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# Scientific Method Study Guide

Things to know:

## Measurement (including scale)

Safety
7 steps of the scientific method IN ORDER
Know details of each step (study your foldable flashcards or notes for this
section)
o Example: Step 4
Why we do an experiment (to see if the hypothesis is right or
wrong)
3 variables (constant or controlledsame, many of them;
independent1 change, only one; dependingend result, only 1)
Dependent variable depends on the independent variable
Repeated trials (reduces chance of mistakes & makes sure your
results are accurate)

Things to study:

## Scientific method worksheets and notes (including in lab journal)

Variable worksheets
THIS STUDY GUIDE!
Foldable flash cards (the ones you made)
the vocabulary below (make flashcards for +5)

Vocabulary:
Conclusion
Controlled variable
Data
Dependent variable
Experiment

Hypothesis
Independent variable

Qualitative
Quantitative

Meniscus
Observation

Scientific method

## SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXAM IS ________________

Review sessions are __________________________

## Flashcards are due _____________________

(for +5 on test)
Read the following 7 parts of an experiment and identify which step is represented in each clue. Write the
Step NUMBER in the blanks. (3 pts each).

Step _______
A.

## B. The following data was recorded at the end of the experiment:

Step ______

C. The more concentrated saltwater given to a plant will result in very little plant growth.
D. How does this concentration of salt in water affect the growth of a freshwater plant?

Step _______

Step _______

E. In this experiment my hypothesis was confirmed. Increasing saltwater concentration will result in little
plant growth.
Step _______
F. Before my hypothesis was made, I researched my plants needs for survival: water, sunlight, soil type,
etcI also observed the environment that I would perform my experiment in.
Step _______
G. Five different beakers had a liter of water added. Different amounts of salt were added to each beaker
to make different concentrations of saltwater. Five of the same types of plant were used for the
experiment. 20 mL of the saltwater was given to the plants every other day. The plants were grown in the
same type of soil and were given the same amount of sunlight. The plants were allowed to grown for a
period of 4 weeks. The data was recorded at the beginning and end of the experiment.

Step _______

In the experiment above, what were the constant variables? List at least 3.

## In the experiment above, what was the independent variable?

In the experiment above, what was the dependent variable?

SKILLS PRACTICE

Drawing Conclusions
Olena and Bruce are studying whether the color of a container affects how fast the container cools down.
Olena wrote this hypothesis: If you put hot water in white and black cans, the cans will cool down at the
same rate. Bruce wrote this hypothesis: If hot water is put in black and white cans, the black can will cool
down faster than the white can. They then tested their hypotheses. Here is their graph.

1. Examine the data presented in the graph. Notice the temperatures of the black and white cans at the
times the measurements were taken. What does this data tell you about the way the two cans cooled
down?
2. Compare the evidence in the graph with Olenas hypothesis. What conclusion should Olena draw?

3. Compare the evidence in the graph with Bruces hypothesis. What conclusion should Bruce draw?

4. Neither Bruce or Olena included anything about the cans final temperatures in their hypotheses.
Rewrite one of their conclusions to include information about the final temperatures of the cans.

## 5. Think About It Who do you think learned more

about temperature changes: Bruce or Olena? Does it make
any difference if one persons hypothesis was shown to be
false? Explain.

In Conclusion

## What has your experiment proved? Its time to

write a conclusion to your scientific
investigation. The concluding statement will either support or not support your
original hypothesis.
Carefully study the results of your experiment. Look at your charts, graphs, tables,
and information logs. Does this information support your hypothesis? If it does,
great! If it doesnt, dont be afraid to say so. Negative results are NOT bad.
Study the hypotheses and results of the scientific investigations below.
Write a conclusion for each.
1. Hypothesis: Increasing the air pressure in a basketball will make it bounce
higher.
Results:

Height of Bounce
Drop

4 lbs. Air
pressure
53 cm
51 cm
52 cm
56 cm
53 cm

#1
#2
#3
#4
Avera
ge

8 lbs. of Air
pressure
131 cm
140 cm
136 cm
133 cm
135 cm

12 lbs. of air
pressure
176 cm
171 cm
173 cm
180 cm
175 cm

Conclusion:
Independent variable: _____________________________ Dependent variable:
__________________________
2. Hypothesis: Childrens heart rates increase as they get older.
Results:

## Heart Rate at Rest

Child
#1

5 years old
102

10 years
old
88

15 years
old
81

#2
#3
#4
#5
Averag
e

101
96
91
95
97

94
92
90
86
90

77
76
78
83
79

Conclusion:
Independent variable: ______________________________
_____________________________

Dependent variable:

## Defining Elements of a Scientific Method

Laboratory activities and experiments involve the use of the scientific method.
Listed in the left column are the names of parts of this method. The right column
contains definitions. Next to each word in the left column, write the letter of the
definition that best matches that word.
____ 1. Hypothesis
____ 2. Independent Variable
____ 3. Dependent Variable
____ 4. Constant Variables
____ 5. Observation

## A. Prediction about the outcome of an

experiment
B. What you measure or observe to obtain
C. Measurements and other observations

____ 6. Data

## D. Statement that sums up what you learn

from

____ 7. Conclusion

## E. Factor that is changed in an experiment

F. What the person performing the activity
sees, hears, feels, smells, or tastes
G. Keeping all variables the same except
the independent variable

Read the following investigations and find the variables. Classify the
variables as constant (list at least 3), independent, or dependent.
Investigation #6:
A teacher wants to know if listening to music increases students grades on a
test. The teacher gets two student volunteers. The volunteers are both 12 year old
boys. One boy listens to music while he studies. The other boy does not. The test
scores are recorded.

Investigation #7:
A scientist wants to know if water temperature will affect the amount of time it
takes a duck to swim across a wading pool. Two female ducks that are the same age
are used in the experiment. Both wading pools are the same size and have the same
amount of water in them. In one pool the temperature is 40F and the other pool is
85F. The speed of the ducks is measured.