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A

SHORT

MASONIC

HISTORY
being

of the growth

account

an

and

Freemasonry,
earlier

Secret

some

of

of
the

Societies,

by

FREDERICK
Solicitoy,
Circle

of

Member

ARMITAGE
the

of Quatuor

Law

Society,

Member

Lodge,

Member

Coronati

Ecclesiological Society,

of Correspondence
of St. Paul's

S-c.

illustrations.

With

VOL.

1.

LONDON:
H.
64

LEADEN

WEARE

"

HALL
1909

CO,
ST..

E.G.

FOREWORD.

'T'

HERE

is

nature

modern

enshrouded
be

in

dug

for

like

together
has

there

from

been

always

original

free

gave

awed

authors,

gravely
topic, have
the
lighter fancies
thus

ultimate

the
and

grain

duty

of

out

the

real

tale

as

it should

judge,

to

the

but

valuable

here

the

of the

many

of

may

the

Craft,

has

he

Quatuor

known

as

writer

in

course

and

of

desires

to

obtained

1909.

tones

and
mixed

of

it is

tell

to

to

pick

to

try

the

the

author

his

readers

acknowledge

from

the

actions
trans-

which
Lodge,
learned
Society of

Coronati
the

of

other

it

endeavours,
time

throw

pages
secret

Fred.

July,

and

left

obscure

present

their

stories
to

be

whose

and

Freemasonry,
hoped,

he

ceeding
Sucof

one

Whether

must

quently
fre-

who

solemn

such

fanciful,

told.

not

aid

well

now

the

early

an

fancies.

been

From

be
or

of
is

from

find

ones

predecessors,

has

present-day

the

succeeded

has

harvest

have

later

to

in

their

of

are

pieced

glamour

repeated

cornflowers.

the

the

by

of

and

with

their

to

the

ones

historians,

rein

of

records

writers

striving

their

amongst

early

while
a

that
ancestors

their

various

Mosaic,

the

and

mystery,

up

the

were

elusive

more

than

upon

which

Freemasonry,

of

topic

no

discourse

to

societies

secret

to

probably

light

of the

on

history

societies.

Aemitage,

is

P.M.

CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Foreword
5
CHAPTER

The

Origins

II.

The

Persians

III.

The

Egyptians

IV.

The

I.

Secret

of

Societies-

12

ig

Pythagoreans

V.

The

Eleusinians

VI.

The

Temple

22

25

Builders

28

VII

The

VIII.

The

Roman

ly.

The

Knights

X.

The

Veiimegericiite

48

XI.

The

Rosicrucians

51

XII.

The

Woodcutters

Essenes

XIII.

The

Italian

XIV.

The

Illuminati

XV.

and

The

41

59

Spanish

Societies

63

"

Masons

6g

"

Charges

76

Poem

91

"

Masonic

Freemasonry

38

67

Ancient

Freemasonry
The

XVIII.

Templars

Operative

Freemasonry

The

XVII.

Builders

Freemasonry
The

XVI.

34

"

Transition

Period

100

coaW.

CONTENTS"

PAGB.

XIX.

Freemasonry
The

XX.

"

Grand

Lodge

Freemasonry

112

XXI.

The

XXII.

The

Gormogons

XXIII.

The

Orange

Society

XXIV.

The

United

Irishman's

XXV.

The

Friendly

XXVI.

Freemasonry

XXVII.

England

outside

132

Gregorians

139

142

Society

148

Societies

152

Literature

IN

Freemasonry

146

and

the

" Art

157

Law

178

Conclusion

182

Index

183

Illustrations.

page.

"'

Night

The

King

Early
The

"

by Hogarth
and

Masons

Axe

Gormogons

Masonic

his Chief

and

Procession

Mason

of Tarbolton

gj

no

Freemasons,

Frontispiece

by Hogarth

142

Lodge

170

SHORT

MASONIC

HISTORY.

CHAPTER
THE

and

arms

among
him

that

like-minded
either

with

became

at

surprising to
of
arose
genius
gathered round

once

faithful

himself.

school,

all the

it is not

but

small,

"

than

greater

man

he

Virgil sings,
of manly
ploits
ex-

prowess

mind,

people,

circle

which

far

whenever

the
a

of

the

of the

acquirements

SOCIETIES.

SECRET

considered

were

find

OF

early days

those
when

-*"

ORIGINS

I.

of

"

Such
which

in

followers

gathering

the

master's

were

the

all times

have

Pythagoreans;
wherein
the master's
sect
religious
a
instance
the Jesuits,
ideas
were
as
expounded,
club
where
propagated,
were
political ends
a
the Orange
such
as
Society ; or a guild, whereia
the interests
of a particular craft
trade
were
or
be
such
that
of tht
to
as
advanced,
sought
in England.
operative masons
philosophy

was

Workmen

in

it necessary
such
places
wanderers
A
be

stranger
a

skilled

taught

trades

such

"

at

to

follow

as

they

could,

town

to

from

arriving
workman,

at

and

find

their

and

thus

and

town,

place

had

to

and
be

found
work

in

became

city to city.
professing to

scrutinised

and

SOCIETIES

SECRET

lo

give proofs,

to

only of his skill,but

not

the
into
entry
proper
than
turn
better
to
was

apprenticeshipand

his

trade

into

guild

the

society, with

secret

hall-mark

the

be

society,to belong
experience and skill ?
of

have

have

lived

their

days

another

time,

in later

of

of

ashes

the

both

permeated

with
time

from

up

sprung
life,and

died

out,

till

similarities

had

objects,

different

had

societies

such

they frequently

and

ideas

of

were
ritual, which
originated by,
lavishly copied from, their predecessors.

of

similarities
if not

One

point

of

and

that

them,

resemblance
is the

which
in

enshrined

and

drawn

the

for

members

The

while

lesson

convey.

Greeks,
with

truths.

each
In

less

or
a

idea

of

and

the

the

pictorialand
The
figures

familiar
eagle were
the key, the anchor, and

class, and
to

the

and

another

of their

more

were

symbols
the religion they professed.
ancient
Egyptians, the

the

teemed

lessons
a

ture
pic-

fitting
oath
solemn
by the
divulge the sign and

The

from

of

or

formed

to

rites of the

Christians

illustrations
Iamb

drawn

worship

of the

of

outsiders.

to

doubtless

heathen

ritual of

improperly

not

words

pass

sanction

symbols,
moral

which

religious character,
frame

of

all of

through

runs

use

from

language,

was

betokened

society has risen and used


fire
former
body to light its own
it is probable that,
In this way

existence.

although

is

civilisation

which

societies

such
to

of

history

which

to

The

duly given,
genuine member

the

of

of

system

when

passwords, which,

signs and
would

What

craft.

or

of

also

to

had

their

same

way

all

the
own

the

as

ritual
other
of the
bols,
sym-

ship form
moral
coats

of

SOCIETIES

SECRET

arms

by

worn

all

symbolic of the
who
by those

The

for

ceremony

days

supposed

to

bore

them.

of

all secret

twofold-

are

ages

mediaeval

virtues

characteristics

earliest

the

in

knights

ii

be

sessed
pos-

societies

First,

candidate,

the

were

from
tion
initia-

an

prior

which

to

and
proofs of his character
adaptability to the fraternity, and during which
entrusted
oath
he swore
to
keep the secrets
an
him.
to
to
guard the true
Secondly, in order
intruder
the
brother
from
the
rash
or
spurious
had

he

give

to

or

coyon,

without

who

cowan,

who

those

is

It

which

had

has

one

have

copied

ancient

there

are

"

the

have

from

the

of

continuity
from

to

has

ones

wanting

not

likeness

signs
given by

were

be

initiated.

opinion

that

similar

rules, the

this

secret

been

preserved,

admits

both

critics

torical
his-

the

way

modern

those

when

'other, unless

In

ancestor.

common

workman

only

properly

found

are

been

been

be
there

could

generally accepted

bodies

two

to

apprenticeship,

proper

passwords

and

tried

societies

though

who

that

say

of

explanation
by the
of psychical identity"
general doctrine
a
highis meant
that
sounding
phrase, by which
by a
"

coincidence
truth
of

at

two

the

same

minds

arrive

may

at

the

same

time

The
thought.
from
one
original,
seems
schoolboys,
more
probable.

trains
by two
independent
of two
explanation
copyists

derived

from

however,

the
the

example
easier

of
and

12

II.

CHAPTER
PERSIANS.

THE

ancient

AMONG

of the

one

was

sun

most

obvious

generally practised of religious


the question of
agriculturalmind
cereal

for

both

crops,

and

rites.

food

human

of

worship

the

races

the

the

most

the

To

raising

and

of

pasture

for

prime necessity of life; and,


these
both
primarily depended on the sun, it
the most
powerful
accordingly considered
of Nature, and
the forces
such, a deity to
as
It had
also to be propitiated,
worshipped.
well as
it could
be a bane
as
a
blessing, as

in

the

absence

in the

deserts

for
as
was

of
be

the

cattle, was

of
it

it created

water

the

was

famines,

of those

cause

and

common

sunstroke
and
ophthalmia
complaints
caused
by the glare of light upon the head or
therefore
versally
unialmost
Sun-worship was
eyes.
nations
the
practised by Eastern
all the
tribes
whose
Persians, Assyrians, and
borders
nations
were
m
adjacent to the Hebrew
Old Testament
times.
Over
and over
again the
Israelites are
recorded
to have
copied the habits
of their neighbours.
after
Indeed, Solomon,
the building of
the
Temjjle, practised the old
heathen
better known
worship, and no deity was
the people of Palestine
to
than
Baal, who
was
the Sun
It was
obvious
that it rose
in the
god.
Eastern

"

"

"

east,

at

midday

south, and
After
of

it

that

the

at

it

during

was

that

attained
close
out

of

time?

its
of

meridian

in

the

day set in the west.


sight, and what became
The
gods were
sup-

THE

PERSIANS

13

posed to take it in hand, place it in a golden


on
a
goblet, and navigate it through an ocean
until it reached
the east
northerly course,
again
next
Aristotle, while
morning.
rejecting the
believed
that the
theory of the ocean
voyage,
the
was
sun
conveyed somehow
by night across
northern
due to
was
regions, and that darkness
screened
off the
beams
sunlofty mountains, which
during the voyage.
It is

therefore

not

of the

idea

heavens

was

their

from

west

of honour
The

of

in that

where

the

modern
of

in

oldest

founded

sacred

exponents

secret

and

these

land

if

of their

doctrines,

hidden,

mysteries, which
correctly interpreted by

tised
prac-

may

the

as

to

in which

or

post

probably
Thibet,
credit

to

are

as

east

the

secrets,
we

this

from

was

methods,
known

now

by

up

doors

made

east

locked

Lhamas,

the

transmitted

societies
of

through

east, and

to

copied, and the


their meetings.

was

the

taken

of ritual

north

that

"mysteries,"

or

them,

portions

successors

daily progress
to

call

and

closed

rites,

to

sun

upon

within

secret

they preferred
their

of the

daily progress
easily seized

societies, which

the

find

surprising to

had

body

esoteric,
may

not

Theosophists

or

be
of

to-day.
the
adjoining their territory came
founded
Persians, whose
the
religion was
on
of
God
fire.
light and
Fire-worshippers
is a familiar
phrase, and the High Priest of the

Nearly

"

order

was

Zoroaster,

who

"

is

represented

sculptured figures with a blazing sun


head.
He
certainly practised within

round
the

in
his
re-

PERSIANS

THE

14
of

cesses

of

Sun,

up

to,

all looked

they

When

Sun.
and

arose,

some

and

powers,

of

experiments
for the

same

priests became
Persia's

Cyrus,
538 B.C.,

who

Persia's

and

until

by

the

Greeks

in

490

B.C.,

It

is

under

and

arts

days,

and

probable
knowledge
One

arts.

the

armies

hosts

overran

Darius

were

by

that

of

in this

of

name

subject

of

great

in

b.c.

acquired
Egyptian magic

note

in

societies

secret

480

Persia

way
the

of

some

of Marathon

Salamis

at

sea

age

defeated

were

battle

the

Babylon in
Egypt and

of

they

the

at

in

height

the

land

on

its

at

was

overcame

Greece

the

the

earlier word
an
Magic was
thing, and accordingly the Persian
magi, or magicians.

power

of

with

natural
super-

alchemists?

called

for

than

later

in

of

gained

was

themselves

who,

those

to

the^priests

of

practise

to

shipped
wor-

faces

their

natural
to

arrogate

always

with

more

was

the

they

for

only
Deity

were

was

higher cult
knowledge

chemistry, what
these
priests to

light

which

fire-altars

their

at

the

the

obtained

have

to

and

Fire

Egypt.

children

is said

he

of which

knowledge
from
Upper
the

the
labyrinths,mysteries,_

and

caverns

connection
is that

of

Greek

scholar, Pythagoras,
whom
to
we
shall refer later, and
who
undoubtedly learned
and
of the Egyptian rites. There
practised some
is

he

story in

was

byses,

carried
and

first hand
some

lacks
these

of

writers

some

away

in this
with

way

the

their

Magi,

secrets.

confirmation,
secret

foreigner.

arts

by

and

should

that, whilst
the

in

Egypt,

Persian

became

King Camacquainted at

from

whom

The

however,
that
improbable
been
taught to a

it is
have

story,

he

learned

PERSIANS

THE
The

Magi

Persian

who

visited

i), though
that

these

from

the

"Wise

Men

stated

in

that

"

wisdom

of

There

Old

the

"

Egypt

East

where

country,

be

to

it is

excelled

(i Kings

little doubt

seems

sian
Per-

supposed

wisdom

of the

came

These

Testament,

Solomon's

children

all the

also

think

to

East"

Chaldeans.

are

East,"
(Matt, ii.,

birth

the

the

the

prefer

from

of the

philosophers
to

his

be

to

from

commentators

some

country

referred

Men

after

Lord

our

supposed

are

Wise

"the

of

originals

15

that

and

of

all the

iv., 30).

that

in

with

common

the

Jews and all other Eastern


nations, much
of the learning of these Magi
was
expended on
the interpretation of dreams, the Eastern
mind
being filled with picturesque ideas which
were
varied
repeated in their sleep, and had to them
and
strange significance.
To

be

able

coin

to

word

new

which

has

been

of
the world,
adopted in the vocabularies
in the man,
in the counbespeaks greatness
or
try
which
Such
gives it birth.
an
honour, if it
be one,
for the coining of a word
which
has not
the most
pleasantest association, is possessed by
Persia, to which
belonged the Society
country
of

the

with

Assassins,

the

whose

of their

names

history is associated
antagonists the Knights

Templars.
The
the

assassins
oriental
with

opium,
used
name

to

drug
which

excite

of their

derived

their

their

"hashish,"
the

members

either

name
an

of

extract

the

from
of

society

from
imagination, or
founder, Hassan-ben-Sabah.

the
The

PERSIANS

THE

i6

in

Mahomet

of

death

the

after

Mohammedans,

the question
sphtinto two sections over
CaHph.
as
his legitimate successor
of who
was
called the Tunnites, or orthodox
One
body were
the
in Turkey, and
found
who
were
Moslems,

632

A.D.,

other
who

or

eldest

the

surprising

not

divisions

developed
departing from

to

was

the

in the

themselves

of

country,

Persia,
of

one

dallah, who

the

hate

to

afterwards

Egypt,

into

is said

placing a descendant
throne, and a lodge of the
at

Cairo, while

Caliphs

as

and

replace

head

of

the

what

the
to

to

who

where

Ab-

secret

establish

and

formed

Ismaelites

they

of Ismael

Mohammedan

to
were

Arabs

haA'e

its members

Asia, their objects being

right

was

named

The

own.

in

founded

pediency
ex-

they placed

and

Magi

professed
who
their religion,and
secret
a
society of his
went

that

allied themselves

their

of

Magi
under

of what

test

therefore

Freethinkers

that

man,

religions
and
good

qualities,and

sole

be

They

wrong.

found

of

all

that

doctrine

fixed

not

were

of

strictness

invention

the

evil

the

ites
Ismael-

faith, and,
the
Koran,

their

of

these

of
the

of

body

new

ideas

new

secret

were

'the

It is

priest.

result

the

tended
con-

Ismael,

to

go

deceased

the

find that

to

that

was

formed

Ali,

of

son

should

Imamship

the

that

who

Ismaelites,

the

called

were

sections

two

Imam,
proper
of the
new

question" that of the


high priest" and the members
similar

sia.
in Per-

Moslems

splitinto

on

Shi-ites,

the

as

of the

later

Shi-ites

branch

or

known

one

members

the

were

The
on

heterodox

was

on

ceeded
suc-

the

society was
spread over
their

own

religion,

the
they regarded
as
at
It was
spurious one
at this time
Bagdad.
that Hassan-ben-Sabah
journeyed to Egypt, and
to

THE
became

PERSIANS
of

afterwards

He

lodge.

member

zealous

17
Ismaelite

the

in

Alimoot,

to

went

the order
Persia, and there in 1090 he founded
of the
Assassins," with himself as the master,
"

which

Skeikh-ad-Jebel,

or

the

Mountain,"

the

of

town

on

became

of

being
he
Europe

Alimoot
in

lofty hill, though


the
as
popularly known

situated

the

"Master

meant

"

Old

of

man

mountain."

A
There
first

were

that

being

in

degrees

seven

of the

the

master;

order, the

the

second

three

grand priors; third, the initiated


dais; fourth, the companions,
or

or

fifth, the
novices, or

to

lafecks

; and

ritual with
the

seven

master,

fedavees;
seventh, the profane,

For

the

and

of the

was,

however,

initiated, and
wait

the

direction

book

only
rest

of

it which

was

that

any

the

tion
interpreta-

secret

the

the

Koran

suited

communicated

of

that

the

literal,so

This

moment.

there

or

implicit obedience
a

interpretation of the sacred


not
to be allegorical and
was
might be given to
meaning
purpose

initiated

precepts"

secrecy,

masters,

refeeks;
sixth, the

or

members.

"common
3.

devoted,

were

to

members

the

had

to

till the

The
meaning was
given to them.
fifth class, or fedavees, were
the working
bers,
memand
in ,white garwere
usually clothed
ments,
with
red fez and
a
girdle, though when
sent
on
duty they could disguise themselves
any
in any costume
they thought proper.

The

fedavee, when
required
stupified with hashish, which
dream

fanciful

visions, and

believe

he"

in tlie Paradise

was

work,

to

caused

he

was

of

the

was

him

to

made

to

Prophet,

PERSIANS

THE

i8

that

and

the

to

The

the

ordered.

the

his

successor

into

touch

Grand

sins

have

Caliph
victims

the

of

latter

tried

made

made

the

they

to

offer

Templars
again

as

he

murdered
it is

levied
and

other

came

remitted

plars,
Tem-

stronger,

the

the

offer

an

salem,
Jeru-

of

who

envoy,

killed

Coeur

yearly

which

The

when

on

CairO'

to

the

deadly work;
of Tyre
at

tribute

of

the

however,

returned,

fare,
war-

by
King

Almeric,

Assas-.

The

ducats,

Christians.

Conrad

as

their

Sultan

submit

to

have

was,

in

society.

gold
to

and
left

The

lances

and

said, of Richard

Assassins

missions

Crusader-King
the
de Paganes,
and
they agreed

themselves

had

their

resumed

Tripoli

found

40,000

become

to

key,
Tur-

they were
Syria and

Saracens.

free

their

to

them

to

the

Bagdad

Assassins

tribute

Hugh

been

of

however,
and

of

He
1124.
afterwards

Temples,

against

to

falling

the

of

trance
en-

H., the

through

forces

who

Baldwin

with

seem

their

in

died

Buzoorg,

Master

join

out

wherever

and

master,

Jerusalem,

of

Sultan

spread into
they acquired much
power,

where

Hassan,

the

Assassins

The

Tripoli,

by

carried

when

assassination

of

the

was

after-life.

attacked

fedavees

him,

to

came

dehcio-us

most

society wasbut

to

if it

death,

de

by

the

Assassins

and

in

the

tion,
instiga-

Lion.

Christians

1192-

The
of

places, though they unsuccessfully


demanded
it of King Louis
of France
when
he
The
passed
through Acre.
in
Assassins
Persia
defeated
were
in 1256,.
by the Mongols
and the Syrian branch
exterminated
was
in 1270,
of them
though traces
still said to exist
in
are
Persia.

'

EGYPTIANS

THE

20

the

body

swamps

grew

where

branches

of

who

it into

cut

her

the

perform
had

the

effect

and

establishing him

hidden

world.

Plutarch
there

of

The

secret

"De

god

matter

of

societies

of

to

instructed

is

the

from
and

in

told
et

it in

remark

Egypt,

from

from

ark
"

year
and
or

was

ark

was

memory

full

by

scriptions
in-

Egyptian

in

some

the

tian
Egypthe

of

sun

Osiris,

embodied

the

its

that death
every

the

It is certain,
mysteries of such societies.
the evidence
of
the
relics of
ancient

from

and

of

Osiride," and

that

after-days

dead,

King

of
legends of the
progress
through the heavens, of the murder
and the finding of his remains, became

in the

Isis discovered

followers, to
ceremonies, which

Iside

allusions

many

is

tered
scat-

his

Osiris

story

in his work

are

It

raising
as

the devoted

by

burial

proper

he

which

then

it

by Set,

found

was

She

assisted

Horus,

son

them-

buried

by

hid

and

was,

pieces,

places, but

in different

and

it

fourteen

tree, which

discovered,

Isis

body

There

place.

secret

the

to

deposited

acacia

an

the

where

means,

waters

it became

it.

concealed

and

up

magical
in

of the Delta,
lower

the

on

the

by

carried

was

Nile, and

the

in

Osiris

drowned

stratagem,

latter, by

The

Set.

named

brother

jealous

its tombs,
pictures carved upon
chambers, the Pyramids,
mortuary
the main

was

the

of

procession

boat

death

subjectof

often

Osiris
was

the rites.

was

formed

Once

ated,
commemor-

in

which

an

figured on Egyptian tombs


borne
the
on.
The
priests' shoulders.
contain
to
supposed
dead
in
a
body
of the boat which
floatingon the Nile,
"

THE
bore

the

told

again

Pharoahs'

case

dead

the

finding a human
floating in

one

the

"

have

Thebes

erection

and

also

of

Karnak.

became

within

also

priests

which

obelisks

the

other

outside, and
of

those

obelisks

of

and

his book

lars
pil-

if

Egypt, describes
of the Egyptian
priests,
the
huge labyrinths which

French
the

may

believe

and

other

magical

the

on

artificially

we

called

with

this large piece of

part,

for

which

any

witness

as

him, constructed

Moeris,

of

deals

of

showed

labyrinths,

of

division

ceremonies

talks

in

feature

one

These

in the

of the

temple

the

on

originals of similar features


lodges of the later societies.

the

"Euterpe,"

been,

ark

the

Herodotus,

Lake

an

those

within,
pillars,

numerous

and

the

"

"

temples of Egypt
from
distinguish them

some

down

daughter of
in
this
body

story of

The

found

Osiris

of

river.

sacred

nation

21

remains

severed

river, and
the

EGYPTIANS

shore

having

water

made.

the

of

These'

glowing

counts
ac-

writers, formed

and

monies
mystical cereof
the Egyptians,
the
rites being
companied
aceffects
of
lightning
by theatrical
and
of a
thunder, and by startlingappearances
the
darkness.
blazing sun
shining through
Thomas
Moore, the poet, has given a glowing

account

prose

of

work,

1839, which
learned

these

ceremonies

in

his

"The

Epicurean,"
published in
he accompanies
from
by notes
many

writers.
of

of the

of

some

some

artist,J.

The

work

of these
M.

W.

also

scenes

Turner,

contains
from

R.A.

the

trations
illus-

pencil

22

IV.

CHAPTER
PYTHAGOREANS.

THE

is
THERE
associated

mystic lore
Pythagoras,

with

past

island

Greece

was

in

and

surprising
Egypt to

it is not

and

ficient.
pro-

influenced

much

time

Greek

became

he

or

500 B.C.
inclined

his mind

which

at this

learning,

by Egyptian

580

Samos,

philosophy,

Greek

is the

that

between

of

scientific

of

and

ages,

always

is

name

matters

lived

who

in the

Born
to

in

whose

man

one

Pythagoras journeyed to
study the learning of that country at its fountain
the
The
head.
depositaries of
priests were
believe
if we
to
tradition,
are
learning; and
in
their
instructed
mysteries
Pythagoras was
well as in their hiefoglyphical writings. The
as
credulous
and
mind
of
ever
ready to
man,
in
is enshrouded
imagine that the marvellous
glyphs
the unknown,
readily thought that the hierowhich
covered
the temples and
ancient
tombs
of Egypt
had
dark
unfold
of
secrets
to
well
mystic rites and ceremonies, and this was
of those
curious
ings
writenough while the secrets
to

find

that

remained

however,
while

found

they

they
to

have

greatest
reveal

not

been

under

Modern

up.

key
to

contain

interest
of

any

goes

one

journeys

were

with

Persian

the

Cambyses, the
assisted
Persia, who

son

in

has,
of

matters

and
tory
his-

and

importance,
those
mysteries said
The
to Pythagoras.
step further, for our
said

to

invasion

of that
the

research

decipher them,

to

communicated

story, however,
traveller's

the
found

are

of the
do

locked

be

poraneous
contem-

of

Egypt

Cyrus, King of
of the Jews
return

PYTHAGOREANS

THE

23

Babylonish captivity. Cambyses, it


said, took Pythagoras with him on his return
the hidden
Persia, where
learning of the

from
is
to

their

Magi

of that

armed

with

country
the

native

land

Crotona,

on

then

the

gulf

his

he

and

own,

of

set

an

the

first

Greek

of

army

his

to

of

colony
in the

school

Thus,

kingdoms,

Tarentum,

up

him.

two

returned

40,
to

to

of

lore

aged

and

Italy, where

of

ancient

then

Pythagoras,

revealed

was

of

south
of

thought
known

scholars

as

Pythagoreans.
His
of

researches

astronomy,
moved

planets

that

in their

modes

of

the

hence

soul

the

called

of

the

to

as

the

hyphothenuse

credited

to

In three

to

of

the

of

Egyptians;

of

among
his

second

not

first
his

own

being

the
in his

these
his

lowers.
fol-

discoverer,

47th problem

to

Euclid.

points Pythagoras

the

the

gration
transmi-

one

well-known

them

Egyptian

from

was

be

of
properties of the square
of a right-angled triangle is

him, and
other

he

i6th

by

"music

also

became

many

deemed

the

the

the

evolved

were

mathematics

glory

Euclid

numbered

in

philosophy- G. H. Lewes
Philosophy" has summarised
Pythagoras and those of

In

the

sounds

for

it corre.ct
he

the

round

derided

movements

fields

that

taught

succession

was

proved

the

to

of his

"History of
teachings of

women

first

Directly flowing
thought, the doctrine

of

the

which

motion,

branches

foremost

regular

musical

spheres."

of

he

These

century.

and

and

till Galileo

years,

such

him

in

doctrine

sun,

took

in

was

the

followed

the

inclusion

of

whom

he

disciples,amongst
wife

and

abstinence

fifteen
from

other

beans

ladies;
as
food,

PYTHAGOREANS

THE

24
for
while

the

third

and

ciphers

with

connected

reasons

hermetic

the

was

his

of

order

in

symbols

nature

use

legends;
by Pythagoras of
ancient

to

the

preserve

learning.

fluential
inwas
an
Pythagoreans
from
the history of Italy,
is clear
one
where
the pupils took
part in politicalstruggles
against the democratic
party, and eventually had
flee from
to
persecution. As to their mysteries,
Herodotus
tells us
that the Pythagoreans
were
worshippers of Orpheus and Bacchus, the latter
itself being a keynote -to the mysteries,
name
the

That

and

the

of

body

historian

same

adds

who
profane for one
mysteries to be buried
and a religious reason

their

Herodotus

custom.

slave

of

has

Pythagoras,

who

to

the

in order
from

also

his

cari-y

master,

dwelling,

where

there

the

on

built
he

mysteries

it

was

initiated

in
is
a

was

sidered
con-

woollen

story of

ments,
gar-

for

given

in

this

former

acquired riches, and


doctrines

himself

lived

that

three

he

subtei-raneous

years,

of the

learned

and

tised
prac-

order.

clothed
Pythagoras is said to have
himself
hke an
Egyptian priest,and to have undergone
the rite of circumcision, which
was
indispensable
_

to

initiation

days.
in the

great

joined

He

into

the

sacred

mysteries

of

also

paid his adoration


to the
temples early in the morning, and
for
reputation
sanctity. Those
his

school

not

those

gods
had

who

allowed

to speak in
his presence
till after five
of training,and
years
he is said to have taught them
to commimicate
with one
another
of the symbolic writby means
ings
he had learnt when
abroad.
He died about

500

god,

B.C.,

and

and

on

his house

wei-e

his
was

death

was

reverenced

venerated

as

as

temple.

25

CHAPTER

THE

has

J-

to

ELEUSINIANS,

obtained
and

the

former

in the

also

the

in time

and

neighbours,

rites, which
than
1,800

the

the

Greeks

continued

for

rites nf
of their

envy

The

sciously
uncon-

that

founded

ceremonies

in

certain

of

space

this

tians
Egyp-

consciously or
find
Accordingly we

B.C.,

1350

year

of the

mysterious

became

of

and

were

copied.
the

relations

one

modes

its

ceremonies,

The

Greeks.

race

in

and

for

tendency

another

copy

iLought, architecture,
rule

the

been

always

nation

V.

less

no

took

place
in the
five years,
month
of September,
every
lasting nine days, and were
accompanied by the
and
to
an
obligation not
greatest
secrecy,
while
he
who
divulge them,
disobeyed was
years.

from

ostracised

subject

was

held

were

of

who

refused

down

and

the

upon,

delights of

two

were

festivals

the

goddess

Ceres,
her

of both

and
the

degrees

greater, and

as

pine.
Proser-

daughter

world

in
the

persons
ordeals

not

order,

first had
second.
at

be

to

beyond.

the

the

and

sexes,

deemed

prelude to the
practised
mysteries were

undergone
lesser

of

The

compulsory, for the


undergo the necessary

to

of the

There
lesser

fellows, and

death.

to

were

his

almost

were

worthy

put

honour

initiates

looked

were

society of

harvest, and

The
rites

be

to

in

and

corn

the

Agrae,

the

to

be

The
near

ELEUSINIANS

THE

26

and

missus,

the

character

but

none

admitted

were

ished
unblem-

of

persons

them,

to

then

nor

and
sacrifices,
purifications,prayers,
ceremonial
with
and
upon
sprinkling of water
in the
initiate
following year
The
them.
gree,
desecond
developed, by partaking of the
into
"inspector." The
an
ceremony
the mystical
began at night in a building called
received
the initiates were
temple," where
who
Hierophantes,"
as
by a priest, known
them
those
recited
to
principles of
elementary
pointed out that
philosophy or morality which
clean
be the receptacles of
clean
bodies
must
assisted
minds.
The
was
by
Hierophantes
till after

"

"

"

"

"

"

and

deacons

three

admonitions

Certain

carved

novice

was

which

it

stones,

the
in

now
was

most

and

here

inferior

then

were
on

to

put

was

other

many

read

after

initiates.

The

that

pliable
susceptible of
the magic arts

the
effects
stepped in, and
in
lightning, and earthquake were
imitated.
On
subsequent days there

processions,
the
from
of
to

to

of

sacrifices, and

relations

of

which

games.

scription
in-

from

which

chism
cate-

mind

of

the
in

condition

fluences,
in-

outward
of

the

of

tians
Egyp-

thunder,

some

manner

wei'e

As

sacred
ing
show-

these

mysteries to
copied, and towards

those

those
they were
other
in after years
mysteries which
appear
have
been
from
it
is significant
copied
them,
that the officiatingpriest bore
note
the types
the sun
and
and
that on
the last day
moon,

of

the

wine,

rites
one

earthen

two

being placed

the

west,

the

ground as a
mystical formula

of

officers.

the

wine

pots

were

filled

with

in the

in
east, the other
afterwards
spilled on

being
libation,to

the

of words.

accompaniment

28

VI.

CHAPTER

FREEMASONS
their art
was

that

the

BUILDERS.

TEMPLE

THE

builders

taught
the Jews,
from
derived
of the first temple were
always

have

that
and
the

original masons.

"

Dr.

the

from

Apart
charges

"

of the

copied by
masonry
lengthy history of Free-

operative
that

in

Anderson,

Constitutions,"

there

is

this

it

is

of

story, but
of the

students
make

the

some

historical

temple
plateau
City of
the

top

Mount

of

"Court

another

Moriah,

hill, it

wall

led
of the

Tadmor

having
b.c.
was

first

to

from

and

the
the

power
in the

the

east

give

to

temple,

over

to

its

Jewish
est
highthe

Wildei"The
on

of

the
the

been

B.C.
begun
Being built on
1005.
approached
by many

low

Gentiles."

containing

Israelites,"where

to

all

that

it is necessary

had

for

to

societies

by his enchantments.
Solomon
by King

Jerusalem,
completed

steps, which
the

built

basis

interest

of this

that

built

was

and

I0I2,

secret

King Solomon
magical arts, and

been

of

such

of the

Book

historical

no

gets colour

story

world, and

had

"

that

skill in

ness

of

account

The

tradition

invisible

lore

subject plain

builders.

masons,

in his famous

contained

old

the

of

traditions

the

Gentile

wall, enclosing
Inside

"Court

this
of

was

the

might enter, and


within
this court
the temple
was
At
proper.
the west, nearest
to Jerusalem, was
the "Holy
of Holies," containing the ark, while
the next
no

THE
chamber

Without

BUILDERS

Place," containing the


candlestick, table, and altar of incense.
the temple court, approached
was
by
which

porch

This

Olives.

faced

enabled

east

the

on

rising of the
planned
respect the temple was
the
reverse
basilicas, and exactly
of

the

the

like

in

the
to

Christian

to

and

sun,

of

Mount

worshippers

the

thence

from

29

"Holy

the

was

golden
the

TEMPLE

view
this

Roman
the

churches,

rangement
ar-

the

The
always faced the west.
details of the building are
given in i King vi.
in his Vision
of the
and vii.,and also by Ezekiel
with
he had
his own
seen
Temple, which
eyes,
is given in Chapter
and the description of which
The
dimensions
XL.
of his book.
are
given to
of
cubits, the popular measure
length in the
East, being equal to the length of an average
man's
from
the elbow
to the middle
arm
finger
According to this the
tip, or about 21 inches.
108 ft., the
extreme
length of the temple was
to

entrances

which

36ft. Josephus
height 54 ft., and the breadth
in his "Antiquities," (b. vii. c. 3), also describes
he says was
made
of a limethe building, which
stone,
could
found
near
Jerusalem, and which
like white
marble.
The
be polished to appear
gated
investifoundations
described
by Josephus were
tine
for the "Palesby Sir Charles Warren,
Exploration Fund," and his reports confirm
their great
the statements
of Josephus
to
as
interestingfeatures of
depth- One of the most
there
the
"the temple were
porches, of which
to

appear

have

There

courts.

for

porch

the

been
was

throne

several
the

in

porch
where

the

different

pillars,the
Solomon
might
of

judge in Eastern
the temple of

fashion, and
the house,"

porch before
supposed to have

been

This

was

tower.

porch

"the

adorned

with

hollow

two

brass
which

Architect,

BUILDERS

TEMPLE

THE

30

by
pillars made
are
fully described

the

Hiraro
in the

Book

height in
by Josephus. Their
iS cubits, or
is given
both
writers
as
33 ft.,
iii. 15, the height is given
though in 2 Chron.
include
part
as
may
35 cubits, or 63 ft.,which
of

and

Kings

steps referred

of the

King's

"ascent

House

of

the

to

in

which

by

he

went

differ

Authorities

Lord."

the

ix. 4, as
into
up

Chron.

the
to

as

the
separate from
pillars were
building, or supported the entablature, though
the former
of
the better
opinion is in favour
these

whether

view.

One

is

thing

perfectly
and
Temple,

about

clear

the

the
that
is that
design of the
for
it was
not
an
original one,
plan of
it was
a
on
designed to be only a copy
of
This
want
larger scale of the Tabernacle.
in its
also reflected
originality in design was
for
the
of
ornamentation,
King
Tyre being
for assistance, which
appealed to by Solomon
was
evidently lacking in Jerusalem at the time,
artificer was
from
sent
an
Tyre itself to supply
those

ideas

which

of

needed

were

at

quarters
head-

the

can
bttilding. One
imagine
Hiram
th^ Architect
gazing at those plans, which
into the more
merely attempted to translate
the temporary
woodwork
lasting form of stone
of the Tabernacle, and
wondering in what
way
it could
be improved.
His
would
thoughts
naturally turn to the temple which stood in Tyre

itself,and
the

being
from

the

which
Greek

desirous
whatever

is thus

described

historian
of

(b. ii. c.
obtaining certain

source

could,

tus,
by Herodo44): "And

information

I sailed

to

Tyre

THE

TEMPLE

BUILDERS

that
Phoenicia, having heard
dedicated
to
Hercules;
temple
in

with

richlyadorned
and

it

in

night."

at

the

air, and

the

temple
historian

it

saw

fine

was

is

picturingthe magnificent
pillars as
they appeared by

of the

view

and

was

gold, the
shining exceedingly
to
probably open

both

stone,
The

there

great variety of offerings,

pillars,one

two

were

emerald

other

31

bright moonlight.
when

Hiram,

summoned

to

bethought
natvirally have
magnificent pillars of the
others
of
designed two

himself

of

these

Tyrian temple,
different
shape
by him
yet intended

but

materials,

different

Jerusalem, might
and
and
to

noteworthy as those of his native city


always
which, being practicallyan island, had
acter.
stood
for independence both in action and charbe

as

It will

probably
the temple

viewed

550 years

built, but
that

the

stood

it must

King

remarked

that

Herodotus

Tyre in 443 b.c, or about


after the temple at Jerusalem had been
this question he expressly tells us
on
that their
him
priests at Tyre assured

had

temple

be

Solomon's

Whether

at

for
have

and
sequently
con2,300
years,
been in existence
prior to

time.

the

pillars in King Hiram's


specialreligious significance,or
two

temple had any


necessities, remains
were
merely architectural
be seen,
but
it is worthy
of
attention
the

amongst
builders

peoples

of
"

and

their

Egyptians,
the

world,

who

and

probably also
ideas, pillars were

to

that

were

the

earliest

from

whom

other

the

Tyrians
held

in

"

rived
de-

great

Egyptian

the

honour,
known

of

Osiris

god

great

"Lord

the

as

BUILDERS

TEMPLE

THE

32

beirtg

Pillars."

the

One

of

Egyptian sculptures was


the
great festival of "setting up the pillars,"
in which
the Kings took
a
prominent part. It
of
well be that the pillarsat the entrances
may
from
the ancient
borrowed
altars,
temples were
read
composed of a pillarof stone, such as we
Jacob in the early Hebrew
days erected at Bethel,
and
the
their
Druids
used
for
at Stonehenge
the

familiar

in

scenes

sacrificial rites.

The

of

Temple

Solomon

thousands

some

employed

were

forests

of

in

had

Lebanon,

of whom

some

down

whence

of workmen,

army

number,

hew

to

an

timber

it

taken

was

in

the

to

the

of

in rafts
the
to
Tyre, carried
Joppa
modern
about
Jaffa and thence by road
thirty
miles
to
The
told
stones
Jerusalem.
we
are
all worked
and
were
shaped at the quarries, so
that no
sound
of axe
chisel was
heard
or
during

port

"

"

the

building.

these

workmen

society, under
the

as

the

tradition
banded

were

Hebrew

it, "the
the

Masonic

word

Master

in

of the

Solomon's
it

was

taken

by

the

in

secret

the overseers,
Chron.
ii. 18,

and

When

Persians,

that

or

gives

Solomon

was

Society.

temple lasted
destroyed by the

Nebuchadnezzar.

together

leadershipof

Menatzchim,"

Grand

that

asserts

for

400

Babylonians
Babylon was

Ezra

-was

when

years,

under
in turn

allowed

Cyrus
and build up the
King to return
of Jerusalem, and
Zerubbabel, working
buih
the second
Ezra,
temple. This stood
the

over

500 years,

until the

time

of

Herod,

b.c.

by
City
with
for

18,

THE

who,

TEMPLE

that

seeing
with

the

at

time

soldiers
tried

who

to

of

centre

imagined

to

is

the

were

stood
school

supposed

be

must

the

as

of

head

Alchemists
to

be

De

Atlantis,"

and
the

had

Solomon,"
a

master

wisdom.

his

Quincey

fallacious,
the

to

which

for

of

due

under

by

the

as

way

of

sciences

however,

out,

any

New

Solomon

to

supposition

in

House

and

arts

indebted

pointed

himself
the

the

promote

whether

Bensalem,

"The

as

commander

temple

"The

called

known

was

Solomon's

book,

his

the

the

by

wondered

was

island

an

society

who
It

in

down

of

have

King

Titus,

destruction.

Freemasonry

who

Bacon,

of

burnt

from

was

under

will

writers

selection

the

it

save

Jerusalem

Jerusalem

Romans

the

building

in

70

was

solved
re-

subjects

that

and

a.d.

the

to

masonic

Some

In

temple

contrary

Jewish

standing

was

by

Herod's

when

his

did,

Christ.

of

besieged

again

he

which

temple

dilapidated,

please

to

33

much

was

This

it.

the

was

it

view

rebuild

to

BUILDERS

that
Bacon

as

of

antagonists
Cabalists,

progenitors

of

who
masonry.
Free-

34

VII.

CHAPTER

ESSENES.

THE

of the
ONE societies
and

interesting

most

to

of

many

known
300

the

as

about

its record

Josephus,

indebted

are

we

initiate for three


education
the

fullest

us

shores

Philo, of

account;

they

various

of

had

no

one

the

and
Philo

Dead

the

did

not

sect, and

the

Jewish philosopher;
Pliny the Younger.
the

but

years,

amongst

lasted

nearly

a.d.

100

three

to

writers
was

"

an

Alexandria, the
Roman
writer,

Sea, but

spots in Palestine.

For

complete his
has given
who

locates

city and

one

Christ,

historian, who

Jewish

the

till

b.c.

200

keynote

of

time

which

and

Essenes,

from

years,

in the

secret

Jewish

was

in Palestine

the

gave

its successors,

existed

which

which

one

the

of

the

body on
Josephus tells
scattered

were

They

are

treated

in
as

in
lived
Pharisees, who
communities
under
recognised heads, professed
laws
and
strict adherence
the
of Moses,
to
a
practised the greatest austerities in life, similar
an

sect

extreme

somewhat

of

the

spising
deBaptist. Without
the married
celibates
state, they were
and
when
adopted other people's children
they
found
They copied the Stoics in
apt pupils.
their rejection of pleasures and
in
being despisers of wealth, charity and virtue being their
have
been
to
a
only riches.
They appear
very
order
of
of
for
life
lived
monks,
a
early
they

John

to

the

devotion, rising before

talking

of

no

worldly

for prayers,
before
matters

sunrise

and
that

ESSENES

THE

36

man
all, restraining their anger,
every
and
his bond
his, word
avoiding
as

to

ing
treat-

oaths,

they took as part of the ritual of


their society.
a
great
Josephus says he saw
of the
their views
and those
similaritybetween
the most
prominent of
Pythagoreans, amongst
ideas being the belief in a resurrection
the Essenes'
after death, a
judgment day, and the
punishment of the wicked.
those

except

If

the

order, he

life with
a

small

used
at

was

the

as

linen

towel,

and

uniform

any

There

times.

of

member

apron,

which

white

garment

does

habit
that

it is stated

become

to

probationer, living the same


and being given
for a year,

others

spade,

meal

been

but

wished

one

any

not

used

they

also

was

for

have

to

appear

use

by the members,
their

wore

till

clothes

in rags, when
ones
new
were
provided
they were
had
man
by the curators, and each
only one
and one
After
change of raiment
pair of shoes.
the expiration of
the man
became
a
a
year
novice, and went
through a kind of baptismal
and
continued
with
the
again
ceremony,

brethren

for

another

long trial,he
of

two

satisfied

the

If, after

years.

all the

Brethren, he

tests

to

the

elected

was

this
faction
satis-

ber
mem-

of the

to

his
was

admitted
society, but before he was
full rights in the order
and
allowed
to join
brethren
in their daily routine
and
meals, he
obliged to take what Josephus describes
as

"tremendous

analogy
days. He

to

towards
was
no

his

oaths,"
those
swore,

God;

observe

of the

which
secret

first of
then

as

have
societies

all, to
to

great

of

observe

his fellow-men

justicetowards
them, to do
harm, either by his own
will or by the
to

later

piety
he
them
direc-

THE
tion

of

others
He

good.

others

not

the

alter

to

the

secrets

it be

in the

part

the

finery, and
his lips from
to

divulge

to

from

the

ceal
con-

them;

order; and
the

wherein

have
to
ceeded
exappear
made
little appearance

New

reference

is

unless

Testament,

is prohibited,

swearing

34, and James v. 12, and as to


of angels (Col. ii. 18), which

v.

of

direct

no

wherein

passages

worshipping

was

not

they

as

in

them

Matt.
the

or

books

Jewish world,

the
to

of

the

do

and

4,000,

found

endeavour

or

received

constitutions

numbers

before

the

written.

were

Their

in dress

he

jealously preserve

to

it

theft, and
to the order, he swore
his brethren; never

secrets

help

citizen,
in authority, and, if

from

to

to

and
faithful

abuse

to

subjects

keep his hands


lying. Finally, as
nothing from

be

to

never

37

wicked

those

to

respect

in power,
outshine
his

the

swore

placed
to

hate

; to

further

show

to

ESSENES

the

religious

of

ceremonies

this

sect.

There

another

was

in Philo's

in

Egypt
Therapeutse,"
the

used
In

there

and

lived

met

for

By some
"Contemplative

chose

only

to

from

they

is

no

united
writers

that

dwelt.

ence
exist-

as

"The

classed

with

the

evidence

that

they

of the

latter

body.

prayer

they

on
are

the

bath
Sab-

described

and
Eusebius
Essenes,"
Christians, probably
as

them
their

because

different
whom

claim

often

known

in

"Contemplative Life," Philo


in cells for speculative purposes,

day.

as

time

ceremonies

the

on

they

us

are

rites and

his work

tells

who

though

Essenes,

society of Jews

manner

of

the

worship was
Egyptians, amongst
of

38

VIII.

CHAPTER

BUILDERS-

ROMAN

THE

we
expect
city is founded
find
architects, and
to
engineers,
builders
are
flocking there by the score, and we
in
the
that
not
legendary
surprised to hear
first King
the founder, and
days of Romulus,

WHEN

of

new

Rome,

the

second

king,

the

throne

in

well
workmen
One

began

of

these

societies

their

construct

Romans'

work

of

for
be

rules

said

deserve

to

connection
of

story

Coronati,
interest

the

of the

time

Emperor
there
in Rome
pagan

they
to

refused

death

to

and

some

the

craft, with

carry

ordered

became

from
out.

at

goes

It

300masons,
to

the
or

all times

persecutions

a.d

which,
to

form

was

It

masons.

Christian

were

statues

days,

life and

has

five Christian
who

other

subject comes
Crowned
Martyrs,"

which

Diocletian

were

into

of

this

"Four

Quatuor
of
deep

there

to

was

instead
of

of

regulations
its meetings, though it cannot
the title of a secret
society.
with

the

those

in

conduct

and

guild

the

In

of

that

great idea
concrete

guilds, like
favoured
apprentices, and
of
man
initiating a new
sound

be

to

and

guilds.

their

said

These

stone.

in

was

the

become

established,

were

combine

to

though

masons,

Pompilius,
629, building had

trades

When
ascended

Numa

B.C.

advanced,

builders.

became

men

many

is
or

do

some

been

back

to

under

the

said

that

sculptors,
work

to

religious scruples,
sentenced
They were

martyrs,

and

should

have

THE

ROMAN

been

honoured

save

for

wrath
of

fact

still

Christian

continuing

place

of years

afterwards,

the

the

object

later, in

years

the

country

the

of

house

at

had

of

man

the

Stantine

the

of
to
a

the
take

couple

having
sought rest

government,

Salona, in Dalmatia,

who

with

He

and

succeeded

was

character, Con-

allowed

Christian

the

creeds,
sided
prepagan
Nicasa
church
council
at
the

famous
the

Nicene

creed

propounded

was

Christianity under

by accepting

"

Eusebius.

Bishop

back

come

308,

A.D.

the

Diocletian

304,

peace.

Great,

in 325"
when
and
ended

To

also

martyrs.

of

gap

totally different

religion equality
over

a.d.

reigns

Christians
a

altar

to

deaths, both
four, happened

8th, with

his

four

of

army

of

the

the

second

four

career,

between.

resigned

masons.

change
place since
memory

November

crowned

in

the

the

public

the
of

8th

Roman

and

death

the

sentiment

which

of

Diocletian,

martyrdom,
the feast-day of
this

institution

Catholic

day. Five hundred


erected
848, a church was

present

of

anxious

the
as

find that

we

being

time

martyrs,
in

continued

the year

martyrs,

after
years
Melchiades
Pope

the

appointed

the

to

ten

the

the

years
his cruel

noble

that

November

on

Four

the

asserts

first five and

four

martyrs,"

became

joined

Tradition

taken

two

crowned

refusing to burn incense on


These
god
jEsculapius.
the penalty of their
devotion

faith, and

show

that

39

for

suffered

by

"five

soldiers

the

in

the

as

the

Diocletian

BUILDERS

Church

years

and

in

five
to

had
vived
re-

and

the
has
to

later, in
dedicated

THE

40
these

to

in

w^hich
the

stands

of the

the

find

we

settled

Freemasons,
Come

Northern

in

the

Roman

how

Lombardy

free

rein

in the

the

is, given

who

turies
cen-

been

they

as

taught
their

Lake

of
have

may

art,

build

to

tury.
cen-

architects, or

shores

Roman
and

ninth

thirteenth

Italy, who

blood,

of

successor

Italian

of

on

of the

successors

of the

college

to-day-

Incoronati,

is the

and

being"

Rome

to

erected

twelfth

the

to

nine

Quattro

site, and

original building

Coming

of

travellers

church
on

of the

remains

and

them,

visit the

can

the

martyrs,

placed

BUILDERS

ROMAN

were

kings

the

churches.

If

the

can
fancy we
imagine
them
the guiding spiritof European
tecture,
archias
and
last penetrating into
at
England
and
of the English stonemasons
becoming the tutors
and
their offspring, the
Freemasons.
But
although such fancies have been discussed
actual
facts, we
have
as
no
option bvtt to repeat

the

leave

story, and

bring their main


neighbourhood.
of

that
III.

to

the

influence
In

Aubrey's

are

the

believe

to

Pope
to

that

granted

travel

up

and

in

architects

bear

to

and
Wiltshire,"
of Berkshire," the

we

Como

in their
"Natural

to
own

tory
His-

Ashmole's

quities
"Anti-

story is expanded,
in the
Bull
down

reign
to

of

these

Italy

to

so

Henry
masons
Freebuild

churches, and, further, that these masons


were
had
oath
of
part of a secret
society which
an
with certain signs and passwords.
The
secrecy
"and
it continues
this day,"
to
story winds
up
which
has been
taken
as
proof
positive that
these

Roman

of modern

builders

day

were

Freemasons.

the

lineal

ancestors

41

CHAPTER

THE

It has

IX.

KNIGHTS

often

been

TEMPLARS.

asserted

that

of

degrees

derived
were
Freemasonry
ancient order of the Knights Templars
to be only one
though this appears
often

speculations so

vague

their

derive

who

is

story

facts

from

ideas
and

interestingone,

an

with

met

of

part

from
of

the
the

lem,
Jerusaof those

in writers

only. The
proceed to

we

tell it in brief.

the

In
of

the

Bouillon, Duke
Duke

the
taken

of

from

King,

the

thorns.

the

not

to

years

with

the

Sepulchre,

Holy

care

wear

had

worn

afterwards

plaining
ex-

of

crown

of

one

small

body

Christian
for

access

knights, desiring to preserve


the pilgrims to the Holy Land,

against the Mussulmans


banded
neighbourhood,
into

himself

Saviour

Twenty

nine

free

did

his

where

gold

was
1099, Jerusalem
and Godfrey was
made

contented
of

he

his brother

in

Saracens,
he

by Godfrey

and

^f Lorraine,

Defender
that

first Crusade

Flanders

though

title of

of

of

days

association

an
or

"Brethren

of

the

themselves

known
of

robbers

and

as

the

the

together
plars,
Knights Tem-

Temple

of

Solomon

There
two
leaders, Hugh
were
Jerusalem."
de Paganes and Geoffrey de St. Omer
who, professing
their
seal
two
adopted as
poverty,
Matthew
one
horse; and
knights riding on
Paris, the historian, gravely relates as a fact
at

that

one

II., King

horse
of

served

Jerusalem,

two

found

of

them.

Baldwin

quarters for them

THE

42
in his

of the

which

abbot

of

Temple

gave

them

weapons.

At

their

keep

to

the

and

palace,

convent

only on alms which


speedily became
very
with

TEMPLARS

KNIGHTS

but

any

flowed

in

the upper

building in
first they lived
freely that they
a

so

disdained

rich, and

mix

to

Hugh

of nobles.

classes

and

church

the

of the
Paganes adopted the title of "Master
the present
which
has
continued
to
Temple,"
stir up
to
to England
day, and in 1128 he came
de

enthusiasm

behalf

on

established

his

of
with

branch

order.

prior

Here

of the

he

Temple

its

and
into power,
head, and it speedilygrew
had
several
in
houses, the chief of which
was
Afterwards
Holborn.
Row, near
Southampton
at

the

order

the

acquired

Street, where

Fleet
church

in

imitation
in

Sepulchre
similar

the

church

of

the

and

the

Council

of

order, which

their

on

of

was

left breast
black

Beauseant,
battle

cry,

Templars
Knights."
The
head

order
of

it

and

and

and

white
this

meaning
were

now

to

drawn
H.

three

1128,

Pope

red

banner,
stripes, known
also

tioned
sanc-

1146

wear

cross

which
as

became

called

assumed

being known

a
as

"Red

definite
the

Grand

the
their

"sitting firmly," while

often

he

rules

and

up

their

word

lish
Eng-

frame

In

to

on

Holy

300

year,

Troyes

by Pope Honorius
them
Eugenius H. ordered

the

Cambridge,

with

same

were

circular

in Essex.

Jerusalem
in

near

afterwards
built at

were

to

followers, and
for

the

Mapleshead,

returned

requested

their

of

and

temple

built

churches

Northampton,

the

they

Jerusalem,

round

Hugh

site of

the

Cross

form, the
Master,

church

TEMPLARS

KNIGHTS

THE

44

Sundays,

on

scourgings

by

or

the

at

cells; and there was,


of the Temple
Church, near
wall
in the north
where
the organ
stands, a penitentialcell
now
of the

hands

six inches

feet

four

In

wide.

in the

master

confined

this
the

transgressed
monotony

long by

confined, whose

were

by

being permitted
cihurch through

relieved

only

was

gaze at the altar in the


in the wall
of the cell.
made

to
a

hole
There

the

who,

after

obey

the

own,

to

cross
a

hands

the

white

head,

night,

custom

The
year

for

to

and

borrowed
Order

1307
then

and

not

to

swear

his

of

Templar
allowed
from

the

for

kiss

his
the

on

the

wore,

beard

Saracens

nearly
beginning

200

of

gave

linen

secrets

kissed

master

placed
a

the

then

the

him

self defence

reveal

to

and

wear,

lasted
saw

to

in

except

candidate

gave

the

Templars'

property

no

man,

Gospels,

and

Henceforth
and

no

The

mantle

then

had

hold

the

his

into

put

that
to consent
chastity,never
be spoiled of his heritage, to lay

Saracens,

on

his

on

Order.

the

of

observe

the

on

He
to

master,

then

Gospels.,with

it.

should

any man
violent
or

of the

upon

cross

kneel, and

him

copy

ceremony

by the master,
Templars conducted
chism,
putting the initiate through a cate-

made
hands

initiation

proper

was

among

red

had

who

those

space

rules

six inches

feet

two

his

the
him

coif

on

mouth.

girdle by day
to

grow

"

themselves.

years,

its

but

the

downfall,

Philip the Fair of France, having got


of the Order, within
James de Molay, the Master
his power,
and
all the French
imprisoned him
Templars, and in January, 1308, the members
similar
fate
in
met
In August,
a
England.

THE

KNIGHTS

1308, the Pope,

TEMPLARS

Clement

V., issued

all Christian

inquiring into
inquiry went

the

45

kings

assist

to

Order, and

Bull

for two

manding
com-

him

years

in

the

made
Charges were
against
them
of gross
immorality and impiety, which
of
were
attempted to be supported by evidence
had
their own
ends
to
renegade Templars who
from
and by confessions
extorted
the accused
serve,
the rack, though
it
parties while upon
be forgotten that Pope and Kings alike
not
must
had
the Templars' wealth.
a
greedy eye upon
It

asserted

was

taught

were

on.

it under
with

that

foes

the

and

their

the

"

of

crucifix

from

that

natural

novices

the

despise

to

foot, and

their

the

Order

trample

association

Mohammedans

"

them
to
renounce
they had learnt from
of
natural
Trinity and to adopt a system
Catholicism.
opposed to Roman
lessons
the

they

East

had

learned

said

were

from

have

to

their

been

"

the
ligion
re-

The

enemies

of

enshrouded

as

tained
atonly to those who
the highest of the degrees of their Order,
and some
of their wrong
doings were
alleged to
with
be in connection
an
kept in their
image
bust
Temples. The figure represented a human
ridiculous
of
and
aspect,
large dimensions

mysteries

communicated

covered

with

shiny

appearance,

eyes.

Much

human
and

with

controversy

origin of its alleged


De
Quincey, in his essay
Freemasons,"
that

goes

the

skin, having

embalmed

into

name

was

two

aroused

was

name,
on

the
a

carbuncles

for
to

as

the

'"Baphomet."
and

"Rosicrucians

subject,
compound

and

cludes
con-

effected

by cutting oS the two first letters of Mahomet,


and
substituting Bap or Pap, the first syllable
of the Italian word
"Papa" meaning the Pope.
The

secret

of this name,

it is

said, was

not

dis-

closed
the

that

there

was

was

too

fact, nothing

nothing

of the

day

found

them

the

Order

of

members
the

stake, .which
of

slaying
fires, the

site of

to

charges,
the

at

Their

received

south

door

Knights

small

and

and

Paris.

absolution
St.

the

on

Paul's

the

to

steps

Cathedral.

of

to

that

shared

the

went

St.

John,
body, and
The

rest.

the

residence

and

to

only
the King
Temple

its

it became

to

but

sold by the
precincts was
Hospitallers of St. John in 1313,

of the
which

of the

one

however, was
forfeited, and
was
supposed to be given

his advisers

Church

charcoal

lives, confessed

Hospitallers

fraction

the

to

prevailed, for
plars,
rackings, the Tem-

and

of

at

i8th,

over

being

near

measures

and

appearances

the

March

their

save

property,

save

on

death

113

death

to

Molay

examinations

after many

Paris

in

prelude

Seine,

milder

England

say

to

were

devils, and
the clergy

formed

execution

his

of the

little islands

In

de

the

they

burnt

were

roasted

was

to

guilty, and

only

James

who

I3i3"

Needless

babies.

murder

In

made

be

to

subject of a charge against them;


supposed to worship a cat, to raise
to

good

the

reveal.

to

ridiculous

under

even

rack, probably for

of the

tortures

Order,

of the

members

the

by

reason

TEMPLARS

KNIGHTS

THE

46

school

Order
after
of the

lawyers.
The
is

said

old
to

Order
be

by
Master

Templar
to

of

the

associated
the

fact

Knights
with

Templars

modern

that, when

the

masonry
FreeGrand

the next
killed, Pierre d'Aumont,
in order, with
several
knights escaped

was

Scotland

in

the

disguise

of

masons,

where

THE

they

able

were

Order,

and

Master,

It
that

writers

but

is

known
founded

and

of

some

It

is

himself

principal

Captain
apron

officers

only.

old

now,

ceremony

it

the
at

death

the

Templars
adopted.
tender,
Pre-

Young
the

time,

was

rite.

of

Knights
if

name,

Their

Templars.

known

as

Templars
its

not

there
the

robes

are

three

are

Most

Eminent
and

Generalissimo
wear

ritual,

meetings

and

who

with

was

that

order

the

Franc

new

in

Scotland

its

Grand

the

Knights

the

the

mony
cere-

Observance"

and

learn

Commander,
General,

the

Freemasonry

Strict

"Encampments,"

called

Grand

1743

mysteries

modern

old

the

in

of

into

derived

has

which
from

of

disproved

of

in

was

is

origin

Scotland,

to

initiated

There

theory

their

interesting
who

favourite

that

Master

Grand

the

of

themselves

"Rite

in

death

abundantly

fact

added

called

the

is

the

as

was

this

it

though

was

this

the

then

they

Maqons.

of

with

of

secrets

became

time

connection

in

was

in

47

the

perpetuate

to

which

to

itself,

TEMPLARS

KNIGHTS

and

not

the
an

48

X.

CHAPTER

VEHMEGERICHTE,

THE

WE

the

their

of

scene

known

was

the

spilt in

the

blood

the

order,

order, the
for

the

There

head

There
or

Circles

Offenbare

Ding,

Heimliche

as

Acht,

It

Outer

any

the

times
to

seems

of

by

Circle

three

composed
had

the

Manor

the
the

and

"

the

Inner, known
from

Oak,

in the

Order

its ceedings
prounder
air
an

open

tree.

The
met

of

of

True

or

taking place
oak

districtfe

each-.

two

were

Outer,

of

of the

into

Lord

of

standard

courts

divided

the

and

from

decrees

the

of

many

were

Duchy

either

the

out

The

members

the

colour

being

country

purpose,

the

was

the

from

or

Westphalia.

of

carrying

signed
de-

police

ancient

Earth,"

ones,

order.

amongst

"Red

of

was

secret

and
the

was

which

as

law

of

labours

Westphaha,

of

and

establishment

the

for

the

to

society
preceding

political stamp,
Middle
as
a
Ages

is of
in

secret

order

different
this

for

to

come

now

of

have

was

year,

been

householders

all crimes

knowledge,
Inner

not

Circle.

and

which

secret

always

on

kind

of

who
wrongs
were

society,and
a
Tuesday.
grand jury

made
of
to

tions
presentawhich
be

they
punished

VEHMEGERICHTE

THE
The

Circle

Inner

Wissenden,

49

initiated,and

or

to

candidate, being bareheaded


underwent

weapons,
that of

other

birth, and

the

which

whom

between

The

them.
the

of his
than

his oath

other

his

fell,and

from

heaven.

and

then

was

of

his

entrusted

fellow

test

to

make

himself

penalty

of failure

bers,
mem-

known
to

be blindfolded,

ply
com-

thrown

been

condemned

the

were

death

sided
pre-

Stadtholder

Grand

time

do

not

the

duty
on

was

the

the

Archbishop of

always

to

self
himof

to

appear

privilege of a trial,but
by the oath of members

Circle, whose
of

order

the

the

one

persons

had

of the

Chapter,
either the Emperor

was

at

was

have

sentence

upon

all offenders

Grand

deputy,

accused

Inner

creature

to

branches

by

Duchy, who
Cologne.
The

He

to

was

of which
or

of the Order

criminals.

various

Master

oath

an

his tongue
torn
out by the back
times higher
to be hanged seven

neck, and

over

direful

ground,

The

pelled
com-

or

precious stones.
with a grip, by which
and
a
password

to

was

to

not
heard, and that he would
do for fear or favour, for gold, silver,

to

with

of

similar

took

earth

disclose

to

swore

then

every
rain

or

or

to

the

deprived

He

the secrets

shone

he knew
so

He

relatives,from
sun

further

He
fail

Order.

living thing

every

such

was

to preserve

frorti all his

the

free-born, of German
guiltyof any crime against the

the

the Bible

on

that he

not

principlesof

and

societies.

secret

state

to

become

examination

an

of

composed

was

carry

have

to

of the
out

accused, who

the
was

THE

50

known

VEHMEGERICHTE

"verfambt,"

as

Wissenden

privilege

of

proceeded

in

have

Its

the

by

Sir

less

he

of

composed

poignard

criminal

judges

to

stab

cord

him.

to

members.

the

but

he

candidly

has

picture
largely

Spanish

black

bind

of

pages

"Anne

the

with

stated

novel

the
in

is

his

he

of

court

highest

it

in

coloured

court,

bearing

in

indeed

underground

centre,

in

100,000

XX.,

has
and

of

than

Scott,

Walter

chapter

copy

which

its

depicted

were

readers,
a

trial

when

century,

no

that

his

attained

14th

Geierstein,"

an

of

the

Circle,

Inner

the

lines

had

accused,

days.

proceedings

confesses

the

numbered

fiction

suit

before

Vehmegerichte

powers

in

trial

those

The

of

upon

of

court

to

if

themselves,

The

"outlawed-"

or

the

duced
pro-

tion,
Inquisi-

cowls,
an

tO'

altar

victim,

sittingin

the
and

ROSICRUCIANS

THE

52
If
in

we

work

known

afterwards
in

Ghost."

Holy
of

the

"Fama

the

"House

members,

under

as

these

communicated

he
fidelity,

Order,

their

and

to

return

known

To

and

secrecy

his

house

him, told
Fraternitas,"
of

account

the

as

on

secret

the

lished
estabGermany,
society consisting at first of four,
who
lived toof eight members,
gether

Rosenkreuz,
and

believe

to

are

rules

of the

the
to

were

of

vows

secrets

the

cure

together in the house


gratuitously, to meet
brother
to
certain
at
appointed periods, each
take
his
his place on
to
appoint a successor
be kept a proto
death, that the society was
found
sick

for

secret

watchword

should

which

was

later

Christ

sprinkled
that

120

search

which

was

four
found

in

made

the

altar

books

In

the

illuminated

The

and

Browning's
Order.

conceit
and

of

serted
as-

kreuz
Rosenand

of

the

vault

blazing

sun,

with

some

of

and
away

was

which
secret

musical

Paracelsus,

Paracelsus

was

the

been

Hohenheim,

ments.
instru-

name
a

man

of

subject

associated

pride, to indicate
superior in medical

empty

chest
some

mechanical

also

Bombastus

altar

mirrors, bells, burning

has

poem,

the

contained

Order, with

name

Philip

of

It is

house,

centre

by

discovered

of the

lamps,

Cross

the
door
of
discovered, upon
inscribed
in
Latin, "I shall open

also

far

"the

as

it, and under


figures upon
the body of Rosenkreuz.

was

this

"Rosy-cross,"

word

his rosy
blood."
after the death

years

years."

120
an

with

their

that

vault

was

after

the

be

and

years,

explained

was

seven-sided

hundred

with

coined

by

filled with
that

he

skill

to

was

the

THE
celebrated

ROSICRUCIANS

Latin

50 wrote

physician, Celsus,
important treatise,"De

an

Paracelsus

born

was

of

Einsiedeln,

of

the

in

of Malta.

with

man

who

Brussels.

The

hangs

Paracelsus

from

country

who

in

a.d.

Medicina."
Swiss

was

village
relative

Grand

Prior

of

portrait of Paracelsus,
heavy face, was
painted
in the Picture
Gallery at
his

spent

to

mystic
magic,

and

became

sensuous,

and

by Rubens,

the

at

1493

Zurich,

near

Hohenheim

Order

the

53

time

in

country

in travelling
of

pursuit

the

of
knowledge
astrology, witchcraft,
and alchemy, in which
he is said to have
been
initiated by his father, though
it is more
of his learning came
from
probable that most
the English writer, Roger
He
travelled
Bacon.
both

the

on

and

Egypt
he

of

find

founded
purpose

Oriental

an

organisation

for

of

the
and

"moral

ing
East, includ-

of

which

initiated

tries
coun-

Austria,
the

the

into

In

magicians.

Crotona,

at

1529

where

he

high-sounding

reformation

of

society

which

to
secret

been

in

large,"

at

in the

in both

have

to

the

him

and

Tartary,

is said

mysteries
we

Continent

apparently bore some


and
religious brotherhood,

semblance
rea

society.

He

vaunted
died, notwithstanding his much
discovery of the elixir of life, at Salzburg,
in 1541, and
introduction
and

the

chief

results

the

reason
man

have
of
who

been
his

on

to

shallow

of

travels, and

he

would

be

amusing

drugs,

many

he

lodges by
the

was
as

as

foundations.

Rosicrucians

the

visitor

the

were

of mercury
and laudanum
as
word
"bombast"
coining of the

meaning great boasting


If he actuallybelonged
must

of his life

type

of

visitor, but

THE

54

annoying

most

The

name

before

the

when,

in the

an

ROSICRUCIANS

as

learned

of

men

Europe

Cassala,

was

German

writer

and

prominently
again in 1614,
published by

came

of

town

Universal

"The

companiDn.

Rosenkreuz

of

anonymous

constant

entitled

work

of

Reformation

General

together with the History of


the
Order
of
Brotherhood
of the worthy
the
Rosicrucians."
Possibly, if it had not been for
of Rosenkreuz
this work, the name
might have
been
unknown
us
to-day. The author
amongst
of it is now
Andrea, a
supposed to have been
had
professor of theology, who
caught the
and
spiritof the earlier teachings of Paracelsus
the

World,

whole

Rosenkreuz.

The

the

Latin

was

translated

shortly
English

title

1614

after
medical

who

the

as

into

known

work,

"Fama

English
by Dr.
and

man,

combined

from

Fraternitas,"

published

and

Robert

here

Fludd,

an

enthusiast

an

with

of

part

the

in ticism,
mysof drugs the

use

he
practice of a system of faith-healing, which
from
the
doctrines
professed to have derived
of the Rosicrucians.
Andrea
did undoubtedly
write
another
German
work, published in 1616,
"The
called
Chemical
Nuptials of Christian

Rosenkreuz,"

which

is imbued

and

astrological fancies.
acknowledged
authorship
"Fama
is
the

Fraternitas"

only

on

this

Rosicrucian

Rosy-cross,
the

later

It

that

Society,

is founded.

is

of this

is traced
work

with

or

chemical
on

the

that

the

only
work

Andrea,

to

the

and

existence

Brothers

of

it

of
the

The

book, after giving


details of the finding of the body of Rosenkreuz,
professes to declare the principles of the

Order.

The

members

are

stated

to

have

been

THE

ROSICRUCIANS
faith; they honoured
and, deahng with the

of the Protestant
and

55

country;

question of the transmutation


declares
into gold, the writer
for

done
but

for

arts

of

cians

the

is stated

the

Ghost,

Holy
should

men

and

sight,
world

looked

also

Rosy-cross
he

RosicruHouse
thousand

imperturbable,
the

to

of

it, is yet destined


of

out

godless

whole

of

the

the

to

stated

that

that

the

in

Brotherhood

Learned

of
had

Order

princes downwards,

Latin,
the

of

in

Europe,"

included

its members

from
poor,
motives
were

work

published another

Confession

which

not

was

ever."

Andrea
"The

"Our

hundred

upon

unrevea^ed

for

metals

this

of the

that
a

untouched,

remain

to

been

though

have

that

declaration

have

to

base

of

acquiring wealth,
chemistry and the mystic

the

study of
alchemy. One

king
important

of

purpose

mere

their

grees,
de-

different
rich

both

long

so

and
their

as

objects worthy of
that it had
the Order;
a
language of its own;
of
stores
and
that, though it possessed vast
itself rich only in its
silver and gold, it counted
its philosophy.
of learning and
wealth
that

It appears

Germany

over

could

be

to

not

them

answering
to

Leibnitz
to

has

come

the

never

in

Germany,

to

years
said : "It

said

answered.

pretensions

many

friend,
been

were

of the

letters

openly,

the

as
were

sent

No

lodge

and

feel

we

conclusion

afterwards, who,
Brothers

they

of Rosicrucianism

same

appears

in

aroused
and

Rosicrucians,

with

met

found

ever

was

to

much

curiosity was

the

which

their

and

pure

to

me

of the

that

pelled
com-

as

writing
all that

Rosy-cross

is

ROSICRUCIANS

THE

56

invention

pure

It has

also

of

pointed

been

the way
might show
"might blow, that the
a
family were
four

and

roses,

him,

the

existence

as

its

Fludd,

the

marks

might

we

sted,
search
the

elixir

to

those

vitae, the
lend

Goethe
of

which

Paracelsus

Bearas

the

object

charm

to

of

any

it

introduced

play

immortal
the

learned

having

his

1637,

of

such

main

aptly
his

in

church

topic

as

to

died

and

the

in

works,

wedded

so

man

would

pages

"Faust,"

writings

is buried

and

the

stantly
con-

step for him

Andrea's

bachelor,

the

romance,

emblems

short

of

Maidstone.

for

with

society bearing

drea's
An-

of

cross

these
a

of

for

Rosicrucians,

into

with

Andrea

by
bearings

Andrew's

St.

which

straw

raised

armorial

translator

and

near

as

wind

it was

suppose

63,

out

badge.

studies, remained

aged

the

that

before

imagine

ingenious person."

some

details

the

from

left behind

of

him.

In

II, Faust, a doctor of philosophy,


jurisprudence, medicine, and alchemy, discloses
Part

I., Scene

the

secret

the

celebrated

method

of the

chemicals

whole

elixir, the

poetical description of

the

Rosicrucians

are

an

treated

as

to

passage

expei^iment in
being masculine

obtain

being
which
and

feminine.

"My

father's

Which

was

sombre,

the

brooding brain,

through
holy spheres of Nature
groped
and
wandered.
And
honestly, in his own
fashion, pondered
With
labour
whimsical, and pain.
in
his
Who,
dusky work-shop bending.
With
proved adepts in company,
his recipes unending,
Made, from

THE
Opposing
There

substances

the

And

in

turns

If

red,

Lily's tepid

both,

57

agree.

{i Lion

was

Within

By

ROSICRUCIANS

tormented

either

espoused;

then
bridal

daring,

wooer

bath

by flame

chamber

unsparing,

housed.

then

appeared, with colours


splendid,
her
in
Queen
crystal shell.
young
This
the
niedicine
the
was
patients woes
soon
ended.

The

"

And

The
red

demanded

none

explanation

chemical

who

"

of

this

known

well

got

?"

is that

passage

the

sulphate of mercury
was
pictured as a red lion wooing a white lily,
which
was
a preparation of antimony, known
as
"the
These
were
Lily of Paracelsus."
placed in a
tepid bath of water, after which
they were
put
in double

pictured as

the

was

an

excite

no

cians

wonder,

of

of

worker

would

such

practised black

as

or

with

medicine,

patient.

eyes,

days of

sparing."
un-

compound
a
ruby or

the

cure

modern

to

occult

taken
arts

of

flame

would

the Rosicru-

such

chemicals

speedily acquire the reputation


allied with
was
magic, who

chemists

easily be

kill

armed

would

mystical spiritsand
several

taken

in the

but

professor,

apparatus,

queen,"

which,

speedily
experiment,

by

chemical

"young

either

Such

and

result

colour,

would

"tormented

and

retorts

The

purple

as

worked
for

and

when

together, they
secret
society who

incantations.

poisonous substance
evolved
the result of such
as
experiments,
were
of the alchemist, by a complete
mind
the subtle
reversal
of reasoning, might be able to call that
elixir of life,which
was
really only an elixir
an
of death, leading to the life beyond.
It is

suggested

that

influences, and

if

THE

58

ROSICRUCIANS

Quincey,

De
the

Order,

the

as

one

dreamed

who

the

and

eater,

in

the

and

Rosicrucians

German,

and

the

works

well

of

Freemasonry
brought
his
He
the

historical

of

with

Orders."
when

he

more

nor

those

less
who

that
than

as

fact

writers,

has

Freemasons.
the

to

"In

beginning

of
to

are

Masonic
surnmarised

"Freemasonry
Rosicrucianism,

no

upon

or

are

it

Persians,

finding

traces

conclusions

of

established
the

to

as

asserts

Rosicrucian

transplanted

study

some

and

them

no

final

states

in

century,

His'

of

Arabs,

before

the

other

the

to

that,

of

to

modified

mysteries

affirm

research

trouble

and

research

as

the

De

knowledge

have

Freemasonry

seventeenth

met

by

and

then,

historical

the

of

Origin

Latin

modern

might

to

Egyptians,

general,

of

conclusions
back

goes

trace

the

light

"An

in

and

stores

which
to

much

Fludd,

present

for

Freemasons."
both

at

Andrea,

the

though

the

been

opium

an

the

into

versed

had

writer

entitled

paper

Inquiry

was

of

in

Magazine"

wrote

Historico-critical

Quincey

dreams

"London

he

in

imagine

mystical
the

1824,

January,

well

may

interested

became

essayist,

is
as

England."

neither
modified

be

THE

6o

in

WOODCUTTERS

adorned

room

with

branches

leaves, or

and

Charity and
painted woodland
scenery.
its keynote, founded
duty of hospitalitywas
the

beatitudes

from

their

me

visited

ye

and

and

hungry,

me."

version.

hatchet.

before

There

him

also

were

of the

Order,

eat; in prison, and

book

consoled

ye

oak

of

and

the
a

the

in

sat

of stone,

cup

cold,

me;

pere-maitre,
lay a log of

or

drink

to

me

gave

and

naked

was

ill,and ye succoured
afflicted,and
me;

master,

East, while

ye
to

me

gave

ye

me;

The

"

on

translated

as

xxv.,

thirsty,and

warmed

ye

Matthew

French

clothed

ye

in

the

stitutions
con-

biscuit,

parcel containing five halfpence, a pair of


white
gloves, a yellow ribbon, representing a
dead
hind
leaf, and a little gilded hatchet, while bethe master
huts
was
a
holly-bush. Four
a

formed
each

part of the
of

The

which,

had

part of the

candidate

be lost in

wood

of the

property

Chantier, in

ceremony

for

initiation

and

demanded

was

was

formed.
per-

supposed

to

admittance.

He

him
to cleanse
and purify
poured over
him, and was
bread
and
presented with
wine,
and
to
help him on his way
was
given the five
sous,

box
made

water

which
for
to

honour,
that

the

cause

of

upon

I will

need

later

repeat

I
their

at

never

the

the

stage

he

put in

charity.

oath,

"I

He

and

wine

reveal

the

secrets

promise

to

offer

to

was

swear

bread

money
then

upon

of

my

my

hospitality,
of

cutter.
wood-

cousins

in

hospitality,bread, soup,
shavings,
and
half of my
when
I shall have
day's wages,
it.
earned
of
the
wood-cutter
May the axe
head
from
separate
my
body if I ever
my
per-

THE

WOODCUTTERS

6i

jure myself."
"Shavings" was
only a pleasant
of
and
red
referring to the white
wine,
way
which
drunk
was
during the meeting'. A song
to wind
was
sung
up the proceedings.

"Friends

and

Who
Is

the

it for
That

Let

and

have

lady
example

addressed

fill,

our

hearty

of the

their
the

drink

did not

the

disdain

to

members,

as

great

another

one

will."

Lodge

friends
of

assemble

here

with

brethren

wood-choppers.

pleasures

empty

chop

brave

resemble;

choppers

love, and

us

The

itself

axe

mere
we

Sing,

comrades,

and, ing
copykings and lords,

"cousins."

as

There

enable
them
to
to
signs and passwords
in
the
if they met
recognise fellow members
all of a woodland
forests, and these signs were
resemble
to
character, the body being deemed
were

the

trunk

branches,
the

of

the

the

twisted

forked
the

tree

catechism

The

A.

"What

"Good
zealous

tree

arms

the

right leg

ten

being the
fingers, and

bent.

through many
goes
concludes
follows:
as

similitudes, and

Q.

the

tree,

have

you

cousins
in

work,

found

and

in the

fellow

courageous

of

these

"

Lodge?'

pers,
wood-chopand

able."
charit-

Q.

"If

A.

"I

when

need

shall

will

what

help

of

"If

will

This

"I

you

will

lodge

wishes

society,

defend

nineteenth
lost.

by

the

to

what

harm,

into

working-class
those

existed

century,

of
till
but

point

death."

were

social

early

afterwards

trade

speculative

members

higher
the

of

originall%

had

developed

its

and

you

which

gradually

society

cabin."

my

me

of

?"

will

augmented

do

to

of

sack

my

in

you

you,

bread

my

together

burn

association,

origin,

with

wages

it, with

will

anyone

do

you

A.

and

day's

my
obtained

have
We

shavings,

Q.

share

will

adversity.

are

have

me?"

give

The

WOODCUTTERS

THE

62

standing.
part
traces

of

the
of

it

63

XIII.

CHAPTER

THE

'X*

ITALIAN

AND

Order

HE

SPANISH

Charcoal

of

-*"

were

workmen

brethren

of
had

joined by
trade.

same

where

century,

were

the

or

in
originated
the
or
Wood-choppers
development, not unnaturally
the Alps in the early
across

spread its branches


days of the nineteenth
French

Burners,

which

Charbonnerie,
France, and of which
Fendeurs

SOCIETIES,

Italian

their

In

the

the

France

politicalor religious aims, but in


came
character, and beItaly it partook of another
a
society of violent
partizans, whose
the independence
of
objects were
Italy,then
and
the
and
France,
oppressed
by Austria
Side
reform
church.
of the
by side with the
practice of their ritual, and under the cloak of
society

no

gether
toconspired
meetings, the Carbonari
till in 1814 they
for politicalpurposes,
such
trouble
in the province of Calabria
caused
them
that Ferdinand,
King of Naples, forbade

secret

assemble

to

The

more.

any

aroused

dangers

Carbonari

by

met

were

society called
originallycomposed of
counter

who

had

Carbonari;
the
down

the
were

the
a

excluded

been
and

ministry

by

the

of

others.
those

the

which

large

number
the

the

which
of

ranks

assisted

and

of

watchwords
had

people
of

to

of the
learned

was

favoured

were

they

of

formation

from

Ferdinand

plots

Calderari,

Calderari
The

the

the

by
put
bonari
Carfrom

CARBONARI

THE

64
the

French

populace in the days of the


"Liberty, equality of rights, and

"

tion
Revolutional
constitu-

administration."

Carbonari

The
another

political

secret

"Italy Reunited,"
1852 and possessed
passwords,
signs,
given to the members

which

examination
disobedience

and

being

in

was

Italy by

known

society,

three

as

in

existence

distinct

with

Orders,

were
insignia. These
after they had
passed an

taken

and

in

succeeded

were

oath, the penalty for

an

death.

had
Every member
the right to demand
of the others
protection and
the
help, and if he died poor,
society looked
after his children.
There
at tK^present
are
day
various
societies in Italy,but as their obsecret
jects
need
are
purely transitory and political,
we
make

further

no

It

reference

them.

to

is

that
there
is an
popularly supposed
Italian secret
society with signs and passwords,
known
the "Mafia," but it is not
as
quite clear
whether
it is a definite body, or only a part of a
which
wide-spread system under a name
had
its
origin in Sicily and spread to Italy, and which
is defined

spiritof hostility
and its
to law
prevailing among
a
large portion of

ministers
the

the

as

population.

have

to

of

days
The
such

become
idea

of

known
secret

cane

child

in

case

and

what

or

the

as

law

to

crime,

vendetta,

consider

recourse

of

she

for

well

would

honourable
dis-

the

prefer
has

occurrence,

that

it

in

"unwritten

sign might

simple every-day

mptioningto
with

Mafia

and

wrong

of the

system

The

the
later

law."

arise
as

dress
re-

from

mother

punish

disobedience,

and

him
a

THE

MADRE

of the

motion

keep

hand

by

who

"Lothair,"

of

afterwards

field, refers

to

another

to

Of

1867.

existed
one

"Natural

time

of these

the

"Madre

he

gives

"The

"

most

the

of

of

the

account

oldest, the

Italian

the

to

the

Madre

secret

Garabaldi,
Natura,"

following
is

Natura

powerful,

and

societies

of

secret

Beacons-

of

at

Mother,"

interesting
occult

Earl

constantly

as

Benjamin Disraeli,

became

which

societies

the

Italian

one

might similarlybe interpreted


pre-arranged code of signs.

his novel

In

or

65

silence

part of

in

NATURA

the

most

Italy. Its
paganism,

founded

of
the
era
origin reaches
is not
have
been
impossible that it may
of the
despoiled professors
by some

of

ancient

mythic
and

it

the

brotherhood

assumed

As
many

were

of letters. But

that

and

age.
sometimes

commandery,

was

to

possible, to secure
Roman
republic, and

if

of

settlement
of

Romulus,

what
author

The
Cardinal

de

they

cherish
the
to

studio, or

an

the

ever

the

memory,
restoration
of

and,
the

from

the

Aryan

creeds

and

reignty
sove-

expel
the

men

tion
representa-

was

purpose

cording
ac-

times
Some-

the

their external

inward

their

academy,
same;

whether

lodge,

were

that

advanced,
outward
forms,

Freemasons,
artists, sometimes
soldiers, sometimes

they

the

time

varying spiritof

the

to

were

faith.

sion."
invathey styled the Semitic
proceeds to relate a tradition
Medici, afterwards
Pope Leo

tempted,
Fraternity, and atits
to
strangely enough,
preserve
principles after he occupied the Papal chair.
of
as
Disraeli
being one
pictures the Order
activityat a time when the conflict of the Italians

X.,

was

admitted

to

the

THE

66

COMMUNEROS

temporal

the

against

and

progress,

of

order,

priestly

be

should

man

had

and

his

the

found

society
the

with
took

and
aims

for

enough
to

its

oath

rigorous
death

one,

under

and

and

out

the

my

shall

if

and
this

axe,

ashes

be

my

be

40,000.

to

out

be
the

was

swear

may

to

admitted
as

as

found

promise,

thrown

"I

am

remains

wide

not

members

pointed
I

thropic
philan-

and

many

the
thus

bonari,
Car-

high

were-

as

all

read

the

were

numbered

society,

carrying

social

Ladies

by

whoever
this

the

purposes.

taken

they

professed

Freemasonry

which

ranks,

The

by

its

every

"Communeros,"
It

1820.
that

of

bases

that

from

the

of

in

declared

and

the

believed

they

copied

was

name

rise

its

ligion
re-

security."

necessary

Spanish

priest

own

the
of

principle

the

on

of

abolition

entire

the

in

was

guarded

abuses

and

by

nature

Pope

"they

that

explains

corruptions

the

against

the

of

power

traitor

wanting
my

consumed

winds."

to

put

head

by

in
fall-

fire,

68

THE

Guided
his

old

find
in

by

noble,

it

there

Baron

end

is

the

and

society

the

brought
of

the

influential

banished

was

to

for

cleavage,
with

which

surprise

of

another

Knigge,

from

away

matter

no

quarrelled

Bavaria,
to

broken

had

was

von

of

who

man

Weishaupt

kingdom
speedy

traditions,
that

1785

ILLUMINATI

of

Illuminati.

the
itself

69

CHAPTER

FREEMASONRY.

THE

"

society has

NO

at

found, attained

that

XV.

OPERATIVE

MASONS.

time,

any

the

itself the

This

word

at

of

their
in

and
when

truth

it

skill and

utmost

idea

craft

society did not


originally founded,
association

an

who,

stone-masons

when

of

propriated
ap-

Craft."
an

ciation
asso-

who

had

their

work,

and

to

perform

belie
for

those

the

has

of

trade,

the

was

character

"The

out

be

can

which

of

the

us

working in
of carrying

men

special methods
used

title

gives

once

as

world-wide

distinguishes Freemasonry,
to

far

so

its
it

it,

name

was

doubtedly
un-

operative

cathedrals

of

were
Europe, and
particularly of
England,
of
being built, carried out the higher branches
the work,
made
those
and
lovely traceries in
the
windows,
arches, and mouldings which
are
Gothic
cathedrals.
Their
as
glory of our
axes,
shown
in illustrations
of
the
period, were
end and
boat-shaped, flat at one
pointed at the
with
these
tools
other, and
they, in Norman
which
we
days, carved those zigzag ornaments
the
Cathedral
see
over
doorways at Durham
and Waltham
known
Abbey, and which are now

"axe

as

used

work."

by

called

The

and

Freemasons

same

at

kind
their

of tool

is

now

and

meetings,

gavel.

architects

monks,

of other

The

who

similar

of those

days were
copied their plans
buildings,and gave

the

abbots

from

those

them

to

the

MASONS

OPERATIVE

70

to

masons

workmen

The
latter being skilled
out.
carry
and
education, were
possibly of some

necessarily
the

the

above

masons

serfs,
to
proud

were

"free."

The

work

of

things,

it

saw

moved

masons

abbey. The
lodgings, and
to

masons

from

away

sphere

of

work

first

was

more

the

near

dane
mun-

the

find

to

other
an-

cathedral

another

at

for

on

go

job

one

question

what
erect

would

time, but, like all other


its
end
at
last, and

considerable

some

themselves

call

building

and

bondmen,

or

would

be

natural

than

intended

or

that

of

for the

building a
together as a
? During this

they could reside


"lodge" where
while their work
lasted
community
time
be brought into close contact
they would
day with the bishop or the abbot, as the
every
of the cathedral
case
might be, and with the canons
monks
of the abbey
who
had prepared
or
the plans, and who
would
superintend the work
either as advising architects
in the capacity
or
"clerk
of the works,"
known
to
as
nowadays
the
to be used
on
accept or reject the material
had a touch
of
building. In this way the mason
the

ecclesiastic

acquired
each

took

One

who

Andrews,
in

down

doings
were

they

separate

of the

by

of

mason,

and

affairs of the

other.

Order,

and

of

interested
masons

selves
them-

Lochleven.
each

allegiance
the

members

rules, like the

the

were

in

monasteries

monasteries,
no

churchman

prominent

had

owed

monastic

who

most

and

the

as

in the

monks

Dunkeld,

abbot, who

head

of

the

where

an

interest

an

in

him,

part the character

in

body

Culdees,

about

land,
ScotSt-

at

They
governed
to

any
were

sided
re-

by

other
tied

Benedictines

OPERATIVE

MASONS

71

also
They had members
parts of England and Wales,

Cistercians.

and

Ireland

and

in

established

body which

the
one

which

our

present

most

itself

concerns

It

but

is the

with

in connection

us

subject.

York

at

in

certainly interested

self
it-

time

the

936

with

the

from

who

masons,

in building the
engaged
of which
in charge
at York,
they were
That
King in
days of King Athelstan.
the
a
worshipper at York, and
gave
time

to

minster
in

deal

great

was

"Colidei,"

were

certain

monks,

or

thanksgiving

for

offerings

of

grants
his

land

as

in

successes

battle.

The

Culdees

hundred

there

were

from

Athelstan
in
was

time

to

time.

new

in

was

one

54, and

11

The

with

acquainted

was

1069, when
enlarged

several

for

certainlyup to the year 1200,


building operations going on

years,

there

and

York

at

were

church

was

burnt

built, which

which
down
itself

entirelyreconstructed

in 1230.

The

Culdees

their

had

minds,
with

doors

were

the

be

numbered

at

castle

dinners

and

addition

open

their

to

their

masons,

for the

quaintance
ac-

reception

whom
travellers,amongst
the jester and
singer who,
in these days, went
from
one

and

like their followers


baron's

ing
opportunity of enlarg-

working

wide

always

of all wanderers
would

every
for
in

another

to

festivals;

the

to

amuse

the

pedlar,

who

guests
sold

pack he carried on his back ; the


workman
searching for a job; the mendicant
went
friar and
pardoner, and the pilgrim who
from
holy place to holy place to worship at
goods

from

the

OPERATIVE

72

shrines, and

to

It is said

their own,
from

MASONS

that

of

the

view

Culdees

the

saints.

relics of

type, which

masonic

and
Egyptian sources,
those
Eastern
myths by blending
doctrines
of Christianity. It seems
from

that

the

monks

close

learned

mysteries
they had

had

with

the

the

able
prob-

more

the

of

use

rived
de-

dignified

them

with

contact

the

had

of

masons

tools, and

as
treating them
symbols of higher things,
their everyday
look upon
to
taught the masons
a
as
implements
guides to faith, and
gave
the chisel,
the
and
to
axe
spiritualmeaning
which
well
lives, as
as
might mould
stone;

also

to

gave
would

precision

he

and

"There's

Rough

hew

which

compasses,

certainty

be

hand.
Said

and

square

otherwise

unguided
when

the

executed

to

which

work

roughly

Shakespeare

voiced

by
the

the
idea

divinity that
them

how

shapes

we

our

ends.

will."

Hamlet,

Act.

v.

s.2.

The

last appearance
of the Culdees
in Scottish
history is in the beginning of the 14th century,
when

they

take

part in the

The
for

made

York

what

which

claim,

election

Culdees

is known

but
of

unsuccessfully, to
land.
primate of Scot-

responsible, probably,
the "Edwin
legend," to
setting. In the "ancient

are
as

they gave a local


shall allude
charges" of the Order, to which we
were
presently, and which
undoubtedly written
by monks, there is the story, which may
or
may

OPERATIVE
not

have

the

death

had

foundation

of St. Alban

which

had

the

rule

of masonry
loved
stan, "who

supposed
is

Edwin

for

the

first of

So

from

Athelstan

York,

made

masons.

to

been
the

test

by

masons,

truth

of

his

father
charter

Edwin

the

places the

self
him-

monks

but

no

it is impossible
the

of

part

date

for

charter

and

this

it

who,

the

preserved,

If it is true, it

story.

than

where

written

story

has

Edwin,

was

yearly assembly,

the glorification
of the
of

Athelstan

his father

at

was

the

runs

land
Eng-

wars

more

hold

to

and

in

were

called

son

obtained

presided

after

masons."

masons

which

history,that

destroying the good


reign of King Athel-

the

well

masons

73

effect of

have

to

in

there

until

stated, loved

did.

MASONS

of

English

in the year 930, or thereabouts, for


Freemasonry
is
Athelstan
There
reigned from
925 to 940.
has puzzled, and
in the story which
one
difficulty
to
puzzle, the student,
probably will continue
for King
Athelstan
himself, the grandson of
King Alfred, had no son at all,and the question

arises. Who
desire

this Edwin

was

make

to

the

in the
to

who

Edwin,
In

truth

Edwin,

word
the

"son,"

was

was

said

of

King
had

admitted

and,

have

winds,

Athelstan

who

have

it

was

half-brother

probably

the

old

old

as

the

throwing

Northumbria

anxious

an

institution

English

authors

possible,many

With

person

as

take
mis-

ability
prob-

another
in

674.

named
intended

charter

signed by
his capital city,
at Winchester,
King Athelstan
is witnessed
has come
to light,which
by this

to

designated,

be

Edwin,
word

who

and

"cliton," a
important office in the State,

describes

signifyingan

an

himself

as

OPERATIVE

74
such

fairlybe

might

as

MASONS
filled

by

halfp

king's

brother.

The

of

of the

rest

assembly

an

story,

or.

Chapter

establishment

the

to

as

of Masons

terests
in-

in the

undoubtedly true, either


of following kings
in the days of Athelstan
or
is
in Plantagenet days, for
there
of England
that such
Lodges or Chapters
ample evidence
were
annually held to control the industry and
The
its apprentices, and
to
regulate wages.
direct infringement of the
latter matter
a
was
Statute
of Labourers,
passed in 1350, which
of the

fixed
the

trade,

moderate

conriection
in

of

the wages

the

sum

with

ancient

already quoted,
who
Alban,
made
masons,"
as

the

week

realm

Free

master

fourpence per day, and in


this it is interesting to note
that
which
have
we
charge, from
the

author, with
of

also

said

their

"love

to

he

them

gave

but

3d. for their assistants.


time, through all this land, a
a
a
day, and his meat."
penny

St.

Alban,

we

also

obtained

was

afterwards

Chapters
in the

another

for

the

of

to

pay

Act

of

oaths
more

congregations,
betwixt
notable

well

last

These
became

And

before

mason

took

The

good
have

to

charter

6d.

which

Lodges

or

obnoxious

had
employers of labour, who
more
dearly for their work, and
Edward
IIL, passed in 1360, prohibited

"all alliances
and

masons

at

2s.

reputed

was

destroyed.

of workmen

eyes

perforce

add,

may

St.

"right good, standing

pay

did, for

the

to

that

states

masons,

was

view

and

that

at

stonemason

of

interest

monetary

was

them

of

and

masons

carpenters,

chapters, ordinances,
made,

Act, however,

or

to
was

be

made."

and
A

passed in 1425

76

XVI.

CHAPTER

FREEMASONRY.

CHARGES.

ANCIENT

^THE

"

imof dignity and


give a tone
a
Cliapters, and
pressiveness to these
courses
dismoral
religious setting, "charges," or
the
for
drawn
operative
were
up
in life,
conduct
of
masons
containing rules

order

IN

which

intended

were

oath

the

on

be

to

read

by

of

Several

Bible.

members

the

to

confirmed

and

meeting,

each

at

to

solemn

charges

these

of their

light,and from the nature


composition and the handwriting, it seems
the production of the
that
they were
fathered
the
who
mystic side

have

to

come

mason's

them

of

is

in

now

the

MS.,"

the

lady, about
50
December
25th, 1583,

is

and

after

the

when

the

monks

reign,

for the

the

idea

benefit

least

in

1066.

in

had
does
it

was

been
not

It

to

the

chain

the

time

In

fact,

of
of

for

the

some

Its

Mary's

of

teries,
monas-

the

and

disbanded;

lend

therefore
in

abbey

an

engaged

were

almost
is

no

charges

William

from

"25

Queen

who

masons

masons
Free-

at

ago.

written

is, however,
in existence, and there

that

at

that

of the

building.

of others
doubt

the

"Grand

years

dissolution

particular charge

itself to

for

bought

was

owner,

in its

of

the

as

Lodge

and

library

known

being

Hall,

this

men,
church-

art.

One

date

clear

the
years

copy
to

reason

goes

back

Conqueror
the

date

of

ANCIENT
the

CHARGES

^^

Grand

was
Lodge MS.
quoted as 1183, the
writer
of it being very
careless
ness
to the clearas
of his figures,the earlier date given causing
These
in
no
surprise to anyone.
charges are
three
to the
parts, the first being an invocation
Trinity, the second
a
comprehensive history of

builders
moral

in

all ages,

and

the

third

series

of

precepts.

Another

MS.,"

charge, known
published

was

Magazine"

the

as

in

the

"Dowling

"Gentleman's

for

1815, and as it is very similar to


the other
ancient
charges we give it in full,but
and
modernising the words
spelling.
r/ie

"The

the

of

grace

of the

being

three

at

may

have

in

give

be
grace

us

kingdom,

that

to

ending.

tell you
of
science

and

Godhead,

one

life

with

His

Masonic

Brethren
how

with
so

us

to

living,that
never

shall

Amen.

The

to

Kings,

here, in this mortal

come

"Good

of the

glorious grace, through the


goodness of the Holy Ghost, there

persons

us

govern

Father

his

beginning,

our

we

of the

might

wisdom

Invocation.

and

and

History.
Fellows,

in what

manner

our

is
purpose
this worthy

begun, and afterwards


how
it was
by worthy kings and
other
worshipful men.
princes, and by many
will declare
And
also to those that be willing we
to
the charge that belongeth to any true
mason
And
have
good
keep for in good faith.
ye
was
masonry
favoured

CHARGES

ANCIENT

78

thereto; it is well worthy

heed
for

"For

And

truly.

teacheth

for

discern

to

for

man

teacheth

that

And

masonry.
m.usic; and that

that

which

science, that is
man

prove,

founded
man

man

by
that

by
this
all

and

of

manner

that
some

worketh
mete

buyeth
some

or
or

measure

is geometry.

some

of

by
And

by

he
some

these

one

this may
is
the work
teacheth

geometry

but

measure,

selleth, but
or

liberal

he
nor

weight

and

earth, for there

on

sun,

And

science

any

the

seven

ponderation

things

trumpet.

all founded

say, geometry.
that the
science

measure,

and

song

of

the

is

astronomy;

course

to

for

and

is called

and

called

be

being

by geometry,

mete

of all

the

These

stars.

sciences, the

is

man

of

harp

organ,

of

science

science

man

science

teacheth

and

moon,

and

of tongue
seventh
the

And
and

teachethi

earth, and

which

sixth

the

And

manner

of

and

man

geometry;

measure

things;

called

voice

and

mete

other

all

of

terms.

teacheth

all

count

to

fifth is called

the

And

numbers.

and

reckon

to

subtle

that

and

and

truly

rhetoric, and

is

fair in

is arithmetic;

fourth

the

names

is dialect ; and that teacheth


false.
truth from
know
or

the third

And

the

is grammar,

speak

second

speak

the

First

to

man

the

to

man

And

these

be

of

sciences,

of them.

one

it teacheth

and
write

liberal

sciences

seven

science.

curious

seven

it is

seven

the

and

be

there

which
of

craft

worthy

kept

well

be

to

is

no

worketh
man

no

buyeth or
weight;
merchants

selleth
and

all
and

of
and
all other
the
seven
craftsmen,
lers
sciences, and in especial the ploughman and tilof all manner
of
grounds, grains, seeds,

ANCIENT

CHARGES
sellers

vines, flowers, and


neither
none

grammar
of all the

find

mete

Wherefore

of

other

sciences

seven

fruits; for
can

without

measure

me

thinketh

that
and

worthy,

most

other

rhetoric, astronomy,

nor

nor

is

geometry

79

nor
man

no

geometry.

the

science

of

that

findeth

all

other.

"How
I

begun
there

that

these

shall

you

was

in the
this

Bible

tell.
called

man

in the

Lamech

had

sciences

worthy

Before

of
and

the

Adah, and the other called


first wife, Adah,
he got two
sons,
and

the

other

wife, Zillah, he got

these

founded

four

children

in the

sciences
found

the

flocks

of

lambs

of

and

and

son

the

And

world.

science

And

Jubal.

and

and

the

was

Zillah; by his

this elder

in

sheep

one

that

by that
daughter.
beginning

geometry,

and

Genesis;

called

Jabel

flood

it is written

as

wives,

two

Noah's

Lamech,

4th chapter

first

were

other
And
of

all

Jabel

son

he

one

minded
first

field, and

and tree, as it is noted


wrought house of stone
said.
in the chapter above
And
his
brother,
of
the science
of music,
Jubal, founded
songs
And
the third brother,
tongue, harp, and organ.
founded
smithcraft
of gold, silver,
Tubal-Cain,
the
iron, and
steel; and
daughter
copper,
And
these
dren
chilfounded
the craft of weaving.
knew
for

sin,

either

wrote

two

pillarsof
Noah's
for

marble,
and
would

that
not

God
fire

by

their

they
after

that

well

stone,

that

that

in

was
no

water,

they had
they might
that

would

one

take

that

And

stone

drown

by

or

science

flood.

other

would

not

called
water.

one

burn

vengeance
wherefore
in

found
be

found

stone

with

was

fire,

'laterns,' and
Our

intent

is

8o

CHARGES

ANCIENT

stones

found

were

The

ort.

the

son,

Noah's

This

And

men.

there

Babylon
And

at

the

of

wise

mason

as

it

is

himself,

by

said

when

the

East

should

Babylon,
rogation

be

when

the
he

of

them

other

it to

of

Tower

of.

much

the

science,
And

cities of the

other

the

threescore

King

the

found

histories.

Nimrod,

made,

sent

this

and

He

hight Nimrod,
well

of

masters

thither

sent

of

loved

and

of Nineveh

City

that

Babylon,

was

men.

first made

masonry

of

King

was

charge

was

was

afterward

pillarsof stone, and


there, and he taught
of
the
the making

written

science

that

of the

one

Cub's

that

son,

Hermarynes
father

written

was

was

Shem's

was

the

Hermes,

found

And

Cub

son.

called

Hermarynes

these

manner

this science

that

great
which

in what

and

truly how

tell you

to

King

of

at

the

masons

Nineveh,
forth

he

his

cousin.
them

gave

they should be
each
of them
that they should
to other, and
truly together, and that they should
serve
lord truly for their pay, so that the master
have
worship, and all that belong to him.
other
them.
And
more
charges he gave
on

the

was

charge

first time

that

scholar

well, and
liberal.

when

into

went

sciences

and

That

ever

had

mason

true

love
their
may

And
this
any

of his science.

"Moreover,
wife

manner

the

to

And

the estates

Euclid, and
a

of

master

in his
of the

days
realm

they

had

their

children, wherefore

no

Sarah

and

Egypt, there he taught


Egyptians ; and he had

named
was

Abraham

competent

he

that

many

livelihood

they

sciences

seven

it befel

made

the

sons.

to

seven

worthy
right

learned

all the

had

the

his

find
much

lord
And
with
care.

ANCIENT

CHARGES

8i

a
king of the land made
great
counsel
and a parliament to will how
they might
And
find their children
honestly as gentlemen.
And
of good way.
they could find no manner
then
they did cry through all the realm, if there

And

then

the

were

any

who

could

come

to

them,

and

travail, that

his

"After

that

he

to

honestly
that

and

manner

that

And
him

may

have

that

the

the

to

king

King

and

ought

your
of the

live

may

condition

sion
commis-

rule

to

power

and

this

me

they

science

came

them

should, under
and them,
me,

them

after
ruled.'

be

to

granted

all his

counsel

their

commission.

sealed

alone, and

the

teach

to

wherewith

grant

then

will, take

'If ye

gentlemen

should

ye

said

pleased.

him

made,

was

for

rewarded

so

hold

and

govern,

as

that
the

should

lords

sciences,

seven

be

should

he

them, that

should

this cry

all his great

children

to

he

clerk, Euclid,

worthy
to

inform

And

worthy doctor took to him these lords'


of geometry
and
the science
sons
taught them
in stones
of
all manner
in practice, for to work
work
that
to
building
worthy
belongeth
and
churches, temples, castles, towers,
manors,
he gave
and
all other
of buildings ; and
manner
them
a
charge on this manner.
then

this

"The

King
they

and

other
servant

they should

the

lord

that

love

well

to

should
to

one

that

first

was

other.
his

fellow
his

nor

And

that

the

lord,

And

knave,

truly they
or

of the

true

they own.
together, and be
that they snould
else

or

be

nor

should

master

brother,
none

deserve
that

they

And

that
each

true

call each

and

other

foul
their

serve.

the

to

not

his

name.

of
pay
And

that
be

should

they

lineage, nor

let another

that

of the

ter

should
that

And

other

tell.
swear

time

to

ordained

they might
should

for
live

they might
profit,and
within

best

their

of

name

through
"So

land

that
thus

that

worthy
And

that

now

coming
called

to-

time,

wages

that

that

they

once,

lord
to

for

how
his-

correct

trespassed
the

was

to

them

and

had

and

science

Euclid

now

it
gave
it is called

masonry,

then, long after, when


were

the

him.

in that

year

worship,

geometry.

all this

Israel
is

serve

him

against the science,


grounded there ; and
the

to

own

themselves

made

also

every

also

long

are

reasonable

assemble

lord

with

that

And

mas-

thework

work

he

to

love, nor
favour, to

of

used

men

them

work
to

that

honestly by.

and

come

they
charges
charges

all these

great oath

no

governor

that

more

many

And

and

call their

in the

for

for

knowledge to be
the
through which
And
they ashamed.

work,

should

neither
nor

them

of

wisest

little

hath

evil served

they

the

work, and
riches,

lord's

be

'master'

and

ordain

of the

master

great
"

CHARGES

ANCIENT

82

into

the

the
land

children

of

of

promise,,
the country of Jeruus
salem,
among
that they
began the Temple

King David
called 'Templum
with.
Domini,' and it is named
'the Temple
of Jerusalem.'
the same
And
us
loved
cherished
well, and
masons
King David
them
hethem
And
much, and gave
good pay.
the charges and
the manners
he
had
as
gave
learned
of Egypt given by Euclid,
and
otherthat ye shall hear afterward.
And
charges more
of King David,
after the decease
that
Solomon,
David's
finished
the Temple
that his
was
son,
father began, and sent after masons
into divers.

when

And

France.

did

and

masons
were

both

good

pay,

and

hold

to

them

them

science

into

called

of

the

he

did

from

and
masons,
to

year

And

thus

St.

of

King

wall

and

stood

season

void

loved

6d.

2s.

before

took

as

England,

time.

that

town

about

that

And

Saint

Alban

was

with

steward

the

he

made

their

the

realm

did, for

amended

it and

of

walls,

town

he

the

them

good,
them

gave

And
mason

his meat,
till Saint
them
of
charter
a

and

gave

his counsel

and

King

day,

of

right

pay

is

King

cherished

and

masons

penny

was

the

week, and 3d. to their assistants.


that time, through all this land, a
a

for

as

but

Alban
the

well

And

standing

the

Alban's

and
had
household,
governance
realm, and also of the making of the
much.

and

came

his

and

year

they would,

unto

Alban's.

knight,

worthy

charter

masonry

days

St.

other

of

in all this

in his

Pagan,

gave

manners,

learned
a

and

France.

"England
charge
any
And

the

assembly where
right much.

their

cherished

had

work,

to

that

masons

men

and

charges
he

confirmed

make

to

took

he

in his estate

was

them

set

the
as

he

help

and

none,

them

CHARGES

ANCIENT

84

for to

hold

general
council, and gave
it the name
of assembly; and
thereat
he was
make
himself, and
helped to
and gave
them
charges as ye shall hear
masons,
a

afterward.

"Right
there

divers

came

of

after

soon

divers

masonry

Athelstan's

was

the

wars

nations,

decease

of Saint

into

realm

so

the

that

destroyed unto
days,

that

was

the
the

good
time

worthy

Alban

of

land
Eng-

rule
of

of

King

King

of

ANCIENT
England,

and

peace,
abbeys and

Edwin,

than

his

tiser

in

talk

them

he

had

made

to

themselves

realm

the

the

that

made

had

this

show

them

there

was

and

the

how

told

and

when

in

English,
intent

he

science

did
was

commanded
that

any

rule

the

to

mason

charter

king.

it

French,

and
some

of them

was

founded.

of

the

before

they should
was
proved,

and

he

that

young
made

were

to

ordinance

and

that

made

gathered,

was

make

self
him-

that

king

when
in

that

taught

made

and

some

correct

and

then

other, that

And

the

And

one.

bade
or

; and

took

that

would

he

understanding

or

year

he held

there

masons

any

forth.

languages
all

in

to

And

assembly

manners

some

that

trespasses

from

all old

found

love

and

commanded

renewed

the

or

and

Greek,
be

be

the

land

learn

to

they

ever

and

keep

to

writings,

any

to

every

charges,

and

that

cry

charges, and
in

them

after, and

when

"And

much

for

and

York,

commission

it should

that

science.

at

gave

ever

prac-

and

England;

the

manners,

for

kept

great

hold

to

defaults

within

and

masons

more

the

to

of

assembly

an

son

much

him

masons,

assembly, where

done

drew

commission

within

science, he was
he got of the King, his father,

and
and

was

of

ings,
build-

he had

afterwards

and

the

and

he

rest

works

masons

he

with

masons

within

be

and

commune

to

an

them

And

science, and

charter

were

loved

did.

good

divers

many
And

masons.

he

geometry,

mason,

once

and

into

great

many
other

and

well

father

and

of

loved

85

this land

builded

towers,

and
called

brought

and

and

CHARGES

book

some

in

in other
found

to

thereof,

And

he

self
him-

it should

be

read

be made

for

should

86

ANCIENT
him

give

to

this time
that

well

of

Here
the

is to

charges

be

"Every
heed

to

these

guilty
amend

that

man

best

the

that

and

hand,

the

then

follows

as

of

one

which

upon

him

to

is

take

mason,

; if that

of

any

been

the

""

Charges.

charges

in

Bible

his

read

The

And,
held,

it.

govern
have

Latin

in

place

to

are

hold

to

are

candidate

direction

been

fellows."

and

follows

day unto
kept in

charges by

certain

masters

seniors

might

assemblies

ordained

they

have

men

as

that

from

masons

divers

furthermore,
advice

of

manners
as

And

charge.

his

form

and

CHARGES

find

man

any

these

right good
self
him-

that

charges,

he

himself

in principal,
And
against God.
to be charged, take
good heed that
ye that been
keep these charges right well, for it is
ye may
himself
to forswear
great peril for a man
a
upon

book.

"The
true

first

God

to

man

neither

use

charge
error

And
the

other

nor

discreet

or

to

and

also
of

King

that

is that

; and

men

he

shall

that

they

ye

shall be

to

every

been

as

would

ye

that

ye

one

it

to

masons

that

allowed,

they
keep truly all

should
the

be

that

he

and

standing,
under-

your

ing.
teach-

liege

true

treason

know

or

privily,if

ye

And

other, that is
ye

to

of

masonry
shall do to

do

counsels

to

you;

of

man

any

treason

no

his council.

of .the science

mason

have

each

be

shall

men's

without

or

true

wise

or

treachery, but ye amend


else warn
the King or

nor

thou

or

Holy Church,
heresy by

England,

falsehood

he

and

Lodge

may,

also
say,

that
them
also
and

ANCIENT
and

Chamber,
be

kept by

no

mason

far

forth

that

ye

masonhood.

shall

be

in theft

may

think

he

shall

be

and

brethren,

also

ye

else

your

or

And
wife

servant,
also

in

that

also

to

truly

the

These
to

be

his advantage.
your

other

none

not

take

your
ungodly his

And

disworship.

And

also

where

shall do

ye

no

board,

to

go

ye

drink

and

meat

thereby.
might be slandered
charges in general that belongeth
and
masters
to keep, both
mason

science

the
true

every

that

master

desire

your

as

also

masons

shall

no

for

to

that

And

or

call

ye

ye

whereby

also

fellows, and

go to board.
villiany in that
place

where

And

profit and

shall

him

pay

ye

lord

villiany,nor

put

nor

ought

know.

or

his

see

that

thievish, for

nor

the

to

truly

names.

fellow's

true

87

counsels

of

And

foul

all other

way

as

serve,

ye

CHARGES

fellows.

will

"Rehearse*
for

shall

take

not

and

s.elf able
and
have

no

lord

may

that

slander

reasonable,
his

the

shall

that is to

put

say,

master

him

out,

not

the

but

to

perform

the

science

the

be

and

the

master

also

have

taken

lord's
be

that

other

supplant

if he

truly

fellows

to

their

master,

of

their

work,
ye

of

it

take

no

work,

unable

he

also

truly served

may

And

the

that

but

lord

his

pay

if he
of

work,

no

good,
to

him-

disworship, but that


served
and
truly. And

is.

manner

fellow,

stand

and

that

so

nor

no

that

own

honestly,
as

so

work,

he. know

that

cunning

work,

take

master

no

with

or

well

be

of

sufficient

master

no

lord's

no

but

work,

lord's

the

end

him

upon

man's

other

none

First, that

fellows.

and

masters

charges singular

other

now

live
pay
nor

work,
or

shall

cunning

else
not

for

CHARGES

ANCIENT

88

end

to

fellow

assentand

least

six

that

kindred

if he

no

have

two,

one,

shall

sufficient
three

or

that

work

to

task

that

also

that

every

but

for

the

shall

his

lose

to

to

behind

good

lord's

journey,
to

pay

that ye be
also none

his

back,

his
not

of

make

to

his

of

name,

occupy
And

no

-to

give

may

another

And

least.

go

deserve, so
and
by false workmen,

slander

you
him

he

as

good

of

fellow, put

master

of

manner

apprentice,

no

to

at

that

bondman.

at

wont

was

he

and

occupation

nor

out
with-

and

take

not

of

fellows

in all

no

fellows

master,

no

deceived

of

low
fel-

nor

of his

years;

and

true,

also

fellows

no

man

mason

free-born

say,

mason

made

able

be

to

and

come,

that

given

as

master

no

counsel

seven

is to

whole,

be

to

mason

that

degrees,

and

also

the

or

made

shall be

but

limbs

allowance

no

the

also

And

be.

to

take

the

of

free-born, and

ought

nor

no

years;

birth

master

no

the
term
apprentice within
and that the apprentice be able,

take

seven

also that

and

the work;

worldly

And
that
also
fellow
within
the
no
goods.
either ungodly
Lodge, or without, misanswer
reasonable
and
or
reprovably without
cause;
also

that

and

put

him

shall

mason
or

every

the

at

the

also

no

be

that

at

with
he

was

at

time

also

other

any

the

that

be

no

that

and

if it be

within

fellow

shall

he

fiftymiles

come

about

to

into

go

he may
bear him
honest
place. Also

master

And

lechery,nor
dered.
might be slan-

use

that

an

plays,

slandered.

fellow

without

no

hazard

unlawful

science
no

elder

that

player at

shall not

also

him

And

might

whereby

night
in

nor

his

reverence

common

any

science

And
town

be

not

mason

bawd,

no

worship.

to

dice,

whereby

shall

mason

have
witness
that

the

him;

the
low
felthat

eveiy

assembly
and

if ye

ANCIENT
have

of

award

accord

then

that

also,
mould, nor

if
to

hew

to

when

receive

they

them
that

is

to

say,

place,

the

come

he

cherish
the

also

that

fellows

strange

countries, and

they

will

as

if he

have

not

moulded

the

set

is,

manner

in

stones

with

him

refresh

And

neither

and

and

shall

not

layer (inferior
the lodge or

stones;

and

over

work,

at

mould

no

make

to

make

within

layer

no

or

to

abide

may
law.

fellow

rule

to

they

common

nor

set

nor

if

and

the

nor

89

science, for
fellows, and

may,

to

go

square,

mason

every

they

master

no

workmen),
without,

and

masters

accorded

them

into

money

also that
mason
lodge. And
every
the lord for his pay,
and
truly serve
every
of
make
end
his
work, be it
an
truly

next

shall
master

task

journey,
ye ought

or

all that
have

we

belongeth

help

you

Book

Thus

God,

unto

your

was

the

society

engrafted

Human

where
on

if ye
for

have

to

his

nature

to

These

to

masons,

and

your

all

and

ye

shall
and

other

keep, so
by this

Amen."

introduced

operative mason
speculative

will

that

charges

you

holydom,

power.

own

and

covenants

your

have.

rehearsed

now

that

the

trespassed against

the

his

CHARGES

trade

mysteries

and

peep

into
were

craft.

out

even

from

written
in
parchment, for these charges were
of
rolls
on
a
long, narrow
clerkly hand
would
be held
by the reader
parchment, which
the
he proceeded with
and
as
slowly unwound
of
looks
the backs
at
some
reading. If one
that part of them
of these charges it will be seen
are

cleaner

than

others, which

goes

to

shovir that

the

gentle

Master

well-known

The

back

brought
the

of

masonic

London,

little

of

cautions
London

for

the
as

take

and

ending,
prolix

too

is

for,

of

his

book

charges
conduct

the

too

or

made

life,
use

to

he

freedom,

corresponding

to

of

which
such

apprentices-"

Freeman

addition

in

"containing

are

also

the

rules
added
of

for
a

the

the
ceives
re-

to

some

freemen

is

charges

ancient

citizen

record

the

when

City

parchment

these

of

memory

the

repetition.

need

to

known
un-

sometimes

and

being

as

not

was

that

preface

middle

book

and

days,
the

the

out

skipping

those

recited

left

of

of

art

in

of

CHARGES

ANCIENT

go

few

City

POEM

MASONIC

92
In

At

lords'

these

For

This

it

His

name

And

so

And

love

should

teach

called

But

should

Masons
the

Within

craft

subject,

Though

he

this

On

Began

of

craft

This

Egypt

he

In

divers

lands

Many
Ere
This

craft

In

time
made

He

found.
land.

wide.

understand.
this land.
came
into England,
as
may
you
day.
King Athelstan's
into

craft

good
then

Geometry,

afterwards

came

of

of

side.

every

on

it

Egypt's

it full

taught

years
the
that

in

geometry

In

as

wise

this

on

brother,

dear
my
another.

through good wit


craft of Masonry;

Euclid

call.

all ;
"

perfect

so

other

them

servant

nor

one

never

not

manner,
first the

clerk

The

be

be

amongst

Neither

brother.

he.
he

should

so

other.

and

yet ordained

Furthermore

Master

the

sister

as

wide.

wondrous

full

together

Euclid,

called

was

name

spread

each

Geometry,
curiously.

full

clerk's

great

fall

did

of

craft

made

he

which

The

all.

of

thereto

the

of him

have

To

Masonry

of
craft

children

lords'

These

Geometry,

they imitated

prayers

it the name
gave
honest
the most

And

manner,

together,

clerks

of these

Imitated

in this

made

and

ordained

Was

of

craft

honest

This

good Geometry,
good Masonry

time, through

that

both

hall,

also

and

say.

bower.

of

For

temples
great honour.
both
him
day and night,
in,
disport
all his might.
with
to worship his God
craft
the
full well,
good lord loved
del (part).
to strengthen it every
purposeo
he found.
the
craft
in
that
defaults
divers

He

sent

And
To
And
This
And

high

all the

After
To
For

about

come

to

By good

to

amend

the

unto

of the

Masons

him,

full

these

counsel."

land

even

craft
straft

defaults

all

(angered),

MASONIC
There

with

"Quatuor
Martyrs,
chapter.

which

of

Babel,

which

rules
when

manners

to

Have

in

To

not

come

the

thy
worship thy
all

This

latter

work,

Lord

earlier

in

now

from

and

the

to

and

building

then

comes

part of

late,

gate.
dost

thou

fare,

more

all

both

day and
thy might."

night,

Parish

Museum,
Priest,"

perversity
it that

that

the

the

of

entitled

by

some

"Masonic

"Parish

Priest"

John
quarians
anti-

poem"
came

in date.

the
indeed, to
building
the Wars
of the Roses, which
lasted
to
important still,
1485, and, more

were

1455

the dissolution
VIII.

the

British

the

though
copy,

church

God

the

for

Drawbacks,
trades

the

resumes

part is substantiallyrepeated in

will have
is the

the

previous

essential

an

when

ever

thy wit, and

"Instructions

Myrc,

in

church,
mind

With

to

scandal

speak

to

Then

of

education.

then

For

on

been
only have
clergyman, containing
church
in days
at

not

were

gentleman's
"Look

goes

could

or
by a monk
for good
behaviour

written

back

going

part,

in

to

good

Crowned

afterwards

poem

masonry,

latter

of

then

Four

or

referred

we

Tower

points

interesting legend

Coronati,"

of

the

the

the

masonic

The

of

15 articles and
15
and
the poem
masons,

to

deal

story

93

follow

conduct
to

PEOM

in

of many
is

serious

of the monasteries

the
1549, and
"The
of them.
a

phrase

which

under

Henry

subsequent destruction
ruined abbeys of England"
of
must
bring a note

POEM

MASONIC

94
to

for the

works

of

land

South,

raise

to

walls

Abbeys

tlieNorth,

in

and

Crow-

Midlands, and Netley Abbey


if they were
all,
sufficient,even

in the

Abbey

in the

rise of

The

buildings.

Rievaulx

and

Fountains

of

regard

any
to the

in the

exhibited

as

sacred

of those

windows

and

ancestors,

our

in art

beautiful

the

have

of all who

minds

the

sadness

are

working
wonder-

old

the

for

enthusiasm

our
masons.

the

"In

days
wrought

Builders

and

minute

Each

of

elder

For

gods

the

art,

with

greatest

hidden

part,

everywhere."

see

Longfellow's

One

virtue

great

masonic

precision,

which
If

statements.

pursued

of

writers

an

hundred

even

are

and

denied

years

of
to

"Builders.'

be

cannot

admits
we

care

no

believe

ago

that

"

in

doubt

them,

well-chronicled

the

to

of

their

masonry
in

course

the days of Athelstan,


England from
a masterly but
simple system of singling
the man
who
in each
out
reign had important
for him, these writers
make
buildings erected

all ages
and by

that
for

the

"Grand

Master"

period.

In

there

man

that

of truth
III.

in

and

fact,

of

is

masonry

small

basis

for in the reigns of Edward


go upon,
Richard
II. one
Henry Yvele bore the

to

official title of

"King's Master Mason,"


acting
He
as
a
superintendent of building works.
in 1400 who
bore only the title of
had. a successor
but neither
of them
"King's Chief Mason,"
can
be dignified with the title of Grand
Master
of a
masons'
society.

MASONIC
The

undaunted

existence

of

heroes

own

writer

historian

such
for

in

the

THE

KING

POEM

men

his

as

95

knows

Yvele, and
domestic

own

of

not

the

makes

his

drama.

One

"Encyclopaedia Londiniensis,"
published in 1816, sets out a most
interestinglist
of these
and
the important
Masters
supposed Grand
in their days.
He
buildings erected
his list with Leofric, Earl of Coventry, in
starts

Earl

of

patrons
I. and

Confessor,

Abbey

of the

In

masons.

Stephen,

Westminster,

president

of

near

the

when
the

Lodges

the

and
to

days

chapel
was

needed

Rochester

promoted

House

1041,

After

London

of
of

in

rebuilt.

was

Tower

the

M.S.

CENTURY.

Bishop
are
Shrewsbury
and

OFFA,"

COTTON

the

the

MASON,

KING

I3TH

Edward

conquest,

masons,

OF

PARIS.

MUSEUM,

Westminster

when
the

of

days

CHIEF

HISTORY

MATTHEW

BY
BRITISH

the

HIS

AND

"THE

FROM

of

was

be
of

joint
Henry

built

Commons,

the

the

Marquis

at

the
of

MASONIC

96

POEM

to the
By the time Henry II. came
throne, the Lodges were
supposed to be under
Master
the superintendence of the Grand
of the
in 1155
Knights Templars, who employed masons
in Fleet
build the Temple
Street.
to
Masonry

Pembroke.

continued
of

days
the

under

John

to

rebuild

de

Rupibus

as

London

when

Edward
the

Bishop
appointment
the

Grand

building
and

of

Clare

the

he

and

Hall

at

the

castle

at

Guildhall

Fotheringhay
in

London.

On

the

Oxford
Earl

of

Master

Abbey

built,as

were

leges
Col-

Cambridge.
the days of

Grand
Battle

intended
super-

Oriel

in
succeeded
Wykeham
II., building New
College at
The
College at Winchester.

the front
to
Surrey came
as
the days of Henry IV., when
the

and

1307,
Exet-er

his

Master,

of

Richard
and

from

Peter

stone.

Archbishop of York
In the following reign

was

dates

began

Master, and in
finished,
Abbey was

the

Exeter

who

Grand

as

masons.

of

with

Bridge

appointed

Oxford,

William

Colechurch,

succeeded

of the

at

de

Westminster

I',

head

Grand

new

Peter

of

person

1272,

till 1199, and in the


Master
found
in
was

this order

in

and

well

accession

as

of

Henry V., Chichely, Archbishop of Canterbury,


whom
was
the Lodges
and
appointed, under
communications

of

the

fraternitywere

said

to

be

frequent.
in
Masonry suffered its reverse
the early days of
bidding
Henry VI.
by the Act fortheir
chapters and
congregations,
assured
the Act
we
though
are
was
never
in
the
actually put
force, and
Archbishop
still continued
to
but
in
preside,
a
new
1442
the craft, when
phase came
over
the King was
himself
the

admitted

Lodges

into

in person,

presiding over
masonry,
but
nominating Wane-

fleet,Bishop of Winchester,

as

Grand

Master,

MASONIC

POEM

97

who

built

The

Magdelen
that

statement

the

of

Henry

VI.

is contained

masons

known

charges,

ancient

Oxford.

College,

the

as

was

in

supporter
of
the

two

"William

Watson

M.S.," the latter


"Henry Head
of which
is dated
ple
1675, and is in the Inner Temlibrary. It states that "these charges have
and
late Sovereign
been
seen
perused by our
of his
Lord, King Henry
VI., and the Lords
Honourable
Council, and they have allowed them
and said that they were
sonable
right and good and reaM.S.,"

the

and

to

In the

be

holden."

reign

continued

was

of

of Edward
under

Salisbury, who

Order

of

the

IV.

English masonry
headship of the Bishop

the

the

was

Garter,

Chancellor

of

the

repaired Windsor
VII.
Alaster
presided as Grand
in his palace in 1502, his reason

Castle.

and

Henry
held
at a Lodge
for doing so being that he wished
to build, with
its wonderful
fan-tracery, his chapel at the East
of Westminster
end
In Henry
VIII. 's
Abbey.
Grand
Master, and he
"days Cardinal
Wolsey was
Court
.signalisedhis office by building Hampton
and
Christ
Church
College, Oxford, and he was
in 1547 by the
succeeded
Duke
of
Somerset,
who

built

Somerset

House.

In Elizabeth's
the

days. Sir
premier position, and

curiosity of
which

secrets,
armed
what
was

force
the

by

her

sex,

she
to

the

mysteries
no

means

Thomas

Sackville

the

Queen,
that

hearing

desired

Lodge
were.

at

York

The

non-plussed,

to

Grand
and

the
had

masons

know,

to

with

held

sent

find

an

out

Master
took

the

POEM

MASONIC

98

of initiatingthe chief officers


sagacious course
sent
by tlie Queen into the craft, and on their
return
persuaded the Queen
they in some
way
that
the secrets
worth
not
were
knowing, and
that tlie body of masons
were
loyal subjects
who

should

told

of Maria

who

desired

in

Theresa,
but

her

in

the

days

of

James

the

Earl

line

secrets

of

Austria,

of the

Thomas

Lodge

failed

Elizabeth,

Sir

was

in

rulers, and
in

succeeded

was

to

Gresham

L, Tnigo Jones, the architect,

days

of

and

Nicolai,

masonry,

death

of

of rank

united

because

under

afford

Cromwell

of

one

his views

expresses

Charles

in

themselves
this

determine

found

the

story is

the
rose

by

1618

the

Perr.brcke.

The

and

Empress

masonic

of

similar

the

she, like

post, and

of

the

out

object.

also

to

find

to

Vienna,

achieve

left in peace.

be

means

the

1649,

their

to

establish

future

several

the

they

on

writers--

on

follows, "After

as

with

mask

tions,
specula-

many

people

Freemasons,

could

assemble

measures.

within

this

They
society,

held
conclave, which
meetings apart
from
the
This
conclave
general
meetings.
adopted secret
signs, expressive of its grief for
a

secret

its murdered
his

on

word
to

murderers,

faithful

him

adherents

the

to

of its search

on

of

In

established

this

amongst

family,

his

father's

revenge
for the

and

its

him
lost

design

throne.

A"

the

Royal family, whose


come,
be(Henrietta Maria) had now

Queen
they called

Widow.'

Royal

and

hope

logos (the King's son),

or

re-establish

head

of its

master;

as

themselves
way

secret

'Sons
connection

of

the
was

all persons
attached
to the
well
in Great
Britain
and

lOO

XVIII.

CHAPTER

TRANSITION

THE

FROM

OPERATIVE

SPECULATIVE

TO

FREEMASONRY.

HE

transition

operative

from
those

to

is the

Freemasons

the
of

last link of

joins

the

views

if we
of great interest
of the picture.
colours

faded
the

the

rude, unlettered

their

working

with

them
in

placed
Lodge
he would

give

and

of

end

would

more

found
was

much

After

time,

ing
consist-

to

the

Could

treasured

when

working

masons

realise

from

to

the

could

ber.
remem-

education

be

of
to

would

time

brought in, of

down,

became

the

limited

So

some

of

whom

the

of the
of

the

and

these
best

it

ones,

circle

appreciate

masons.

ritual

idea

universal

to

were

they began
they sought to draw

were

taught
the

union

lessons

tools

who
methods

trade

broke

that

their

worthy

the

he

read,

not

he

as

if so,

beginning,

charges

if he
of it

read, and,

from

the

of

popular, a superior class of men


in such
lodges, and a short, formal
learned.
This brings us to the days
when

in

came

master

ancient

or,

as

imagine

can

Lodges

reading

recite

We

the

revive

but

can

The
able

the

Lodge,

Stuarts,

time

short
of

one

the

within

them.
been

have

may

it affords

brought
tools, which
they

working

of

front

past, and

builders, who
of leather, and

aprons

their

subject which

our

masons'

original operative
of

to

with

present

meetings of the
the
speculative

the
was

of outsiders,

peculiar
that

strangers
known

and

from
were

example

is

THE
that

of

He

TRANSITION
the

became
attraction

in

for

The

wrote

became

He

History

also

had

the

of

left behind

Order

him

no

dabbler

astrology, and
on
chemistry

work

one

"The

Garter."

he

astronomy,

and
on

law, however,

him, and

mathematics,
another

antiquary Elias Ashmole.


at 21
of age
1617, and
years

solicitor.

loi

learned

born

was

PERIOD

of
most

in
chemy,
al-

and
the
tertaining
en-

diary, as also did his personal friends,


Pepys and Evelyn. In this he notes, under date
the
October
i6th, 1646 (when, by the
way,
made
writer
a
was
only 29 years old), "I was
in Lancashire, with
Freemason
at Warrington,
Col.
of
in
Karincham,
Henry
Mainwaring,
Cheshire."

by informing
afternoon

the

found

of the

body

the

then.

of

first

the

that

nothing

to

In

from

exploring

doubtless

long

away

that

before
it

the

surviving members
so
operative masons,
was
plainly
masonry

were

of

Ashmole

this way

discovered

land

new

He

was

fit

became

one

learned

man,

but

of his fellow

men,

clubable

only

the

welfare

his

magnificent gift
Ashmolean

genial Pepys

to

by

the

as

Oxford

his

tive
opera-

subject,

studies, he
one

had

masons
Freeamong
the pioneers in
for the

man

his

to

not
can-

of the

any

not

The

fade

to

high veneration
of
having been one

for, in addition

known

members

in

masons.

the

who
speculative Freemasons,
do with the building trade, and

is held

name

sidelighton the story


Lodge began in the

significantfact

1646
phase

in

later

visible

the

daylight
It is

be

but

4.30,

it dissolved.

that

that

us

at

allowed

lets in

He

who

cared

was

for

proved by

was

of

the

well-

Museum.

met

Ashmole

in

October,

THE

I02

1660, whom,

ingenious
ingenious that in May, 1661,
met
at a Lord
Mayor's banquet,
tlie credulous
Pepys believe

he

Ashmole

made

"that

frogs and
sky, ready

have

to

been

before

very

often

taken

aloft

does

these

their

started

not

wind

sects
in-

earth

the

on

the

seem

and

frogs

career

by

fall from

other

or

causes.

Ashmole

Evelyn
which

lived
went

the

Mr.

that

informed

being,

natm^al

found

insects
do
many
formed."
Pepys

have

must

"I

says,

gentleman," so
when
they both

the

PERIOD

TRANSITION

to

him

see

latter notes

Elias

as

Ashmole's

Lambeth.

He

follows

"Went

and

to

see

curiosities

MSS.,

divers

John
23rd, 1678,

July

on

library

has

where

Lambeth,

at

but

at

of

most

them

astrological,to which
study he is addicted,
dustrious,
though I believe not very learned, but very inhis
of the
as
'History of the Order

Garter'
in

The

amber.

his
has

He

proves.

them

his

diary,

which

famous

repository

given

In

the

to

it appears

to

Masons'

Wilson,
Capt.
gentlemen
were
of

it

he

was
a

The

was

worthy

Tradescant

this

gentleman,

has
March

on

only

the

into

senior
since

host

he

himself

of Ashmole

who

Oxford."

another

note,

by
nth, 1680, by
day before, he
where

the

W.

other

"fellowship
with
pride
them,

amongst
had

Sir

three

notes

fellow

queathed
be-

of

Hall, London,
and
Borthwick,
admitted

included

toad

John

Ashmole

the

34 years
Freemason.

me

University

that

Freemasons."

that

to

Ashmole

invitation, delivered
went

showed

been

at the

as

ted
admit-

"Masons'

THE
Hall"
the
is

TRANSITION
the

was

not

the

date

HI.

in

time

the

be

may

Henry

foundation

put

There
of

is

Edward

was
Company
Corporation of London

members

1472 the
the Heralds
described

Masons,"

College,

as

the

though

in

to

of Common

in the

and

"Hole

possible
reign of

the

entitled

got its grant

company

company

it is

in

be

to

the Court

to

In

which

of

place to rest upon


the
HI., in 1376, when
stated
officially
by the

Masons

four

of

1220,
firm

as

103

City Company

discover, though

to

easy

the

of

master

the

Masons,

PERIOD

crafte

and

the

return

Council.

of

from

arms

it is

warrant

fellowship of
Henry VHI.

reign of
its title became
the simpler one
of the "Company
of
Freemasons."
Eventually, in the
time
of Oliver
in 1656, the Company
Cromwell,
took
its modern
of the "Worshipful Company
name
of Masons,"
though its members
always
to have
masons,"
"Freeseem
delighted to dub themselves
and

city

tombstones

this

is

title found

relating

to

on

members

several

of

this

Company.
Some

inner

meetings

of

the

Company

were

the

"acceptions," from which obviously comes


word
"accepted," in relation to masonry,

and

the members

called

were

divided

into

masons

who

who
and
others
were
simply "Free."
For the latter ceremony
"Free
and accepted."
fees were
charged amounting to twenty shillings
pany,
of the Comfor a candidate
already a member
The
and
forty shillings for outsiders.
lines as the
obviously took the same
Company
the Salters,
of the City Companies,
such
rest
as
in
and
Goldsmiths,
others, who
Fishmongers,
the
broken
down
II. had
the days of Charles
were

enclosures

which

admitted

members

of their

own

craft

trade

01-

PERIOD

TRANSITION

THE

I04

and

only,

outsiders

join

to

glad

were

proved
ap-

assemblies.

their

in

allow

to

copied this example


operative masons
City Companies, and though Ashmole
early stranger within the gates, he was
in time
by armies of others.

of

The
the
an

1665

who

Holme,
out

wrote

which

MSS.
as

of

Annexed

follows:

is

will

of

Judgment,

the

the

and

"I

says:

Academy

and
but

he

name

at

the

Masons'

as

Chester

the

Society

member

had

name

Randle
of

and

as

Holme
Masons'

titled
en-

in

it

the

masons,

Holme
same

book,

called
father

himself,
whose

Lodge

1665 to 1675. In addition


an
Lodge, there was
operative

Lodge
the

Scarborough
after
Lodges

from

Chester

while

1717.

the

doubtless

was
occurs

held
to

of

grandfather

wrote

of that

Randle

Society

said

the

but

person,

the

honour

member

a
"

he

any

reveal

to

not

Armoury,"

of

but

cannot

'Freemasons.'

and

of

1688

In

being

as

more

which,
you,
at the
great Day

of

ears

Harleian

to

God

fellows

of Freemasons."
"The

the

in

masters

words

keep secret,

any

stitutions,
Con-

by Holme,
and signs

note

in

Museum,

the

of

revealed

be

before

you

to

same

British

part

this copy
is
"There
several
are
to

ample
ex-

Masonic

some

in the
as

answer

you

of

now

lowed
fol-

.genealogist,named
in 1627, and
born

to

Freemason

as

to

was

it is indexed

where

and

copy

Ashmole's

copied

antiquary

an

was

Randle

who

outsider

Another

was

held

at

York

continued
the

Alnwick
and

Lodge
to

creation

in Northumberland,

exist
of

its offshoot
as

Grand

at

independent
Lodge in

THE

TRANSITION

Another
Dr.

PERIOD

well-known

writer

105

of those

days

was

Robert

He
not a Freemason.
Plot, who was
them
the
wrote
works,
amongst
many
"Natural
we
History of Wiltshire," to which
shall presently allude, and another
the
known
as
"Natural

In
the
History of Staffordshire."
latter work
flying rather wide of his subject
he discourses
(as if he were
talking of birds and
of Staffordshire
not
men), of the Freemasons
"

he

who,

"abounded
most
says,
the county," though he

of
found

"the
the

over

"

spread,

custom

nation,"

and

that

the

on

lands
moor-

admits

more

or

"persons

"

he

that

less, all
of

most

quality did not disdain to be of this


He
also alludes
the ancient
to
fellowship."
read in Masons'
charges which were
Lodges, and
talks of "a large parchment
volume
they have
them, containing the history and rules
amongst
of the craft of masonry."
The
of the
secret
of the society in Staffordshire
success
might be
the fact
that
Lodge
meetings
guessed from
were
preceded, instead of being followed, by a
eminent

dinner,
wives

to

which

were

finished, the
than

five

or

present, who

both

the

invited.

Lodge

When
was

six members
"communicated

candidates
the

formed,

and

repast
when

was

less

not

(or ancients) had


certain

their

to

be

signs
known
to each
other, and by
whereby they were
maintenance
wherever
which
they
they had
Plot adds, in his own
travelled."
original way,
"for
if any
known,
man
though altogether unappear,
show
that can
of these
signs to a
any
call
fellow
of the Society, whom
they otherwise
he is obliged presently to
an
accepted mason,
from
what
to him
come
or
place soever
company
he be in ; nay,
though from the top of a steeple
he run),
inconvenience
soever
or
(what hazard
secret

TRANSITION

THE

io6

his

know

to

PERIOD

and

pleasure

him, viz., if he

assist

if
or
bpund to find him some,
wise
otherhe cannot
do that, to give him
or
money,
is
be had, which
can
support him till work
he

work,

want

articles."

of their

one

is

last step for Freemasonry


itself adrift altogether from

The
cut

and

masons,

world,
free

"who

those

after

were

finished;

been

1666, when

the

building

no

of architects

army

busiest

architect

Evelyn

states

the

churches.

old

the

writers

of the
Grand

and

Wren

is, of

also

by

of

mythical post, though


credence

Lodge,

that
founded

Wren

it is
was

known

the

"Goose

Paul's

parish
architect

made

the

by

"Book

in the
the

member

of

in

as

tect
archi-

50

1691, of the masons


in rebuilding the Cathedral, which
in St. Paul's
tavern
Churchyard, and
that

1681,

position of
of
his
day, a
of
quite worthy

occupy

Masons

the

been

in

course,

Sir

was

position as

Anderson

to

the

assembled

and

his official

an

progress,

whom

for

in

London

May,
"His
Majesty's
building St.

was

Constitutions,"
Master

day,

all

had

have

Monument,

From

King,

of

any
in

Lodges

were

must

Wren,

surveyor,"

Cathedral,
to

He
his

time

no

of

in

was

chief

of

that

Fire

builders

and

together in London,
Christopher Wren.

and

the

of

Master

cathedrals

great
after

but

tive
operathe outside

all operative but rather

by courtesy occupied the chair of


at
were
Lodge by right. There
of operative Masonic
great number
existence,

to

was

speculative Freemasons,"
formerly only members

or

who

old

the

its members

as

not

were

accepted,

and

that

so

admit

to

take

to

and

that

engaged
met

at

probably
Gridiron,"
was

io8

THE

TRANSITION

pher

Wren

in the

probably

PERIOD

member

of

the

Strong, whose
Barnet
on
February 8th, 1724,
Read's
Journal."
"Weekly
"one
is stated that Strong was
Masons

and

that

"It

adds:
it

and

stone;

during the see of


Henry Compton."

As

and

one

the

marking

merly
for-

and

The
church

that
the

under

the

tion
direc-

the

the

first and

and

finished

Bishop,

same

influence

Mason

same

above) laid
was
begun

it

ancientest

Cathedral."
of

it

journal

England,

and

one

that

in

topher
architect, Sir Chris-

same

mentioned

(Mr. Strong
last

the

that

Wren;

this

of the

finished

and

and

one

In

Paul's

New

at

announced

was

is remarkable

begun

was

of

St.

of

mason

paper

in

Freemasons

Lodge,

same

death

Edward

was

dral,
Cathe-

of St. Paul's

building

of

Dr.

operative

its

offspring, the
speculative
four points in which
the
note
we
masons,
may
of later days copied their predecessors.
masons
The
first was
the white
leather
worn
by
apron
the Master
of the
the
reminded
Lodge, which
members
that work, and not
the keyplay, was
note
of the masters
of earlier days. In the same
on

masonry

manner,

too,

that

to

his

apron

his

wear

Worshipful

find

we

Mall

all aprons
of

was

servants

from

have

usual

for

it

as

been

home

returned

Lodge

the

in ale

to

his

in his white

houses,

house
leather

material

days past,
material

in his apron,
the
Duke
of

orthodox

in

disdain

home

that

the

not

returning

return

of workmen

describes
even

to

would

stated

1721,
from
his

Leather

apron.

it

in

Wharton,
in Pall

when

it appears
Master
to

labour,

and

workman

and

for

speare
Shake-

for the

aprons

which

proves

THE
that

TRANSITION

leather

workmen

Prince

all classes

How

might

to-night
be
PoiNS

Put

and

in

usual

in his

days.

his

the

began

him

upon

his

at

after

early days
be

to

self
him-

not

selves
our-

wearing
operative Mason

of

and

aprons,
drawers.

table

as

IV.,

Act

II.,

when

1717,

fashionable

classes, the
the

and

jerkins

Henry
In

bestow

colours,

true

for

ones

FalstafF

see

leathern

two

on

we

109

seen

wait

the

were

aprons

of

PERIOD

2.

Masonry
the

amongst

upper
-.li
apron

the

working
objected to,

was

".

and

we

of
subterfuge, the fashion arose
found
wearing the apron
upside down, till it was
have
the
that
it was
to
decidedly inconvenient
the floor,
strings of the upper
part dangling on
smaller
and
and
later
at
some
period a new
hear

that,

as

devised.

was

apron

Paine
Writing in 1807, Thomas
"In
speaking of the apparel of the
their Lodges,
part of which, as we
public processions, is a white leather

second

In the
form

the

"hammer"

and

the

of

the
of

tool
a

the

of

which

known

Lodge

of

by
probably

is navicular

This

stern,
very

of masons,

to

terms

as

meeting,
tioneer,
auc-

an

derived
the

by

and

."

apron.

gavel, used
Operative Masons.
as

of

in their

see

used
were

in

masons

general

says

attention

some

chairman

generally used form


shaped, flat at the keel
sharp edge at the bows.
is figured in old drawings
most

pay
in

instrument

similar
both

Master

is known

of what

the

from

place, we

also

The
or

and

boatwith

type of tool
and

by

the

THE

no

TRANSITION

of it, and

use

builders

form

of

old

this

MASONS

OF
IITH

third

associations
some

AXE,

years

THE

as

"axe-work."

in

Masons'

with

in

seen

representing

PARAPHRASE
MUSEUM,

hammer

big

some

"

AELFRIC

Lodges

builders.

PENTATEUCH."

The

long claw to it,


di^awings on

mediseval

FROM

drals,
Cathe-

Peterborough

used

gavel

zigzag
Waltham

at

seen

known

now

Norman

those

out

carve

and

type is also

MSS.

EARLY

to

Durham
are

chisel, the old

doorways

over

which

resembles
and

able

were

mouldings
Abbey, and
other

without

PERIOD

ANGLO-SAXON

COTTON

M.S.

BRITISH

CENTURY.

point

was

of the
after

that

in order

operative
1717

laid

to

it

masons,

down

keep

as

up

was

the
for

cardinal

of the members
of
a
point that at least one
be
an
operative mason,
Lodge must
by which
associated
with
the
was
one
probably meant
This
is specially mentioned
in
building trade.

THE

broadside

of

fourth

an

case

to

of

the

in

member

belong.

and

the

was

as

we

to

as

of

use

have

have

being

Ashmole,
of
he

had

the
shown

word
in

referred

to

accepted

as-

different

no

ter.
carpen-

Company,

society
which

was

first

the

and

1730,

of

Signs

Lodge

Masons'

such

outsider,

himself,

Grand

which,

"accepted,"
the

in

point

Puerile

published
warden

The

"The

called

Freemason,"
senior

PERIOD

TRANSITION

original

class

to

right

112

XIX.

CHAPTER

THUSof

we

of

the

the

when
their

GRAND

pass

by

the

in

such

forms

of

ears

of

have
Goose

These

of

"Book

the

of

Gridiron
the

Churchyard;

ale

In

of

"Book
after

in

Grand

into

then

the
the

at

meeting

chair
Master

in

the

the
at

oldest

of

centre

the

Master

Parker's

in
Tree

tavern

Row,
of

the

it is stated

that

these

four

1716,
to

unite

of Union

under
of

Tree

tavern

Mason

who

Lodge, and formed


into a Grand
Lodge in due form.
the
revived
quarterly communication
officers of Lodges,
resolved
hold
to
an
a
assembly and feast, and then to choose
from
themselves
Master
till they
among
a

the

and

Channel

fit

Apple

the

Paul's

edition

in

over

to

at

St.

Garden;

same

"thought

London

Master
and

was

low

second

the

in

Apple

Constitutions,"

rebellion

the

Lodges
a

the

the

be numbered
in

house

near

Westminster-

at

was

alehouse

Crown

for

soul

respectively

met

Pope

Constitutions"

the

Drury Lane; the


Charles
in
Street, Covent
and
Rummer
Grapes tavern
Lane,

had

stated

are

that

those

and

who

at

were

lines of

rhythmic

Freemasony
Lodges in all can

time.

been

Steele,

and

those

the

English literature,

art.

ebb, for only four


edition

the

when

well

so
1717,
These
were

in

Age

reign

year

Freemasons.

Golden

best, and

that

the

the

to

stages

easy

essayists,Addison

rang

at

LODGE.

I. and

George
by

remembered

days

THE

mony,
Har-

put
was

selves
them-

They
of

the

annual
Grand
should

THE
have

the

honour

head."

place

GRAND
of

It appears

LODGE
noble

that

the

June 24th, 1717,

on

in St.

at

113

brother

meeting
the

Goose

their

at

duly

took
iron,
Grid-

and

Paul's

Churchyard, when
Anthony
installed as the
Sayer, a private gentleman, was
first Grand
and
Master,
congratulated by the
assembly, who paid him the homage due to him.
The
Grand
Master
appointed Jacob Lamball
as
his Senior
Grand
and
it is important
Warden,
observe

to

in this

Lodge,

that

he

is described

as

carpenter,

satisfying the requirement


having at least one
operative

of the

manner

The

its members.

amongst

jNIason

"Mason"

word

was

of
obviously interpreted to include all members
Warden
The
the building trade.
Junior Grand
would
was
Capt. Joseph Elliott, who
represent
the
the speculative, as
to
operative
opposed
mason.

first the

At

of

names

the

Lodges

were

taverns

where

only known
they met,

by

the

but

in

"EnIn Pine's
given numbers.
1728 they were
g-raved List of Lodges," published in 1729, when
Grand
Master, is contained
Lord
Kingston was
list of
"a
regular lodges according to the
Seniority and Constitution," which sets out the
of meeting
with their places and dates
four oldest
as

1.

follows

St.
and

2.

"

Churchyard;
in
third Mondays
1 69 1.

Paul's

Against
meeting

Furnival's
on

Constituted

second

1712.

meeting
the

Inn,

month.

in

Wednesday

on

first

stituted
Con-

Holborn;
of month.

THE

114

3.

Westminster;

4.

Ivy Lane;

No

date

of

the

the

by

James

and

Mr.

with

Payne,

make

proper

governing
The

three

amongst
four

J.

This

force

ritual, written

bers
mem-

were

names

T.

banded

living

Desaguliers,

themselves

gether
to-

of

Freemasonry
constitutions, and

body.

ritual, which
with

Dr.

who

but

judged
by the
quality

enthusiastic
whose

Lodges,

it.

be

to

sapling,

within

Anderson,

to

either

against

however,

size of the

contained

these

Dr.

Thursday.

other

appears

is not,

diminutive

of

Friday.

Lodges.

growth

present

the third

on

every

of constitution

life-energy
was

meeting

meeting

last two

Future

LODGE

GRAND

was

that of modern

quite short,

days,

as

pared
com-

would

naturally
be derived
from
the old written
charges of the
oral
and
the
traditions
they had
masons,
handed
and
it is believed
that Mr.
down,
Payne
of this.
It comprised only one
was
part author
first and
answering in essentials to our
degree
in the
formed
second
was
shape of
degrees
the Master
passing between
question and answer,
and
his different officers,and is
of the Lodge
be found
to
published in various
newspapers
"

"

and
of

broadsides

to
to

title of

with

the

of

Freemason,"

written

at the

time.

As

by

an

opponent

"Puerile
and

of the

Signs
although

ritual

the

quite antiquated,
days is now
it may
present-day methods,
In 1730 was
here.
published a

those

guide

issued

and

and

be

ferred
re-

side,
broadders
Won-

this

craft, there

iU"

was

is

no-

THE

ii6

LODGE

GRAND

telling them

that

clothed

common,

than

"the

and

question

the

otherwise

is not

master

answer

writer
only emblematical"; and another
that a pair of compasses
is referred
which, with its brass top, appeared to have
steel legs made
yellow jacket, while its two
blue pair of breeches.

plains
ex-

are

Paine
in

Grand

became

in

Master

a
a

died

and

1721,

to,

1757.

from

Desaguliers was
his father having been
in 1685, when
France

which

of the

toleration

gave

revoked

church

having

dos.

He

fitted

was

revived

part

He

society.
and

afterwards

I5eputy G.M.,

of

Dr.
active

of

is indebted
"Book

Anderson

James

of

the

the

the

by

of

Edict

Nantes,
Protestants, was
a

was

in

clergyman
became

1730,

the

Edgware,
the

Duke

of

Chan-

Grand
times

in

was,

well

and

of the

establishment

became

died

of

refinement,

in the

triumvirate,
for

the

several

and

refugee

near

built
man

take

to

been

Huguenot

who,

Whitchurch,

of

age,
parent-

He

church

established

French

the

to

XIV.

Louis

by

rector

1719,

of

Dr.

Rev.

in

Master

held

the

post

1744.

however,

the

most

him

the

craft

and

first two

Constitutions,"

to

editions
which

of
he

the

edited

in 1723
and
a
1738. He was
partly wrote
of
in
Scotch
London,
Presbyterian minister
tongue,
great learning, especiallyin the Hebrew
in
mind
which
revelled
of a subtlety of
and
teresting
inThe
most
symbolic and mystic researches.

and

part

long history

of
of

Dr.

Anderson's

Freemasonry,

book
which

is
forms

the
"^

its

THE
first part,

GRAND

and

which

elaborated, from

LODGE
derived,

was

of

some

the

Anderson

brings into his


who
scripture character
every
raised an altar. Beginning
or
Enoch,

Moses,

Solomon,

the

into

swept

and

net;

117

old

net

"charges."
of
Masonry
made

ever

Adam,

at

and
then

much

and

tent

Lamech,
others

many

Euclid,

get

we

are

Charles

Martel, who
was
King of
France, St. Alban, and King Athelstan; and the

Julius Caesar,
author
of

winds

of

account

an

in

famous

reign

laying

George
degree of

of

the

attained
in

the

of

in the

the

shape

foundation

St.

in the

died

anti-climax

an

ster,
Martin's-in-the-Fields, Westminhonours,
1726, with Masonic
by the
bury,
historian. Dr. Burnet, Bishop of Salis-

of

stone

never

with

up

III.

Dr.

Grand

Anderson

Master,

and

1739.

John the Evangelist, from his symbolic


of the Revelations, became
pictures in the Book
practicallythe patron saint of the craft, and his
included
in the mythical list of
is often
name
feast day of
The
of the Fraternity.
members
that apostle is in winter
27th,
time, on December
with the other
confused
but he speedily became
St. John the Baptist,
saint of a similar
name,
feast day is in summer,
whose
on
June 24th.
The
latter day was
likely to enjoy more
able
agreeSt.

accordingly
John's day
and

this

the
in

in

1725,

Taylors'
the

Duke

of

for

summer
a

An

gatherings.
made

Grand

new

became

December

the

than

weather

when
Hall

Richmond

fixed

Lodge
its annual

recognised day
exception to this
Grand
Lodge met
St. John's day
on
as

Grand

and

one,
on

St.

meetings,
for
date
at

in

Master

such
was

chant
Mer-

winter,

being

THE

ii8

continued

The

in office until

number

after

of

in the

were

drawn

joined it,so
his

The

it.

to

in

Duke

Dukes

of

members

were

of

grow

became

ity
nobil-

Sussex, and

Kent,

the

reign

the

Montague

of

III.'s

George

to

of the

members

and

did the

sons

date.

Lodges began
Masonry
speedily

town,

and

Wharton,

that

the

and

1717,

fashion

of

LODGE

GRAND

whole
in

craft, while

Frederick
self
himthe Great
took
Germany,
upon
its obligations, as
did George
Washington
in America.

The

Grand

Lodge

usual, and

as

between
York
the

the

the

Grand

Archbishop
all England,"
simply "Primate
the

of

similar

London

of
a

his

as

of

to

to

precedence

of

York.

settled

was

Grace

meet

Canterbury and
rivalry between

and

Canterbury

while

believe

can

controversy

the

we

in
of

continued

dispute

Archbishops

Lodges

ecclesiastical

if

old

repeated

was

York

at

"the

The

by calling
Primate

of York

of

became

England." In the same


way,
possibly fallacious chronicler,

Grand

called itself "The


Lodge of London
Grand
Lodge of all England," while that of York
known
"the
Grand
was
as
Lodge of England."
A
breach
between
the two
Grand
curred
ocLodges
later on
in 1738, when
the Duke
of Chandos
Grand
Master
of the London
as
Lodges

appointed
West

by

Provincial

Riding
the

York

of

Grand

Yorkshire,

Grand

Lodge

Master

which
as

an

was

for

the

resented

encroachment

its

for some
privileges. This caused
cessation
of all correspondence
between
Grand
when
divisions
Lodges, and

occurred

afterwards

took

on

in the

craft

the

seceders

time
the

two

the

"

THE
title of

GRAND

"York

Coming
London

LODGE

iig

Masons."

to

1721
at the

met

hear

we

that

Queen's

Grand

Arms

of

Lodge

in St.

tavern,

Paul's

had
been
removed
Churchyard, whither
the old Lodge
of St. Paul's, afterwards
the
of
Lodge
The
Duke
of
Antiquity, No. 2.
Montague took his seat as Grand
Master, and
initiated
We

the

hear

Earl

that

of Chesterfield

the

into

Grand

Lodge
in
procession
through
open
Stationers
Hall, "where
they
ancient

of

manner

Masons

Order.

then

adjourned

the

streets

to

in

down

sat

to

the

the

elegant

very

feast."

The

regular

first six

of

years

recorded

minutes

or

have

June 24th,

1723,

the

va,cated

guide
the

in

us

been
when

of

newspapers

and

Alfred

Robbins,

F.

here

of

use

his researches

the

through

had

1721,

been

his

as

from

years

young

have

have

fill up

initiated

Bro-

Duke

liberal
in

gaps

of

the

or

Order

of

Wharton

"

it

want

of

in

Masonic

of office and

into the

must

establishment

the

commotion

greed

been

by

made

the

official,
un-

of the

industry we

we

of

the

searched

character,

considerable

circles

which

whose

to

of remarkable

man

caused

He

to

to

records

records

correct,

time,

tribute

history. Four
Grand
Lodge,
a

whole

laboriously

due

pay

light

have, however,

the

zealously

the

from

Wharton

their

amongst

We

only

of

have

duly

not

it is

Duke

we

search

the

on

either

were

the

in the

Lodges

lost, and

chair, that
our

Grand

its life

brotherhood.
but

of

"

rashness.
in

August,
"Weekly
nal"
Jour-

the
ceremonies,"
as
announced, being performed "at the King's
"the

THE

I20

Arms

have

order,

he

at

Grand

take
the

got

aimed

the

Master,
replace the

to

the

once

of

number

of others

to

(who

and

Lodge,

decent

also

the

ceremonials,
Grand

appointed
closed

the

old
Duke

of

deputy,
due

in

but

Masons,

nor

form."

we
undoubtedly was,
held
meeting was
proper

Masters

not

claimed

be

the

said

chair

mason

on

that
at

St.
two

the

usual

his

Grace

opened
as

find

cannot

of

proclaimed
ton,
Whar-

of

Lodge
Irregular

meeting

that it could

the

the

was

ter
Mas-

master

without

said

grand

no

oldest

present

Philip Wharton,

Master
no

the

irregular),and,

aloud

so

would

"

at Stationers'

having

chair

not

was

him

meet

on

Mason

any

which

for

Montagu

of

on

June 24th, 1722,


officers,they put into the

and

chair

in
It is stated
June 24th, 1722.
ton,
official records
that "Philip, Duke
of Wharthe Master
not
a Brother, though
latelymade
of a Lodge,
of the chair,
being ambitious

place

Hall

the

at

election

next

Duke

Mall

Pall

Etiquette would
degrees of Masonry

apron."

ascend

in the

his

and

Churchyard,

his house

to

him

but

LODGE

Paul's

leathern

bidden

the
"

home

came

white

in

in St.

tavern

Grace
in

GRAND

the
that

John's day,
rival
same

Grand
time.

irritatingto the
due
the diplomacy of the
to
ci^aft,and it was
former
Grand
of Montagu,
Master, the Duke
oil on
the troubled
to pour
waves
by summoning
on
a proper
meeting at the King's Arms
January
Wharton
was
regularly pro17th, 1723, when
posed
The

situation

and

was

elected

none

as

the

Grand

less

Master.

His

term

expired June 24th, 1723, and if the post


had not been merely a yearly one,
it is clear that
had already tired of
Wharton's
wayward nature
the position. A preliminary meeting of Grand
held on
April 25th, 1723, to settle
Lodge was
of office

THE
the

upon

GRAND

choice

although

of

the

Wharton

of the Earl

LODGE
Grand

new

agreed

of Dalkeith

121

the

to

in that

and

Master,

appointment
old

office,he had

judges to pay off against Dr- Desaguliers, and


strongly objected to his appointment as Deputy
Grand

Wharton's

Master.

strongly objected
point, we hear "that the
from

sounds

the
if the

as

know

Hall

how

Wharton

without

Duke

was

got

his

lost

having

Master

went

ceremony," which
not
man
enough to
gracefully.

his

over

chair

in the

late Grand

suffer defeat

to

and

to,

was

away

conduct

with

displeasure

the
allow
himself
to
Desaguliers so far as
chant
pleasure of attending at Grand
Lodge at MerTaylors' Hall, on the following St. John's

day,
the

when

Earl

Grand

in

in the

Dalkeith

of

the

partly by
Reid's
"Weekly
was

entire

gave

content,
there

and
both
Wharton

of
was

friend

of

feared

that

presence

feast,in
and

vocal

and

which

Young
Masonry

stewards

ment,
entertain-

instrumental

musick."

rebels

so

personal

that

the

to

Townsend,

State,

to

cause

the
no

him

assure

of
that

one

the

usual

of
that

Government,
convocation

umbrage.

To

this

Masons
and
of
a

were

to

be

Masons

cordingly,
Acment,
retire-

went

Secretaries

the

was
as

State.

after Wharton's
year
Lodge
deputation from Grand

Lord

it

considered

be

in the

plause;
ap-

handsome

might

for

training ground

plained
ex-

universal

Pretender,

the

as

that

states

the

great Jacobite, and

be

may

which

gained
a

was

Masons,

announcement

newspaper

journal,"

noble

600

reguarly appointed

was

Wharton's

Master.

"there

of about

presence

to

of
porters
sup-

assured
would

satisfactory,but

THE

122

GRAND

ambiguous,

other

ceased

worlds

to

force

be

to

Grand

Masonry

on

in

and

conquer,
of

Master

cember,
De-

after

months

only eighteen

1724,
had

his

having spent

for

trayed
be-

ever

Masons."

Wliarton

pined

was

loved

the

"much

returned, that
had
mischief, no one

answer

mankind

as

LODGE

the

he

Masons,

the

ish
Britfollowing paragraph appeared in "The
hear that a peer of the first
Journal" : ""We
masons,
member
of the Society of Freerank, a noted
hath

member

and

the

at

of

this

the

of that

gloves

himself

suffered

to

be

to-be

society, and

degraded

his leather

as

apron

thereupon entered
Society of Gormogans

burnt, and

member

Castle

himself

of the

Tavern

story is told

in Fleet
in

Street."

The

rest

chapter relating

our

to

Gormogans.

Until
talk

comparatively
of

the "schism"

recent

times

which

it
took

was

usual

place ni
in 1751, when
the
Grand
Masonry
Lodge of
England was
supposed to have
split up into
two
opposing sections, the new
body in a fine
burst
of irony arrogating to itself the title of
the "Independent
ing
Lodge of Ancients," consistat first of 6 Lodges
with 70 to 80 members,
brethren
and
the
Moderns.
calling its elder
Happily, this ancient libel has been dispersed by
the
in his two
learning of Bro. Henry Sadler
and
Facts
works, "Masonic
Fictions," published
in
"Masonic
tions,"
1887, and
Reprints and Revelain 1898. The
movement
led by an
was
Irish Mason,
Laurence
Dermott,
who,
being
in Dublin,' in June, 1846,
W-M.
of Lodge
26
elected
Grand
was
Secretary of the new
body
to

THE

124
fillthe

to

and

GRAND

LODGE

principal offices

two

pro-Grand

Master,

of
in

and

Grand
our

Master
time.

own

Edward

of Wales,
Prince
held the
VII., when
followed
Master, and was
post of Grand
by his
of Connaught.
The
brother, the Duke
Lodges
which, in 1717, numbered
only four, in 200 years

since

that

time

under

the

Grand

have

Lodge

of

An

oppoi-tunity for the


gratitude for the exception
the

of

statute

date,,for
attempted

next

be

to

England

year

taken

alone.

craft

to

made

in its favour

by

shortly after
George III.'s life

that

"The

the

by Hadfield,

from

time, the
to

for

reverence

British

"As
our

address

in

far

so

the

to
a

mason,
Free-

teresting
in-

two

"

tions,
reguladefined

as

their

feeble

the

inestimable

to

of

toward

extended

inculcating loyalty
to

Hall

society,binding, at the same


of it by a new
obligation
confidence

the

labour,

apply,

may
and

at

of the

members

gratitude
them

the

was

Grand

and

law, by permitting under certain


the meetings of Freemasons,
has

existence

its

express

Lodge, at a meeting held at Freemasons'


address
on
an
June 3, 1800, drew
up
of Wales, being
King, which the Prince
We
presented to him.
append
extracts

4,000

upon

occurred

1799

in the

close

to

grown

powers

the

fabric

King
of

the

constitution.

veil of secrecy

meetings,
that there

our

may

the

conceals

transactions

fellow-subjects have
not

be

in

our

no

surance
as-

association

tendency injurious to their interests, other


of our
than the general tenor
conduct, and the
notoriety that the door of Freemasonry, is not
a

THE

GRAND

LODGE

125

closed

against any class, profession, or


providing the individual
desiring admission

unstained

in moral

far

as

politicaltopic
in the

been

different

Stationers
Inn

Lincoln's
the

Grand

stone

unless

it

1717,
could

City

panies
com-

of

On

the

the

Paul's.

on

of the

Street, and
Accordingly, a
Street,

Queen

Great

that

as

May

near

ist^ 1775,

Freemasons'

Hall

was

Petre, the
by Lord
cated,
dediMay 23rd, 1776, it was
procession of Freemasons,
place through the streets.
of the
over
building was

honours

Master.
and

Grand
in

one

of

they

its formation

Fields, where,

Masonic

with

tioned
men-

that
for

hall, such

St.
in

foundation

laid

home

in Threadneedle

near

secured

time,

taverns,

its

Taylors

was

cion,
suspi-

be

pretence

any

since

borrow

Merchant

site

on

hospitality of

and

the

had

at

the

secure

shall

permanent

which

held

for

ground

felt, after

some

Lodge,

fore,
there-

remove

Lodge."

Freemasons
wanted

be

time
been, from
immemorial,
a
rule, most
rigidlymaintained, that

fundamental
no

To

possible, any

as

it has

character.

sect,

usual

regalia,took
The
original cost
of it, Dr. Dodd,
as
At the dedication
"12,000.
on
Grand
oration, founded
an
Chaplain, made
"Now,"
the
Temple.
building of Solomon's
in their

it remembered

said he, "be


took

place
era,

above

years

consequently

and

before

Homer,

wrote;

and

of

1,000

the

above

world.

century

the

Grecian

poets,

centuries

before

goras
Pytha-

brought from the East


instruction
truly Masonic

western

than

more

first of
five

this great event


Christhe tian
before

that

his sublime
to

system

illuminate

our

THE

126

"But
from

remote

thence

LODGE

GRAND

as

the

this

period is,

we

of

commencement

our

date

not

art.

For,

wise
and
to the
glorious
though it might owe
of its many
mystic forms
King of Israel some
and hieroglyhic ceremonies, yet certainly the art
with man,
the great subject of it.
itself is coeval

"We
the

trace

most

We

remote

civilisers
the

first

The
Hall

who

We

of the

mystic
of

sages

regularly
plains of
kings and

it
the

on

world.

celebrated

most

deduce

and

distant,

most

Greece,

and

the

of Rome."

of

are

the
the

accommodate

Masons

first and

astronomers

inadequacy
to

the

nations

and

East.

Chaldea, to the wise


priests of Egypt, the

philosophers

in

footsteps
ages,
the

it among
of the

find

from

its

entitled

present

Freemasons'

increasing
to

of

number

resort

there,

has

tion
length, in igo8, a resoluwas
passed in Grand
Lodge to form a fund,
of
Grand
to
by the yearly contribution
Lodge
in England,
6d. per head
for the
by each Mason
the
ultimate
of
rebuilding and
enlargement
building.

ling

been

felt; but

at

Grand

Lodge has the oversight of Masonry


all over
England and the British Colonies, and
is a Court
of Appeal from
the decisions
of the
District
Grand
Grand
Lodges of the Colonies.
is
Master, who
Lodge has at its head the Grand
elected
annually in March, and if he is a prince
of the Blood
Royal, he may
appoint a ProGrand
officers

Master,

who

must

be

appointed by the Grand


Master, with
Deputy-Grand

Peer.
Master
Grand

The

other
are

the

Wardens,

THE
Deacons,

GRAND

Chaplains,

Ceremonies,
Pursuivants,

Sword

these, there

and

earned

this

stewards

Director

addition

stewards, who

in

in

Grand

contrast

to

connection

Masonic

Wednesday
following
is
There
Day.
George's
Grand
the
as
Lodge, known
which

administers

of General

Board

its business
four

times

March,
the

with

In

Grand

affairs.
a

Masters,
their

and

past

Wardens,

addition

the

to

from
private Lodge
and by Grand
Lodge
funds
three

of

the

permanent

Institution

Board

Grand

of

Board

of

charity,

which

for Girls, with

St.
of

deals

the

and

with

December,
of

all

the

attend.

larger
Royal

its school

at

each

fund,

charitable
there

Benevolence,
The

and

Lodges,

all

benevolent

own

charities.

on

of Benevolence,

charity dispensed by
from

nual
an-

Committee

eligibleto

its

have

aprons,
with
the

23rd,

present,

are

dark

April

and

June, September,

the

Lodge itself meets


first \\'ednesdays of

the

on

year,

time.

is held

its

Purposes,

to

which

Festival,

the

pointed
ap-

are

time

members
clothing of other
scarlet
collars
and
Lodge, wear
duties

to

private lodges,

many
right frum

blue

various

Grand

the

In

as

who,

of

Bearers, and

course,

Tyler.

nineteen

annually by
These

Standard
of

Grand

are

127

Registrar,

besides,

Secretary, and

which

LODGE

are

Masonic

Clapham

followed
in 1788, and was
founded
Junction, was
for
Institution
in 1798, by the Royal Masonic
has its schools
at Bushey, Herts.,
Boys which now
Benevolent
Institution,
the Royal Masonic
while
and
which
grants pensions to aged Freemasons
at Croydon,
and
has almshouses
their widows,
was

established

in

1842.

Each

of these

charities

THE

128

holds

festival, the

February, the
June, and it is
of each
Lodge
these

LODGE

GRAND

in

Girls'
the

usual

to

go

in
People's,"
May, and the Boys' in
practice for the Master

"Old

as

up

charities, during his

collects

from

his
the

to

funds

of the

of

one

he

office,and

of

year

and

Lodge

for

steward

its members

tributions
con-

charity.

has
study of the ritual of Freemasonry
of
been
greatly advanced
by the establishment
with
Lodges of Instruction, held in connection
various
private Lodges. The most
important of
these is the "Emulation
Lodge of Improvement,

The

"

held

Freemasons'

at

of
used

at

ritual

known

"The

as

on

which

contained

are

sections

the

ceremonies

fifth section

of

the

the

have
of

writers

adorn

both

these

"lectures,"

of

some

their

of

part

oftentimes
the

working

is known

as

speare
Shake-

and

by

upon

or

useful

is

drawn

tures
lec-

degree, in
speculative

craft.

first lecture

been

is

old

regular Lodges, to explain


of the second
degree, and this
Milton
"longer working."

tools

three

which

in

used

ceremony

of each

the

explanations concerning
the

of

of the

some

dard
stan-

Instruction, is

of

Freemasonry,"

catechism

set

The

working.
these Lodges

fifteen

Craft

on

has

and

of

some

Hall, which

the

catechisms,

to

passages

of

beautiful

rhetoric.

For

those

Masons

the

who

desire

and
history of Masonry
them
is constantly increasing
and
to read
Lodges, which meet
and
lectures
these
on
subjects,

to

the

"

transactions.

One

number

there

"

their

inquire
are

discuss
and

is

the

which

into
of
two

papers

publish
"Quatuor

THE
Coronati

GRAND
which

Lodj^e,"

and
Hall, London,
which
Research,"

has
their

Inner

an

research

number

the
in

and

each

Grand

with

3,000,

and

in

held

his

has

for
for

known

as

which

have

creasing.
in-

to

in

but

1908,

honours

more,

in

for

Rank,"

its

by a Provincial
authority over
has
his Deputy,
of Grand
Lodge.
itself,and

debarred

precedence

no

for

the Grand

"London

or

year

in

establishment

London,
of

those

were

Grand

Masons

and

province

no

the

class

new

exercises

province,

honours,

Lodge

who

constantly

Provincial

governed

its members

demand

Ci"r-

members,

Master

who

officers, similar

London

for

elected

is also

are

once

It is

Master,

Lodges

outside

the

all

attend.

to

of

meets

invites

area

there

mer
for-

The

members,

and

is

which

Lodge,

of

of

"Lodge

was

into

and

over

is the

Leicester.

at

Circle

Freemasons'

at

parcelled out for Masonic


poses
pur"provinces," as early as 17^5, that
date of the Cheshire
P.
G.
Lodge,

England
being

meets

Circle

129

meets

other

the

work;

respondence
now

LODGE

from

response

of

Masons,
members

each

over

established

London
the

vincial
proto

Provincial

Master

quently
conse-

of

other.

by its
ordinary Lodges are presided over
is elected
for a year,
Worshipful Master, who
and
new
by a petition to the
Lodges are formed
The

Grand
are

to

from

Master
called

whom

Lodge

has

seven

the

Founders

the

warrant

number

Master
of
is

and

name

Masons,

the

Lodge,

and

Each

addressed.

given

who

to

it, the

THE

I30

LODGE

GRAND

Grand

Masters'

Grand

Stewards'

Lodge being
Lodge, which

making Masons,
but is placed at the head
and ranks
accordingly.
of

has

It may

be

the

in
different
of

of

streets,

of

all

no

often

should

of

made

the

craft

clothed

appear

masons
Free-

referred

by
object
by the
to

an

length put an end


Lodge, who passed a

Grand

power

processions

so

tlie

given to it,
other
Lodges,

to

at

were

brother

no

no

while

i,

has

number

the

writers, which

derision,

action

that

noted

No.

rule

in any

of

that
the

jewels, collars, or badges, of the craft, in any


procession, or at any funeral, ball, theatre, public
assembly, or meetings, unless by the special
Master.
dispensation of the Grand
Another

degree

the

in

"Royal Aixh,"
meetings of which

are

of

in

As

chapters.

Arch

had

1817.
that

of

founded
known
craft

branches,

two

It is ruled

the

was

sister

1740, the
the old title

under

Masonry,
which

by a Grand
society of

never

as

about

the

Chapter

Royal
in

united

were

similar

to

Freemasons-

degree of "Mark
Masonry,"
been
formally recognised by

The

known

Freemasonry,

which
the

has^
Grand

in 1769. Asfounded
was
Lodge of Freemasons,
of "Royal Ark
an
appendix to this is the Order
the Lodges
of which
Mariners,"
officially
are
Mark
to
styled "moored,"
Lodges-

There

are

i8th

Degree,

they

are

not

two

the

other
other

bodies,
the

one

known

as

33rd Degree,
officially
recognised.
as

the
but

132

XX.

CHAPTER

of

THE the Story

ENGLAND.

OUTSIDE

FREEMASONRY

Freemasonry

in

sartje

to

appears

France,

Scotland,

England,

be

Germany, for in each we start with a society


banded
or
guild of men
engaged in trades, who
themselves
together for business
purposes.
and

lish,
building ran on parallellines to Engthough in that country there is practically
call
what
to
we
only one
style, analogous
The
masons
engaged in the
"Early English."
in
the
same
buildings were
probably
many
the men
their services
journeying whither
cases,
similar,
were
were
required; and their habits
Scottish

for

evidences

have

we

of

stonemasons,

reference

to

found

certain

in

William
and

Schaw,
of

"Codes

of

"Master

of

the

been

Ayrshire,
Burns,

near

the

as

to

established

poet,

and

in

and
"Wrytches
woodwrights

1475.

Another

in

which

dressed
ad-

were

or
Lodge
chapter
at
Kilwinning, in

after

years,

Freemason,

tion
forma-

1598 is
Law,"
signed by
Work
the King's

Masons,"

which,

for the

Scotland

in

particularly
had

meant

far back

so

masonry

Warden

which

of

guild society
was
by which

Masons,"
and

of charters

Robert
was

to

reside.

Masonry
northern
find traces

seems

kingdom,

to

for

of it in many

have
in the

flourished

in

the

17th century we
places, and an interest-

SCOTCH

MASONRY

is quoted of
ing case
Presbyterian minister

the

133

Rev.

Kelso,

at

Ainslie,

J.
who

in

1652

The
objected to as being a Mason.
Synod,
however, absolved
him, considering that there

was

"neither

was

Masons

been

sin

in the purest

Scottish

special place
writers

that

of the church

that

itself,and

to

word.

having

story in their

ordered

from

either

receive

to

Master

Mason,

judge

the

old
own

ing
Start-

way.

and

chief
the

appointed

nobility or
fee

He

towns

of

the

on

also

members,

Earl

Grand

every

tell

had

us

matter

Master

clergy

pounds (Scots)from

four

the

over

in the

Baron

that

member.

new

every

the

arrogated a
imaginative

Kilwinning Lodge, they


the
took
James I. of Scotland

hand, and

entitled

always

the

King

chosen

has

rite

tell the

with

times

in

ministers."

The

in

scandal

nor

was

each

initiation
the

of
of

power

and

dens
appointed warof Scotland.
James II.
also
was
Orkney, who

of

Master, and made


Roslyn, as Grand
in
the office an
to his succes'sors
hereditary one
J^he Barony.
It is obvious
why this Earl should
have
been
will always be
chosen, as his name
associated
with
the beautiful
chapel of Roslyn,
he built, and which
tains
connear
Edinburgh, which
of the most
delicate
stone
some
carving
One

in Scotland.

column

there

is called

the

with
and
is associated
"apprentices' column,"
who
outdid
the legend of an
apprentice mason,
slain in conin his carving, and
his master
sequence
was
the
of
jealousy he aroused
by his
The

superior work.
said

to

have

held

where

their

Barons
Grand

they granted

of

Roslyn
at
Lodge

warrants

were

for

winning,
Kilthe

SCOTCH

134

MASONRY

lodges throughout Scotland.


In
there
is a waiTant
the reign of James
VI.
dated
Holyrood,
September 25th, 1590, from
Copland for
granted by the King to "Patrick
using and exercising the ofEce of wardenry over

establishment

the

hold

said

of

warden

further

of

Banff, and

and

justice

and

there
the

proving
it

Scotland,

which
warden

army,

made

far

Master

of

masonry

that

back

Mary's
1598, from

as

Boswell
the

Mason

the

St.

as

Quartermaster-General
was

justice."

mentioned

it appears
that Thomas
in
that
1600, and

Moray,

minister

known

Lodge at Edinburgh,
as
Chapel, has records

the

within

antiquity

be

may

Kincardine,

courts

to

the

all

over

masonry

Aberdeen,

boundaries,

As
in

craft

and

art

boundaries
to

of

Hon.

Robert

the"

to

in

made

was

Scotch

1641.

In

1736 the then Earl of Roslyn summoned


a
formed
Grand
a
meeting of 32 lodges, and
of Scotland, after the
the
of
Lodge
pattern
chosen
the
English one, and the Earl was
as
first "Grand
Master"
of the newly-constituted
Grand
Lodge, the heads of the ordinary lodges
being given the title of "Right
Worshipful
Master."

Another

variation
is made

masonry

follows

"After

by

of

the

an

old

story of Scottish
writer, Nicolai, as

"

the

death

of

of his son,
fell into the hands

the

disunited

In

faction'.

of

Cromwell

and

Government
a

violent, but
such
hands,

the

of

position
de-

England

weak
as

and
every

SCOTCH
patriot

MASONRY

the

saw,

135

Government

could

be

not

able,
dur-

for

delivering the
the
to
restore
was
kingly authority.
country
But
in this there was
the greatest difficulty,
for
the principal officers of the
in England,
army
each
in disagreement
with
though otherwise
in their hostilityto
other, were
yet unanimous
the King.
Under
these circumstances
the eyes
turned
of all parties were
the
English
upon
and

in

army

the

sole

means

Scotland,

time

that

at

under

the

mand
com-

privately well affected


and the secret
to the Royal cause;
society of the
King's friends in London, who
placed all their
the necessity in such a critical
hopes on him, saw
it
period of going warily and mysteriously.
of this necessity, that
strengthened their sense
of

of their

one

became

the

bosom

master's

masonic

still narrower

i.e., the

was

Sir

members.

own

suspected

of

out

who

Monk,

Willis,

treachery, and, therefore,


of the 'secret conclave'
(the
to form
degree) they resolved
of

conclave,

most

Richard

be

affairs should

secret,

Scotch,

the

whom

to

confided.

new
symbols adapted to their own
They choose
These
symbols
extremely critical situation.
of
this interior
imported that in the business

wisdom,

conclave

sacrifice, and
motto

moderation

'Wisdom

was

security they
each

break

and

is

altered

probably

of Scotland,

masonry

Paris

in

Strict

Observance."

1743

established

which

to

still

under

there

"For

signs, and
tottering condition
The

arm."

Their

greater

reminded
not

last

to

ence
refer-

part of the old ritual of the


which
the

the

flourishes,and

was

introduced

title of

Later
as

thee.'

their

the

self-

courage,
necessary.

were

above

in -their

other

stumble

obedience,

on,

the
in

regular

of

"Rite

1786, it

French

is known

into

as

was

order,
"The

Orient

Grand

Belgium,

of South

tlie states

of

many

backwards

Freemasonry

institution,

present

and

Egypt,

been

since

America.

French

Tracing

has

and

France,"

of

into

introduced

the

MASONRY

FRENCH

136

we

find the

from

class

same

of

England, and a society known


the
in that country
the
as
"Companionage,"
members
called
of which were
de
"Compagnons
Devoir."
They are heard of at different dates,
from
800
to
1631, and again in 1730, at which
trade

guilds

date

latter
the

in

as

there

Fraternity

members

at

were

La

at

least

Cran,

branches

two

in

of
the

Provence,

fit of
which, in a
rivalry, had a
fight,using firearms, and the military had to be
of

called

out

The

quell the

to

provided free
travelling fellow

members

their

for
there

certain

were

deceased

riot.

observances

brother.

board

and

ing
lodg-

craftsmen,
at

the

and
of

grave

That

they did not forget


of
the observance
friendly repasts after lodge
in
obvious
from
duties, seems
are
prints, which
in procesexistence,
showing the Compagnons
sion
to a feast along a country
with
road, armed
a

and

staves,

some

bottles

An

fact that

and

while

war

billited

whiled

in
away

Masonic

in

the

were

is

Napoleonic
many

French

the

villages of
the
England,

part

Lodges,
lodge work.

what

are

doubtedly
un-

wine.

reminiscence

after

there

elsewhere

their

of

interesting

the

with

even

of

their

and

in

contained
Wars

ended,

prisoners

Dorsetshire
French

fif

and

soldiers

time

by establishing
in
perfecting themselves

There

are

many

memorials

GERMAN
of these
the

left in the

lodges

brethren

in

their

France,

137

shape

French,

members

to

from

MASONRY

obviously

some

who

proposed

imprisonment

and

in

which

of addresses

to

and

the

to

dressed
ad-

escape

return

members

to

wished

the

fugitives "bon-voyage."
Germany,
prior
gerichte, of which
chapter, had
which

metzen,
looked

its

Wartzburg,
named

after

In

1738

lodge

where

Frederick

Prince

of

Prussia,

order

has

always

important

of the

Marshal

by

early days

in
a

but
at

other

affinityto
two

pillars,
Temple.

Brunswick,

in

then
the

Crown
German

as

most

Freemasonry.

tical
society, but of a polior
Tugend-Bund,
Society

of Virtue.

1815,
member

who
was

This

of the

French

Blucher,

Waterloo

had

have

secret

the

the

for

Cathedral

considered

1806, born

Europe

who

passwords,

Great, who
was
initiated,and

been

was

Friends

about
in

was

Stein-

rules

to

the

their

vious
pre-

masons

made

founded

was

the

German

nature,

built

in continental

one

Another

and

in

the

by placing there
of King Solomon's

those

of

appear

signs

showed

they

societies

secret

of

not

Stein-metzen

the

of

trade

does

Vehm-

spoken

its system
a

It
good conduct.
a
regular system
when

have

we

guild
apprentices and

was

after

famous

the

to

ence
into exist-

came

created

enthusiasm

Revolution,

and

Field-

helped Wellington
said

of it.

to

In

have

1813

been

at

in his

it received

as
being a
approbation of the authorities
it fell back
but afterwards
patrioticband of men,
branded
and
a
as
was
in public estimation,
and
ultimately died
society of demagogues,

the

MASONRY

IRISH

138
away.

of
Ages was
it is not surprising to find
a simple character, and
absence
of
the
trade
art
guilds of masons
It
which
characterised
England and Scotland.
had
is said that some
of Freemasonry
system
Ireland, prior to the establishment
permeated
of the Orange
Society, but we gain firm ground
in 1726, when
find a "Grand
we
Lodge of Munster" in existence, which
in 1731 became
merged
land."
Ireinto the still existing "Grand
of
Lodge
Irish

America
masonic
and

followed

lodge

and

two

The

great

Master
which

Lodge

at

fashion
the

of

England

in

at

1731

Charleston

and

in

of

movement

Boston, Massachusetts,

Savannah

at

Middle

founded

was

another

the

after

matters

the

in

architecture

1717,
phia,
Philadelin 17-33.
in 1735.

Franklin
acted
Grand
as
Benjamin
of the Philadelphia
in
Lodge
1754,
in 1782 became
known
the
"Grandi
as
of Massachusetts."
George Washington

was

portrait
London;

initiate

an

such

as

in America

and
at

of

the

hanging
present

In

in

in

1752,

Freemasons

flourishes

masonry

the

Order

his

Hall,

exceedingly

day.

Australia, New
Zealand,
America, Egypt ; in fact in any
foot

Canada, South
the
place where
treads. Masonic
Lodges

of the

Englishman
have
been
have
the
established; and we
mony
testiof bishops who
that in those
are
masons,
churches
places where
few and
far between
are
has
Masonry
religion."

proved

itself

"the

handmaid

of

THE

140
assisted

by

committee
held

GREGORIANS

There

men.

in

several

the

Grand

wardens,

two

secretary,

and

cliapters

separate

were

seven

and
also at
London,
St. Albans, Crewkerne,
and
of which
Norwich,
last-named
chapter Sir Edward
Astley, M.P.,
was

did

itself the

in

taverns

in

This

1771.

honour

in

chapter

1797

of

electing Nelson, himself


Norfolk
and
a
as
an
honorary member,
man,
Nelson
the compliment
ter
acknowledged
by a letwritten
mouth
his ship lying in Yarby hirii from
roads, but it does
attended

The
when

Order
all

society

known

"

In

the

long

In

forth

in

Nice,

and

1805,

year

as

Protestant

for two
the

voices, and
first

verse

of

"

historians

his

Gregorians
lasting lays ;

and

voices

deathless

Gregorians,

praise."

"Travels

book,

compares

joining

combining,

songs

their

and

in

the

Grigs,"

Italy," written
processions of the

Easter

those

and

gladsome

Smollett

ever

brave

hearts

Sing

the

and

poets

While

music

to

Merry

Record

France

set

follows

Let

he

out.

"The
as

about

for its existence

song

as

that

appear

meetings.

terminated

died

is

the

reasons

had

It had

which

of

any

not

through

in

1765, referring to

Roman

Catholics

them
both

to

of which

the

at

masons
Free-

bodies

in

have
before
days, as we
remarked, had
processions through the public street, the members
being dressed in their regalia.

THE

Crabbe,

GREGORIANS

in

pubHshed

his

in

entitled

poem

1810,

141

refers

"The
the

to

Borough,"

Order:
"

"

Griggs

and

Convivial

The

of

here
bucks

and

Sects,

kind

Gregorians

Masons,

bonds

but

Union

of

1673,

be

or

guessed

preached
Cornhill,

Gregory,

at

the

from
in

them

to

on

one

June
of

the

their

"The

the

fact

wine.''

back

descent

as

that

of

of

may

sermon

St.

by

1673,

but
from

character

church

Chaplains

and

Gregories,"

Their

19th,

far

so

hold.

sign,

song

been,

known.

not

bold

derived

Gregorians
is

not

as

meetings

and

without

have

known

society
tlie

whether
tliem

to

appears

alert

pleasure,

"

There

their

Charles

was

Michael,
Rev.

Dr.

II.

142

XXII.

CHAPTER

GORMOGANS.

THE

T T
-'but

of

the

as

have

pity to
joke in a

seems

humour

include

to

serious

work

infected

has

duty and

our

lines

Pope's
in

himself

of

entitled

of the

the

comic

in

in

muse

caricature

monkey, wearing out-size


on
a
donkey, supporting
other

head
in

between

people
door

In

the

confined
and

the

up

"

Emperor

by

windows.

of

wearing
are

house, and

ladder.

has

a
a

his

knight

Masonic
of

crowd

looking
foot

woman

who

man

the

China,

by

steps, while

rear,

At

and

end
a

of

shows

followed

are

background
in

the

to

In this he

one

the

of

two

the

played

"

relation

gloves,

is borne

brings

armour

apron.

the

end

father-in-law.

published in 1743,
Freemasoni-y brought

who

Mandarins,

Hogarth,

he

"The

three

The

we

recalled

and

painter

Mystery of
Light by the Gormogans.
procession headed
by the

and

story

we

his

was

as

"

Thornhill,

the

society,
to

do

must

part of the

Gormogans
Gregorians,

Freemason

James

part

it, we

the

to

as

account

our

Sir

as

conferred

tell.

to

are

it

treat

of

kind,

standing,

of

have

and

Pope

this

of

men

who
Hogarth,
the subject
immortality upon
like

subject

the

of the

out

of

plate

THE
the

are

GORMOGONS

following

"From

Eastern

Two

oldest

Here

lines

143

"

climes, transplanted
orders

that

creation

to

coasts.

our

boasts

in

miniature, exposed to view,


by their conduct
we
judge their due.
may

meet

That
The

venerable
Gormogans,
a
race.
Appear distinguished with peculiar

What

honour,
sych an

Sure

The

lines

wrath

thrown

The

the
them

Hogarth

to

for
Gormogans
by the artist in
Chinese

to

appear

the

the

character

Graved

by Ho-ge."

culed
societywhich Hogarth ridiand changewas
a
spendthrift, whimsical
able
the
in
wind
who
as
man
springtime. A
the
it for
caught the public eye and amused
who
time; a man
tant
might have played an imporif he could
have
gained
part in the State
whose
faults
steadiness
by experience ; a man
can
by the spiritof the times in
only be excused
of
which
he
lived.
This
was
Philip, Duke
in 1698, married
Irish peer, born
at
an
Wharton,
for
in the
Duke
16, made
English peerage
a
at 20, bankrupt at 24, indicted
politicalpurposes
and
for high treason
a
refugee in Spain at 31,
and

dead

his

attempt
club

at

of the

He

33.

or

Having

vanity
to

could

become

associate

men
a

of

of
his

the

day,

an
appeased without
highest position in any
he might belong.
to which

not

the

attain

society of

the

was

men-about-town

extravagant

most

and

leader

as

masonry
Free-

to

playfullyadds, "Painted

Matochauter.

by

so

above."

reference

the

preserve

grace.
social
love

and

its birth

vein,

of

To

scheme,

Pekin

with

upon

caricature.

at

had

ironic

an

palliate the

of the

order

conclude

in

scorn

wisdom,

truth

be

Mason,

he

at

once

made

up

THE

144
his

mind

Grand
of

GORMOGONS

to

as

achievement

in the

this

than

less

post

no

occupy
Master, and

that

appeared to
regular way,

be

of

cult
diffi-

he

moned
sum-

Masonic
private meeting of his own
friends
for St. Jolm's Day, June 24th, 1722, at
Grand
Stationers'
Hall, who
proclaimed him
Master.
This
dissention, but
naturally caused
the vanity of the Duke
was
eventually satisfied
that he should
being made
by an an-angement
in the
be regularly appointed as Grand
Master
was
following January, which
actually done.
The
the prize was
seized
it became
moment
held
worthless
he
it only five
to
him, and
Grand
months, and was
replaced by another
the succeeding" St.
Master,
on
John's Day in
his colleagues,
when,
quarrelling with
June, 1723;
whim
took
another
his fancy, to form
Order
of Gorto call it "The
a rival society,and
Wharton
had
mogans."
spoken in Parliament
the subject of the South
Sea Company,
once
on
and
his speech made
a
great impression at the
he affected
be a literary
to
time, besides which
a

The

man.

Order

new

in

announcements

In

Press, which

by

either

were

himself, as to
inspired by Wharton
he was
antiquity of the Order
just founding.
September and October, 1724, notices appeared

written

the

the

heralded

therefore

was

or

several

in

Chapter of
Gormogans,
China

Street,

Fleet

Tavern,

many

Wharton

the

"Ancient

Club."

the

held

the

Order

first

first

of

the

Emperor

of

Adam."

Of

course,

famous
inof
that
head, as he was
he founded, called the "Hell-fire

him

and

in

few

be

Castle

its

Anyway,
long, for his
a

by

the

at

Noble

before

years

coterie

to

was

instituted

was

that

papers

the

months

Gormogans

fortunes
he

left

were

did
soon

England,

not

know

broken,
never

to

146

XXIII.

CHAPTER

ORANGE

THE

SOCIETY.

that the
body of
generally considered
Freemasons,
during the Stuart risings in
I. and
the reigns of George
George II., were
which
of the scorn
Jacobites at heart, and some
in those
them
times, parwas
poured out upon
ticularly
by the Press and by pamphleteers, was

IT

due

is

to

this

cause.

It is not, therefore, surprising to find a secret


with
society, established
opposite aims, to

glorify that
which

revolution

occurred

Orange,

when

1688

in

of

throne

of

of

Freemasons

the

wheel

William

ousted

of

kingship

III., Prince
II.

James

of
the

from

ism
ProtestantEngland, and established
the State religion. Some
time
after this,
as
the Orange
was
Society of ultra-Protestants
founded
in Belfast.
It partook of the nature
of
such
societies
in having a regular ceremony
of
initiation,with passwords and signs. It originally
consisted
of scattered
were
Lodges, which
another; but in 1795, in the
independent of one
the
reign of George III., it followed
example

the

organised
branches
America.

by
the

of

in

with

Grand

it

The

form

Prince

body
of

established

and

them

Lodge, so
in
England

up
sprung
Order
still flourishes

Ireland,
are

and

the

November

Orange landed
anniversary of the

in

itself

in

as

an

that
and
fied
modi-

served
principal days obthe5th, when
England; July ist,

Battle

of

the

Boyne,.

THE

fought

ORANGE

1690;

in

Battle
the

fought

the

Its

national

147

in
in

of

memory

1691,
to

of

an

wear

of

opponents,

colour

the

which

on

supposed

are

flower.

lily

12th,

July

members

orange
wore

and

Aughrim,

of

days

SOCIETY

course,

shamrock

Irish

"

green.

In

the
but

new,

of

days

brief

branches

of

it

and

uncle

to

moved

in

calling
which

on

was

an

John

done,

inglorious

and
end.

the

an

Commons

proclaim

to

that

address
to

its

English

spiracy,
con-

the

of

Russell,
of

House
him

motion

its

appointed

treasonable

tical
poli-

land,
Cumber-

of

discovered

was

active
for

Duke

was

in

the

on

the

it

engaged

was

Lord

Minister,

the

1836

when

England

Victoria,

In

society

in

took

society

life,

1835

Queen

and

to

in

Master.

the

of

formed

were

the

IV.,

lease

purposes,

Grand

William

the

Prime

was

King,

condemnation,

society

came

148

XXIV.

CHAPTER

THE

influence

THE

there

wherever

the

in

rulers

was

felt that

people
copying

salvation

French

find

we

this

that

did

country

than

Ireland, which

in

of

subject
the

Roman

under

Grattan,

and

the

Roman

for

redress

might wait for ever.


a
curiously enough
and

tongue

on

Wolf

In

subsided.

that

means

young

fire with

Tone,

church
in

1798,

Protestant

Protestant,

brain

named

cause,

quake
earth-

of the

of

felt that

constitutional

by

for

lasted

Parliament

largely

Catholics

their

ready response
the
its grievances on
emancipation, and

members
Irish

was

by

more

Catholic

The

subject.

had

which

to

tyranny

were

it find

the

found

putting

and

pattern,

and

awe;

be

to

was

and

Europe,
grievance,

over

national

of

Revolution

French

after the last rumbling


years
of revolution
in France
had

many

the

the

of

SOCIETY.

itself felt all

made

1789

no

IRISHMEN'S

UNITED

if

they

one,

waited

alone, they
Irish
barrister,
with

winning

enthusiasm

became

the

for
leader

of their

he attempted
late
to transthoughts, which
into'action
aid the
by calling to Ireland's
that
time
parte.
Buonaat
arch-enemy of England
of
Tone
was
a
already the secretary
had an
secret
oath, signs, and passsociety, who
words,
and
the
of
the
tion
"Associawent
name
by
"

United

of
France
sent

and

three

saw

Irishmen."
the

successive

Tone

went

imperious Frenchman,
expeditions to Ireland

to

who
to

IRISHMEN'S
raise
the

the

standard

Armada

of rebellion

of Elizabeth's
and

contrary,
and

Irishmen

Fresh

with

weapons

was,

however,

to

no

Lord

Edward

of

1798,

Wexford.

An

Irish

and

of the

but

executed

1798.

fleet,which

eventually
board,

at
was

dressed

counted

condemned

his

execution

Such

further

broke

fleet,

and

in

out

in

Murphy,

first there

at

nine
four

as

French

to

of

remnant

Lough Swilly, in Ireland.


by the English fleet,the
Tone
was
captive; while
treason,

All

came
bewere

caught
Murphy was
and
Lord
Fitzgerald was
died
in gaol, in June,

the

armed

leader,

rebeUion

first numbered

as

in and

Father

in

October

delayed
United

priest, Father

May,
captured, and

In

were

the

for

leaders, and

successes,

likewise

winds

invaders.

for

chosen
the

with

parte
despatched by BuonaIrish had
to
fight by
Fitzgerald, another

the

then

was

French

was

and

Protestant,
the spring

some

As

of

sworn

purpose,

Ireland,

themselves.

one

the

members

join the

to

Egypt,

to

there.

days,

daily being

were

for

149

Buonaparte's sliipswere

scattered.

intended

SOCIETY

"

vessels, and
with

officer
It

was

French

French

"

Tone
arrived

on

at

easily defeated
soldiers

taken

arrested, tried for


death, but anticipated

by committing

suicide

in

prison.

not
experience of a secret societywas
ment,
to be lightlythought of by the English Governother
similar
societies, in
especially as
incited
which
members
to action
were
by the
sacred
reality of an oath to do their duty, had
in Scotland
and
in England
formed
both
been
that
all
The
Government
naturally concluded
be
societies were
secret
dangerous, and must
out
drafted
to
suppressed, so a Bill was
carry
an

the

SOCIETY

IRISHMEN'S

I50

As

purpose.

soon

Bill

opened in 1799, the


eventually passed into
was

and

It is known

1799.

Act, 1799,"

its

and

introduced

was

law

July 12th,

on

Societies

is of

language

ment
Parlia-

of

"Unlawful

the

as

session

the

as

the

greatest

interest.

It

starts

traitorous

with

and

Buonaparte,
conspiracy had long

conjunction with
time
exercising the

the

powers

France,

the

in

to

overturn

ecclesiastical

establishment

Ireland, and

that

societies

in

had

been

of

to

United

Societies

and
The

the

societies

is

signs,
and

forbid

of

had

of

engagements
secret

of

and

other

ject,
oband

new

with

men,
Irish-

Britons, United

Society.

London

of them

members

and

this

out

Corresponding
of
the
organisation
explained by the statement

nature

civil and

quility,
public transocieties
calling
United
Englishmen,

United

Scotsmen,

to
in

Britain

carry

instituted

been

on,

time

the

of Great

order

government

and

dangerous nature, inconsistent


particularly certain
themselves

carried

from

persons

laws

that

says

taken

unlawful

of

these

oaths, and

had
fidelityand secrecy,
appointed committees,
officers.

The

the

Act

meetings of any such


the pains of incurring a fine of
for
and
amount,
imprisonment

the

that

goes

societies

used
taries,
secreon

to

under

an

undefined

an

undefined

time.

It

be observed
will, of course,
that, throwing
the net so wide, a society such as that of the Freemasons
would

Accordingly,
the

Duke

be
when

caught

within

the

Bill

went

of Atholl

and

the

its meshes.
into

Earl

tee,
Commitof

Moira,

IRISHMEN'S

which
from

its

the

excluded

ban,

Lodges

met.

craft

"been

under

the

that

suspicion

great

The

only

protection

in

existence

"Seditious

which,
to

Lodges,
looking

had

made

since

well
at

the

the
date

as

of

afterwards

the

passed,

was

it

made
ones

increase

large

in

actually

1817,"

old

in

afford

to

years

provisions,

other
as

eight

any

purposes."

Lodges

Act,

Meetings

amongst

new

and

1799,

of

were

thought

Masonic

to

of

convivial

meetings

eventually

was

this

Lodges
it

charitable

to

in

were

"such

that

directed

Act

holden

be

gatherings

states

measure

Freemasonry

relieve

to

the

for

of

further,

its

Act

the

to

of

usually

respect

denomination

and

Freemasons";

only,

accustomed

Clerk

they

that

stating

by

long

kingdom

of

craft

various

the

which

certificate

given

was

had

further

the

the

with
in

County,

in

that

registered

the

ments
amend-

fellows

condition

duly
of

carried

their

upon

were

Peace

151

Freemasons,

prominent

two

the

SOCIETY

former

"

apply

wise

Masonry
Act.

actment,
en-

152

XXV.

CHAPTER

THE

THERE

certain

are

characteristics
Order

Ancient

now-

Friendly Societies
signs, and
passwords and

have

the

of

many
The

societies

benefit
the

under

registered
Acts, which

SOCIETIES.

FRIENDLY

of

of

secret

Foresters

is

societies.
a

portant
im-

very

Friendly Society, which, having signs,


is also
passwords, and an initiation ceremony,
entitled to be classed
secret
as
a
society. Its
members
number
less than
posed
no
1,289,900, comboth

of

sick

to

and

sexes

members

and

Its

their

its benefits

widows

are
meetings
are
presided over

which

"Courts,"

juveniles,and

siderable.
con-

are

known

by

as
a

Chief

known
Sub-Chief
officers are
as
Ranger, whose
Senior
Ranger, Senior and Junior Woodwards,
and
and
treasurer
a
Junior Beadles, besides

secretary.
Orders

of
from

there

ages

stories

are

brethren

leged,
traced, it is alin the New
back
Forest, and
of initiation ceremonies, where

Foresters

dressed

were

be

can

as

woodmen,

carrying
,

boughs

of
may

In

trees.

be

respects

some

found

to

the

French

blance
resem-

Societies

of

Wood-choppers.
first established

The
was

held

Leeds,

at

in 1790,
in those

the

Old

Court
Crown

of

the

Foresters

Inn, Kirkgate,

much
society was
days by the provisions
but

pered
ham-

the

of

the

FRIENDLY

154
fit and
which

and

an

the

members

oath

founded

from

in

the

is

over

on

the

its

centre.

side,

shield

is

There

in

wearing
There

the

translated

"Why

head

do

and

with

the

crest

in

heart

either

on

Oddfellows
i8th

the

over

century,
shoulder.

"Upon
which

my

be

may

laugh?"

you

Oddfellows'
his

Lodge is called
principal officers are
and
"left supporter,"

two

the

the

whole

society

is called

Grand."

"Royal

Antediluvian

known

sometimes

as

Freemasonry,"

the

basis

the

the

orphan

It has

an

"Working
of

of

children

initiation

Buffaloes,"

of

mainly

now

of

of

is

has

benefit

Order

system

character, but
members.

justly

The

rides,"

while

Man's

tains
con-

may

mottoes,

"right supporter"
of

swords

figures

of

called

head

fellows
Odd-

imitation

an

shield, of

"Quid

of each

"Grand,"

of

who

two

two

There

crossed

hand,

the

1884

shield, which

raised

chosen

numbers

million.

has

time

in

Order

men,

are

also
and

The

the

suspended

honour,"

"Noble

and

Two

costume

scarves
are

The

Order

Oddfellows.

as

supporting

dressed

of

from

The

the

of

faces

designated

the

to

meetings

selected

existence, which

three
be

annual

by delegates

design.
partly covered
by

are

was

The

heraldic

an

Order

Lodges.

medal

in
of

The

600,000 members

old

an

other,

towns,

increased

now

each

attended

are

passwords

signs and
recognise

them.

different

different

comprised
are

bind

to

time, and

to

can

in Manchester.

held

are

society,with

secret

by

SOCIETIES

of

social

fund

for

deceased

ceremony,

and

FRIENDLY
the

heads

the

rule
supreme
the
"Grand

by
known
The
and

of its

SOCIETIES

Lodge
over

are

known

the

Order

Primo."

155
"Primos,"

as

wielded

being

The

officers

are

by courtesy titles of lords and knights.


society is not strictlya Friendly Society,
is included
here
only for the sake of convenience.

The

"Order

of

Druids,"

society, founded

in

is

benefit

1780,

and

whose

Lodges
ish
are
"Groves,"
early Britthe Ancient
Druids, in the glades
days when
of the forest, performed their rites,and taught
such
of the principles of geometry
and
sophy
philoknown
in those
as
were
days. Even these
old philosophers are
made
tribute to the
to pay
mythical histories of Freemasonry, as related by
De
have
old writers.
some
Quincey, as we
insists that Freemasonry
had
its its origin
seen,
secret

called

in

recallingthose

Rosicrucianism.
of

"Mysteries
while
on

the

Origin

in

the

rites

theory

be

can

always

that

and

those

The

This

be

can

Paine's
at

the

ginning
be-

collected

real secret

but
do

from

few

envelope

concludes

their

of them

own

other

no

stand;
under-

it in

thus;

from

but

is

is

tery."
mys-

"The

subjects of persecution.
naturallyand necessarilyobHge such

became

would

essay
the

source

"It
essay.
have
Freemasons

their

that

Essay

his

they carefully conceal;

origin, which

their

"An

passages

of

that

of Masons,

accounts

in two

out

understood

everything

Druids

set

of

Druids.

Ancient

conclusion

which

secret

the

with
company
the Egyptians;
finds its

Freemasonry,"

of
of

and

than

in

Freemasonry,"

writers, carries it back to


Thomas
Paine, the author

other

his

Carlile, in

Richard

FRIENDLY

156

of

them

remained

as

religion

to

upon

the

of

lives
the

the

of

under
of

Paine

uses

in

Masonic

the

Sun

this

in

and

the

the

other

use

of

1783,

on

Masonry,

Britain

1030

exceedingly
Paine

that
that

at

is

Masonry
arguing

on

of

period,

descended,
such

possible
basis

as

slender
to

prove

Masonry.

introduced

it
and

in

flourished

from
it

is

premises,

anything

this

statement

Druids
is

to

into

From

unproved

the

the

history

Christ.

and

in

writer

contribute

was

before

vague

argues

Britain

circumstances

years

from

notwithstanding
Masonic

Freemasonry

the

makes

also

Smith,

Captain

envelopes

various

He

of

by

copied

was

that

traces

practised

one

that,

is

distinct

irresistible.
of

which

that

prove

him

to

statement

Britain,

that

and

argument

conclusion

was

to

and

rights

sole

are

this

as

the

obscurity

there

inference

is

this

Druids,

Mason,

the

The
of

and

vi^hich,

of

that

name

Druids."

ritual

worship,

Druids,

new

support

the

of

institution

took

expose

destruction;

religion

Druid,

safety-

might

to

the

arose

name

ceremonies

the

of

the

Their

brother

them

original

under

and

secrecy.

false

of

many

their

to

secret

of

remains

practised

the

it.

preserved,

avoid

been

in

meet

depended

thus

attached

injunctions

strongest

from

SOCIETIES

them
obvious
it would
one

wished

in

that
that
have
as

157

CHAPTER

FREEMASOXRV

IX

TT

may

-*"

history of

could

be

XXVI.

be

LITERATURE

laid down

country

re-written

and

art, for

masons

is to

as

from

its

ART.

AND

an

axiom

were

that
be

to

if the

lost,

it

ture
litera-

contemporary

it is

impossible to keep out of


novels,
books, whether
biography, poetry, or
of pictures references
out
the life
to
or
essays,
going on at the time of their being written or
The
fact that Shakespeare makes
no
painted.
reference
secret
to any
flects
society, though he rein his writings most
of the characteristics
in
of his age,
is proof positive that
masonry
small
and
select
a
Queen Elizabeth's
days was
he makes
to working
circle, and the only reference
bees, who

honey
The

singing

compare
are

Masons

them

described

building
Henry

to

of

swarm

as,

roofs

of

V.,

Act.

gold.
"

'/,

s.2.

existed
only
reign, Masonry
in its transition
operative to specustage from
lative,
but it had its signs and passwords, as the
Marfor Andrew
aware,
public of that day were
from
wrote
Hull, in 1672, in his work
veil, who
those
"As
Rehearsal
"The
Transposed,"
says,
word
the Masons'
that
have
secretly discern
of the
Such
another."
a phrase in a writer
one
period is proof of existing Masonry beyond tons
In

of

Charles

theory.

II. 's

LITERATURE

158

the

before

years

in

born

Johnson, though

Dr.

ART

"

revival

only eight

1709,

and

Freemasonry,

of

the craft
living till 1783, through the days when
in
deal
heard
of a good
literary circles,
was
have

must

in

about

existence,
all

To

but

not

only books,

trades

and

manufactures,

societies, kept

In

He

of business.

customs

imagine

it had

him

for

definite

no

of

been
of

in

pany."
com-

absolutely

his

ignores

great

ways

kind

every

had

dictionary Johnson
that
one
so
Freemasonry,

well

may
existence

as

institution.

permanent

Augustin.

Mr.

quote

masons
Free-

many

knew

of

sorts

with

contact

time.

his

Birrell, "he
deal

into

come

One

prominent
certainly knew,

but

William

Dr.

Mason,

Dodd,

he

That
favourably.
famous
divine and
fashionable
preacher, Dodd,
of Grand
member
was
a
Lodge, but fallingupon
evil days, he
of his patron,
forged the name
Lord
bond
for "4,000, for
Chesterfield, to
a
which

he

guilty

in

was

tried

July,

well-known
and

not

the

at

Dodd

1777.

work,
from

"The

Old

Bailey and
the

was

Beauties

found

author

of

of

peare,"
Shakes-

friendly feeling for a


brother
author. Dr. Johnson, wrote
some
mons
serfor Dodd
while
to preach
in prison, and
also drafted
a
petition in favour of his reprieve,
which
was
widely supported. Dodd
passed his
enforced
leisure
called
by writing a poem
in Prison,"
"Thoughts
which
was
passable
from
a
literarystandpoint, but it only called
forth from
Dr. Johnson
the comment,
"A
man
who

has been

last."
in those

Dodd

canting all his life,may


the
subsequently met

days followed

persons

found

the

cant

to

fate

which

guilty

of

LITERATURE

ART

"

159

forgery.
In
of

Steele, writing in the

1709

"a

of

set

fellows, get

pretty

signs

tokens

and

who

people

intimation

of

Both

showing

as

to

was
1717,
about
in current

An
a

in

published
there

stated

"For

in
the

And

these

that

the

be

to

"a

columns

there's

can

had

the

some

masons."
Free-

ing,
interest-

are

ancient
thus

to

made

in

duced
repro-

Poems,"

Society, and
production."

Percy

lodge,

in bnt

enter

Master

what
as

has

of

those

and

"

"

St.

Peter

keeps

Entered

where

Freemasons

new

Birkhead,

well-known

No.

Apprentices'
toast

the

at

Song,"

dinners

appeared in print in
Weekly Journal," on

"Read's

Anderson

of the

pure."

are

5 in 1722, who
well-known
in Masonic

is still sung
a
as
It first
Lodges.
of

that

Lodge

become

"The

Health,"
Dr.

idle

door,

1st, 1722,

by

like

"Ancient

as

it is alluded

and

many

in

old

very

actor

which

they

extracts

the

after

circles

other

known

first official poet


Matthew
1717 was

wrote

that

Freemasonry is
Masonic
Hymn,"

1846 by

Heaven

none

The

of certain

to

"The

this poem

In

think

their

Again,

paper

of

volume

have

Freemasonry, prior
known
sufficientlyto be talked
conversation
and
writings.

called
in

same

each

early reference

poem

and

names,

of

name

like Freemasons."

in the
1710 he writes
fellows
that "one
would
secret

the

assume

new

talks

"Tatler,"

under
and

the
was

title of

the

next

in his first "Book


it is set

to

"The
year

the
cember
De-

mason's
Free-

printed

of the

music,

of

stitutions,"
Con-

and

is

i6o

LITERATURE

directed

"to

and

over,

had

the

the

writer

passable rhyme
varies

worthy

"face
'"

for

from

let

We

us

Our

wine

'Tis

each

in

find

to

verse,
occurs

rhymes
"gaze on," "grace on,"

Our

secrets

And

They
The

Birkhead

pain
wander

or

the

sign

free

and

an

died

at

at

It

on

Mason."

before

the

of the

for

by

St.

at

publication
also

play

Theatre

performed

on

Constitutions,"
He

year.

responsible
Drury Lane

Strand,

buried

was

church,

was

gaze

Street,

and

in the "Book
of his song
which
appeared in that
been

and

accepted

Wych

1723,

Mason.'

divine

can

Danes

Clement

accepted

an

gain.

to

3rd,

January

to

still let them

word
Of

and
"

is in

ne'er

occasion;
sing.

merry

spring

health

world

his death.

trouble

much

which
"occasion,"
and
to
"nation,"

has

The

produced

quote

we

"Mason"

together on
drink, laugh

Let's

have

song
the first

prepare.
that are

Brothers
Met

to

The

on."

Come

"

is at

"station,"
of Browning,

twice,
and

which

of

verses,

and

which

master's

is

business

all grave
leave."

when

sung

with

seven

two;

be

ART

"

"His

appears

which
week

was

after

Majesty's

of Comedians,"
is described
and
Company
on
the play-billsas
"a comedy
acted
never
before,
called
'Love
in a
Forest,' altered
from
the
Like
comedy called 'As You
It,' written
by
The
Shakespeare."
also announced
play was
to

appear

in

book

published 'Love

in

form:
a

"To-morrow

Forest,'

as

it

was

will

be

acted

at

LITERATURE

i62

masonry
The

ART

"

obvious.

was

pleased the
in January, 1726,
It
same
price.

must
sixpenny booklet
reading public of the day, for
was
published another, at the

have

Freemasons'
Accusation
and
entitled, "The
Defence, in six genuine letters between
a gentleman

was

in

the

and

country

his

and

son

in

student

the

the whole
affair of Masonry
Temple, wherein
is fairlydebated, and
all the arguments
for and
partially
imcuriously and
against the Fraternity are
handled."

ambitious

more
was

"An

Ode

to

effort

made

in

the

Grand

1726 by

"

satirise

the

publication
the

Khaibar,"

This
being anonymous.
alleged ancient foundation
supposed members.

work
of

masonry
Free-

to

author
the

ridicules
the

craft

of

and

buildings Masons
found,
their
art
praise
they picked occasion
Hence
Cain
for
the
craft renowned,
was
And
Mason.
was
a
mighty Nimrod
of Kings
and
Lords
With
names
empty
soothe
the fancy
The
mystic lodge may
without
it
Words
affords,
meaning
without
And
signs
significancy.
One
only thing they plainly tell.

its-

Wherever
To

In prose
mole-hill
Is

the

to

poem

February,

1723,

verse

sign
a

"

of

to
a

the

occasion

swell,

Freemason."

sixpenny

entitled

Poem,"

this

on

mount

true

Another

Hudibrastic

and

"The
author

one

"

appeared

Freemasons:

in.
an

ing
simply describhimself
"a Freetnason,"
and
as
professing"
"their
to divulge
laws, ordinances, signs, works,
covered
so
long kept secret,
faithfully dismessages,
and

made

known."

LITERATURE
The

title page
"All

contains

secrets, till

Are

wonderful

But

when

'Tis

equal then

ART

"

they

all

found

the

we

own

wonder,

to

cease

wind

and

"

known,

are

must

out
to

following :

once

men

163

thunder."

Legendary stories concerning Masonry arose


in plenty, the favourite
of which
that of the
was
red-hot
poker applied to the victim as a part of
his initiation, which
formed
a
staple topic for
the caricaturist
of the day.
That

the

compilers
the

by
also
which

had

the

been

of

ritual
their

fact that
in

published

fluenced
in-

were

is

ancestors

Bacon's

1620,

Essays,
drawn

were

in after years

upon

which

for parts of the statelyritual


revised, and
composed,
improved

was

from

upon

time

"a

phrase
find

the

literature

from

evident

of

citizen

it taken

from

it reads

where

to

time.

to

of the

strangers

this

world"

Bacon's
"If

In

be

it shows

and

occurs,

"On

essay

man

ritual

is

we

Nobility,"

gracious

he

the

and

citizen

teous
cour-

of the

world."
"

this life,
happy phrase is "the'barkof
from
Bacon's
being again borrowed
Adversity," which talks of "Christian

Another
the

idea
"Of

essay

that

resolution
flesh

In

through

the

of the

one

"not
reviler

saileth

of

to

be

waves

old
an

be

in direct

to

whole

passage.

The

frail bark

of

world."

the

addresses

mason

of

was

enthusiast, persecutor,

religion,"and

seems

in the

the

conflict

compilers

jured
ador

"enthusiast"

word
to

the

the
were,

drift of the

however.

LITERATURE

64

justifiedby
"The

Legation

Dr.

Warburton,

"enthusiasm

said

which

the

In

enthusiasm,

this

when

the

Addison,
in the

of

Glory

has

the

got

to

things,

of

turn

in

not

Freemason,

which

thoughts of the thinking men


ritual
were
compiling the new

who

if the

thinking

of that
of Freemasonry,

not

them

set

in
"As
subject. Addison
says,
Solomon's
the Sanctum
torum,
SancTemple there was
in which
visible glory appeared among
a
the figures of the cherubims,
and
into
which
but
the high-priest himself
aone
was
permitted
after having made
to enter
for the
atonement
an

sins

of

itself did

passage

that

passages

are

reflect the

day

ligious
re-

upon

Spectator," in 1712,
the
by him, "On

written

Heaven,"

of the

better

fanaticism."

"The

of

in

of mind

state

happens

in

Gloucester,

of

temper

essayist,was

essay

an

Bishop

work,

written

Moses,"

disordered
it

pages

appeared

of

becomes

matters,

well-known

is that

imagination

judgment.

but

from

passage

Divine

1738, by
who

ART

"

the

of the

creation

Holy

people;

as

of

Holies

"With

into

we

consider

temple, there

great

one

salvation

our

if

so

which

the

the

whole

is in it this

High

Priest

of

entered.

how

much

skill must

the

of

Throne

erected, with what .glorious designs is


that habitation
and
beautified, which is contrived
God

be

built

by

How

the

in

the

who
must

great

where

must

Him

be

whole

and

where

the

most

the

direction

inspired Hiram
be the majesty
art

of

God

creation

has

architecture

of

wisdom
that

has

chosen

magnificent

with

to

been

show

manner!

infinite power
of infinite wisdom?"
of

place,
ployed,
em-

self
himWhat
under

LITERATURE
In

ART

"

appeared
Dissected," written
1730

treatise

165

called

"Masonry

Pritchard, who
by Samuel
of the
was
a
Freemason,
giving the catechism
Masonic
ritual.
In his introduction, the author,
following the old legends of the ancient charges,
original institution of Maspnry consisted
says, "The
in the

foundation

sciences, but
the

at

mystery

and

from

worthy
the

mason

he

have

must

and

arts

for

of

mathematician

communicated
in

the

of

Hiram,

it to

concerned
in

Temple

liberal

Babel, the art


first introduced,
was
down
by Euclid, a

handed

excellent
and

master

Tower

masonry

thence

Egyptians;

days

of the

of

and

the

especially of geometry,

more

building

and

of

mon's
Solo-

building

Jerusalem." Readers
been
gullible,as
very

in those

Hiram

been
Christ, and had
dead
Euclid, the mathematician,
700 years before
born ; but possibly the author, if faced with
was
lived

1,000

fact, would

this
device
each

of
of

made

declaration

another

in

entitled

Freemason,"

which

Pocket

Freemasons'

"The

was

Smith,

"W.

by

work

the

before

oath

book,

his

Geometry.

in

on

existed,

have

to

famous

verifying

Mayor,

answered

Euclids

old

in the

sought refuge

have

imagining two
them
equally

Pritchard
Lord

before

years

Companion."
Pope's

references

pubhshed

"Dunciad,"
the chapter

on

when

in

1742,

of

member

the

Gregorians,

of

the

an

officer called

Goldsmith

dealt

are

his

in

Freemasonry

with

in

Gregorians."

"The

Goldsmith, as
obviously heard
by
presided over
and

to

wished

to

the

pubHc,
who

had

were

"Grand,"

picture the

chair-

LITERATURE

66

of

man

in

his

of essays

In

under

the

of

account

an

"The

that

with

described

such

hammer

chairman

"a

club

choice

of

spirits."

coming
the choice
spirits. The
in his hand, presided at the
soon
My speculations were

of

mallet

table.

the

to

1759 he published his volume


title of "The
Bee," in which

I entered

first club

was

the

he

"Grand."

is

and

hand,

Gregorians,
as

the

meeting, holding a
writer's
thoughts went

convivial

ART

"

upon

town

to

Grand,
head

of

rupted
inter-

knocked
down
had
by the Grand, who
Mr.
The
Spriggins for a song."
Gregorians
would
probably find this an accurate
description
in 1761,
of part of their proceedings at Norwich
of music, in barges
when, attended
by a band
and boats, they went
to their
by the river Yare
annual

venison
with

Another
when

feast, which

reference

through
of

streets

of

-concerning
fraternities
under

the

Roman

whom
of

He
at

Catholic
he

says

devotees,

banners

his

Italy."

procession

1765,

"Travels
in

saw

the

Easter-time

of

confraternities,

"The

who

in

occurs

wrote

and

Nice

members

Masonry

to

Smollett

France

cluded
"con-

told

are

harmony."

great

Tobias

we

confraires

enlist

are

themselves

of

On days
particular saints.
of procession they appear
in a body dressed
as
and
masked,
penitents and
distinguished by
crosses

not

may

their

habits.

whether

noble

on

belong
be

and

Both

to

one

compared

of
to

There

these
the

Antigallicans
Fielding,

or

of

is

scarce

plebeian,

who

dividual,
indoes

associations, which

Freemasons,
England."

in his novel

an

of

"Tom

ians,
Gregor-

Jones,"

LITERATURE
and

Sterne,

in the

in

his

"Tristram

into

the

characters, showing
them

to

About
"The

the

lawyers,
take

to

to

Gray

also

mind

when

Walpole,
hear

an

pantomime

songs,

followed

author

choruses

of

masonic

song

be

posed
sup-

secret,"

the

of

ferring
re-

immortal
and

of

consisted

by

pageant.

in

the

and

so-

dialogue

with

The

part

first

assisted
with

Temple,

lawyers.

of

introduced,

mason."
Free-

the

and

architect,who

building

skaters
in

Lane

which

A
not

was

first

from
the
by Dibdin, but taken
of the Constitutions," published in
it is attributed to Charles
Dalefaye.

1723,

thou
craft divine.
masonry,
from
heaven
revealed.
Glory of earth

Hail

Which
From

does

with

all but

jewels precious shine.

mason's

pageant

consisted

principal Grand

Masters

The

writes

may

Mason,

Phoenecian

comprised the
King Solomon

"

Halifax

tell the

to

not

was

named

where

known
un-

in

Dibdin

"Book

Lord

1780, left his songs,


the stage, producing at Drury
called
"Harlequin
pantomime

written

not

was

Freemasons,

the

Dibdin,

for

Theatre

their

Freemason."

Bowling,"

wrote

of

days.

period
oath

craft

word

the

of his
political matter
day.
has the newly established
craft in his
he
writes
Horace
to
humorously
shall
next
week
we
saying, "I reckon

Charles
"Tom

the

written

some

are

you

that

like the

introduce

conversation

in those

same

167

Shandy,"

eighteenth century,

"Freemason"

ART

"

eyes

of

from

concealed."

procession
the

of the

Creation

to

LITERATURE

68

from

the characters

century, and

the then
the

the

"Book

no

less

than

There

each

epochs, after
performers. They

different

were

representing

banners

twenty

in

contained

Constitutions."

the

drawn

were

them

of

long catalogue
of

ART

"

marched

which

of

and
began with Enoch
followed
the King of Egypt, who
Nimrod
; then
which
Mitzraim
named
happened to be the
was
he was
and
word
for Egypt
panied
accomHebrew
carrying a property Pyramid ;
by two men
the

"

"

Solomon

with

the

the

naturally enough,
Persia

followed;

Hirams

two

entered

with

now

"I

left it built

have

moral,
of

found

two

and

the Tower

of London

followed

and

by a
Christopher Wren
builders
he

was

Paul's.

of

modern

of Solomon's

some

aloft

borne

by
by Queen
Angelo,
at

Rome.

wound

and

in

up

of

patrons

by

last three
of
of

masons,

pillars

two

an

the

were

obelisk.
list of

Sir

able
memor-

architecture, and
men

banners

the

they

reason

bearing

man

by representatives
Templars, members
and

for

accompanied
The

took

queror,
Con-

the

James I., with


Inigo Jones, and a representation of Whitehall,
while
Charles
II. with
William
and
ceeded
Mary sucthem,

banner

the

Constantine

followed
assistants, who
were
Michael
Elizabeth, Pope Julius JL,
of St. Peter's,
Raphael, and a model
fourteenth

Pantheon

of the

two

The

point

to

Vespasian and
predecessors of William

the

rhetorical

brick, but

of

Titus

Rome.

were

model

and

Darius

his

and

marble,"

of

carried

men

built

Rome

ceededsuc-

personified by

Rome,
Zoroaster, and then came
for
Augustus Caesar, celebrated
flourish.

Sheba

of

Queen

and,

Orders

carrying

St.

followed

were

of

Knights
the Royal Arch
degree,
the latter bearing one

LITERATURE

I70
For

the

Tweed,

benefit

we

of

those

of

living south
allowed

be

perhaps

may

ART

"

to

the

explain

that

is

of say"Friday first" is the Scotch method


ing
"Friday next/' while "Right Worshipful"
the Scots equivalent of the English "Worshipful"
Master.

about
talks
"grand procession" Burns
has been
pictured in a print of the period, which
shows
a
body of Masons
marching along the
The

of

street

Tarbolton, past

the

church, with

man

bearing a flag in front bearing the legend, "St.


following after in
James' Lodge," the members
their regalia, and
dren
being welcomed
by the chilof the town
as
they passed. In November,
meditated
1786, Burns
emigrating to Jamaica,
and

he

the

Brethren

which

wrote

intended

poem

of St.

"Farewell

as

to

Tarbolton,"

James' Lodge,

begins"
"

Adieu

Dear

Ye

He

heart

of

adieu

the

tie !

mystic
favoured, ye enlightened few,
social
of my
Companions
joy !"
refers

then

of the

Master
"Oft

Lodge

honoured

but

freedom,
you
the

Beneath
The

supreme

craftsmen

of

when

the

That

rising

Till

Shall

you
order

be

my

far

and

grand

Omniscient

saw

heart

harmony

in

ever

my

glorious Architect

Still

had

the

Strong memory
Those
happy scenes
Unite

he

command,
of light
sons
hieroglyphic bright,

o'er

none

May

that

fact

"

with

Presiding
by the

Which

the

to

And

"

fond

warm

brothers

shall
awa

write

!"

love

design,
Eye

above

divine.

keep the unerring line,


plummets law.
bright completely shine

may
by the

prayer,

when

far

awa."

been

LITERATURE
Burns

did

abroad
go
in the chair

not

July, 1787, he

was

initiated

Dugald Stewart,
philosophy at
Edinburgh
Masonry.
Capt. George Smith,
for Kent, published
"The

Use

another
world

author

that

that

at

Masonic

on

Lodge, and
the
professor of
University, into
of the

entitled

1783 a work
Freemasonry."
to

ter
Mas-

Grand

in

goes

in

all, and

after

He
of

creation

the

is
the

subject, and remarks


time "the
sovereign architect raised
principles the beauteous
globe, and

the

for

who

171

Provincial

of

Abuse

and

ART

"

origin

commanded

that

of his

science, geometry,

master

to

planetary world, and to regulate by its


laws
the whole
stupendous system, in just, unerring
proportion, rollinground the central sun.
I am
the
But
not
at libertypublicly to undraw
this head : it
curtain, and thereby to descant
on
lay

is

the

sacred, and
honoured

are

and

will
with

who

those

remain

ever

the

will

trust

who

those

it,

reveal

not

betray

of it cannot

ignorant

are

so

it."

It has
was

of the
do

not

reference

his

escape

"The

Thomas

the

expect

that

Crabbe

details
clock

him

to

cottage

of the

ture
furni-

plates and

and

searching

of

poems

labourer's

he

eye.
leave

One
out

scribing
deof his day, when
Masonry
in
written
in his poem
Borough"
have
quoted in Chapter XX.

the

to

which

smallest

house, and

therefore,

cannot,

poet

writer, for in his

forgets the

knives

the

life,if he describes

never

1810,

of

"miniature"

country
he

said

been

we

Paine,

the

author

of

"The

Age

of

LITERATURE

172

Reason,"
"An

which

Essay

ART

"

criticised

Christianity,wrote
of -Freemasonry,"

the

Origin
which
in
not
was
published till after his death
1809, and was
reprinted in 1818 by the publisher,
R. Carlile, 183, Fleet Street.

with

man

Sir

of

tastes

becoming
been

on

and

Geierstein"

Masonic

the

describe

were

XX.

the

of

of

society,

secret

of

"Anne

helped

him

to

ture
picin

oath, usual
and

ceremonies,

helped

also
he

in

says

novel, "everything about


its officers,
institution, its proceedings, and
preserved in as much
obscurity as is now

To

that

of

in

practised

Freemasonry."

down

come

the

to

nineteenth

Douglas

touched

in the

"Mrs.

Jerrold in 1845
eighth chapter of
where

Lectures,"
Caudle

ever

has

made

remarks

suffered

you

that

that's

been

the

heroine

if I didn't

Not

Scott

all historical

administered, and
the

son
grand-

craft.

novel

solemn

and

on

records

grapher,
bio-

and

son

of

knowledge

societies,was

Chapter

Scott's

not

into

initiated

son-in-law

his

his

where

scene

had

father

was

information

the

on

his

to

Scott

founded

antiquarian

could, hardly avoid

members

with

subjects,

the

him.

became

and

if his

even

1801, and
Lockhart, and

imbued

him

Scott

in

also

such

Walter

before

Masonry

while

historical

Mason,

one

was

the

suppose

its

why

to

go
I

anything

I'm

was

to

determined

this

on

"Do

you

be

to

fallible

the

gant
terma-

I'd

suppose

made

know

know,

Curtain

but

and

Mason,

to

subject

Caudle's

intrepid

and

century,

the

I dare

know

Mason
secrets?

say;
it."

and

LITERATURE
Thomas

De

to

the

on

papers
into

the

he

secrets

in

useless

documents
wrote

dived

and

have

been

the

subject.

In

which

several

Freemasons,"

the

they get

found
fact

who

all make

before

of

as

which

upon

errors

author

deeply as was
possible
and history of the Rosicrucians,
to the history of Freemasons
as
the
light of the fresh facts and

his conclusions
are

the

to

as

173

essayist,has already

"Rosicrucians

although

bvit

the

Quincey,

referred

been

ART

"

he

form

he

since

the

makes

their

sions
conclu-

facts.

of
a
appeared in the papers
"The
Republican," a series of
Richard
was
formerly
Carlile, who

In

183s there
periodical called
from

papers
a

publisher
of

interest

the

present
been

have

intellects

his

day

is to

elevate

and

improve

flavour.

old-world

how

show

that

since

work

at

Its

time.

of

Freemasonry
at

his

gave

dress
ad-

Gaol, containing the whole

Dorchester

as

ritual

Street, and

Fleet

in

only

many
time
io

destroying its
it, without
what
someA second
writer, who

some
injudiciouslyattempted to give away
Frenchman,
was
a
of the details of Masonry,
named
Alphonse Karr, who in 1850 published a
autour
jardin,"
ma
work
entitled, "Un
voyage
lightful
In his dewhich
widely read at the time.
was

garden,

he

that

him

legend,

which

whether

from

or

because

of

the

upon

comes

he

and

flowers

of the

account

trees

in

acacia, which
of

it forms

part

then

proceeds

his
minds
re-

Masonic

tell, but

to

origin,
of time,
lap.'^e

the fact that it is of French

changes

it is difficult to

due

reconcile

to

the

it with

the

authorised

version.
In

his

society novel, "Lothair,"

written

in

LITERATURE

174

1870,
the

to

had

1867.

in
makes

he

the

of

period

in any

than

Freemasonry,
reference

Any

be

great

work

is

which

that

subject.

and

literature
the

to

tory
His-

"The

on

in

volumes,

for

information

of

storehouse

Gould

published

Freemasonry,"

account

reference

without

Freke

Bro.

of

on

are

mentions

he

Freemasonry

to

incomplete

would

of

chapter

our

see

ones

moment

his

For

which

societies, in

Italian

this

at

1785."

since

volution
re-

"There

say,

France

in

societies

ItaHan

French

the

Concerning

Italy,

and

the

on

of his characters

one

secret

more

influence

much

so

references

many

of France

both

societies

secret

which

makes

Beaconsfield

Lord

ART

"

the

student.

from

Turning
prominent
whose
too

literature

craft

of the

delineator

of the human
nature
grasp
wide
for so entertaining a
to

mind

however

that

in the
of

the

to

hide

him.

escape

much

Lodge,

there

Masons

in

themselves

was

the

Hogarth,
of his day was
masonry
subject as Free-

must

be

of

secrecy

of

out

the

band

former
pagnonage
of these

of

of

music.

days

of

in

the

This

had

old

system

France,

French

and

worthies

village on their way


not
are
Accordingly, we
Hogarth
picturing Masons
One

work

mogons

and

Freemasons,"

of his

of

there

is

was

to

with
in

the

the

feast.

suprised
in regalia
referred

of

find

to

"The
to

print

streets

Masonic

that

the

Cam-

old

an

the

in

done

parading

doors.

been

part

George I.
Lodge, and

dress
themselves
to
they felt proud
regalia, and parade the streets, sometimes
a

was

the

on

of

in

borne
there

attempt

early days

when

most

was

It

no

the

art,

to

in

out

of
Gor-

Chap-

LITERATURE

176
article.

Some

drawn

with

engraved
while

ink;

plates;

others

is

The

are

Germany
is

apron

the

and

blue

supported

by

red

in them.

observed

full square
colour
is

English

the

of

of

shades

and

type,

are

and

Belgium

the

darker, and

tied round

silk sash

waist.

The

badges

master

jewels,
in

blue,

the

but the

apron,

in

circular

than

keeps

the

French

English,

the

than

Masons

of the

rather

green,

of

centre

corners.

of

aprons

America

smaller

the

at

in the

device, especiallyon

are

rounded

are

specimens of art
or
sequins. The

silks

temple

favourite

which

aprons,

in

from

hand-coloured;

were

beautiful

were

worked
needlework,
representation of
apron

some

some

them

designs on
printed
were

had

aprons

Indian

ART

"

and

officers

and

there

existence
with

field of

attached

art

of

in

are

the

to

collars

Lodge

Masonic

also

was

designing of medals
the history of Lodges

opened
for

other

forms

highly prized by
There
boards"
used

at

crude,

are

of

of

of

the

to

various

and

of

art,

emblems.

their

Masonic

as

these
mented
orna-

wide

craft

in the
in

occasions

officers.

Firing glasses for toasts, and


and
engi-aved with the names
were

types

varying degrees

various

known

are

old

many

the

of

glass
arms

of

art, and

goblets
Lodges
are

now

collectors.

some

Lodges,

old

but

and
the

the present
day are,
and
all of them
as

quaint

"tracing

majority of those
in our
opinion, ver)'
considerably.
vary

LITERATURE

there

is

labours

shall

which
of

of

the

iiere

obviously
of

Lodge
lover

the

Masonic

satisfy
of
of

ART

"

artist
the

most

Instruction,
the

fresh

fine

to

field

produce

rigorous
and

arts.

177

delight

the

for

work

preceptor
the

eyes

178

XXVII.

CHAPTER

FREEMASONRY

AND

THE

that

LAW.

the

security
felt to be menaced
societies was
of all secret
by
the politicalupheavals of those
to
days; and
safe anchorage, a Bill
to Freemasonry
a
secure
of Commons
introduced
into the House
by
was
Grand
the
Hon.
Charles
Dillon,
Deputy
the
"for
Master
of
"Moderns,"
ing
incorporatthe
and
well
governing
society of
Free
and
thus
Masons,"
Accepted
giving
It is

it

cvirious

fact

Parliamentary

read

The

sanction.

Bill

was

first

not
time, but Freemasons
were
ing
readin its favour, and on
the second
opposed by Mr. Onslow, in a speech

unanimous
it

by 1771

was

in which

he
a

that

contended

charter

in

was,

Bill of Naturalisation

for

"granting

fact, to

the

masons
Free-

general
foreign Papists, and in
pass

himself
the
probability giving the Pretender
proscribed
citizenshipof a country where he was
it
Thus
under
the penalties of high treason."
that the old character
will be seen
of Jacobiteslike the odour
of an
given to the Freemasons,
old time
scent, still clung to them.

all

To

avoid

defeat, Mr.

of the
the

Bill

was

the' official
was

found
law-

other

never

debate,
heard

recognition
not,
means

Dillon
which
of

of

moved
was

again.

the

journment
ad-

carried, and
The

Freemasonry

idea

of

liament
by Parhowever,
dead, and
Masonry
be recognised by statute
to

FREEMASONRY
Two

important

Freemasons

"
Acts

and

societies, were

of

179

Parliament, affecting

members

of

in the

passed

LAW

other

reign

of

George
activity of

III., just after the time


of
the
The
first was
Napoleon Buonaparte.
Societies Act, 1799" (39 Geo.
sometimes

Act,"
took

called

the

the
III.

"Corresponding

which

prohibited
oaths, but excepted

registering their Lodges


Peace
of the County in

secret

lawful
"Un-

the

79),

c.

Societies-

societies

Freemasons
with

secret

which
"

on

Clerk

their

of the

which

The
they met.
other
the
"Seditious
was
Meetings Act, 1817"
forbade
(57 Geo. III. c. 19), which
meetings of
societies of more
than fiftymembers,
but added
"nothing in this Act shall extend to any society
societies

or

holden

under

the

denomination

of

in conformity with rules,


Lodges of Freemasons
the
with
provided such Lodges shall comply
rules and
regulations in the Act 39 Geo. III. c.
before
two
Justices of the
79, by a declaration
Peace, and confirmed
by the major part of the

justicesat
In

quarter

sessions."

few

years after
found
itself

Pritchard

had

its
in

new

the

masonry
foundation. FreeLaw
Courts, for

been

grossly annoyed by one


made
had
Barrett, who
insulting observations
The
former, finding that
touching the craft.
of no
in keeping
the
use
were
arguments
up
Bro.

and
the

head

Institution, at last lost his

of the

character

per,
tem-

forcibly impressed his arguments


of the insulting Barrett.
and nose

latter

went

action

of

his

to

Barrett

Common

Pleas

battery.

The

attorney,
Pritchard

v.

at
case

Westminster
was

who

brought

in the
for

tried before

Court

assault
a

judge

on

The
an

of
and

and

"

FREEMASONRY

i8o

in

jury, who,
the

defendant
verdict

provocation
the plainhad
tiff
received, awarded
of only twenty
shillingsdamages.

Here

had

carried

afford

to

the

was

minutes

chard's

case

Master

to

be

not

the

subscription
the

Grand

got

was

relief of

173. 6d.,the

On
up

"Mr.

Pritchard," which

Grand

Master, the Earl


with two
guineas.
in order

to

values,

multiply

these

which

would

which

of

Another

curious

tried

was

in

plaintiff was
Finch

Finch

for

odd

claim

is nowise
so-called
Finch's

Bridge.

"16

the
as

could

lessened

It

be

not

must

present

pay

day

whole

the

old

Palace

The

Smith,

named

work

made,

who
done.

claimed

6d.

19s.
and

when

Court

abolished.

now

to

making

for

giving
degrees. This

various

"28

Dalkeith,

of

price of
debt, but

Mason,

plaintiffa
in

as

the

set-off

is

the

Grand

concerning Masons,

printer

for

admitted

have
the

Prit-

figures by six,
about
"175,

to

the

at

which

cordingly
ac-

Grand

realised

at

get

total amount

lawxase

1815

Westminster,

sued

the

probably enough
the litigation.

was

expense

at

make

to

and

Henry
by the

Bro.

must

craft

Lodge that he- should


February 19th, 1724, a
in Grand
"for
Lodge

heading the list


be forgotten that,
one

sides.

1723,

recommended

was

the

members,

that

sufferer."

for

25th,

record

Bro.

of both

opportunity

November

on

it, and

expenses

its brother

to

the

with

costs

the

pay

first

support

Lodge

of

consideration

This, however,
Pritchard

LAW

"

him

struction
in-

sounds

and
we

a private one,
Lodge was
house,
near
private
witnesses
were
Expert

its ness
strangehear
that the
conducted

at

Westminster
called

from

FREEMASONRY

Grand

authorised

gain
that

the

had

to

In
in

of

out

such

work.

the

the

Gordon

v.

in

Session

Masonic

in
is

who

in

part
of

case

Court

the

of

plaintiff

the
claimed

called

that

"

could

Lodge
but

body,

add

to

their

which

there

private

1810,

heard

was

he

as

took

July

in

Edinburgh,

pursuer,

or

also

was

full.

in

account

for

Courts,

it

Finch,

against

Freemasons

Law

that

happy

are

found

was

make

to

We

plaintiff's

Finch

and

craft

the

promptly

Scotland

Lawson

of

jury
pay

Masons,

rules

i8i

that

proved

make

to

the

against

"

who

Lodge,

not

LAW

"

be

this

treated

as

porated
incor-

an

by

disallowed

was

the

Court.

In

another

Scotch
in

reference,
as

whether

to

tain

the

the

the

by

whether

outside

The

Lodges

Court

decided

whether

of

Lodges
that

certified

the
or

Act
not.

obbe

Scotland,

also

were

to

must

1799,

of

Lodge

Grand

no

arose

order

in

Act

the

have

we

question

Lodges,
of

protection

which

court,

same

Masonic

certified

to

case,

or

protected.

applied

to

all

"

l82

CONCLUSION.

summarise

TO

brieflythat
overloading our
of

minds

results,

we

have

work

the

times

earliest

our

with

of

out

tried, without

detail,

founded

point

may

thus

succession

who

men

we

to

the

in

changes

secret

from

trace

societies.

We

have

of the Essenes
pointed out the transactions
written
by Josephus, and copied at Alexandria
in
whom
by Philo and the Greek
Jews, from
learned
turn
they were
by Pythagoras, who
left
behind
him
ences
referwritings in which
earlier
made
these
to
were
mysteries.
These
Greek
dead
for
writings remained
till
unearthed
at
they were
many
years
the end of the 15th century, when
the study of
the classics revived, and
learned
were
by the
tinent
Conclerical
students
the
and
lay both on
vasion
inand
in
The
Norman
England.
of England
meant
not
only the incursion
"

of

"

land, but also of an


of foreign ecclesiastics
and
builders, who

set

work

Thus,

as

soldiers

to

into

of

the

in

turn

cathedrals

erect

have

we

the

shown,

churches.

and

the

about

came

army
to

establishment

with
their
operative Masonic
Lodges,
(Passwordsand obligations, all of which
may
been
who
well have
them
the
taught
by
priests,

they

have

may

could

Greek.

This
ritual

when

the

1675-

the

them

read

of

the

from

them

is sufficient

lesser
and

until

then

not

early

got

from

to

transition

monasteries

church

beginning

building
of

St.

tradition,
the

days
began

from

ceased

for

Paul's

original
for

account

to

if

the

1536,
be
a

Cathedral

pressed,
sup-

time
in

INDEX.

84

PAGE

Accepted Masons
Acceptions
Acts

103

...

103

of Parliament...

179

Addison

164

Ahimon

Rezon

Ainslie,

Rev.

Alban,

123

J.

133

Saint

74

Alchemy

51

American

Masonry

138

Charges

Ancient

77

...

Ancients

122

Dr.

Anderson,

J.

114,

...

Ii6, 183

Andrea

54

of Geierstein...

Anne

50

Antimony

56
108, 175

Aprons
Elias

Ashmole,

40,

lOI

III

Assassins

15

Astley, Sir E.

140

Aristotle
Ark

13

Mariners

130
61

Athelstan

Atholl, Duke

of

123,

...

Aubrey
Axe

40

Work

69,

Baal

32

Roger

Bacon,
Bacon,

53

Lord

33.

Baldwin
Barrett

V.

45

Pritchard

Beaconsfield
Bill to

Board

incorporate

Birkhead,

179

,' Lord

Benevolence,

65.
of

174
127

Masons

178

M.

159

Blucher

137

Bonaparte

150

of Constitutions

Browning,

R.

Buffaloes, Order
Burns,

163
41

Baphomet

Bulls

no

12

Babylon

Book

150

167
52

of

against Masonry
R

28, 116, 131,

154
131

169

i85

Calderari
Carbonari

Carlyle,

Cambyses

...

Ceres
Chaldeans

Chantiers
Charbonnerie
Charcoal
Burners

Charges
Charities

Chesterfield, Lord
Clement, Pope
Cliton
Lord

Coke,

Comrauneros

Compagnons
Companonage
Coningsby
Constantine

Constitutions, Book

Copland,

of

Patrick

Corresponding Societies
Crabbe
Cromwell
Crotona
Culdees
Duke

Cumberland,

of

Cyrus

Dalkeith,
Dead

Earl

of

Sea

Delafaye,

C.

Dermott,

Desaguliers,
De
Qnincey,
C
Dibden,
Dillon, Hon.

Dr
T
C

Diocletian
Divine

Dodd,

Legation
Dr

Dowling,
Druids,
Dunciad

M.S
Order

of

of Moses

Act

i86

Early English Building

132

Edwin

73

E^ptians
Elixir

ig

of Life

56

...

Elizabeth,

Queen

97,

157

Eleusinians

25

Essenes
...

...

...

...

...

34
80

...

Euclid

Eusebius

37

Evelyn

102

Ezra

32

..

fraternitas

Fama

52

^6

Faust

Fedafee

17

Fendeurs

Fielding

59
i65

Finch

180

Fire

Worship

Fludd,

54, 56
Order

Foresters,

the

Franklin,

B.

and

152

...

137

103

Hall

125
...

Friendly

...

...

...

136
136

...

Societies

of Grand

Fusion

...

138

Masonry
prisoners Lodges

French

...

Great

accepted

Freemason's
French

of
...

Frederick
Free

13

152

Lodges

123

Galileo

23

Gavel

109

Masonry

German

George

137

III

124

Goethe

Goldsmith,
Goose

"

55
165

Gridiron
...

...

Gormogons
Gould,

R.

Lodge

of

Grand

Orient

of France

Grand

Lodge
Lodge
Lodge
Lodge

of Ireland

Grand
Grand

...

...

112,

113

139

142

174

Grand

Grand

...

England

of Massachusetts
of Munster
of Scotland

110,118

136
138
138
138
134

i87
PAGE.

Grand

Lodge

of York

Grand

Lodge

M.S.

Grand

Master

ii8

76
95,

Gratton

Gray...
Gregorians

...

...

...

...

...

126

148
167

...

139

Halifax

167

..

Hashish

15

Freemason

Harlequin

167

Hasson
Hell

15

Fire

Club

Heraclius

144

...

Hercules,

...

Temple

...

...

...

43

...

of

30

Herodotus

21,

24, 30

Hierophantes

26

Hieroglyphs

22

Hiram

30

Hogarth

142,
R

Holme,

Hudibrastic
de

Hugh

174
104
162

Poem

Paganes

41

67

lUuminati
for

Instruction

Parish

Instruction, Lodges

Priest

93

128

of

Isis

19

Italian

Architects

40

64
63
138

Italy Re-united
Italian
Irish

Societies

Masonry
J

James de Molay
Jerrold, D

45
172

176

Jewels
ohnson.
Dr.

158

Jones, Inigo
Josephus

98
36

29.

K
21

Karnak

Karr,
Kent,

Alphonse
Duke

of

Lodge
Knights Hospitallers
Knights Templars
Kilwinning

'73
123
i33

4^
4^^

88

of

Statute

Labourers,

74, 75

Laterns

79

Lawson,
Lewes,

Gordon

v.

181

H.

G.

Lhamas

23

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

13

Lily

56
56
65

Lion

Lodge
Lombard

42

Rank

London

Lord

129

Show

Mayor's

169

Lothair

65,

Loyola
Lytton,

Lord

173
67
51

M
Madre

Natura

Mafia

65
64

Magic

14

Marathon
Mark

14

Masonry

130

Marvell,

157

Masonic

Hymn

159

Masonic

Poem

Mason's

Company

91
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

103

Melchiades

39

Menatzchim...

Merry

Grigs

Moderns

32

140
122,

MoerisLake

21

Earl

Moira,

of
...

Duke

Montague,

...

...

...

150

...

of

120

Thos.

Moore,
Moriah,

21

Mount

Murphy,

28

Father

149

of Spheres

Music

178

23

Myrc, John

93

Nelson,
New

Lord

140

Atlantis

33

Nicolai

g8,

Numa

134

38
O

Obelisks

Obligation

21

of Assassins

17

Obligation of

Essenes
Fendeurs

,,

Knights Templars
Rosicrucians
.

Vehme
,

Oddfellows,
Ode

Gerichte

to Grand

Khaibar

Olives, Mount

Operative

of

Order
of

Masons

Osiris

Orange

Society
of France

Orient

Masonic

Pageant

Tom

Paine,

Papists
Paracelsus

Payne
Pepys

Persians

Petre, Lord
Pharisees
Philo
Pillars

Engraved

Pine's

List

Pliny
Plot,

Plutarch

Pope,

142

Porches

Pritchard,

Bro

Pritchard,
Provincial

Grand

Samuel

"Puerile

Lodges

Signs"

Pythagoras

Pythagoreans

Quatuor
Quatuor

Coronati
Coronati

Lodge

Ra

Red-earth
Research,
Robbins,
Romulus

Lodge
A.

F.

of

89

go
PAQE.

Rosenkreuz

5i

Rosicrucians
...

Roslyn, Earl
Rosy Cross
Royal Arch

...

...

...

5i

...

of

133
...

...

...

...

...

52

...

i3o

Rubens
...

Lord

Russell,

...

John

...

...

...

.1.

...

...

53

...

I4"

...

s
H

Sadler,

122

Salamis
...

Schaw,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

14

W.

132

Scott, Sir W.

50,

172

Scottish

Building
Scottish
Masonry
Seditious
Meetings
Shakespeare
Smith,
Capt. E

132
...

...

...

...

...

...

133

...

Act
...

...

...

...

...

...

72,

...

151,

179

log,

157
171
180

Finch

Smith, V.
Smollett,

T.

i65

140,

Solomon

28

Spanish

Societies

Statutes

of Labourers

...

65

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

159

Steinmetzen

137

Sterne

'

167

Stewart,
Strict

Dugald

171

Observance

St.

Alban

St.

John

the

St.

John

the

St.

Paul's

Sun

75

74,

Steele

135
y^

Baptist
Evangelist

34

...

117

Cathedral

106,182

Worship

Sussex,

183

12,

of

Duke

...

...

...

...

123

...

Symbols

10

Tabernacle
30
28

Tadmor
Tarbolton
_

Temple,
Temple
Temple
Temple
Temple

170
Sir
of

145,170

Hercules
30

of Herod
3,

of Solomon

28,125
'

of

Tyre

\[

Thebes

30
21

Theodosius
...

Therapeutae

...

...

...

...

...

27
,_

GUIDE

STUDENTS'

THE

TO

RITUAL,

MASONIC
BY

Notes

With

This
of

work

to

literary notes
the

student

easier, by

by

designed

understand
have
;

been

out

to

have

added,

the

the

needs

and
will

which

learner, the

differences

of

that

intellectual

an

history

Craft.

the

in

the

meet

its

while, for

pointing

Master

to

desire

who

Freemasons

ritual, and

to

is

PRECEPTOR.

which

value.
be

of

notes
occur

large
of

grasp

THREE

this

great

assistance

make
in

LONDON
H.

WEARE

"

POST

SHILLINGS,

CO.,

84,

LEADENHALL

the

With

his

the

FREE.

STREET,

view

path

several

degrees.

PRICE

class

E.G.