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# Building Materials

Mechanical properties
St
Strength
th properties
ti

Lecture 3

Statistical strength
from the single samples properties the
property of the whole population can be
estimated by the
statistical methods

Statistika

## The only statistics you can trust are

you falsified y
yourself.
those y
attributed to Winston Churchill

Statistics - glossary
random experiment - an

## experiment whose outcome is not

perfectly predictable

## population - the entire collection of

items that is the focus of concern

## members are chosen at random from a

given population in such a way that the
g any
yp
particular
chance of obtaining
sample can be computed

Normal distribution

Statistical evaluation of
strenght
only
part of the p
population
is tested
yp
p
random sample
from
the results off random sample can
f
parameter
be estimated a corresponding
p
gp
of the population
typical
i l population
l i h
has normall
distribution ((Gaussian function))

Gaussian curve

Frequ
uency
y

mean

Measured value

## the narrower and higher the curve is, the

more statistically
t ti ti ll h
homogenous th
the d
data
t

Histogram

## Normal and other distribution

normal distribution
non-symmetrical
non symmetrical

from testing
g of random sample
p the
distribution curve could not be made
the more numerous the random sample is,
the closer to the curve the histogram is

Statistical parameters
Values:
Mean
Deviations
Sum of deviations
Deviations square
Sum of squares

4 8
4,
8, 6

2 5
2,
5,11
11

x=6

x=6

-2,+2, 0
0
4, 4, 0
8

-4,-1,+5
0
16, 1, 25
42

Variance

2,67

14

Standard
deviation

1 63
1,63

3 74
3,74

mode
median
mean

Statistical parameters

mean
variance
standard
deviation

Standard deviation s

Normal distribution

measure of variability or
y of a data set
diversity

symetrical

## low standard deviation

indicates that the data points
tend to be very close to the
mean

+s to -s : 68,26 % of area
+2s
2 tto 2s
2 : 95,6
95 6 % off area
+3s to 3s : 99,7 % of area

## high standard deviation

indicates that the data points are
spread out over a large range of
values

Guaranteed strength

95 %

Guaranteed strength
the value of the strength, for which can be
statistically guaranteed, that 95 % of whole
production will have the same or higher
value of the strength

95 %
5%
-1,645 s

+1,645 s

guaranteed strength

Strength testing
according
g
compressive
tensile
t
il
bending
torsion
shear

## Compressive strength - testing

Compressive strength
maximum
a
u resistance
es s a ce o
of a material
ae a
Fmax

F
R c max
A
Fmax ....
A ......

[MPa]

maximum
i
fforce [N]
compressed area
(cross-sectional) [mm]

## Test specimen for

compressive
i test
t t
Regular shape:
cubes (concrete)
cylinders (concrete,
lightweight concretes))
beams (lightweight
concretes)
p
prism halves ((cement))
whole product (block,
brick)

Fmax

## Test specimen for

compressive
i test
t t

Compressive
p
strenght
g
Concrete C 25/30
cylinder strength < cube strength
h iinfluence
fl
i i b
i l
the
off ffriction
between material
surface and testing machine decreases
with
the h
height
the sample
ith th
i ht off th
l

irregular
shape
g
p
auxiliary plates
compressed area A
given by the area of
plates

materials

Tensile strength
Fmax

Fmax
Rt
A
0

200

400

600

800

[MPa]

## Fmax .... maximum force [ N]

A ...... area [mm]

Fmax

## Test specimen for tensile test

round or flat, slim
special shoulders for gripping in the machine

Flexural strength
tensile strength of materials with
g
compressive
p
strength
g
distinctivelyy higher
than tensile strength
fracture in the place of the maximum
bending moment

Flexural strength
Mmax
Ry
W

Fmax

Fmax

Fmax

## Mmax..maximum bending moment [N.mm]

W ... section modulus [mm3]

Flexural strength

Calculation of M and W

Bending moment M
(three point test, four point test)

S
Section modulus W
according the shape and
size
i off cross section
i

## Splitting tensile strength

Rt

stones
s o es

fragile materials

2Fmax
.D.l
F
D

Brazilian test

Deformation properties

Deformation properties
describe
d
ib the
h b
behavior
h i off the
h materials
i l
before the fracture

Deformation
irreversible
plastic deformation

reversible
elastic deformation

Stress-strain diagram
graphical representation of the
relationship between stress,
stress derived
from measuring the load applied on the
sample, and strain, derived from
measuring
g the deformation of the
sample (elongation, compression, or
distortion)

## Stress strain diagram

the relationship between stress ()
and strain () (load F and deformation
l )
[MPa]
[MP ]
F [N]

[-]
[]

deformations
yield strength
ultimate strength
toughness
Young modulus

l [mm]

Stress-strain diagram

Stress-strain diagram
Stress
[MPa]

[kN]
[ ]
ll

A Fdl
0

## Work = force x distance

(through which it acts)

Deformation l [mm]

Strain [-,%]

Stress-strain curves

Stress-strain diagram
g
stress

materials

## Stress strain curve without welld fi d yield

defined
i ld point
i t

1 mild steel
R0,2

2 cold-formed steel

3
2
1

5 - failure
4 - ultimate strength
3 - yield strength
2 - elastic limit
1 - proportionality limit
strain

g

0,2 %

## A line is drawn parallel to the linear elastic

portion of the curve and intersecting the xaxis at some arbitrary value (0.1% or 0.2%)

Deformation

stress

total
t t l

M d l off elasticity
Modulus
l ti it
total total

deformation

el - elastic

deformation
l ti
pl - plastic
deformation

pl

el

strain
(deformation)

Elastic
ast c be
behavior
a o o
of materials
ate a s desc
describes
bes

Hooke's Law :

E.
... strain [unitless]
... stress [MPa]
E ... modulus of elasticity [MPa]
(Youngs modulus)

Elastic modulus

E
el
the mathematical description of a
material's tendency to be deformed
elastically when a force is applied to it
Hooke's law is valid only for elastic
range of material

Elastic modulus

Graphical determination of
Y
Young's
' Modulus
M d l

E
el

E
el

E tg

g

el

total

Young's modulus
determination
statical

Young's modulus
determination
Stress :

bending

M W

. stress
t
[MPa]
[MP ]
.. strain [-]
[]

compression
tension

F A

E
el

Young's modulus
determination
strain

l l1 l0

l0
l0

## l .... change of the length [mm]

l1 .. length after elongation [mm]
l0 ...... original (initial) length [mm]

Measuring of elongation l
deformations l have to be measured
by special devices - strain gauge
Strain gauge:
mechanical
electrical

optical
l

l0

## Mechanical strain gauge

Dial

Movable
point

(O
Original)) gauge length)

Firm
point

Tested
material

Measuring of deformations

optical fibers
laser

l 1 R

l K R

Dynamic Young's
Young s modulus
ultrasonic
lt
i waves

2
E dyn

c
. v
d

## cc... sound velocity [m2.ss-11]

v... bulk density [kg.m-3]

Measuring of dynamic
Young's modulus

## Elastic modulus is influenced by:

temperature
thermoplastics: with rising temperature
E significantly decreases
concrete :
-20 C - +70 C - E constant
under -50 C - ca. about 20 % higher
g
above 300 C - ca. 50 % of initial value

## Young's modulus of some

materials
[GPa]
210

200

150

100
70

50
25

moisture
in
i t
i porous materials
t i l

Material
Diamond
Steel
Glass
Aluminium and light alloys
Concrete
Ceramic brick
Wood
Glass laminate
Th
Thermosets
t
Thermoplastics solid
Th
Thermoplastics
l ti ffoamedd
Rubber

25

15

10

1.5

0.03

Young's modulus
[GPa]

1050-1200
210
50 -85
65 -73
103-124
15 - 60
8 - 12
7 -18
18
10 - 30
4 - 13
0,1 - 4
0 02 0,3
0,02
03
0,002 0,005

Ductility
percentage elongation after tensile test

A( )

L u L 0 L

L0
L0

Reduction of area
change of cross sectional area as a
percentage of the original cross-sectional area

S Su
Z( ) 0
S0

S0..... original
i i l cross-sectional
ti
l
area before testing
Su..... minimal cross-sectional
cross sectional

## Brittleness and toughness

brittle material, subjected to stress,
g
deformation
breaks without significant
tough material deforms plastically and
absorbs energy before fracture

## area after failure

Toughness
the amount of energy per volume that a
material can absorb before rupturing
units: kJ/m3

Test of toughness
impact
i
t toughness
t
h
Charpy, Izod test

notch toughness
(ability to absorb energy in
the presence of a flaw)

## Charpy impact test

Brittleness
ttendency
d
off a material
t i l to
t fracture
f t
or fail
f il
upon the application of a relatively small
amountt off force,
f
impact,
i
t or shock
h k
opposite
pp
of toughness
g
no numerical value

## Rough criterion for brittle materials:

compressive strength : tensile strength
>8:1

Hardness
defines the materials resistance to
p
penetration
depends on temperature and moisture
Methods:
et ods
scratch hardness
indentation hardness
rebound hardness

Scratch h.
h Mohs scale
1. talc
2. gypsum
3 calcite
3.
4. fluorite
5 apatite
5.
6. feldspar (orthoclase)
7 quartz
7.
t
8. topaz
9. corundum
10. diamond

## used for minerals

Indentation h
h. Vickers test
indenter: diamond point with a
136 point angle
abbreviation VHN
metals, hard materials

Indentation h
h. Brinell test
iindenter:
d t steel
t l (t
(tungsten)
t )
ball (10 mm )
abbreviation: HBW,
HBW (HBS)
metals, wood , hard
polymers
HB 0,102

Indentation h
h. Rockwell test

diamond cone
abb.: HR(A,B,C..G)
d th off indentation
depth
i d t ti
metals

Shore durometer
spring+ steel rod
abb.: SH
polymers, elastomers, rubber

2F
.D (D D2 d2 )

## Conversion of Brinell hardness

(HB) to
t Vickers
Vi k
or Rockwell
R k ll
hardness

Indentation h.POLDI
POLDI hammer

Rebound h
h. Schmidt

## Comparison of the indentation size of tested

material and reference material with known
hardness

hammer

calibrated bar

tested material

## Correlation between Schmidt rebound

number and the compressive strength
th
the rebound
b
d value
l can b
be used
d tto d
determine
t
i
the compressive strength (by reference to the
conversion chart)
Depends
D
d on:
orientation of
th h
the
hammer
water content

## measures the rebound of a springl d d mass iimpacting

ti against
i t th
the
surface of the sample

F ti
Fatigue
ffatigue
ti
occurs when
h a material
t i l iis subjected
bj t d tto
cyclic stress causes the decrease of the
strength
typical for metals
Fatigue limit (strength) = the amplitude (or
range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to
the material without causing fatigue failure

Fatigue
if the loads are above a certain threshold,
microscopic cracks will begin to form
after reaching critical size, and the structure will
suddenly (without warning) fracture
the shape of the structure affect the fatigue life
(square holes, sharp corners)
the greater the applied stress range, the shorter the
life

Endurance limit
some materials (ferrous and titanium alloys)
h
have
a di
distinct
ti t lilimit
it b
below
l
which
hi h th
there
appears to be no number of cycles that will
cause failure
f il
some structural metals (aluminium, copper)
do not have a distinct limit and will eventually
fail even from small stress amplitudes

## damage is cumulative, materials do not recover

when rested
f. is influenced by a variety of factors (temperature,
surface finish, microstructure, presence of oxidizing
i t chemicals,
h i l residual
id l stresses,
t
t )
or inert
etc.)

Fatigue cracks

Whler curves

Fatigue testing

Infamous fatigue
g failures
B
Boston
t M
Molasses
l
Disaster
(Boston, 1919)
Alexander L
L. Kielland
oil platform capsize
(N
1980)
(Norway,
InterCity expres
(Germany,
E h d 1998)
Eschede,1998)

Dynamic strength
Tacoma narrows bridge
1940)

1950

(USA Washington
(USA,Washington,