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RESEARCH

SUMMARY

SUMMARY OF RESEARCH DATA USING META-LAX TECHNOLOGY


1.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 1989

"There is evidence that the Meta-Lax system is performing comparable to the thermal stress relief
process on A36 carbon steel."
"The 4140 plates not sub-resonant [sub-harmonic] vibrated during welding were cracking at the
weld crater at the end of each pass made. This did not occur when sub-resonant [sub-harmonic]
vibrating. This could be very significant when welding high strength materials where there are weld
starts and stops in the middle of a weld assembly."

Test plates, A36 (or 4140), being Meta-Lax


Weld Conditioned (i.e. Meta-Lax DURING
welding).

Test plates were restrained for up to 30 days.

Table 1. Weld Joint Strength 30 Days After Welding, A36 Material.

PSI

MPa

Untreated:

45,000

310

Heat-Treat Stress Relieved

63,000

434

Preheated

69,000

476

Meta-Lax Stress Relief

89,200

615

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

86,500

596

Meta-Lax Stress Relieved weldments were 98% stronger than untreated and 41% stronger
than heat treat stress relieved weldments. Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned weldments were 92%
stronger than untreated and 25% stronger than preheated weldments.

1300 North Campbell Road, Royal Oak, Michigan, U.S.A. 48067


(800) Meta-Lax (248) 582.0900 FAX (248) 582.0901
Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

is a registered trademark of Bonal Technologies, Inc.

Form Number 30700

2.

LMSC / RICHARD SKINNER, P.E., 1987 & 1993

"The findings demonstrate that the frequency [for vibration stress relief] is always in a subharmonic range." This mathematical study verifies what Bonal refers to as Meta-Lax Principle #1.

Amplitude

Peak
Harmonic zone

SUB
-har
monic
SUB-har
-harmonic
zone

Frequency

Figure 1. Meta-Lax Principle #1: The optimum frequency for stress relieving when using
vibrational energy must correspond to the SUB-harmonic portion of the harmonic curve. Mr.
Skinner mathematically verified that the sub-harmonic frequency was the optimum frequency for
vibrational stress relief on the following materials (as examples):
1018 hot rolled steel
1020 hot rolled steel
3.

5083 aluminum
6061-T6 aluminum

7075-T6 aluminum
6A1-4V titanium

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - BERKELEY / WONG & JOHNSON, 1987

"The findings regarding the shift in natural frequency as a result of residual stress may provide a
method for examining the effectiveness of stress relieving processes." This mathematical study
verifies in two ways what Bonal refers to as Meta-Lax Principle #2. First, the natural [harmonic]
frequency of a part, which has residual stress, is in an unnatural location. Second, the "shifting"
phenomenon that occurs as the stress level is reduced can be used to "examine the effectiveness of
the stress relief process."
STRESS RELIEF by Bonal Technologies, Inc.

FREQUENCY (HZ)
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

A
M
P
L
I
T
U
D
E

July, 16 CUSTOMER ____________________ADDRESS


M-L Fabricators
DATE _______________
____________________
Detroit, MI OPERATOR_______________
Dave
JOB NO. _______________________
41575
PART NO._______________
5274-2 WEIGHT______________
7,500 lbs. MATERIAL____________________
1020 HRS
Column Weldment SIZE __________________________
PART NAME ___________________________
19 x 42 x 170 FORCE INDUCER _________
2 AT ECC ______%
60
1st READOUT COLOR
2nd READOUT COLOR
3rd READOUT COLOR
FORM NO.

10480

TIME SETTINGS
FIRST SCAN

SECOND SCAN

M- L S. R.
FREQ.

TIME
MIN.

M- L S. R.
FREQ.

TIME
MIN.

59

25

54

10

THIRD SCAN
M- L S. R.
FREQ.

TIME
MIN.

NOTE: Meta-Lax is complete, for that force inducer location,


when harmonic peaks have stabilized, i.e. when frequencies
repeat.
Meta-Lax is the registered trademark of
BONAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC., Southfield, Michigan, U.S.A.

Figure 2. Meta-Lax Principle #2: The harmonic curve of a thermally stressed workpiece will shift
and eventually stabilize in a new frequency location as the workpiece becomes stress relieved.

Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

4.

GRUMMAN AEROSPACE, 1988

Table 2. Strength Summary from 6061-T6 test plates.


Yield Strength

Ultimate Strength

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

71,000 psi

80,000 psi

Heat Treat Stress Relief

60,000 psi

72,000 psi

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates were 11-18% higher strength than heat treated plates.

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning of


6061-T6 test plates.

6061-T6 test plates after welding.

Photomicrograph of Meta-Lax
stress relief during & after welding.

Normal weld metal following


standard thermal stress relief.

Table 3. Distortion Summary of 6061-T6 Fixtures After Saw Cut.


Distortion
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning (-5)

0.161 inches

Heat Treat Stress Relief (-7)

0.524 inches

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned fixtures had 69% less distortion


than heat treat stress relieved fixtures.

ML
WC
MLWC
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning of aluminum
fixtures.
Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

TSR

Side-by-side comparison after saw cut.


3

GRUMMAN AEROSPACE - Continued

Table 4. Distortion Summary for 6061-T6 Wing Supports After Machining.


Distortion
Meta-Lax Stress Relief

0.002 inches

Heat Treat Stress Relief

0.003 inches

Normal

0.029 inches

Meta-Lax Stress Relieved supports had 50% less distortion than heat treat stress relief.
Meta-Lax Stress Relieved supports had 97% less distortion than untreated.

Two 6061-T6 wing supports at


inspection station.

Table 5. Distortion Summary After Welding 10-foot diameter A36 disks.


Distortion
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

0.375 inches

Normal

5.5 inches

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned disk had 93% less distortion.

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning of 10 foot


diameter A36 disk.
4

10 foot diameter disk after welding.

Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

5.

WATERVLIET ARSENAL/ALFRED UNIVERSITY, 1994

"We interpret these data to show that [Meta-Lax] treatment has completely eliminated the rejects
due to distortion apparently caused by residual stresses. Evaluation of available data shows that,
without [Meta-Lax], 12 of 18 barrels were rejected due to distortion." The barrels, 120mm mortars,
were of 4135 forged steel.
Meta-Lax reduced scrap rate from 67% to 0%.

Nine mortar barrels being Meta-Lax Stress Relieved


simultaneously.

6.

CHARLES BRONSON, (Metallurgist Marathon LeTourneau) 1974

"In evaluating all of the tests that we have made so far the evidence indicates that vibrating while
welding [using Meta-Lax] and also after welding definitely results in less residual locked-in stresses
that could be detrimental to the endurance of the welded structure while in service."
Table 6. Distortion Summary of N-20 Test Plates.
Distortion
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

0.031 inch

Normal Welding

0.375 inch

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates had 92% less distortion.

Table 7. Cracking Summary of N-30 Plates Welded to 4820 Shaft.


Crack Length
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

0.1875 inches

Normal Welding

11.750 inches

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates had 98% less cracking.

Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

CHARLES BRONSON - Continued


Table 8. Charpy Impact Value Summary from N-20 Plates.
Charpy Impact Value (-50o F)
6.4 ft.-lbs.

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning


Normal Welding

3.6 ft.-lbs.

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates had 77% higher impact value.

7.

BONAL CORPORATION, 1984

"Using Meta-Lax stress relief during welding on two different setups resulted in grain refinement of
the weld metal from both setups compared to the untreated weld."

Setup #1: Meta-Lax


Weld Conditioning.

8.

Setup #2: Meta-Lax


Weld Conditioning.

Normal Weld Metal.

BONAL TECHNOLOGIES, 1996

Table 9. Distortion Summary on Plates after Heat Treating.


3 Each 1/2 x 3 x 48 inch - A36 Material

Distortion AFTER Heat Treating

Meta-Lax Treated Plates Before Heat Treating

0.0089 inch average

Untreated Plates

0.023 inch average

Meta-Lax Stress Relieved plates had 69% less distortion than untreated plates.

Six A36 test plates after grinding.


6

Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

BONAL TECHNOLOGIES - Continued


Table 10. Distortion Summary on Bars after Flame Hardening.
1.5 x 1.5 x 60 inches - 1045 Material

Distortion After Flame Hardening

Meta-Lax Treated Bars Before Flame Hardening

0.0110 inch average

Untreated Bars

0.0155 inch average

Meta-Lax Stress Relieved bars had 29% less distortion after


flame hardening than untreated bars.

9.

WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY, 1982

Table 11. Ductility Summary of 1020 Plates.


Ductility Value
As Welded

5.4%

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned

22.0%

Heat Treat Stress Relieved

28.0%

Base Metal

32.0%

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates were 307% more ductile than untreated plates.
Meta-Lax Weld Conditioned plates were 79% as high as the heat treat
Stress Relieved plates yet without using any heat.

10.

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LAB, 1993

"On the basis of these residual stress measurements no degradation of mechanical properties from
vibratory [Meta-Lax] treatment during welding is expected."

Meta-Lax Weld Conditioning

Normal
Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998

11.

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, 1986

"Refinement occurred in the cupronickel alloy when vibrational waves were applied. The greatest
refinement was obtained when 40% of the resonant peak frequency was induced to the base material
during welding."

Top section of cupronickel, welded at 5 i.p.m. without vibration.

Top section of cupronickel, welded at 5 i.p.m. with vibration 40% of


resonant peak.

12.

SHOU UNIVERSITY, CHINA, 1998

Stress

"Residual stress in weld samples subject to [sub-harmonic] vibration is significantly reduced relative
to samples either subjected to resonant vibration or not subjected to any vibration."
PSI

MPa

87,000

600

72,500

500

58,000

400

43,500

300

29,000

200

14,500

100

No Vibration
At Resonant Peak
At 5Hz LESS than Peak
At 10Hz LESS than Peak

0.5

1.5

2.5

.2

.39

.59

.79

.98

(cm)
1.18 (inch)
3

Distance
Figure 3. Residual stress distribution of weldments.
8

Copyright Bonal Technologies, Inc. 1998