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Batch Annealing Process

a

a

Ryayan Tahlil Sepahan Company, Isfahan Science and Technology Town , Isfahan, Iran

Published online: 07 Oct 2011.

To cite this article: Ahmad Saboonchi & Saeid Hassanpour (2008) Simulation of Cold Rolled Steel Coil Heating during Batch

Annealing Process, Heat Transfer Engineering, 29:10, 893-901, DOI: 10.1080/01457630802125807

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Copyright

ISSN: 0145-7632 print / 1521-0537 online

DOI: 10.1080/01457630802125807

Coil Heating during Batch

Annealing Process

AHMAD SABOONCHI1 and SAEID HASSANPOUR2

1

2

Ryayan Tahlil Sepahan Company, Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan, Iran

Cold rolled coils are subjected to the annealing process in order to improve their formability and mechanical properties. A

mathematical model of thermal behavior of coils during the heating cycle has been developed. Based on experimental data

from several tests, the accuracy of the model has been confirmed. This model enables us to determine the coldest point of

coils and the end time of furnace operation. Furthermore, the model has been used to analyze the effect of strip thickness on

the heating time required. Thinner strips lead to prolonged heating time and larger temperature differences within the coil.

INTRODUCTION

Cold rolled steel coils need to be annealed after they

leave the cold rolling process. The purpose of annealing is to

improve steel strip formability and remove residual internal

stresses imparted during rolling. Cold rolled coils are heated

and retained at a certain temperature in batch anneal furnaces,

and then cooled and removed. The heating and cooling rates

of coils in batch furnaces are slow due to large masses of

coils.

Figure 1 shows the schematic view of an annealing furnace.

It consists of an inner cover, the furnace, and the base. The basefan circulates an inert gas, usually a volume combination of

10% hydrogen and 90% nitrogen called HNX, inside the inner

cover and among the coils. Grooved plates, called a convector, are used between two adjacent coils to allow the gas pass

through the coils. A convector consists of a flat circular plate

with concentric hole and some thicker ribs welded on to it (see

Figure 2). The furnace mounted on the base has burners that heat

the wall of the inner cover, and the gas inside the inner cover

is heated as a result of contact with the wall. In some annealing plants, heating cycles are determined from prepared charts

based on experimental trial and error. They are for certain sizes

of coils and do not support all coil sizes. A proper mathematical model of the annealing process can predict the temperatures

Address correspondence to Professor Ahmad Saboonchi, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154, Iran.

E-mail: ahmadsab@cc.iut.ac.ir

of the internal points on the charges coils and the time when

each point reaches the desired recrystalization temperature. Efforts have been made in most plants to develop such a model.

Meyer and Woelk [1] first developed the theoretical basis of a

mathematical model of the annealing furnace. Harvey [2] also

developed a mathematical simulation of the annealing process.

Rovito et al. [3, 4] developed an online model, mostly based

on statistical functions, to predict the end time of the annealing process and the cold spot temperature (the coldest point of

the coils in heating cycle). It should be mentioned that in these

models, either the cold spot position was predetermined (see

Figure 3) or its calculated temperature was corrected by measuring an auxiliary point temperature located on the coils outside

layer.

The model developed in this paper is meant to simulate heating of cold rolled steel coils in annealing furnaces at the Mobarakeh Steel Complex (MSC) located in Isfahan, Iran. This

model is capable of online computation of the temperatures of

all points of a coil even when its only input variable is the inert gas temperature. This temperature is read by the operator

from a thermocouple mounted inside the inner cover. The model

was subjected to several experiments for validation. The good

agreement found between the predictions by the model and the

experimental data confirm the accuracy of the model. First, this

model was used to determine the exact time of furnace firing for

any coil size in the annealing plant. Finally, the effect of strip

thickness on the heating time required and on the temperature

difference between cold and hot spots of the coil was investigated. The great temperature difference in coil during heating

893

894

of hot and cold spots of a coil.

along its length.

Conduction Equation

With regard to the shape of cold rolled steel coils, the heat

transfer equation can be considered for cylindrical coordinates

(see Figure 3) in radial and axial directions as given by Eq. (1).

T

T

1

(cT ) =

kr r

+

kz

(1)

r r

r

z

z

The most important issue in the heat transfer equation within the

coil is the equivalent thermal conductivity along radial direction

[5]. The thermal conductivity of the coil along its axial direction

(k z ) is assumed to be the same as that of the steel. But for the

radial direction (kr ), an equivalent thermal conductivity must be

assumed, due to the fact that a number of steel sheet layers are

laid alongside each other.

Radial Thermal Conductivity

Two flat surfaces lying on each other can have few contact

points [6]. The ratio of actual contact area (the sum of contact

points) to apparent contact area between the two flat surfaces

(A), depends on the material, surface roughness, and the pressure

created between them. It can thus be claimed that heat transfer

between the two layers will take place in the three following

ways:

1. conduction at contact points, Rcnd,cnt

;

2. conduction through the gas medium occupying the voids be

tween contact points, Rcnd,gas

; and

3. radiation through the voids between contact points, Rrad,gas

.

radial direction can be obtained by writing the equivalent heat

resistance relation for one layer of metal strip and an intermediate layer. Heat resistance in the metal strip can be calculated

from Eq. (2), while Eqs. (35) can be used to obtain heat resistances in the intermediate layer. Substituting the above resistance

terms in Eq. (6) and ignoring the thickness of the intermediate

layer when compared to the thickness of the strip, we will finally obtain the equivalent thermal conductivity for one layer of

metal strip and an intermediate layer, which is the coil thermal

conductivity along the radial direction, as seen in Eq. (7).

Rs =

ts

ks

(2)

895

Table 1 Properties of steel [6] and inert gases [5] against temperature

Steel thermal

conductivity

T (K)

(W/m.K)

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Steel specific

heat capacity

(J/kg.K)

Nitrogen thermal

conductivity

(W/m.K)1000

Hydrogen thermal

conductivity

(W/m.K) 1000

490

527

563

612

685

782

886

991

26.2

33.3

39.8

45.8

51.2

56.1

60.7

64.8

182

228

272

315

351

384

412

440

59

57

53

50

45

41

34

33

to its accurate results that were satisfactorily comparable to experimental data (less than 10 C last hours of heating cycle).

Thermal conductivity of inert gas is calculated from that of

nitrogen (k N ) and hydrogen (k H ) as well as volume percentages

of hydrogen in inert gas (y H ), as seen in Eq. (8).

ka = y H k H + (1 y H )k N

(8)

to use temperature-dependent physical properties of inert gas

and steel in all equations. Table 1 presents the value of these

properties for various temperatures.

Figure 4 Equivalent thermal conductivity of coil in radial direction.

Boundary Conditions

Rcnd,cnt

=

ta

ks (A)

(3)

Rcnd,gas

=

ta

ka (1 A)

(4)

Rrad,gas

=

4T 3

1

(1 A)

(5)

1

1

1

1

Req

= Rs + Rcnd,cnt

+ Rcnd,gas

+ Rrad,gas

kr =

ks

1+

(6)

of the inner cover. The cover will then transfer heat to the steel

coils directly by radiation and indirectly by the inert gas moving

through the coils. The inert gas is heated rapidly by the inner

cover wall and transfers heat by convection to all surfaces of the

coil. Due to their low mass, the convectors are heated faster than

the coils and, thus, transfer heat by radiation from its plate and

conduction from its ribs to the coils. Equations (911) represent

boundary conditions for the inside, outside, and end surfaces of

the coil, respectively.

kr (T /r )|r =Ri = h Ri,cnv (Tgas Tsurf )

(k s /k a )(2)(t s /t a )

[1+(k s /k a 1) A] (2)+(1A)4T 3 (t a /ka )

(7)

As strips are coiled under tension, the gas only penetrates in the

spaces between strips; it has no tangible circulation and must,

therefore, be assumed to be static and motionless.

Two simplifications have been made in Eq. (7): in contact points, steel thermal conductivity has been used in lieu of

the thermal contact conductance; and the values of A and ta

have been assumed to be constant throughout the heating cycle,

whereas their values depend on the quantity of pressure between

two layers, which in turn is a function of temperature gradient

inside the coil.

heat transfer engineering

(9)

Tsur

f

(10)

k z (T /z)|z=0,L = C[h 0,L ,cnv (Tgas Tsurf ) +

)

Tsurf

]

(11)

have been assumed to apply to the end coil surfaces and the

conduction between coils and convector ribs have been ignored,

the total heat flux must be multiplied by C, defined as the ratio

vol. 29 no. 10 2008

896

Dh was taken to represent the hydraulic diameter of mean gas

passageway between the coil and the convector. Similar to Eq.

(8), all properties of inert gas such as specific heat, viscosity,

and density are obtained from properties of N2 and H2 at similar

temperatures to be used in the above equations.

Equations (1315) were derived and applied only to the real

conditions in this study and cannot be claimed to accurately

capture the situation under other conditions.

After measuring the temperatures of the walls and the convector plates, two approximate relationships were developed to

hold between the inert gas temperature and these values, as illustrated in Eqs. (16) and (17). is time after annealing starts

(hr) (0 < < 35 hr). Tsurf is coil surface temperature in contact

with convector plate. Thus, if the gas temperature is known, the

h Ro,rad and h 0,L ,rad in Eqs. (10) and (11) are calculated from Twall

and Tconvector , respectively.

Twall = [0.56 0.77 ln(0.1 + ) 0.26 exp()

Figure 5 Heat transfer mechanisms of heating cycle in a typical batch annealing furnace.

of the area where the gas passes to the total convector area, and

determined from its shape.

Using the basic Eq. (12) by considering coil dimensions, the

circulation rate of inert gas, and temperature measurement near

surface points of coils in all experiments, heat transfer coefficients for all surfaces of coil were obtained as Eqs. (1315):

N u L = c Rem Prn

h Ri = 0.7kPr0.33

v Ri

L

0.33

0.5

vRo

L

0.305 1.0

Ri L

(17)

These two relations have been developed for the furnaces employed at the HNX annealing unit at MSC and may take different

forms under different conditions. They were based on measurements for different charges with varying dimensions so they

could account for all charges used.

0.45

Ro 1.0

1.4 L

(13)

(14)

h 0,L = 0.04kPr0.33

(16)

(12)

h Ro = 0.65kPr

+ 1.30.25 ]Tgas

v0,L

(Ro Ri)

Ro

r

0.60

Dh

Ro Ri

0.055

(15)

Several experiments for different dimensions of coil and gas temperature were done. Then, the coefficients of Eqs. (1315) were

obtained. These equations are good for the following ranges:

0.65 < Pr < 0.79,

50 C < Tgas < 700 C,

210 mm < Ri < 320 mm,

heat transfer engineering

To solve Eq. (1), the finite difference method was used. The

equations were solved using the Alternative Implicit Directions

(ADI) and FORTRAN programming language. In the ADI technique, this equation was solved in the form of consecutive iterations of tridiagonal matrices to obtain temperatures for each time

interval. In the computer program, changes of physical properties were considered in terms of temperature changes in any

iteration. Equations (18) and (19) are the discretization form of

conduction equation in ADI method. Three computational grids

were studied (i.e., 15 15, 30 30, and 60 60). The errors related to energy balance of last two grids were below 3%.

Table 2 Characteristics of the three-coil charge

Coil number

(position)

Steel strip

thickness (mm)

Steel strip

width (mm)

External

diameter (mm)

1 (B-bottom)

2 (C-middle)

3 (T-top)

2.5

2.5

2.5

1250

1250

1250

1682

1691

1670

897

Coil number

(position)

1 (B-bottom)

2 (C1-middle)

3 (C2-middle)

4 (T-top)

Steel strip

thickness (mm)

Steel strip

width (mm)

External

diameter (mm)

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

1000

1000

1000

1000

1661

1657

1627

1542

Ti,j Ti,nj

j

cn

= krn

t/2

(r )2

1 Ti+1, j Ti1, j

+

r

2r

Ti,n+1

j Ti, j

t/2

= kr

1 Ti+1, j Ti1, j

+

r

2r

+

k zn

(18)

(z)2

Figure 7 Temperature-time curves for mid-point of middle coil (C) in a threecoil charge: experimental and numerical results.

Ti+1,

j 2Ti, j + Ti1, j

(r )2

+

k z

n+1

n+1

Ti,n+1

j+1 2Ti, j + Ti, j

(z)2

(19)

in these two equations have been considered only along time,

ignoring their spatial derivative. In a heating cycle, coil temperature rises from that of the ambient air to 550650 C, while

the temperature difference of two adjacent points in 30 30

computational grid will not exceed 5 C. To ensure the accuracy

of the model, a program was written using Eqs. (20) and (21)

that are based on complete derivation of Eq. (1). Below are the

observations:

1. The error related to energy balance (the difference between

the input energy and the energy stored in each coil) reduced

from 3% to 0.5%.

(C) in a three-coil charge: experimental and numerical results.

(C2) in a four-coil charge: experimental and numerical results.

Figure 9 Temperature-time curves for near outside layer point of third coil

from bottom (C2) in a four-coil charge: experimental and numerical results.

898

+

krn(i+1, j) krn(i1, j)

+

kr(i, j)

+

t/2

of (a) middle coil of a three-coil

charge (C), and (b) third coil from bottom in a four-coil charge (C2), 15 hours

after the heating process.

two simpler and newer models were below 1 C. Therefore,

Eqs. (18) and (19) were used for simplicity.

n1/2

Ti,j Ti,nj

cn ci, j

n

n i, j

ci, j

+ Ti, j

t/2

t/2

=

krn(i, j)

Ti+1,

j 2Ti, j + Ti1, j

(r )2

1 Ti+1, j Ti1, j

+

r

2r

Ti,nj+1 Ti,nj1

(20)

2z

+

ci, j

Ti,j

ci,n j

(r )2

kr(i+1, j) kr(i1, j)

t/2

Ti+1,

j 2Ti, j + Ti1, j

2r

(z)2

Ti,n+1

j Ti, j

+ k z(i,

j)

( C)

2z

ci, j

2r

n

n

k z(i,

j+1) k z(i, j1)

Ti+1,

j Ti1, j

2r

n

+ k z(i,

j)

1 Ti+1, j Ti1, j

+

r

2r

Ti+1,

j Ti1, j

2r

n+1

n+1

Ti,n+1

j+1 2Ti, j + Ti, j

(z)2

2z

n+1

Ti,n+1

j+1 Ti, j1

2z

(21)

Upon developing the model, two sets of three- and four-coil

charges were tested in order to validate the accuracy and performance of the model. A total number of 22 thermocouples with

accuracy of 1 C were embedded on points within these coil

charges. The characteristics of the two charges are presented in

Tables 2 and 3.

Figures 6 and 7 show the temperatures of two points in

the coil C of the three-coil charge (middle coil of charge) as

compared with predicted values by the model. Figures 8 and 9

vol. 29 no. 10 2008

(C), and (b) third coil from bottom in a four-coil charge (C2), for three

thicknesses of strip.

of the four-coil charge (third coil of charge from bottom) with

simulated ones. As seen in these figures, the accuracy of the

model, particularly at the end of the heating time, is satisfactory (less than 10 C) and can, therefore, be used to predict the

end time of the heating process and determine the cold point

temperature.

The model has the capability of computing the temperatures

of all points within the coil (900 points on calculation grid)

and comparing them to recognize cold spot temperature and

position. Figures 10a and 10b show temperature distributions

Table 4 Temperature difference and elapsed time for two values of cold spot

temperature: coil number 2, three-coil charge

Tcold spot = 400 ( C)

Strip

thickness (mm)

0.5

1.5

2.5

(C), and (b) third coil from bottom in a four-coil charge (C2) for three

thicknesses of strip.

three- and four-coil charges, respectively.

This model can also be employed to predict the effect of strip

thickness of coils in the annealing process. Thinner strips result

in less radial thermal conductivity of coil. Figure 11 illustrates

a linear relationship between these two quantities. By changing

strip thickness of three-coil and four-coil charges, as mentioned

above, without any other changes, the effect of this parameter on time-temperature curves has been studied. As shown in

Figure 12, decreased strip thickness leads to slower heating rate

and prolonged annealing time.

Table 5 Temperature difference and elapsed time for two values of cold spot

temperature: coil number 3, four-coil charge

Temperature

difference ( C)

Time (hr)

Time (hr)

Temperature

difference ( C)

18.0

14.0

12.5

208

194

183

34.5

25.0

23.0

62

63

56

899

Strip

thickness (mm)

0.7

1.5

2.8

Temperature

difference ( C)

Time (hr)

Time (hr)

Temperature

difference ( C)

13.0

11.3

10.3

160

135

115

25.5

21.5

19.2

42

36

38

900

of coil near the outside and up surfaces at distances 5 cm apart)

of coil in the heating cycle leads to the deviation of mechanical

properties in the final product. Figure 13 shows the tense effect of strip thickness on temperature difference of two sample

coils in both charges during heating. In Tables 4 and 5, temperature differences and elapsed time for two values of cold spot

temperature in three-coil and four-coil charges are presented,

respectively.

v

y

z

CONCLUSIONS

modeled. Using the basic convection and radiation heat transfer

equations, and near surface point temperature measurements of

several charges during heating, the boundary conditions of the

model were obtained. A comparison of the models predicting

power and final test values was used as evidence, indicating

the capability of the model to be used in annealing plant for

furnace operation scheduling. The effect of strip on heating

time was studied by the model. Thin strip coils required more

time for heating cycle completion and faced larger temperature

differences.

Subscripts

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors graciously acknowledge MSC for funding this

project, Simulation of cold rolled coil HNX annealing process,

and would like to express their gratitude to the manager of the

cold rolling mill and the R&D department of Mobarakeh Steel

Complex, Isfahan, Iran, for their support.

velocity, m/s

volume fraction

axial coordinate from end of coil

Greek Symbols

emissivity

viscosity, kg/m.sec

density, kg/m3

Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67

108 W/m2 K4

time, hr, sec

0

a

cnd

cnt

cnv

H

i

j

L

N

r

rad

Ri

Ro

s

surf

z

atmosphere (inert gas)

conduction

contact

convection

hydrogen

index of grid in r-direction

index of grid in z-direction

top end of coil

nitrogen

radial

radiation

inner radius of coil

outer radius of coil

steel

surface

axial

Superscript

NOMENCLATURE

n,*

A

c

C

c

Dh

h

k

L

Nu

Pr

r

R

Re

Ri

Ro

T

t

contact area

specific heat, J/kg C

ratio of gas passage area to the total area

of convector

constant in basic equation of convective

heat transfer

hydraulic diameter, m

heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 C

thermal conductivity, W/m C

strip width of coil, m

Nusselt number

Prandtl number

radius of coil at different locations, m

thermal resistance, C/W

Reynolds number

inside surface of coil

outside surface of coil

temperature, C, K

thickness, m

heat transfer engineering

time interval

REFERENCES

[1] Meyer, U., and Woelk, G., Theoretical Fundamentals for the Development of a Mathematical Model of the Tight-Coil Bell-Type

Furnace, Steel Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 207212, 1974.

[2] Harvey, G. F., Mathematical Simulation of Tight Coil Annealing,

The Journal of the Australasian Institute of Metals, vol. 22, no. 1,

pp. 2837, 1977.

[3] Rovito, A. J., Aiello, W. M., and Voss, G. F., Computer-Based

Models for Predicting End of Anneal Time at LTV, Iron and Steel

Engineer, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 3540, 1989.

[4] Rovito, A. J., Aiello, W. M., and Voss, G. F., Batch Anneal Coil

Cold Spot Temperature Prediction Using On-line Modeling at LTV,

Iron and Steel Engineer, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3137, 1991.

[5] Baik, S. C., Kwon, O., Park, S., Hong, B., and Oh, K. H., Analysis of

Heat Transfer in Hot-Rolled Coil for Optimum Condition of Forced

Cooling, Metals and Materials, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 369375, 1999.

[6] Greenwood, J. A., and Williamson, J. B. P., Contact of Nominally

Flat Surfaces, Proc. Royal Society of London, Series A, vol. 295,

no. 1442, pp. 300319, 1966.

Rayan Tahlil Sepahan Co. at Isfahan Science and

Technology Town, Isfahan, Iran. He received his

MS in mechanical engineering from Isfahan University of Technology in 2003. Currently, he is

working on material processing simulation.

the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan,

Iran. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering at the University of Oklahoma, Norman,

Oklahoma, USA, in 1986 and joined IUT in the

same year. His research interests are radiative heat

transfer and heat transfer in material processing.

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