are opened up to us. The A2 concept,
the show car unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show, was
equipped with this futuristic technology. And in the latest project
the technology model based on the R8 e-tron the steering,
brakes and gear selection function electrically.
Steering using by-wire technology is very simple in
principle, says Tilo Koch, who is a specialist in this field. A sensor
on the steering wheel recognizes the turning movement; an electric
motor on the steering box generates the necessary force and sends
it to the track rods. At the steering wheel, a small electric motor
generates the feedback familiar to the driver.
The sensitive Audi steering feel remains the same or
is even better just the unwanted vibrations from the drive and
road surface are eliminated, explains Koch. At the push of a button, the driver can select from a variety of steering ratios and setups, from comfortable to sporty. Networked with other systems,
steer-by-wire can carry out a great many correction and assistance
functions, some of which are brand new.

Steer-by-wire opens up a host of new packaging options and makes it possible, for instance, to place the steering
box in front of a transversely mounted engine. If required, the
steering wheel can also retract into the cockpit, easing vehicle
entry and exit and improving safety in the event of a front-end
collision. In the cockpit, the elimination of the steering column
delivers more space for components like air conditioning and
gives designers greater freedom when it comes to interior design.
According to Koch, European legislation presents no fundamental hurdles to steer-by-wire. At its core, it requires only self-centering and the assurance that certain steering maneuvers remain
possible in the event of a system failure how the manufacturer
achieves that is its own business.
In brake-by-wire technology, Christian Balnus area of
expertise, there are a completely different set of conceptual models. Of particular interest to Audi are electromechanical wheel
brakes, as on the front axle of the technology model. In these socalled spindle brakes, electrically actuated ball screws push the
friction pads at high-speed onto the carbon-fiber ceramic brake
discs. Wheel brakes are not required at the rear axle. The two large
electric motors at the rear function as generators under deceleration, explains Balnus. At the rear axle, which receives relatively
little braking force in any car, this is more than sufficient.
Electromechanical brakes ease component packaging
at the front of the vehicle because bulky and heavy hydraulic parts
become superfluous. Inside the car, the stiff brake pedal could give
way to a small lever or a sensor surface beneath the carpet on which
forces are simulated.Both solutions have a positive effect in the
event of a collision.
For the customer, the new technology means rapid
feedback and precise control in the interaction with the chassis
and assistance systems in particular this can mean an increase in
safety. In electric vehicles like the R8 e-tron, an electromechanical
system enables perfect crossfade between energy recovery and
mechanical braking. Legislation is not a problem here either cars
with electromechanical wheel brakes are road-legal as long as the
power supply is set up with system redundancy.
The subject of shift-by-wire, which is the specialist
field of Thomas Guttenberger, features heavily in the R8 e-tron.
The electrically driven high-performance sports car requires only
single speed transmissions. The shift lever serves purely for the
selection of driving modes R, N and D. Audi has enormous experience in this field of technology the A2 1.2 TDI from 2001 used
an automated manual transmission, with its hydraulic unit taking its commands from electrical signals. A similar principle applies to the R tronic in the Audi R8 and to the eight-speed tiptronic in the flagship A8. Shift-by-wire provides an excellent basis
for future assistance technologies like automated parking and
piloted driving*.

1 Steer-by-wire an electric motor on the steering

box generates the forces.


2 Brake-by-wire so-called spindle brakes operate

on the front axle.

On the technology model, gear selection is

handled by electric signals alone.


3 Head of Advanced Chassis Development

Peter Kunsch works on the by-wire technology.


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* See glossary, p. 142


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CFRP in the cell

CFRP components have a 17-percent
share. They give the occupant cell a high
degree of safety and stiffness.


New bodyshells using mixed materials
For Audi, lightweight design means
the minimum material in the right place for the best performance. It is under this premise that engineers
are working on the new Multimaterial Space Frame.

Aluminum dominates
At 83 percent, aluminum remains
the dominant material in the
experimental bodyshell of the R8.



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We work in close collaboration with

our colleagues in production.
That is one of our particular strengths.

Peter Fromm
Head of Development, Vehicle Body AUDI AG

Highly precise the CFRP woven

mats are cut to shape on computercontrolled equipment.

Johannes Kbler

Stefan Warter

If you are at the very top of the competition,

it is not enough simply to defend your lead.
You must strive to extend that lead, which means treading new
paths. Peter Fromm knows this particular challenge very well. As
Head of Development, Vehicle Body, his responsibilities include
aerodynamics, bodyshell and interior at AUDI AG, as well as vehicle
body module management for the Volkswagen Group.
Audi has held the leading position in lightweight design
for almost 20 years aluminum bodyshells built using the ASF
(Audi Space Frame) technique have been setting the benchmark
since 1994. The ASF principle reduces weight against comparable
steel bodyshells by around 40 percent and has a technical elegance
that gives engineers a great deal of freedom. The jobs of the body
shell components the extruded profile, the cast nodes and the
aluminum panels are quite distinct from each other. Each component has its own function.
Audi engineers are now venturing onto the next level
the intelligent material mix. The new Multimaterial Space Frame
can take very different forms. In the A6 and A6 Avant, for instance,
the steel bodyshells contain a high proportion of aluminum and a
series of design solutions from ASF technology. In the high-performance sports cars, on the other hand, carbon-fiber reinforced
polymer (CFRP) will play an important role in future.


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Peter Fromm demonstrates the new technology on an

ASF bodyshell from the current R8, which already features technology from the next generation. It stands in the FRP Technology
Center (FRP = Fiber Reinforced Polymer), a think tank within the
Audi Lightweight Design Center in Neckarsulm that was established in 2010. The front end of the R8 is built, as before, using
aluminum. The inside of the passenger cabin, however, is dominated by dark gray parts of the floor and sills, the center tunnel,
the rear bulkhead, the B-pillars and the X-shaped strut in the engine compartment are made from CFRP.
The new material makes up 17 percent of the bodyshell;
14 CFRP components replace four times as many aluminum parts.
Self-tapping stainless steel screws join the aluminum and CFRP
components together, with adhesive and fine-seam sealant protecting the contact points from corrosion.
It is a wonderful technology showcase, enthuses
Peter Fromm. At 210 kilograms, the current R8 is already a benchmark for the competition. The next generation will be below the
200 kilogram mark, despite improvements in stiffness and crash
safety. We use the CFRP parts where they make the most sense. The
rear bulkhead, for example, offers excellent protection in the event
of a side impact because its fibers have been laid exactly in the direction of load. In principle, according to Fromm, Audi can use its
intelligent material mix to realize bodyshells that are just as light,
or even lighter, than a pure CFRP occupant cell. And when it comes
to the overall energy footprint and cost to the customer, they are
definitely far superior.
For Audi, lightweight design does not mean a rigid
fixation on any one material, but rather the intelligent, flexible
application of a diverse range of materials under the premise of
using the least material in the ideal location to achieve the best
performance. The engineers have gathered a broad range of expertise in all the technical fields, resulting in a constant stream of new
innovations. Examples include ultra-light suspension-strut domes
made from pressure-cast magnesium, high-strength aluminum
alloys and parts from thin-wall pressure-cast aluminum with a
wall-thickness measuring just 2 millimeters. On the A-pillars in the
A8 luxury sedan, for instance, it reduces the weight by 1.5 kilograms to 2.5 kilograms.

* See glossary, p. 142


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Functional integration through CFRP parts
The 14 parts made from carbon-fiber
reinforced polymer replace more than 50
aluminum components.

Machine technology RTM press, CFRP cutting

equipment the Technical Center in Neckarsulm is
perfectly equipped.

1 Strong backbone the center tunnel is

made entirely from CFRP.
2 Highly complex the B-pillars demonstrate
the geometries facilitated by CFRP.


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Alongside the leading development know-how at Audi

is its wide-ranging expertise in manufacturing. We work closely
together as a team and are involved in an ongoing exchange of
ideas, explains Peter Fromm. We discuss process technology,
tooling technology and bonding technology like new welding solutions. And we will soon begin to cast aluminum parts ourselves at
a new plant near Ingolstadt.
Sound processes and lean production is a fundamental
requirement at Audi that also applies to CFRP. In the Neckarsulm
Lightweight Design Center is an RTM press (RTM = Resin Transfer
Molding) with a press force of up to 1,000 tonnes. Its raw material
takes the form of several layers of precisely cut CFRP woven mat.
Epoxy resin is injected into the heated tool at a pressure of up to
100 bars. This matrix cures under heat and pressure, and eight
minutes later a B-pillar is finished.
This is too long for series production, says Fromm.
We can get that down to four minutes if we optimize the flow
characteristics of the resin in the tool. We are working on that ourselves, supported by our partner Voith. We are striving to achieve
a better ratio of CFRP fiber to resin without compromising the performance of the part. The current ratio is around 50:50, we want
to get to 60:40.
Audi reversed the weight spiral years ago by systematically applying lightweight design in future, every new model
will be lighter than its predecessor, some of them much lighter. The
180 engineers in the ALZ* in Neckarsulm are buzzing with projects
and ideas. One of them is a matrix in which carbon is combined with
other fibers, including natural fibers. Another is so-called OLAS

waves (OLAS = oscillating laminated absorbing structures). With

their wave-shaped structure, they can absorb vast amounts of energy over a very short distance and thus replace the load-bearing
beams used in current vehicle structures.
In intelligent lightweight design, Audi engineers
have a firm eye not only on the scales, but also on the overall energy footprint. This is why they are conducting research into lowenergy bodyshells made largely from secondary metals. In the
medium term, they are even considering innovative concepts for
the manufacture of epoxy resin and CFRP fibers using cellulose as
a base material. If you want to extend your lead you have to tread
new paths.


* See glossary, p. 142

Encounter Technology

Experience the new assistance systems.

Johannes Kbler

Stefan Warter

The new driver assistance systems
Audi assistance systems are already making
driving more relaxed and refined. The systems of the
future will be even smarter, more extensive and more powerful.


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Traffic Jam Assistant

Easing the load

the traffic jam
assistant is active
when driving is
no fun.


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For intersections
The intersection assistant has been specially developed to avoid
collisions at intersections or to mitigate their consequences.
Two radar sensors and a wide-angle video camera capture the
area in front of the vehicle and along its sides. The radar data
plays the main role, with the camera data serving as verification.
If the sensors identify a vehicle approaching from the side, the
system issues warnings and information on several levels.
As a further development of the sensor-supported
intersection assistant, Audi is investigating a second variant
based on car-to-x communication* on the radio contact between the two possible parties to an accident. At intersections
known to be accident black-spots, it would also be conceivable
to install a permanent modem that takes into account the status
of the traffic signal.
Car-to-x technology has a number of benefits it
functions at intersections where sensor visibility is restricted,
can cover large distances and transmit vehicle-specific information. The deployment of the airbags, for example, could be
based specifically on the mass of the other party.

Anticipatory pedestrian protection

in an ideal situation,
Pre sense city can
avoid a collision altogether.

Active Emergency Brake

Protection at higher speed
For automatic emergency braking at speeds above 65 km/h, Audi
is developing a further extension of the Pre sense system*. At
its heart is a laser scanner the particular strengths of this tech
nology lie in its ability to see long distances, its high precision
and its wide included angle. The laser also scans the area along
the sides of the vehicle and can thus identify structures at the
side of the road. If there is an obstacle in front of the vehicle
like the end of a traffic jam the system can assess whether the
driver is able to avoid a collision.
If an avoidance maneuver is no longer possible, the
system issues an early warning and, if necessary, applies the
emergency brakes. The strategy enables it to reduce speed quite
significantly and thus considerably reduce the severity of the
accident. It can also help in situations where the driver is unable
to react himself due to a medical emergency. In certain scenarios, it is feasible that a braking maneuver initiated by the
system will be able to avoid an accident altogether, even from a
high initial speed.

Pre sense city

Protection in city traffic
Under threat of a rear end collision many Audi models can
already brake automatically in the last few meters if the driver
is no longer in a position to take action himself. The brands engineers are developing this function further.
Automatic emergency braking in city traffic, known
as Pre sense city* is based on a new kind of sensor technology
derived from development work in which Audi was heavily involved. The PMD sensor (PMD = Photo Mix Detector) is a tiny chip
that can take three-dimensional measurements and thus operate with far greater precision than conventional sensors. It can
recognize both driving and stationary targets and remains active
in the dark, rain or strong sunlight.
Under threat of a rear end collision at speeds of up
to 65 km/h, Pre sense city warns the driver with a short braking
impulse. If he does not react, the system applies the full force
of the brakes around one second prior to impact, thus lowering
the collision speed by up to 30 km/h.
Another important function is anticipatory pedestrian protection; the PMD sensor recognizes them at a distance
of up to 20 meters. If it identifies a risky situation, the system
decides whether an emergency braking maneuver is necessary.
If so, full braking also ideally occurs around one second prior to
impact. The maximum possible speed reduction of 30 km/h
means that, in some cases, the car can even come to a halt in
time. The anticipatory Pre sense technology* also provides very
good protection for cyclists.

* See glossary, p. 142

Active Belt Buckle

Illustrations: sxces Communication

For slow-moving traffic

The traffic jam assistant can take the load off the driver when
driving is not exactly a pleasure, like in slow-moving traffic
for instance. At speeds of between zero and 60 km/h, the system provides steering assistance within certain limits. It also
accelerates and decelerates autonomously. It can be used on
highways and in the city, too, when the road layout is not too
The traffic jam assistant is based on the adaptive
cruise control with Stop & Go function expanded with new lateral guidance components. Two radar sensors capture wedgeshaped fields of 21 degrees each and to a distance of 250 meters. A video camera with a wide aperture monitors the road
markings; it can also recognize objects like other vehicles, pedestrians and crash barriers. Eight ultrasound sensors monitor
the zones directly in front of the car and at its corners.
When the ACC* Stop & Go is switched on, the traffic
jam assistant continuously evaluates the speed of the car and of
those in the immediate vicinity. If it detects from the data a
traffic jam at speeds of less than 60 km/h, the driver can activate
the function at the push of a button.
The corridor in which the traffic jam assistant moves
the car is considerably broader than the lane between the lines,
enabling a degree of offset to the car in front. If it is necessary
to form a rescue lane or drive around an obstacle, the system
follows the path of the car in front. The radar sensors recognize
not only the vehicle in front, but also other cars in front of it,
enabling the system to calculate a convoy route. When pulling
away and decelerating, the traffic jam assistant behaves like the
ACC Stop & Go and reacts to vehicles that cut in or leave the lane.

Intersection Assistant

New solutions for restraint systems

Audi is also working continuously on the development of restraint systems. One new feature could be active belt buckles
for rear-seat passengers operated via small electric motors.
When the rear door is opened, the active belt buckle rises a few
centimeters, enabling the passenger to fasten the belt with
ease before it then retracts to its resting position. Under threat
of a collision, it retracts a little further, thus tightening the
belt. This sequence is reversible.
As a general principle, Audi wants to network the
adaptive restraint system more closely with its new assistance
technologies. Forward-looking sensors like PMD diodes* can
detect an imminent collision usually several seconds before it
occurs, and at the same time assess the speed and size of the
other party. The activation of the adaptive belt force limiter and
the adaptive front airbags then occurs in accordance with this


Encounter Technology

Radio contact
using car-to-x
vehicles can warn
each other
at intersections.

Piloted Parking
More comfort in everyday use
Narrow perpendicular parking spots, garages with bicycles in
them often things get so tight that the driver has trouble getting out of the car. The Parkpilot could solve these problems.
With the technology that is currently installed in an
Audi prototype, the driver can leave the car in front of the garage
and issue the instruction to park itself via remote control key or
smartphone. The car steers itself with the help of its ultrasound
sensors into the parking space or garage. If it identifies obstacles, it comes to an immediate stop. When it reaches its end
position, it switches off the engine, deactivates the ignition and
locks the doors. Finally, it sends a confirmation to the driver.

Warning when opening doors

Warning, cyclist
the radar sensors
monitor the road behind the car.
the driver sends
the car into the
garage at the touch
of a button.

More safety on exiting the car

The exit warning, too, makes use of the Audi side assist radar
sensors it is a major help when exiting the car in situations of
poor visibility. When the driver or a passenger wants to open
the door, the sensors check whether another vehicle or cyclist
approaching from behind is dangerously close and traveling at
a critical speed.
The warning issued in this situation can be a bright
light in the door, accompanied by an acoustic signal. Tactile
warnings are also being investigated like all assistance systems of the future, Audi will decide on the correct solution at
the appropriate time.

other vehicles
the system warns
of danger when
opening the door.

Getting out of a parking spot the car

maneuvers itself back
out again.

Accident avoidance
In the ongoing development of driver assistance systems, Audi is pursuing a major target
a car so intelligent that it can avoid accidents altogether.

Illustrations: sxces Communication

Warning when reversing

out of parking space


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Merging into traffic

Reversing out of a parking spot can often be tricky when the driver cannot see the traffic flow behind him, he has to edge his way
carefully into the road. The warning when reversing out of a parking
space, another solution from Audi, makes this process easier.
The system uses the two radar sensors from Audi side
assist at the back of the vehicle. They measure and interpret the
distance, the speed and the predicted route of the vehicles crossing
behind. Any forecast risk of collision is displayed to the driver.


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The Strong Silent Type

Acoustic technology combats annoying noise
In the interest of efficiency, the new 4.0 TFSI from Audi
runs some of the time on four cylinders. Two sophisticated technologies keep annoying noise and vibration away from the passengers.

Active noise control the ANC in the Audi S7 Sportback

cancels out annoying noise using counter-sound (see graphic above).
The result is an acoustically peaceful interior (below).


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Encounter Technology

Johannes Kbler

Stefan Warter

A drive in the new Audi S8 is a joy for all the

senses, and that includes the ears. Under
moderate acceleration, the powerful 4.0 TFSI with its 382 kW (520
hp) runs extremely quietly even though, for some of the time, only
four of its eight cylinders are active. The driver is informed about
cylinder deactivation via a text display in the instrument panel it
is certainly nothing that can be heard.
Audis new cylinder-on-demand technology reduces
the fuel consumption of the biturbo V8 in the NEDC* by around five
percent, and by even more in many everyday situations. Under low
load, it is active between 960 and 3,500 r/min. This broad span
could only be realized because Audi has implemented a sophisticated array of acoustic initiatives in its new large S models they
prevent annoying noise and vibrations generated during V4 operation from being heard or felt in the interior. Resulting from the
main exciters of the second engine order and their multiples, they
lie in the frequency range between 32 and around 233 Hertz.
All vibrations generated by a car engine make their way
along various paths into the interior. Some are transmitted directly through the air while some are conveyed through the bodyshell
as structure-borne sound via the engine mounts and the fixtures
for the steering wheel, prop shaft, axle shafts and exhaust system.
Radiated by the panels, this structure-borne sound becomes audible in the interior as indirect airborne noise.
The transmission path from the engine mounts is where
the work begins for Torsten Kolkhorst, Stephan Rmling and Stefan
Vollmann. It comes from a wealth of experience Audi has long
held the philosophy of mounting its engines in a manner that delivers sporty stiffness and comfort at the same time. The 1977 Audi
100 was the first car in the world to be equipped with hydraulic
mounts; the 1989 Audi 100 TDI saw the debut of a further innovation in the form of switchable hydraulic mounts, as still used today
in many models. When the engine is idling, they eliminate annoying
vibrations with gentle characteristics; the degree of damping increases while driving in order to suppress driveline vibrations.

In the new Audi S8, the engine and transmission are

mounted at five points on three transmission mounts, two of
which are switchable, and the two new active engine mounts. Cast
aluminum supports are used, which are both lightweight and extremely stiff.
The Audi technology for this type of active engine
mount is another world first. It takes advantage of a fundamental principle of physics that of destructive interference. When two
waves of the same frequency are overlaid, they cancel out each
others amplitudes as long as the amplitudes are the same and
the phases are offset by 180 degrees.
At the heart of the active engine mount is an electromagnetic vibrating coil actuator* with a 60 Watt output that operates like a loudspeaker. Its rapid movements up to 1 millimeter
of lift between 25 and 250 Hertz are transmitted via a rubber
membrane into the mounts hydraulic fluid, which also absorbs
the engine vibrations. Within the fluid, the vibrations overlay one
another and cancel each other out. The outcome is peace and calm
at the support fixing point.
The control unit for the active engine mount receives
its information from two sources, as Stephan Rmling explains.
The crankshaft sensor delivers information on engine speed,
from which the software calculates the precise phase and frequency required from the actuator signal. We have placed accelerometers on the engine mounts themselves. They provide the data
that determine the required amplitude, thus creating a closed
control circuit.
Despite the active mounts, there is still plenty of engine
noise coming into the interior of the S8 the rest of the indirect
airborne noise, the direct airborne noise generated by combustion
in the engine and the intake and exhaust port noise. Here in the
interior, Audi eliminates the annoying frequency components
in V4 operation with a second new technology, Active noise control

Active engine mounts

Vibrating coil actuator counters


Fluid chamber
Membrane ring
Permanent magnet


Components Stefan Vollmann

(above) presents the engine mount,
Stephan Rmling the control unit.

Active noise


Encounter Technology

Technical showpiece
Torsten Kolkhorst with a cutaway
model of the active mount.

Cutaway model

Without ANC annoying noise in V4 operation is

found primarily in the front part of the interior.

* See glossary, p. 142


Encounter Technology

Without ANC annoying noises in
four-cylinder operation appear in red.

With ANC the entire interior of the
Audi S7 Sportback is acoustically calmed.

Measurement Detlef Kosanke with an Audi S7

Sportback on the noise test bed.

Detail work Marc Burghardt installing

measuring equipment in the interior.

ANC, the specialty of Marc Burghardt, Detlef Kosanke

and Dr. Erich Steinacker also functions on the principle of noise
cancellation. Burghardt explains the technology: We have built
four microphones into the headliner. Each of them logs the sound
base in its area. The control unit uses these signals to calculate a
spatial sound field. It also receives key information about engine
speed from the crankshaft sensor. In all zones in which annoying
noise is detected, it plays a suitable counter-noise via the amplifier
of the sound system. It is transmitted via the four woofers in the
doors and via the sub-woofer in the parcel shelf.
Active noise control functions in the zone between 32
and 243 Hertz. The calming effect achieved is the same throughout
the interior regardless of where a passenger sits, and whether he/
she bends over or leans to the side. This guarantees that the control
remains stable in all situations and can react quickly to changes.
The ANC is always active whether the sound system is switched
on or off, or the volume turned up or down. Not until a passenger
opens a door does it switch off.
The greatest challenge for the Active noise control
and for the active engine mounts, too is in the switching process
that transforms the 4.0 TFSI back from four to eight-cylinder operation. This is where both technologies have to function particu-


Encounter Technology

The professionals of silence

(from l to r) Detlef Kosanke, Dr. Erich Steinacker
and Marc Burghardt in the sound lab.

larly quickly and precisely. A more straightforward task, on the

other hand, is presented by idling. Here and under higher load
the engine always operates with all eight cylinders, where it produces fourth-order excitations. These, too, are compensated by the
two systems.
Active noise control and the active engine mounts are
just two of several new technologies that Audi is using to refine the
sound experience. A few models use a sound actuator located beneath the windshield. The structure-borne noise that it generates
is transmitted via the bodyshell and the windshield into the cabin,
intensifying the sporty engine sound. The new 3.0 TDI with 230 kW
(313 hp) is equipped with an active sound exhaust a loudspeaker
in a secondary exhaust line emits targeted sound waves. Using a
modulation process, it overlays typical exhaust sounds with a predefined vibration pattern, underscoring the power delivery of the
3.0 TDI Biturbo with a well-rounded sound base.

Active noise control

Elimination of
annoying frequencies


Encounter Technology

Intelligent Light

Audi continues to expand its leading role in
light technology. The A2 concept show car presents the latest
stage in the evolution intelligent lighting.

Light Work

Bright signal
when the Audi A2 concepts indicators are activated,
an entire band of light illuminates along the flank.


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Experience the innovative light technology of the Audi A2 concept in action.


Encounter Technology

A matter of safety
under braking, dynamic light sends
a red light frontward.


Encounter Technology


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dynamic light illuminates in pale blue
to greet the driver.

Christian Gnthner

Robin Wink

Teamwork Cesar Muntadas (right),

Head of Exterior Design Product Identity
and the Audi A2 concept design team.

The yellow light pulse runs along
the entire length of the vehicle.


Encounter Technology

As tiny as a grain of sand and almost invisible to the naked eye. Although it could easily be brushed aside with just one wave of the hand, it electrifies the
experts. You see, this tiny speck of material can generate more
white light from electrical energy than any other conventional light
source on the face of the earth a light-emitting diode. LEDs are
unbeatable in their efficiency, and now they are delivering even
more capabilities to Audi engineers dynamism and intelligence.
Audi was the first automaker in the world to recognize
the full potential of LED technology and to make it usable for vehicle development. The success story began in February 2005 at
the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, where Audi
presented the Pikes Peak quattro concept study. The full-size SUV,
which previewed the later Audi Q7, fascinated onlookers with fog
lamps equipped with high-performance light-emitting diodes.
Audi developed a whole new lighting concept from
this first use of LEDs at the very top of the evolution ladder is the
A2 concept. On its debut at the Frankfurt Auto Show, the show car
surprised visitors with a new LED feature its intelligent light.
In its headlamps and rear lights, the A2 concept presents the
ground-breaking Matrix Beam Technology. It also features Audi
dynamic light, a band of light that runs around all four sides of
the bodyshell. Development engineers and designers used it to
achieve the very first 360-degree light experience.
When seen in the rear view mirror, the A2 concept is,
like every Audi, immediately recognizable. The daytime running
light is designed as an open-top figure with a dynamic flow that
runs inward, is how Cesar Muntada, Head of Exterior Design for
Product Identity, describes the eyes of the A2 concept. The Matrix
Beam light, made from a bundle of small LEDS arranged on top of
one another, provides optimum road illumination in bends and at
intersections. It also interacts with other road users in the face of
oncoming traffic it adapts the beam and reduces luminosity by
switching off individual parts of the high beam.
The rear lights, too, have been structured intelligently
like the Matrix Beam Technology, adapting their luminosity to suit
the prevailing conditions. Via a sensor, the system recognizes the
quality of visibility; in the event of heavy rain or fog it increases
brightness. This has the effect of avoiding that the vehicle behind
follows too closely because the driver doesnt want to lose sight of
the barely visible lights of the vehicle in front. The rear fog lamps
also have a brand new feature for bad weather conditions, explains
Muntada. Their five laser lights hit water particles in the air to
create a red triangle a clearly visible warning.
While the Matrix Beam is subtly integrated into the
headlamps, the Audi dynamic light is positioned directly beneath
the tornado line and immediately apparent at first glance. The band
of light, just a few centimeters high and black when in standby
mode, provides an intelligent connection between the front and
rear lights. The dynamic light underscores the lines of the Audi A2
concept and adds to its sporty character.


Encounter Technology

The band of light makes contact with the driver even

before he steps in when he approaches the A2 concept it is activated on recognition of the approaching key and glows in a subtle
shade of blue. When the driver comes a few steps closer, the light
gathers around the door handles, which are recessed into the body.
Cesar Muntada is certain that this idea offers major benefits, especially at night. A short hand movement, a light swipe across the
light is all it takes to unlock the car like with a smartphone. The
door handles fold out and the driver can simply open the door as
The visual continues in the interior the Audi dynamic
light runs in two separate arcs from the doors to the cockpit area.
On entry it, too, illuminates in pale blue. As soon as the car is ready
to drive, the band of light switches off and the central display
changes. Despite the absence of engine sound due to the electric
drive the driver immediately recognizes that he can drive away.
Alongside the interaction with the driver, development
engineers placed a great deal of emphasis on intelligent solutions
in road traffic. The technologies of Audi connect facilitate contact
with other vehicles, while sensors evaluate the area around the A2
concept in order to identify other individuals, such as cyclists or
pedestrians. Audi dynamic light plays a key role in this concept, too.
Our new light communicates with the environment of
the car and makes driving safer with a range of different functions,
explains Muntada, who was born in Spain and has worked for Audi
since 2007. When indicating or braking, the moving light travels
from front to back or vice versa depending on the function and remains visible to all road users. The more heavily the driver brakes,
the faster the red pulses in the band of light move from back to
front an important indicator for other road users, who can recognize immediately the extent of the deceleration.
When the driver of the A2 activates the indicator, a yellow pulse of light runs along the entire length of the vehicles flank,
showing in all directions where the driver intends to steer. Inside
the car, this feature is complemented by a warning light function
Audi dynamic light illuminates brightly when an object is in the
blind spot, thus warning against a risky lane change or turning
Cesar Muntada describes the character of the A2 concept thus, We had a range of new possibilities, not just on the
exterior, but in the interior, too. Thanks to by-wire technology,
i.e. fully electric steering and shifting, the steering column and
classic center console have become superfluous. That allowed us
to concentrate our design work on the key elements, the essence
of the car.
When the A2 concept enters series production it will be
equipped with dynamic light. With it, Audi will once more enrich
with new functions the role played by light. The brand brought LED
technology to the roads, making it a signature feature. Now, development engineers are making light even more intelligent and, as

a result, traffic even safer.

Simply Red

Johannes Kbler

Benjamin Maerzke

Ball of light
Audi development engineers have a host of ideas for
vehicle lighting. One of them is MID technology, which enables light sources
in any form imaginable.

An interview with Stephan Berlitz is something very special. The Head of Innovation
for Light Technology and Light Electronics at Audi is a man that
simply radiates with enthusiasm for his subject; that speaks with
true passion of new ideas and projects. Audi is the leading brand in
automotive lighting technology; Berlitz and his team want to expand this position even further.
One new technology from Audi bears the acronym MID;
it stands for moulded interconnected devices. The new components unlock the third dimension of lighting technology they
make it possible to develop and produce lights in any desired form.
MID technology is based on a new kind of polymer that
incorporates an organic metal complex compound. In the first step,
the desired form is created using an injection molding process. In
the second step, a laser traces the circuit diagram onto the workpiece, vaporizing the top layer of polymer. This exposes the Metalli
zation nuclei, which attract metals. The third step is the galvanizing
process where conductive paths are created; the layer is thick
enough to supply power to LEDs.
The first result of MID technology at Audi is a ball of
light around 15 centimeters in diameter. Doesnt it look great?
asks Stephan Berlitz. And it feels like a worry stone. Made from
two hemispheres with multiple perforations, the ball contains 52
LEDs. The new technology still has to prove itself under the kind of
loads it will be exposed to in a car. But Berlitz is already fired up
about the enormous freedom offered by the MID principle. Our
colleagues in design are having great fun with this.
Another field of technology being addressed by light
development engineers at Audi is OLED technology. The acronym
stands for organic light emitting diode. In contrast to current
LEDs, which are made from semi-conductor crystals, these use an
organic material. The paste-like substance is deposited in a superthin layer measurable in micrometers on an extremely flat surface.
When an electric current is applied, the molecules sealed into the
paste emit photons the surface illuminates. Depending on the
distribution of the current, this occurs homogenously, with a targeted effect of light and dark or with dynamic movement.

1 Historic the rear lights of a

DKW 3=6 Cabriolet. Classic lighting
technology of the 50s.
2 Futuristic the MID light orb,
made from a new kind of polymer,
contains 52 LEDs.


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Diesel from bacteria


Renewable energies are high on the list of

priorities in many fields of research. Of particular importance are regenerative fuels. At the Joint BioEnergy
Institute in California, microbes have been bred from
the Escherichia coli bacteria and yeast, producing
hydrocarbons from vegetable sugars. This compound
is similar to crude oil and represents an alternative
to diesel.
The first microbes that can produce biodiesel are currently undergoing a test phase, after
which they will be brought to market maturity.

Only those who look beyond their own

horizons can evaluate and build on their own progress.
Technology news from around the world.

For further information see

picture-allianc/dpa/Universitt Groningen

Escherichia-coli bacteria
produce hydrocarbons.

Nano quattro

For further information see


Encounter Technology

Fly, as light as a bird the SmartBird from

Festo can do this. Engineers at the manufacturer of
control and automation technology have managed to
decode the natural principle of flying. SmartBird is a
model based on the herring gull made from carbon
fiber and polyurethane foam. The bionic prototype can
take off on its own, fly and land without an additional
drive. When flying, SmartBirds wings beat not only
up and down, but also make specific rotary movements.
SmartBird is one meter long, has a wingspan of two meters and weighs 450 grams. In its rump
are a battery, motor and gearbox, as well as a cranking
mechanism and control electronics. This is lightweight
design taken to its natural conclusion.

Nano all-wheel drive electric car four motors are

fixed to one axle and serve as wheels.


One thousand times thinner than a human

hair, one hundred times lighter than polystyrene. Almost as light as air, and built like the Eiffel Tower the
worlds lightest metal structure. It can absorb thrusts
of energy and enormous pressure. Its regular mesh
structure makes it more durable than existing ultralight materials. Researchers compare this structure to
steel constructions such as the Eiffel Tower.
For its production, they coated a photopolymer template with a nickel-phosphorous alloy and then
etched the carrier polymer out the lightest metal
structure in the world is made from ultra-fine tubes. It
could be used for sound absorption or ultra-light electronics components.

For further information see

HRL Laboratories

A development team at Groningen University in Holland has built the smallest car in the
world. It is nothing more than a molecule that can drive
with the help of motors, a carrier and electricity. The
four motors that are mounted on the carrier serve as
driving wheels.
Nano comes from nannos the ancient
Greek word for dwarf, and refers to a billionth of a unit
of measurement. The tiny car measures just one nanometer and is therefore smaller than one 50,000th of
a strand of hair. The all-wheel-drive molecule drives
in a straight line along a copper surface, powered by
electricity from a microscope. For the development engineers, the nano-car is the foundation stone for research into complex molecular mechanical systems
with directionally controlled movement. Perhaps in
future this knowledge will lead to nano-machines being
able to carry out work on a molecular level.


The perfect combination of nature and technology:

The lightest metal structure in the world on a dandelion.
For further information see
Festo AG

Metal like air

Inspired by nature the SmartBird in action.


Encounter Technology

New operation and display concepts
Tomorrows world of operating controls is
packed with exciting possibilities. Audi is bringing them
into the car in a manner that eases the load on the driver,
not adds to it.
1 Contact analogue head-up display
the navigation arrow seems to lie on the road.
2 Freely programmable instrument panel
a high degree of flexibility for the preferred
display content.

3 Second screen in future, the content for driver

and passenger can be more clearly separated.

Johannes Kbler

Stefan Warter

The story is set in the near future. A man,

lets call him Mr. K., has flown from Munich
to Hamburg. At the rental car desk he is handed the key to the Audi
that he previously reserved on submitting his personal driver
profile. The car greets Mr. K. with exceptional politeness. The electrically adjustable drivers seat and steering wheel are positioned
for his body size, the climate control set to his preferences. The
navigation system suggests as a destination the company that Mr.
K. wants to visit. The audio system downloads his favorite music
from the data cloud on the internet and the MMI monitor shows
the news sources that he regularly reads.
The fully networked operating world of tomorrow is
packed with new possibilities. Audi engineers want to put them into
the car and in such a way that they take the load off the driver, not
add to it. Dr. Werner Hamberger, Head of Development, Operating
Concepts formulates the task thus: Operating a car should be intuitive and fun. Only then have we achieved our most important
target that the driver concentrates on driving, without distraction. This applies especially to online connections, something that
is increasingly important to our customers.

Many Audi technologies already make driving more relaxed and refined. They include the head-up display that allows the
driver to keep his eyes on the road at almost all times. All key information appears to float around two to three meters in front of the
windshield, directly in his field of vision.
The next generation of head-up display takes another
step forward it appears to position the displays in the real environment. Bernhard Senner, the Audi engineer responsible, explains:
When I have the navigation system switched on and approach an
intersection, I see the transparent direction arrow superimposed
exactly on the intersection. It is small to begin with, but gets bigger
when I come within 50 meters. It appears to come toward me, just
like the intersection. At 10 meters distance it looks as big as an
actual arrow on the road, and it stays that way.
So-called contact analogue head-up displays will be
able to do even more. In hilly landscapes, the navigation arrow
shows the direction that the road takes over the crest of the hill. If
the driver is traveling with adaptive cruise control, the distance to
the vehicle in front is clearly displayed. If the navigation system is
active and a pedestrian steps into the road, the system gives a clear
indication of distance and direction.
The new technology presents plenty of challenges according to Senner. For projection, we are shifting up to DLP technology* (DLP = digital light processing), which offers more contrast
and brightness. The area on the windshield that we use for projection is positioned a little higher than at present and is about the
size of an iPad. The two aspheric mirrors in the device have to be
more precise as a result. They enlarge the image and direct it onto
the windshield, while correcting the distortion that would otherwise be caused by their curved form.
For Dr. Werner Hamberger, the new head-up displays
are an attractive future technology, but only one of many. The Head
of Development, Operating Concepts is already thinking about
large display bands that run around the cockpit at the base of the


We place the displays apparently into reality.

This makes them clearer and immediately understandable at first glance.

Bernhard Senner

Bernhard Senner,
Development Controls/Displays/Illumination.


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* See glossary, p. 142


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Great freedom freely programmable instruments

can have different skins all are clearly legible.


We can incorporate very attractive graphics

and animation effects. All images will clearly convey
one thing the premium quality of Audi.

Robert Kolar

windshield, about individual display surfaces for the passenger,

about the next generation of voice control systems for online functions and about freely programmable instrument panels.
Robert Kolar is responsible for this technology. The
digital display that will occupy the space of the current analogue
dials is a 12.3-inch TFT monitor. The rapid progress in the field of
microelectronics and display technology is facilitating the highquality reproduction of a variety of graphics that can also be enhanced with light, mirror and animation effects, says Kolar.
Three-dimensional vehicles that are stored in the system as data
models can provide the driver with an impressive degree of assistance. In short we will offer classic Audi qualities in all areas.
The key strength of the freely programmable instrument panel is its high degree of flexibility. Robert Kolar: A lot of
things can be shown and combined on the display surface. We can
display speed with a classic tachometer scale, digitally or as a bar
graph*. The driver has the opportunity to decide for himself if he

would prefer to see music titles, lists of radio stations, the on-board
computer display or rather the navigation destination, energy flow
in hybrid drive or detail information from the assistance systems.
Audi will design the visual surface of the digital instrument panel the skin in accordance with the character of the
respective models in the R8 it will be highly dynamic, in the A8,
more stately. A car could also come with several skins, between
which the driver can switch depending on his mood. All of these
features will be structured in a logical and user-friendly way;
graphics that would distract too much from driving are taboo. To
guarantee straightforward operation, Audi engineers are working
with experts from the world of science and conducting user trials
and surveys.

The keyword studies also plays an important role in

the work carried out by Johann Schneider. There is an ongoing need
to check the acceptance of the electrical operating elements developed by his team. In customer clinics and internal evaluation
sessions in which employees from a variety of disciplines assess the
components from a customer viewpoint, the operating feel is
classified and evaluated. It is from these evaluations, objective
measurements and our experience that we develop the Audi haptic, says Schneider. For the rotary/push control on the MMI we
have defined the term Audi click a sound of just a few milliseconds duration that expresses the precision and premium quality
of the brand. It evokes the click of a safe and reflects our premium


* See glossary, p. 142


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Robert Kolar,
Head of Development, Instrument Panels.

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All the electrical operating elements are put on test in

the haptics lab and are objectively measured with regards to their
haptics and acoustics. Do the controls for the air conditioning run
as smoothly as the rotary/push control? Are the actuation forces
the same for both parts? Do the acoustics of all the components
match? How do the surfaces feel cool, smooth, premium? Touchsensitive input surfaces present new challenges when it comes
to surface haptics and durability in wear and finish. We are constantly on the lookout for new premium and sturdy materials,
says Schneider.
For Dr. Werner Hamberger, the touchpad is the highway to the future. We were the first to put it into a car. At the time,
we cracked open the door into a new operating world. Now we are

Future touchpad development

steps integration into the cap of
the rotary/push control (left),
large surface with small keys (below).

Audi urban concept

Almost all of the operating

controls are on the steering wheel
the Audi urban concept.

When it comes to the development of new

operating concepts, the brand with the four
rings thinks in many different directions. The Audi urban concept,
a show car from the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show, presents one specific idea it has virtually no buttons on the instrument panel.
The steering column of the innovative 1+1-seater lies
freely in space it has a strong profile and an elegant design,
mounted almost horizontally and highly adjustable. The steering
wheel, small and hexagonal, features buttons and rollers as operating controls; it also serves to control the electric drive program.
A display directly in front of the driver presents all the important
information. The cabin offers space for two people sitting slightly
offset next to each other. The roof slides open and can stay open
while driving. In parallel to this bodyshell variant, Audi has also
developed an open-top spyder.
The Audi urban concept technology study was conceived as a vehicle for modern, lifestyle-oriented people that live
in urban areas. Thanks to Audi ultra-lightweight design, the electric-drive show car weighs just 480 kilograms it brings the elements of a race car, a roadster, a fun car and a city car together into
a radical new concept. It is concentrated on the pure essence
of driving.
The outer skin of the Audi urban concept is made from
carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)*, the passenger cabin from
a mix of CFRP monocoque and aluminum structure. The free-standing 21-inch wheels are guided by wishbones made likewise from
aluminum and CFRP. The springs and dampers are conceived in
pushrod technology*, while four discs handle the braking function.
The lithium-ion battery is mounted transversely behind
the seats and stores 7.1 kWh of energy. Both electric motors between the rear wheels produce a combined continual output of 15
kW (20 hp) and 47 Nm of torque. The range based on the European
driving cycle is 73 km.

The Audi click is a sound of just a few

milliseconds that expresses Audi precision.

Johann Schneider


The young Audi for city people

the Audi urban concept appeals to a
lifestyle-oriented, urban audience as does its
operating concept.

Johann Schneider,
Head of Development, Operating

opening it even farther. Audi will soon be putting a new evolution

into series production the cap of the rotary/push control has a
touch-sensitive surface that could conceivably be used for gesture
control as on a smartphone.
Audi is also planning further steps. The larger models
that offer sufficient space on their center tunnels could be
equipped with a large touchpad that integrates all functions. This
would dispense with the physical operating elements. Functions
could be controlled using gestures or via a new haptic approach.
Tiny mechatronic sensor actuators beneath the surface react to
touch; they move and deliver feedback to the fingers. The user can
literally feel his way through all the operating steps, and will
never have to take his eyes off the road because every entry is followed by an acoustic confirmation. Intelligent, intuitive, safe
Audi will continue to set the benchmark in the field of operating


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Dr. Werner Hamberger,

Head of Development, Operating

We organize operation to make it intuitive

and fun. This is how we ensure that the driver
can operate the vehicle without distraction.

Dr. Werner Hamberger

* See glossary,Encounter
p. 142

The Layered Look

Christine Maukel

Bringing nature into the car a great challenge for Audi designers; especially when
this symbiosis is supposed to have a warm and homely appeal.
With the layered oak veneer that was first unveiled 2009 in Detroit
in the Audi A7 Sportback show car, the designers found the perfect
solution light wood interspersed with fine black lines to give the
interior an exclusive yacht look.
Now, two years later, the creative types at Audi are
following this with the next generation of layered wood.
WoodAluBeaufort is the name of the new variant, whereby tulipwood veneer is dyed black and combined with aluminum. The combination of these materials gives the interior a sporty and elegant
character. Five to six sheets of veneer and a thin sheet of aluminum
are glued in alternating layers to form a block. Individual sheets of
technical veneer are then cut from this block like slices of bread.
This extremely demanding task is done by hand because the different pressures required to cut wood and aluminum call for a very
delicate touch.
The unusual material combination of the new dark layered wood variant combines natural elements with dynamic character. It is available for the Audi S4, the Audi S5, the Audi S6 and

the Audi S7 Sportback.

1 The raw materials thin sheets of

wood and aluminum.
2 The interim product a solid block of
both materials glued together.
3 The end result technical veneer in
an uncompromising Audi finish.


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Benjamin Maerzke


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Rapid Acceleration

Engine technology at Audi
Audis engines are becoming increasingly variable.
The new 4.0 TFSI comes with the cylinder-on-demand system, while the
1.8 TFSI boasts a whole bundle of innovations.

The S8 driver hits the gas. Now all eight

cylinders are active. Together they produce up to
382 kW (520 hp) and 650 Nm of torque.

Illustrationen: sxces Communication

Better by


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Constant Driving
The S8 is running under low load.
The cylinder-on-demand system deactivates
cylinders 2, 3, 5 and 8, reducing
fuel consumption by several percent.

Johannes Kbler

20 years ago the car engine was still a perfect example of rhythmic unity. Its moving
parts and its ancillaries may well have operated at different speeds,
but always to the same beat aside, of course, from variable timing
control on the inlet side. Today, this fixed order no longer exists.
We are setting up large areas of our engines for variable operation
to be better able to fulfill fluctuating usage requirements, says
Axel Eiser, Head of Development for Engine Systems at Audi. Be it
in valve actuation, thermal management, turbocharger or pumps
needs-based intelligent solutions are contributing to increased
performance combined with decreased fuel consumption.
Audis latest, major development in the field of variability is the cylinder-on-demand system in the new large S models
based on the Audi valve lift system (AVS) that regulates valve lift
in two stages. Under low to medium load, the 4.0 TFSI a newly
developed, potent bi-turbo V8 operates temporarily as a V4,
whereby the system deactivates cylinders 2, 3, 5, and 8. To do so,
it first closes the exhaust valves before deactivating ignition and
injection. In the active cylinders 1, 4, 6 and 7, the operating points
shift to higher loads and efficiency increases.
The new technology reduces fuel consumption in the
NEDC* by 5 percent. At moderate speeds in higher gears such as
on highways with speed limits, which is the general rule abroad
the benefit can increase to more than ten percent. As soon as the
driver hits the gas, the V8 switches back to full engine operation in
hundredths of a second.

Illustrations: sxces Communication

We are making the operation of our engines variable

across a wide range of areas to be better
able to fulfill fluctuating usage requirements.

Axel Eiser
Head of Development, Engine Systems


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* See glossary, p. 142


Cylinder-on-demand technology is a highly interesting

solution for spark-ignition engines that results in substantial
reductions in fuel consumption. It is a new, intelligent form of
downsizing, although I would prefer to use the term rightsizing,
says Axel Eiser. There are now sensible limits for the reduction of
displacement. For us, rightsizing is the adjustment of displacement and active cylinder number to suit road resistance and market-specific conditions.
Audi is accompanying cylinder deactivation in the new
large S models with sophisticated acoustic initiatives. Thanks to
active engine mounts and active noise control (ANC), the V8 sounds
velvety smooth and highly cultivated in the interior in four-cylinder
operation, too (see also page 76). Another form of sound tuning is
presented by the new 3.0 TDI with 230 kW (313 hp). Through the
targeted reinforcement of individual frequency components, the
mighty V6 diesel is given a mellow, full-bodied sound. The driver
can influence the sound on several levels via the Audi drive select
system a further new form of variability.
We are thinking intensively about the issue of sound,
says Audis engine systems boss. We are discussing the bandwidth
of the sound experience, which will soon extend to the electric car.
We surely wont be offering our customers just one solution there,
but rather a selection to suit individual preferences.

Audi S8

The start-stop system switches off the engine

entirely when the car is at a standstill. Together
with cylinder-on-demand, this technology
reduces CO emissions by up to 24 grams per km.

Illustrations: sxces Communication

We bring heat to the place where it minimizes

friction, and release it to the outside
air at the latest possible stage via the radiator.

Axel Eiser

Head of Development, Engine Systems


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3,993 cm


382 kW (520 hp)


650 Nm from 1,700 to 5,500 r/min

0100 km/h

4.2 s

Top speed

250 km/h


10.2 l/100 km

CO emissions

237 g/km

1 Highly variable the intake layout with the

two injection systems and valve drive.

2 Flexible the new rotary disc valve module

manages the flow of coolant.

Audi A4 1.8 TFSI


1,798 cm


125 kW (170 hp)


320 Nm from 1,400 to 3,700 r/min

0100 km/h

8.1 s

Top speed

230 km/h


5.7 l/100 km

CO emission

134 g/km

Variability this keyword is also the headline for Audis

second engine newcomer, the 1.8 TFSI. The four-cylinder with the
internal reference 888 has now achieved a third level of evolution and makes its entrance in the facelifted A4/A5 family. Its
vital statistics 125 kW (170 hp) of output and 320 Nm, the latter
being constant from 1,400 to 3,700 r/min place it right in the
middle of Audis engine lineup, but its fuel consumption indicates
its special position elsewhere. In the A4 Sedan it consumes just
5.7 liters per 100 kilometers, a CO equivalent of 134 grams per
kilometer. The new engine, which weighs little more than 130 kilograms, already fulfills the requirements of the Euro 6 standard
that does not come into effect until 2014. We have brought together a whole host of technical goodies in the new 888, sums up
Axel Eiser. We are combining direct FSI injection and 200 bar rail
pressure with indirect injection, thus bringing together the best of
both worlds. Thanks to this dual injection, we are able to make the
mix preparation more variable. Under low load, inlet manifold injection delivers a benefit in fuel consumption because it results in
fewer charge cycle losses. Both camshafts are adjustable and we
can vary the lift of the exhaust valves with AVS. In order to release
all of this potential, we have calculated flow down to the tiniest
detail and developed new simulation methods. We see this as a key
competence that is becoming increasingly important.
A further core feature of the 1.8 TFSI was the reduction
of internal friction. The balance shafts run on roller bearings and
intensive refinements were carried out in all areas. Our package
sets extraordinary benchmarks, says Eiser. In the crankcase, we
have reduced wall thickness to three millimeters, and we accept
only tiny tolerances on the cylinder heads. Each head is checked
with an optical scanning process prior to casting for the precise
positioning of the sand core.


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3 Innovative the cylinder head incorporates the exhaust manifold.

4 Head of Development, Engine Systems
Axel Eiser conceives Audis power units.
Illustrations: Steven Pope

An amazingly efficient four-cylinder

The new 1.8 TFSI is a hi-tech engine in a
compact format. Audi has given it a package of
technologies that delivers groundbreaking fuel efficiency.

The higher temperatures in the combustion chambers

of the new 1.8 TFSI set new challenges for the engineers when it
came to cooling the spark plugs and exhaust valves. Axel Eiser
explains, We integrated the exhaust manifold into the cylinder
head, where water circulates around it, reducing the temperature
of the exhaust gas. This saves us from enriching the mix at higher
loads and delivers considerable consumption benefits, particularly with a sportier driving style. Nevertheless, the exhaust in the
turbocharger is still 980 degrees Celsius. To ensure that the turbine
housing can cope, it is made from cast steel, while, for the turbine
itself we are using a new alloy. The new electric wastegate offers
us faster and more precise adjustment, which mainly benefits
torque levels when pulling away.
When it comes to thermal management, too, the new
four-cylinder achieves a high degree of variability in an innovative
manner two rotary disc valves assembled in one module and
driven via a worm gear by an electric motor regulate coolant flow.
One of its most important tasks is to bring the engine up to temperature as quickly as possible after cold start in order to minimize
the period of increased friction. To this end, the cooling water remains stationary in the engine block for an initial period to accelerate the heating up of the cylinder walls. During this phase, interior
heating is derived from the cylinder heads via a self-sustaining
pump. After some time, the water in the engine block is also circulated and the excess heat delivered in a targeted manner to the
engine oil heat exchanger and then to the transmission oil heat
The new rotary disc valve module can manage the water
temperature depending on load and engine speed between 107
(partial load) and 85 degrees Celsius (full load) to achieve the best
possible compromise between minimal internal friction and ignition for optimum efficiency. We have created an optimum warmup strategy, says Eiser. We bring heat, wherever possible, to the
place where it minimizes friction, and release it to the outside air
at the latest possible stage via the radiator.
In the mid-term, Eiser and his team are thinking of
ways to recover heat and flow energy from the exhaust gas. The
technologies for that are currently at the pre-development stage.
The new 1.8 TFSI is also standing at the start of its career. It is still
full of fascinating possibilities just like all of Engine Development

at Audi.


Encounter Technology

Print Preview

Rapid Prototyping
In Audi workshops, work is being carried out under the
strictest secrecy on the models of the future. Thanks to rapid prototyping, individual parts can now be produced in a matter of just a few days.
The following offers a glimpse into the third dimension of printing.

Fascinating a tank of liquid epoxy resin and a

laser beam; this is what it takes to print
three-dimensional objects, like Audi rings and
ventilation grilles.

Experience rapid prototyping on video.


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1 Finicky the finished individual rapid prototyping

parts are put together and the ventilation grille
starts to take shape.


Stereolithography (SL):
Liquid epoxy resin cures in a UV laser beam.

3 Complex before the RP equipment can make

anything, Stefan Reindl has to convert the CAD data
into the necessary software format.


Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)*:

Laser beams melt powder particles to create a
solid body.


Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)*

and Objet Printer*:
The plastic is deposited in layers through a
heated nozzle.

Stefan Warter

At first glance, it is a completely normal

Audi Q3. The four chrome rings gleam in the
Singleframe grille; beside them the headlamps with their distinctive LED daytime running lights. The side view is distinguished by
the tornado line of the small SUV; the two tailpipes at the rear of
the vehicle retain their brand new shine. But even though it looks
as if it just left the production line, this is not in fact a real car; this
is a design model, one of the first models of the new Q3 in one-toone scale.
All parts were built in accordance with design drawings and engineering plans. The majority of the large exterior elements were machined using conventional procedures, mostly from
blocks of plastic. But the delicate interior components in particular
come from the printer! It is a very special printer indeed that, even
from its outward appearance, bears absolutely no similarity to the
one on the desk at home. Instead of printing text and images on
paper, it creates three-dimensional objects literally from nothing.
This process is known in the trade as rapid prototyping
(RP). In mechanical engineering and product development, it belongs to a proven and frequently used type of procedure for the
manufacture of prototypes. In very little time and using only CAD
(computer-aided design) files, smaller three-dimensional objects
are built up layer by layer. Known as an object printer, it works in
a manner similar to an inkjet printer but instead of ink it is plastic
that comes out of the jets.
Rapid prototyping dates back to the mid-eighties. It
was a dream-come-true for every design engineer, because it
meant that prototypes, dummies and models could be made quickly and in precise detail from a wide variety of materials these days
sometimes in a matter of a few hours. The laborious and timeconsuming path from digital drawing board at the computer to
model-making by hand was cut out altogether.


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The Rapid Prototyping Process

2 Cautiously some very careful surface finishing is

required to complete the model. Just a little bit
too much pressure and the raw part is no longer dimensionally accurate.

Small pieces grilles, frames, buttons, spacers,

tiny wheels, a 3D printed ventilation grille is made
up of many individual parts.

Lena Kiening

Encounter Technology

Automotive development without this technology

is now completely unthinkable. At Audi, rapid prototyping is used
largely for pre-production vehicles. The software formats for the
associated equipment are handled by six people, including Stefan
Reindl, who coordinates the print jobs that are submitted each
day. The primary focus is on parts for assembly into prototypes
grilles, switches, handles and trim for both exterior and interior.
We supply parts to almost all areas of Technical Development
at Audi, says Reindl. Dummy fittings are made using a variety
of polymer materials, ranging from acrylic and ABS to epoxy resin
and polyamide.
Stefan Reindl is the father of rapid prototyping at
Audi, having been there from the start in 1999. It was quite something back then to be able to print 3D prototypes, recalls the technical specialist. When the job was finished, we all stood around
the machine in eager anticipation. Our eyes were like saucers
when the finished part was taken out. Today, a good twelve years
later, rapid prototyping has become a fixed feature of vehicle
development. Reindl continues, Classic technologies like the
machining of individual parts have not been replaced by 3D
printing, but rather complemented. Rapid prototyping can be
used to produce complex objects with elaborate internal geometries something that would never have been possible with a
casting process.

* See glossary, p. 142

The most appropriate 3D production process is used

for each field of application. The Audi rapid prototyping workshop has a total of five machines with four different technologies. All produce three-dimensional objects, with the method of
production being very different for each. Two machines work
using Stereolithography (SLA). It uses an ultra-violet laser beam
to trace outlines on the surface of an epoxy resin bath, causing
the material beneath the laser to set. A platform gradually sinks
into the fluid enabling the next layer to be traced. It takes several
hours for the object to be completed. It then undergoes a further
curing process beneath a UV lamp and the raw part is complete.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), on the other hand,
works using powder particles. They are melted to a solid body using
precisely targeted laser beams. Here, too, a platform sinks in minute steps, fresh power is delivered and the laser traces the next
layer. The ones that bear the closest resemblance to a regular
household printer are the production processes used in Fused
Deposition Modeling (FDM) and on the Objet Printer. Polymer is
applied in layers through a heated nozzle. Like all of the machines,
these too are used non-stop for the production of prototype parts
24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Each of these technologies has its strengths, explains
Reinhard Marberger. He is Head of Model-Making Workshops in the
Audi Pre-Production Center and is an expert in the respective benefits of the individual printing methods. One creates very fine surface structures, used for example in the production of design models. Others produce printed parts that are relatively stable and
robust. These can be used for functional testing, such as aerodynamic tests in the wind tunnel. We also make a lot of parts for Audi
Sport that are then built into the DTM cars and, in some cases, even
undergo initial testing on the race track, says Marberger.
Following production, the part is then subject to a large
number of further process steps. First, it is washed in a special
bath to free it from its supporting geometry, which provided sta-

bility during the printing process. Then the raw part is finished in
the model workshop of the associated specialist department i.e.
dressed, polished, primed. The part is transformed with paint and
surface coatings to create a dummy part that is amazingly similar
to the real thing. For example, the Audi rings are vapor coated with
aluminum to create their chrome look. Finally, the completed
model part is assembled onto the prototype.
Although it sounds so simple, rapid prototyping is not
feasible for the mass production of consistently identical objects
there are far more cost-effective alternatives. It is not just the
machines that are extremely expensive but, at the moment, the
materials, too. Also, parts made using rapid prototyping are not
robust enough to last for long they become porous and break
easily in everyday use. However, for prototype production, the
process is unbeatable. It is a very simple and fast way to produce
individually adapted, tailor-made one-off parts.
These benefits are also used by the development departments in other companies. Adidas, for instance, uses rapid
prototyping to make most if its prototypes for shoes. Previously,
it took more than four weeks, now just two days. EADS, too, uses
this method in the field of aviation technology. This year, the company caused a stir with a complete bicycle printed in a single process using lightweight nylon.
Rapid prototyping is also used in medicine to make individual tooth prosthetics and precisely fitting hearing aids.
Research groups from several Fraunhofer Institutes are working
on being able in future to produce cartilage implants, blood vessels
and even organs with rapid prototyping.
Development extends even farther. Since summer
this year, German company GLI Concept has been offering a 3D
printer called Shapecube for around 1,000 Euro. And it is not the
only one of its kind a real bargain compared with the six-figure
prices for industrial 3D printers. Those early adopters out there
can now use a piece of equipment like this with their home com-

puters to print objects created to their own design on-the-spot

from candle holders to fashion jewelry to replacement parts for
classic cars. But the programming of software for the constructional drawings is still the biggest challenge facing the end consumer, which is why the method is likely to remain the domain of
professional users for quite some time.
And, of course, of the experts in Audis Technical Development department, where the next models are constantly
being worked on and printed. The next prototype with parts from
the 3D printer is already being created in their workshop.

1 Proud Reinhard Marberger, Head of Model-Making Workshops, in front of a Q3 model. Life

without RP is unthinkable here in the Pre-Production Center.
2 Precise the printed Audi rings are fitted precisely into the A8s Singleframe grille using laser
Ceremonial in the final step, the finished ventilation grille is mounted onto the dashboard of
the Q3 prototype.


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* See glossary, p. 142

Change Management Closing the Gap with New Thinking
Audi leads the competitive field in the technical disciplines of electronics
and infotainment. This has been made possible through a phase of massive change in
Electrical/Electronics Development (EE). Dr. Willibert Schleuter managed this department
from 1996 to 2008. During our discussion, he explains the challenges he faced, the
new paths he adopted in change management and why they were successful.

Change Extender

Stefan Warter

Dr. Schleuter, you took over management of Electronics Development at Audi

in 1996. What was the situation you found back then?
Schleuter: Only six weeks after I took over my new position, I received a call from the then CEO. He was looking at the
latest J.D. Power status quality statistics from the USA. We are
the worst in electrical and electronics, he said. If we dont put
that right quickly, it could cost us both our heads. Another six
weeks later, a study of in-vehicle networked electronic systems
technology showed that Audi was well behind the competition
in the premium sector 8 years behind! We had to change, and fast.
What were the greatest barriers to change?
Schleuter: Firstly, I had to shake up the team, and to do
that I laid the facts on the table. The next step was to seek open
dialogue with the workforce. And I had to change some of the central players in the management team because we needed a new
leadership culture in order to push through the changes. We then
worked on this new culture with the management team in a series
of workshops and not just among themselves, but always together with selected employees from the main workforce.
How important was this transparency?
Schleuter: We wanted to build a clear image of the
situation, which is why we conducted an employee survey without
an external agency. We used our own resources. We wanted primarily to know how well the departments worked together and to establish the employees evaluation of management performance.
The results confirmed a substantial need for change. Because 80
percent of the employees took part in the survey, the team was
extremely motivated to implement the changes.
What consequences did you derive?
Schleuter:Every manager had to address their individual results. For every criterion, there was a scale ranging from
bad to very good. I hung my personal result on the outside of my
office door. I broke a taboo with this kind of radical openness and
found support.


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A second point was the so-called cross-evaluation. Each

employee who felt so inclined could submit an evaluation of his/
her teamwork with other departments, which generated around
40 percent red lights. As a result, the employees then used workshops to work out ways to improve their cooperation. The next survey just 18 months later identified that only one third of the red
areas remained.
That sounds as if openness is a central factor.
Schleuter: It is indeed. And I have a well-known witness
to that fact. In his book Winning, Jack Welch from General
Electric defined the absence of openness as the darkest chapter
of the business world. According to Welch, it is openness that reinforces the strength of the team and leads to speed and a considerable reduction in the resources required. This matches our own
experience exactly openness practiced in EE and in the process
chain was a decisive driver in the surprisingly short time it took us
to close the gap to the competition, and even to overtake them in
quite a few areas. Openness and trust lead to speed, which, in turn,
enables you to achieve a great deal with few resources.

Leave the dust

where it is,
concentrate on
the stone
for the house.
Guiding principle for the employees of
Electrical/Electronics Development in the change process.

What targets must you set yourself in order

to reach the top?
Schleuter: The result of our workshops was a very challenging but highly realistic vision. It is called The competence for
the most attractive customer electronics systems. The target was
set particularly high for the Advanced Technology Department. The
vision here is The worlds simplest operating concept. Many
thought we were crazy, but it was these targets that resulted in
2002 in the MMI operating system for the Audi A8 and all subsequent vehicles. The MMI system in the A8 and the quality of the
electronic components meant a huge leap forward for Audi.
With all of this, it was clear that we could only manage
what was measurable. Therefore, we entered our targets into a
combined balanced scorecard* for products, processes, customers
and employees. All organizational units measured the degree of
target achievement every month, generating some sporting competition. But it was not about pointing the finger at the teams that
scored poorly. Quite the reverse the objective was a general encouragement toward better performance. Behind it was the notion
that success breeds success.
Openness, target setting, target achievement
where there more drivers of change management?
Schleuter: In the workshops we address three significant drivers. The first is called Efficiency, which means doing things
right. The second is Effectiveness doing the right things. And the
third is called Energy, which means doing things with enthusiasm.
We concentrated heavily on the issues of energy and enthusiasm.
In order to increase the power even further, we defined the key
emotional factors of a successful company culture a sense of purpose, communication, effective conflict management, the feeling
of belonging and creative activity. From this we derived a guiding
principle for the employees: Leave the dust where it is, concentrate on the stone for the house.
How did you manage to get such a large team
behind this vision?
Schleuter: We didnt simply decree the change process
from above. We started it from above, but it was driven from below
and massively so. The base was formed by 30 individuals known
as change agents who were selected from their respective teams
to identify what had to be changed and how. In order to reinforce
the dynamics and to steer, we appointed one full-time employee
to deal with the change process. This marked a first for Audi
Technical Development.
Our new culture also included an appreciation of shopfloor employees, a large proportion of whom were prepared to
undertake further qualifications. We implemented many new
methods there first, thus sending important signals. The shop-floor
employees drove the innovations forward with a new self-confidence and networked more closely with the engineers. Another
driver of the change process was consistent and ongoing communication with all levels.
It wasnt just management, but also employees from
the rank and file who participated in all the relevant workshops.
Their task was to communicate what they experienced to their team
authentically and first hand. And it worked. After the workshops
there were information sessions for all employees at which the
results were communicated. These meetings also offered an opportunity for our new employees to introduce themselves.

Were there other examples of this kind of

non-hierarchical communication?
Schleuter: Once a month, we got together for a working
breakfast, to which employees from throughout the hierarchy were
invited, as well as colleagues from outside the EE department. The
challenge was this: For the next hour, you have my job. What
would you do differently? I was able to learn a great deal from this
input and also form a strong bond with the workforce. The integration of new employees was one of our core competences and it
was planned methodically. It enabled us to avoid new employees
being seen as competition for existing ones. Also, the many employees that came to us from suppliers made contributions to our
changes nobody knew better than they did how our competitors
were set up. For their part, the new employees were very happy
with these methods, which made their integration and networking
a whole lot easier.
The EE function has become increasingly
important at Audi in recent years. How have you addressed
this development?
Schleuter: In the 90s, our function still had a very hierarchical structure, but then it developed to become a living network
organization. It became clear to us that the expansion of electronics expertise had to start with the development side, although the
other parts of the process chain like quality assurance, customer
service, planning, assembly and purchasing initially had some
difficulty with that. We had to set the trend, although we ourselves
were still in the middle of establishing ourselves.
We selected an unconventional way to deal with that
we gave very good employees away to other functions in order to
carry changes through the entire company. There was internal resistance to that, but our motto was that the greater good of Audi
had top priority. The interests of the company had to stand above
the interests of our department.

Dr. Willibert Schleuter documents

the details of the change process
in the book The Seven Mistakes of
Change Management and How
to Avoid Them. It was voted the best
book of 2009 in the Future Award
for Management Literature by the
Bundesverband Deutscher Unternehmer (German Society of Entrepreneurs).
Dr. Martin Winterkorn, Chairman
of the Board of Management of Volkswagen AG is quoted on the back
of the book thus: The way that teamwork is being achieved with such
enthusiasm across functional boundaries within the electronics process
chain is unique. Audi has set a benchmark in the networking of people
and in electronics product quality.
Read an extract at:, keyword
Die sieben Irrtmer


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* See glossary, p. 142


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How did you organize the networking?

Schleuter: The first step was to analyze the resources
and competences of the different specialist areas via regular meetings between the top managers. The second step was then to bring
together the operations people from these functions in weekly sessions. The networking of the functions in product and process became far more intensive and competent. The second, huge step was
the move into the newly built Audi Electronics Center. This was the
first time that all the electronics engineers were able to work together under one roof. This further increased the intensity of the
cross-functional cooperation and the speed of implementation.
Did your people not at some point have the feeling
that the targets had been achieved?
Schleuter: That was indeed the case in the eyes of many
employees, which led to them demanding a new vision. This no
longer came from the EE function, but from all electronics engineers throughout Audi and was: Audi Electronics experience
competence with all the senses. At a central kick-off event for the
new vision, each employee received a booklet with our guidelines
and a special model car in the distinctive color Imola yellow. The
same car was also built for real, and for a long time was a symbol
for our vision and cross-functional cooperation. This kick-off event
remains in the hearts and minds of many employees to this day.
In the time since then, we have implemented new ideas
for the further development of management capability and employee networking. These were a broad-based management training course for young talent and a network training course with
employees from all the electronics functions involved in the development of a vehicle. In parallel, we put the cooperation with our
external partners on a new footing we intensified contact and
established connections on various hierarchical levels. The highest
performance is only possible when cooperation is a pleasure, and
when criticism is combined with the praise of a job well done, making partners feel appreciated.
If you were to draw a conclusion what were the
most important factors in the success of the change process?
Schleuter: Certainly the early active involvement of
many employees, the radically open way of dealing with each other
and the expression of appreciation. Other important factors were
the intensive communication with as many as possible of those
involved, the joint agreement of demanding targets and working
with visions that were driven by the employees themselves. A
strong, motivated team that works with tailor-made processes and
resources can deliver superior products. At Audi, we have delivered
the proof of that.
Looking back, the Electrical/Electronics function stands
as a central seed of change within the entire company. We tried a
great many things, fought against a lot of resistance and finally
became an important force for change within Audi. This way,
change management becomes a core competence of the company
as a whole.


Passion is a driver in Audis development work. Passion means love,
sometimes lust and always complete commitment.


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118 Write on Track

124 Make a Wish
132 Ready


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Write on Track

Shuting Yu from the Chinese province of
Shandong is a calligrapher and artist. The characters that he
commits to paper convey emotion and harmony.

The Audi touchpad, the MMI touch, masters
the characters of three Asian languages. Audi leads the field with
this level of operating comfort.


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Paul-Janosch Ersing


Laid out and weighted down with fine

wood, the paper lies ready on the heavy
table. Brushes in an array of sizes hang on a fine wooden stand,
black ink glistens in a dark dish. Shuting Yu stands in a courtyard of
the Temple of the White Pagoda in Beijing deep in concentration.
The calligrapher from Shandong Province in northeastern China
is currently working on a Sutra, a Buddhist study text.
I have already written 50 meters of paper roll. When
I am finished, it will be around 300 meters, says Shuting Yu, conveying an idea of the extent of his work in a pleasantly calm voice.
He has been working with calligraphy since he was in elementary
school. Nobody can say just how many characters he has already
painted in his life.
Audi keeps more precise figures. The brands current
models can recognize and understand more than 29,000 Chinese
characters. For most people in the western hemisphere, the complex oriental characters are utterly unfathomable; for the MMI
Navigation plus with MMI touch that features in the Audi A6, A7
Sportback and A8, they represent not the slightest problem.
Alongside the Chinese characters (Hanzi), the touchpad masters
6,710 Japanese (Kanji) and 7,249 Korean (Hangul) characters.
The touch pad developed by Audi is part of an innovative
operating philosophy while the driver writes the navigation destination or phone number with his/her finger on the touch-sensitive surface, their eyes remain concentrated on the traffic. To avoid
input errors every character entry is followed by an acoustic confirmation. With a little practice, every Audi driver is transformed into
a mobile calligrapher.
When Shuting Yu hears of the almost 30,000 Chinese
characters mastered by Audis MMI he is speechless for a moment.
Then he counters with a satisfied smile: But they will never be as
detailed and as harmonious as mine. Since he was a child, it was
his overwhelming desire to endow strokes and lines committed to
paper with as much emotion as possible.
A Chinese-language menu first appeared in an Audi in
2003, followed just two years later by the first Chinese Audi navigation system. Since then, the brand with the four rings has been
further expanding its leading role in this field. Now all models sold
in China are equipped with infotainment systems in the language
of the nation; Audi drivers in China have long not been obliged to
speak English.

1 Highly concentrated
Shuting Yu at work.
2 Self-critical the master
assesses his work.
Audi understands
Chinese character recognition in the MMI.

My favorite character is the De, as in the

word Deutschland. It means virtue, which is probably
why I like it so much.

Shuting Yu


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1 Teamwork Roland Pfnder and his

Chinese colleague Xlaodan Tang.
2 Short distances around 50
specialists sit in the bright offices
of the ITC.
Concept work images from Audis
infotainment lab.

On the tenth floor of an office building in Beijing, however, English is a must. Its our corporate language, explains Audi
engineer Roland Pfnder. The Head of the Audi Infotainment
Center (ITC), where around 50 specialists work, stands at his desk
and looks down onto the Jingtong West Road far below. In the
bright, open-plan office next door, sit people of various different
nationalities focused on their flatscreens.
This is where we develop the infotainment systems
for China, Japan and Korea. Special customer wishes are extremely
important to us. Here, on-the-ground, we can fulfill them in the
shortest possible time, says Roland Pfnder describing his teams
main job. Intakhab Khan, System Development Manager at the ITC
continues, We first adapt the devices originally developed for
Europe, Japan or the USA to the Chinese standards.
At the ITC in Beijing, they are particularly proud of the
MMI touch and its successful adaptation for the Asian market.
Since the introduction of this technology, our customers have
been able to communicate with the vehicle within their familiar
language structures, says Roland Pfnder, stressing the key benefit. Previously, the classic rotary/push control was the usual way
of entering data, which called for more laborious input using the
phonetic Pinyin transcript based on the Latin alphabet. For customers of a more advanced age, Pinyin is particularly difficult, says
Pfnder. It was first introduced in 1957 and many have never really learned it.
China is developing at a breakneck pace. GPS navigation is enjoying increasing popularity in the Middle Kingdom and
the digitization of its three million kilometers of roads is progressing extremely quickly. The vast majority of it has already been
mapped, with almost ten million points of interest (POIs) already
saved in navigation devices. This figure seems even bigger when
you compare it with the almost 2.4 million POIs saved in Audi models for the European market.
Roland Pfnder knows why: Exact street names, as we
know them in Europe or the USA, are not so important for route
planning. Here in China, you orient yourself far more using distinctive buildings or special places. Because the systems in China work
with noticeably more precision here than elsewhere, one makes
it reliably to a destination even on multilane and three-level city


Special customer wishes are extremely important

to us. Here, on-the-ground, we can fulfill them in the
shortest possible time.

Roland Pfnder
Head of Audi ITC


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For the race track a customer's Audi R8 GT

with retro-fitted four-point seat belts as part of
the Race Package

Make a Wish

Individualization by quattro GmbH
The Audi exclusive division of quattro GmbH
also fulfills unusual customer wishes. The cars created
here are as individual as the fingerprints of their owners.

1 For more safety installation of the

rollover bar in the R8 GT.

2 Highest precision individual upholstery for the steering wheel.

3 Assembly installation of the bucket
seats in the Neckarsulm workshop.

Audi R8 GT only 333 of the dynamic top model
are being built and they are already sold out.

Thomas Tacke

Stefan Warter

With great care, Frank Gutberlet uses a

small knife to cut into the parcel shelf behind the sports seats. Part of the carpet has to come out to create
space for something special. Meanwhile, his colleague Miguel
Ordax leans over the open center console and lays in additional
electrical wiring. What the two mechanics are doing in the interior
of the Audi R8 GT is absolute precision work. As soon as they
remove the black seatbelts, work begins on the installation of
the new eye-catcher a red rollover bar makes the super sports car
even safer.
This kind of vehicle individualization is the core business of Audi exclusive, one of the three divisions of Audi quattro
GmbH. Virtually every customer desire for a personal and unique
automobile perfectly adapted to their own ideas is fulfilled by
the teams in Neckarsulm and Ingolstadt. An increasing number
of Audi customers want their own creative interpretation of their
vehicle, says Jens Koch, Head of Project Management, Vehicle
Projects at Audi exclusive.
These customers can take a look at the breadth of options and the sheer, inexhaustible range of possibilities at the Audi
exclusive studio in the Audi Forum Neckarsulm. Audi exclusive offers individual paint finishes, alloy wheels, premium leather upholstery and fine interior finishes. We do anything thats possible. It
just has to be legally and technically feasible, says Koch. The customer wishes are hugely diverse. One example is the Audi Q7 exclusive concept limited edition with the look of a premium yacht
50 of the SUVs were fitted with top-quality yacht hardwood flooring. A prince from Dubai ordered an Audi A8 with pink paintwork
and a customer from the USA took delivery of her R8 in mint green
metallic the color of her sail boat.


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Audi exclusive handles special installations in its

own workshop in Neckarsulm. The bright red rollover bar in the R8
GT, for example, has to be fitted by hand; installation on the production line would not have been feasible. The customer has ordered the Race Package, which includes four-point belts and
bucket sports seats. This makes the car, of which only 333 are to be
built all of which are sold out even more unique. We have a lot
of requests for individualization with the R8 in particular. The numbers increase with the class of vehicle, says Head of Vehicle Individualization Sascha Koch. If desired, his team will stitch names
into the vehicle seats or put smileys onto entry sills. Theres no
accounting for taste, smiles Koch.
Audi exclusive obtains most of its individual parts
from suppliers. The steering wheels, for example, come from
TRW Automotive Safety Systems GmbH, a manufacturer in
Aschaffenburg, Bavaria. At the suppliers leather center, Bianca
Grfe sits at a steering wheel for a quattro customer, carefully
pulling the leather over the magnesium and polyurethane foam
skeleton. The individualized steering wheels are upholstered
in leather by hand; a machine would not be able to do this kind
of work. The leather has to be well distributed and properly
stretched. Plus, there cant be any air trapped between the adhesive and the leather, stresses the seamstress. She spends up
to three hours on one steering wheel for Audi quattro GmbH.
The customers often have special requests for the leather and the
stitching. Almost every steering wheel is different; theres a
vast degree of scope, explains Martin Kreuzer, Senior Manager
Technology at TRW. There is leather and thread in every imaginable color. The stitching itself can be created in a variety of patterns.
Be it distinctive paintwork or small steering wheel
stitches, the spectrum of vehicle individualization through Audi
exclusive is huge. There is no limit to the imagination. Variety is
our major strength, says Jens Koch. Every Audi is premium and top
quality; it is just the very special customer wishes that are fulfilled
by Audi exclusive. That is what we do, says Koch, we put the
cherry on the cake.

Experience the production of an exclusive steering wheel on video.

Consistent seats, belts and bar symbolize

the dynamics
the logo of the R8 GT stands for the power
of Audis top sports car.

1 Finest leather Poltrona Frau delivers the

upholstery for seats and armrests.

2 Exclusive the trim pieces are finished in

natural European ash.


Maximum luxury seats and center console in

the A8 L W12 Audi exclusive concept.

Limited edition only 50 of the A8 L W12 Audi

exclusive concept are being built.

Best information and entertainment the back

with Rear Seat Entertainment.

Sporty, individual and exclusive

Audi quattro GmbH
Audi quattro GmbH was founded in 1983 as a one hundred percent subsidiary of AUDI AG and now has a worldwide reputation for the ultimate in sporting character, individuality and exclusivity. The company has three core areas of business Audi Sport
performance cars is dedicated to the manufacture and production
of high-performance vehicles like the R8, the RS models and special
editions. Audi Sport customer racing offers high-speed customer
sport with the R8 LMS and the TT RS and Audi exclusive fulfills almost every imaginable desire for individual vehicle design and offers a broad spectrum of premium lifestyle accessories.
Our customers expect an emotional and surprising
experience. With our three divisions, we excite them with impressive product performance and virtually unlimited possibilities for
self-expression, says Head of Audi exclusive Volker Hhl.
Audi quattro GmbH is based in Neckarsulm, where it
has around 600 employees. A further 100 are in Ingolstadt. Since
it was founded, the company has sold more than 55,000 highperformance vehicles, while a further 160,000 vehicles are individualized every year.


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A8 L W12 Audi exclusive concept

flagship refinement
The A8 is Audis flagship. The extremely high standard
already supplied in the series-production version can, however, be
topped. Audi quattro GmbH has developed an exclusive low-volume
version of the luxury-class sedan. The A8 L W12 Audi exclusive concept is a fascinating vehicle with a highly sophisticated interior.
The seating is upholstered in cognac leather from
Italian furniture specialist Poltrona Frau and boasts an incredibly
soft, even and natural finish. The center panel of the cushions and
backrests are edged with distinctive granite grey piping. An array
of leather elements in the interior completes the package even
the key is clad in leather.
The trim elements in the A8 L W12 Audi exclusive concept are in an elegant contrast finished in natural European ash.
The light, grey-brown veneer has a very fine grain. The silver accents further refine the look of the wood, says Volker Hhl, Head
of Audi exclusive. The wood is inlayed into the seat backs, the front
of the cockpit, the door panels and the rear-seat operating console.
Audi presented the car in a monsoon grey paint finish
for the first time at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show (IAA). The A8 L
W12 Audi exclusive concept will be built as a limited run of 50
units. After the Audi Q7, this is the second vehicle to bear this exclusive label, with more set to follow.

Class reunion Michael Dick with two

DTM generations, the new A5 DTM
for 2012 and the V8 quattro from 1990.

How has DTM technology changed over the past 20 years?
Michael Dick, Board Member for Technical Development
sees for himself.


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Time travel Michael Dick in the V8 quattro. For the DTM

of the early 90s the race cars were still built on seriesproduction bodyshells. Even the wood veneer trim in the
cockpit is still there.

Fire-retardant overalls and helmet instead of a suit even for the
companys chief engineer this is no everyday appointment.


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Yesterday meets today the Audi V8 quattroand
the Audi A5 DTM running on the test track in Neustadt.

Audi A5 DTM 2012


4,000 cm


ca. 460 hp


more than 500 Nm

Length / width / height

5,010 / 1,950 / 1,150 mm

Audi V8 quattro 1990



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3,562 cm


ca. 420 PS


390 Nm

Length / width / height

4,874 / 1,814 / 1,335 mm

Thomas Voigt

Stefan Warter

Its not all that often that Michael Dick has

the opportunity to exchange his suit for
fire-retardant overalls, put on a helmet and climb behind the
wheel of a race car.
This Friday is exactly such a day. And today, awaiting
the Member of the Board of Management for Technical Develop
ment at AUDI AG are two vehicles that could hardly be more different, although they both originated from the DTM that popular
race series that has seen Audi win the title no less than eight times.
The difference lies in the year each of the two cars was
built. Hans-Joachim Stuck took the first DTM title for the company
in 1990 with the Audi V8 quattro, while the new A5 DTM still has
its career ahead of it. It was developed by Audi Sport for the
new technical regulations that will see the DTM enter a new era in
2012. And the Head of Audi Sport, Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich extended
a personal invitation to his boss to drive both DTM cars and to make
a comparison.
Serving as the location for the test is the proving ground
in Neustadt, on which almost all of the new race cars from Audi
Sport complete their roll-outs and on which Michael Dick, as the
companys Chief Engineer, is completely at home. The Audi V8 quattro is the original championship car from 1990 that is kept by Audi
Tradition. The A5 DTM with the chassis number R17-103 is the vehicle that celebrated its world premiere in September at the
Frankfurt Auto Show. The tinted windows are an indication that
Audi Sport is not yet willing to reveal all of its secrets. Photos of the
interior are currently off limits, even for Audi photographers.
DTM rules for next year call for a lot more common
parts, explains Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich, who has been the Head of
Audi Sport since 1993. Thats why the tiny details will be a lot
more important than ever to achieve an advantage over the competition. That was all very different in 1990. Back then, the V8
quattro set itself well apart from the competition through its size,
quattro drive and its large-displacement engine.

1 Exchange of views Michael Dick and

Head of Audi Motorsport Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich.

Dr. Ullrich immediately explains the conceptual difference between the DTM car from 1990 and the one from 2012. The
V8 quattro was still based on a series-production car, while the
A5 DTM is a prototype. That is a completely different philosophy.
Back then, different vehicle, engine and drive concepts were
evened out with additional weight. The outcome was that the
V8 quattro had to enter the fray with a fighting weight of up to
1.5 tonnes. Dick and Dr. Ullrich followed the DTM back in 1990
although still as spectators. I was one for the many red riding
hoods in the grandstand, confides Michael Dick, who was Head
Team Leader in Quality Development. There were even special
trains leaving Ingolstadt for the races, recalls Dr. Wolfgang
Ullrich, who was then a department head at an exhaust system
manufacturer and followed the DTM primarily on television. He
experienced his first DTM race at the end of 1991 in Hockenheim.
Two years later, the Austrian took over management of Audi Sport.
I will never forget how Striezel Stuck, on a lap of honor,
hung halfway out of the door and stroked the roof of his car, recalls
Michael Dick as he continues to reminisce with Dr. Ullrich. And the
Norisring was, of course, always our home track. It is amazing how
close they drive to the walls there, sometimes even losing their
outside mirrors.
That was more critical for the cars back then than it is
now, reckons Dr. Ullrich, because the wheels hardly had any space
in the almost production-standard bodyshell. When you drove off
the mirror, there was a high risk that you also damaged the front
fender, causing the wheels to start rubbing. These days, not only
are the wheels bigger and wider, they also have a lot more space in
the wheel arches.
Which brings us to the walk-round with the two gentlemen of the two DTM vehicles from yesterday and today. The V8
quattro looks long-legged and narrow, the A5 DTM low and wide.
The A5 is 18.5 centimeters lower, 13.6 centimeters longer and
13.6 centimeters wider than the V8, calculates Dr. Ullrich. Thats
what makes the difference. Both cars have 18-inch wheels but the
tires today are not only wider and higher, they also have a lot more
air in them than back then. Plus, ground clearance is a lot less and
thats compared with the current A4 DTM, too.

Experience the Audi touring cars in action.

460 hp
In 1990, the close-to-series-production V8 already produced 420 hp.
A later increase to 460 hp took it to its performance limits. The new V8 in
the A5 DTM is throttled and could produce more.

2 Clear lines the form of the A5

has been retained for the DTM version.


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Experts Michael Dick and

Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich with the new
Audi A5 DTM. The interior is
still off limits for photographers.

ultra-lightweight design has an important role to play in the
DTM, too. Carbon fiber helps save excess kilograms.

The Head of Audi Sport could spend hours talking us

through the differences between the two DTM generations, but
its time now for the test drives. First up is the V8 quattro, which
turns out to be extremely difficult to climb into and out of on account of the side impact protection made from steel tubing. Once
in there, the seating position is virtually identical to the seriesproduction car and even the fine wood veneer trim in the cockpit
comes from the luxury sedans of the time. And there are plenty
more features that are very similar to the production version, The
V8 had a synchronized gearbox, explains Dr. Ullrich. You had to
work the clutch and gearshift in the regular way.
Its all very different in the A5 DTM. Climbing in and out
of it is easier, although the driver sits much farther back in the
carbon-fiber monocoque than in the series-production A5. The
clutch is needed only for pulling away; in the 2012 DTM, gearshift
will be via steering wheel paddles for the first time. A clear connection to our S tronic from series production, acknowledges
Michael Dick, who is surprised by how easily the A5 DTM pulls away
from a standstill. You barely have to touch the accelerator, he
notices. The electronics help a lot, confirms Dr. Ullrich. The only
thing that takes a little getting used to for Dick is the carbon-fiber
brakes that demand a great deal of force and only really bite when
they are up to temperature. Which is why warming up the brakes
is so important, says Dr. Ullrich.
After several laps with the two DTM vehicles on the oval
test track in Neustadt, Michael Dick has gathered a whole host of
impressions. You can obviously see it in the cars that there are
more than 20 years between them, says the Chief Engineer. But
blindfolded, I would have probably guessed the difference to be
much less. Even back then, Audi was ahead of its time. Aside from
that, they are completely different cars. The A5 reacts directly and
incredibly precisely. And I was very positively surprised by the impressively spacious feel of the A5 DTM. I felt very much at ease in
it right from the start even more so than in the A4 DTM, which I
have also had the chance to drive.

That shows that we have made a very fine job of the

coupe, says Dr. Ullrich, obviously very pleased with the praise.
Because you might expect the feeling of space to be better in
a sedan.
Dick is particularly pleased that the exterior design of
the series-production A5 remains clearly recognizable, as the aerodynamicists no longer have the same freedoms they have enjoyed
in the past. The airflow through the vehicle that Audi introduced
to the DTM and that was subsequently copied by the competition
is no longer permitted as of 2012. Despite the tight regulations,
there are still plenty of ways to set yourself apart from the competition, says a convinced Dr. Ullrich. Aerodynamic efficiency will
continue to play a very important role, as will the chassis kinematics. However, the regulations prevent an arms race that would compromise safety. We wanted an even higher safety standard, spectacular cars and reduced costs and thats what we achieved.
For the Head of Audi Sport, the move away from modified series-production vehicles to purely prototype regulations is
the right one. It was always extremely difficult to balance the different vehicle and drive concepts, especially for the different
tracks, he says. Now, everybody is starting from the same point.
For Michael Dick, there is still plenty of association between the DTM and series production and not just from the visual
standpoint. One issue that is becoming increasingly important
is ultra-lightweight design, he explains. We have developed a
strategy of making CFRP feasible for high-volume production, too.
Thanks to motorsport and the DTM we are well out in front. Paddle
shifting and steering wheels with flattened undersides are good
examples that come from racing and have been applied to our series-production vehicles.
Audi is absolutely convinced that the A5 DTM, which is
built almost entirely from CFRP, will continue Audis DTM success
story. And perhaps the new car will also manage something that
was denied its predecessor, the A4 DTM, but that was achieved in
1990 and 1991 by the V8 quattro a victory at Audis home race on
the Norisring. Nobody would be more happy about that than

Michael Dick.

1 Firm grip like the V8 quattro, the A5 DTM

runs on 18-inch wheels. The tires, however, are
higher and wider.

2 Tailplane a huge rear spoiler provides

downforce for the A5 DTM. The V8 quattro had
virtually no aerodynamic assistance.


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* See glossary, p. 142

Technical terms explained
Brief definitions of the terms used in this issue.


Car-to-X communication refers to a communications
technology whereby vehicles can communicate with
each other, with their owners and with the traffic
infrastructure via wireless networks. This benefits
fuel efficiency and safety and enables services such
as cash-free refueling.

Piloted Driving
At Audi, piloted driving is the application of technologies that enable a vehicle to drive autonomously
without any input from the driver.
Plug-in Hybrid
A plug-in hybrid (PHEV) is a vehicle with hybrid drive
whereby the battery can also be charged externally
by plugging it into the electricity grid.

ACC adaptive cruise control

At Audi, adaptive cruise control refers to a distancebased cruise control that uses radar sensors and
cameras to automatically regulate the distance to
vehicles in front.

Pre sense System

At Audi, Pre sense refers to an accident avoidance
system. The base version is fitted as standard equipment and, in the event of something like an emergency braking maneuver, tightens the seat belts,
closes the windows and sliding roof, adjusts the seats
to the upright position and activates the hazard
lights. The optional systems Pre sense front, Pre
sense rear and Pre sense plus are networked with all
the radar sensors and cameras in the car and monitor
the traffic in front of and behind the vehicle. If required, they instigate measures that avoid collisions
or mitigate their consequences.

Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Prototyping refers to a range of different processes for producing prototypes using components
made directly from CAD construction data.

3D printer rapid prototyping is an indispensable

process in Audi Development.

Networked Audi car-to-x systems facilitate

completely new communication structures.
CFRP is the acronym for carbon-fiber reinforced

View the Audi Pre sense systems give a new

dimension to anticipatory driving.

Minimum distance the Audi adaptive cruise

control delivers maximum safety
The Aluminum and Lightweight Design Center (ALZ)
at Audi in Neckarsulm serves the development, production planning and quality assurance of lightweight materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced
Balanced Scorecard
Balanced Scorecard (BSC) serves as an instrument
of measurement, documentation and control of
company activities in the implementation of new

Recharging Audi is testing the everyday usability

of plug-in hybrid technology.

Light CFRP plays a weighty role alongside

aluminum in Audi's lightweight design concept

Bar graph readout

The bar graph readout refers to a bar-shaped chart
for depicting the size of signals the stronger the
signal, the longer the bar.

DLP Technology
Digital Light Processing (DLP) refers to projection
technology that features a DLP chip equipped with
microscopically small mirrors. The technology enables brilliant reproduction of colors and top-quality
image contrast.

Boxwing airfoil
Boxwing refers to an airfoil layout whereby two airfoils of different shapes are arranged one above the
other and joined at the outer ends. This box-shaped
design delivers a higher degree of flight stability and
reduces fuel consumption.

The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) is Europes largest aerospace group.
Alongside the Airbus, EADS produces a wide range
of products for military applications and space
Fused Deposition Modeling
Fused Deposition Modeling refers to a fused layering process for the creation of three-dimensional
models using rapid prototyping (see ref.). The model
is formed by the layered fusing and curing of plastic
or wax material.

Aeronautics Audi also refers to the expertise of

EADS aircraft engineers for efficiency improvements.

PMD Diode
A PMD diode (PMD = photo mix detector) is a means
of precise three-dimensional distance measurement. A light source sends invisible infrared light
into the field in front of the car at intervals of 10
milliseconds. It is reflected by objects there and sent
back to the sensor located in the base of the rear view
mirror. Detectors in the sensor measure the running time of the light beams and compare them with
a reference signal thus generating information
about the distance of the objects.

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Vibrating Coil Actuator

The vibrating coil actuator is part of the active engine
mount for vibration damping. In the electromagnetic vibrating coil actuator, an elastic membrane
transmits the rapid vertical motion of the actuator
as counter-vibrations into the mounts hydraulic
fluid, which also absorbs the engine vibrations. The
counter-vibrations superimpose the engine vibrations thus cancelling them out.

Formula Audi uses pushrod technology in all

its racing cars.
Range Extender
Range extenders are engines that increase the distance that an electric vehicle can travel. An internal
combustion engine operating as a range extender
powers a generator that supplies electricity to a battery and the electric motor.

Innovative the Audi PMD diode enables exact

distance measurement of moving objects.
Quiet Audi active noise control uses this kind
of actuator for reducing noise level.

Laser Sintering Process

The laser sintering process is a method whereby the
layered sintering of powdered raw materials generates complex three-dimensional component structures on the basis of CAD data, as used in rapid prototyping (see ref.).

Synthetic Gas
Synthetic gas is derived from non-crude-oil-based
sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. This
synthetic gas can be used to synthesize a wide range
of hydrocarbons and thus a variety of different fuels.

The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is used for
the calculation of fuel consumption. It incorporates four city cycles with constant driving at speeds
of 15, 32, 40 and 50 km/h, as well as one crosscountry drive on main roads and highways at a speed
of 120 km/h.
Objet Printer
Objet is the name of a market-leading company
that develops, produces and sells 3D printers for
rapid prototyping (see ref.).


Pushrod Technology
Pushrod refers to a suspension technology commonly found in motorsport with springs and dampers arranged virtually horizontally within the

Recuperation means the recovery of kinetic energy
derived from deceleration. Under trailing throttle
or during braking, the generator converts the kinetic
energy into electrical energy, which is then stored
temporarily in the battery. Recuperation reduces
the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines and is an important element in all hybrid and
electric drives.


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85045 Ingolstadt
Responsible for content:
Toni Melfi,
Head of Communications,
Managing Editors:
Lisa Fting
Christine Maukel
Concept and Realization:
Hermann Reil
Graphic Concept and Layout:
Paul-Janosch Ersing
Christian Gnthner
Agnes Happich
Lena Kiening
Johannes Kbler
Kristin Jurack
Christine Maukel
Hermann Reil
Daniel Schuster
Markus Stier
Thomas Tacke
Bernhard Ubbenhorst
Thomas Voigt
Stefan Warter
Myrzik und Jarisch
Benjamin Maerzke
Robin Wink
Elaine Catton
Steven Pope
sxces Communication
Post Production:
Martin Tervoort
Kunst- und Werbedruck
Bad Oeynhausen


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