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PHILOSOPHY AN INTRODUCTION

PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY
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Philosophy an Introduction

Mention or cite at least 3 important general


topics or headings you expect to learn under this
subject/course.

REASON OUT!

Do numbers really exist? Has anyone seen


numbers?

Philosophy an Introduction

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Time concretely exists?


One is what one thinks, what one does, what one
clothes and what one eats?
If you really know the days of the week, one must
have really seen how these days look.
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PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy is the science of the logical foundation
of all knowledge
It is the first logical science
Philosophy is the highest generalization which
scientific research suggest.
It consist of great unifying truth, the science of
sciences.

PHILOSOPHY

Philosophy is:
(a) the attempt to acquire knowledge
(b) by rational means
(c) about topics that do not seem amenable to
empirical investigation.
Condition
(a) distinguishes philosophy from creative
disciplines such as literature or music.
(b) distinguishes philosophy from mysticism and
some varieties of religion.
(c) distinguishes philosophy from the empirical
sciences.

PHILOSOPHY OF MAN?
Philosophy of man which considers what man himself means. It tries
to articulate as best as it can what the being or creature we call man
really is.
In the past, Philosophy of Man called:

Philosophical of psychology or rational psychology


Term psychology is difficult bec etymologically psychology is a science
of the mind.
Philosophical anthropology (anthropos in Greek means man. It appears
more exact bec it denotes the whole human being, spirit and body, mind and
flesh.

DIFFICULTY OF PHILOSOPHY OF MAN

a)

Two different perspectives: a) Sciences and


b) philosophers
Specific Sciences dealing with man from perspectives : his
origin, physical characteristics, ways of conduct,
achievement, diseases and anomalies. (scientific discipline:
biology, history, psychology, embryology, anthropology,
sociology theology, etc)

b)

Philosophers conceptions:

1.
2.

3.
4.

Plato and Plotinos consider man a divine


human being
Epicuros and Lucretius consider man a shortlived creature, born by chance and then gone
altogether
Descartes human freedom resembles the
freedom of God
Voltaire human beings does not essentially
differ from superior animals.

5.
6.

Hobbes human beings are aggressive and evil in action


Rousseau human beings good by nature.
The different conceptions of those philosophers have brought out
the philosophy of man is a neccessity and possibility of study.

HUMAN NATURE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS

Human nature and its characteristics are as the object of


Philosophy of Man

1)

2)
3)

The existence of nature and


characteristics distinguish human beings
from other creatures.
Typical characteristics of human conduct
are different, eg. Africans and Asians.
Men of the same culture may have
different concepts about: morally good and
morally bad

KNOWLEDGE
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You didnt know that you


didnt know

Since you didnt know you


didnt miss what you didnt
know

Philosophy an Introduction

What you didnt know

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WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?

"The only true wisdom is in knowing


you know nothing ."
(Socrates)

Philosophy an Introduction

Knowledge + Action = Wisdom

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Philia =love sophia = wisdom.


(Pythagoras.)
Love for wisdom

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PHILOSOPHICAL PROCESS
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Philosophy an Introduction

Set the Limit

Know the essence


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VALID KNOWLEDGE
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Belief
Essence

15%
05%

Philosophy an Introduction

Imagination
60%
Wishful thinking 20%

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DESIRE TO KNOW

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Philosophy an Introduction

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HOW TO KNOW?

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Philosophy an Introduction

Calm down to know

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PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTIONS

The process of reflecting and


criticizing basic belief

Philosophy an Introduction

What is the nature of reality?


Is the world really as it appears to
be
What makes an action right or
wrong? Is the universe interested
in good or evil?

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Who created universe?

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METHODS OF PHILOSOPHY
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Knowledge should be used with the present context

Philosophy an Introduction

Reasoning to evaluate an argument

Power of Voice
Dialectic: an interchange of ideas.

Dialogue: an exchange of argument


Argument = A claim with reasons offered in support of it

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HI(S)TORY OF PHILOSOPHY

Modern

Contemporary

Medieval - 600 ~ 1600


Modern - 1600 ~ 1900

Philosophy an Introduction

Medieval

Ancient - B.C. 600 ~ C.E.

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Ancient

Contemporary- 1600 - Present


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ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY

B.C.

600 ~ C.E.

Thales, Pythagoras,
Democritus
Socrates, Plato,
Aristotle

Philosophy an Introduction

Beginning of everything

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Cosmocentric

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ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
Western Philosophy started with
the Greeks. It was in Miletus,
Ionia, where natural scientists
began to investigate the origin
and nature of the universe. What
is the primordial stuff of the
universe/world?
Thales: WATER
Anaximander: INFINITE
BOUNDLESS
Anaximenes: AIR

ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
The Greek triumvirate placed Philosophy at the height
of their tradition. It was a proclamation to the world
that, indeed Philosophy is mans life in the world.

SOCRATES
PLATO
ARISTOTLE

MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY 600 ~ 1600

St. Justin Martyr,


Hippolytus, Tertullian

Philosophy an Introduction

Ethical: existence of
evil and the
immortality of the soul

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Theocentric: the study


of the existence, nature,
and essence of God;

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ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
The Medieval Ages, which is considered by many as the
Dark Ages, is the period of Philosophy when Christian
thought flowered in the minds of the Church
intelligentsia.

St. Thomas Aquinas

St. Augustine
St. Anselm

MODERN PHILOSOPHY 1600 ~ 1900

Philosophy an Introduction

Rene Descartes,
Blaise Pascal,
Baruch Spinoza,
Immanuel Kant

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Anthropocentric: the
study of man (in
relation to himself,
others, nature, and
God)

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ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
Modern Philosophy started with the revolutionary
thought of those who got addicted with science and
mathematics as the trademarks of this period.
Rene Descartes and the Rationalists
John Locke and the Empiricists
Immanuel Kant

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

CONTEMPORARY 1900 ~ PRESENT

Philosophy an Introduction

Auguste Comte,
Henri Bergson,
Jean-Paul
Sartre

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Explosive: it has
no center

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ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
Eastern Philosophy has its own exhibits of
thought in the philosophies of the Hindu,
Chinese and Japanese traditions
a)
b)

c)

Its mystical.
Its not only an exercise of thought, but a
religion and a way of life.
It is not only personal guide to life, but also a
teaching to the leaders and subjects in the
community.

ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY
Contemporary Philosophy is an attempt to go back to
the understanding of the human person and his world.

The Existentialists/Phenomenologists
The Relativists/Individualists
Social Critical Theorists
Philosophers of Language

Philosophers of Hermeneutics

BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
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Logic

Metap
hysics

Episte
mology

Ethics

Theodi
cy

Seman
tic

Aesthe
tics

Philosophy an Introduction

Philoso
phy

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GOALS OF
PHILOSOPHY
Back to course outline

B. Goals of Philosophy

1. Philosophy tries to discover the nature of truth as well as the


nature of knowledge.
Nature- the essence, quality, attribute of a particular situation,
event, or thing.
Nature of Truth- factors that make a particular situation is
true.
-product of fantasy.

Factors that makes something true:


-It must have an opposite
-perceivable (things which has an opposite)
-encourage us to believe
-it has always an appearance or reality.
-It may also be a product of fantasy.
Nature of Knowledge-just a product of truth, produces ability.

B. Goals of Philosophy

Knower---know ability----known
Know-it is to be perceived
Knower-the ability to perceive/perceiver
Truth-source of knowledge
Know ability-connect the know and knower.
Product of knowledge

Back to course outline

B. Goals of Philosophy

2. It searches for what is basic value and


of importance in life.
Priority-that is the most important thing/
value in life.
3. Philosophy examines the relationship
between individuals and the society as
well as humanity and nature.
4. Wisdom-main goal of Philosophy
Back to course outline

SCOPE OF
PHILOSOPHY

Back to course outline

C. Scope of Philosophy

nature of the universe


-totality of everything
Universe-consists of concrete and non-concrete things
Non-concrete-it includes emotion

Back to course outline

C. Scope of Philosophy

standard of justice and conduct of life


conduct-analysis of right and wrong
justice-process of giving what is due and receiving something that
is due.
Standard- basis for our action for something to be done.
Standard of Justice-a norm applied for everybody
Injustice-given what is not due.
Morality- the recognition of right or wrong
Behavior-actualization of conduct manifestation of right or wrong
Manner- way or mode of expressing of right or wrong

Back to course outline

C. Scope of Philosophy

validity of knowledge
Validity-in accordance with the majority
Acceptable to the majority

concrete application of reason


reason-act of the mind.
-expression of right thinking
-if there is no reason, there is no application

Back to course outline

C. Scope of Philosophy

criteria of beauty
Beauty-conditions that brings drive, interests, desirability,
attraction, appeal to our senses.

relationship between languages and


thought
Language-expression of thought or product of though
Thought- root, causes, source of language.

Back to course outline

C. Scope of Philosophy

Kinds of Language
-Oral Language
-Written Language
-Sign Language
-Body Language
-Electronic Language- combination of sign and
written language

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WHAT IS EPISTEMOLOGY?

Philosophy an Introduction

How knowledge is relates to truth, belief,


and justification.
The means of production of knowledge
Skepticism about different knowledge
claims
James Frederick Ferrier (18081864)

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Epistemology (from Greek episteme-, "knowledge, science" + ,


"logos") or theory of knowledge is the
branch of philosophy concerned with the
nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge

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EPISTEMOLOGICAL QUESTIONS

What do people know?

How do we know what we know?


Is human knowledge trustworthy?
Can our senses be trusted?

Philosophy an Introduction

How is knowledge acquired?

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What is knowledge?

Difference between opinion, knowledge and wisdom

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LOGIC

The rule of inference


Distinguishing valid from invalid argument

Philosophy an Introduction

The systematic study of argument

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A philosophical study on the correct processes


of thinking.

Examination fallacies
Using correct argument patterns

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METAPHYSICS/ONTOLOGY/COSMOLOGY
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What is the nature of existence?


Is reality limited to what we can experience?
Can reality be pursued through the application of
intellect and reason?

Philosophy an Introduction

Concerned with theories of the nature of


reality.

Is reality subjective or objective?

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F. Divisions of Philosophy

Ontology
- is the philosophical study of the nature of being,

existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic


categories of being and their relations.
- Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of
philosophy known as metaphysics.
- Deals with questions concerning what entities exist
or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be
grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided
according to similarities and differences.

Back to course outline

F. Divisions of Philosophy

Cosmology
- is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by
extension, humanity's place in it. Though the word
cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff's
Cosmologia Generalis), study of the universe has a long
history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, and
religion.

Back to course outline

ETHICS

Descriptive Sociology
Normative Prescriptive

Philosophy an Introduction

What should one do?

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A philosophical study on the morality (goodness


or badness) of human actions (conduct)

Mataethics How do we arrive at moral


judgment?

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F. Divisions of Philosophy

THEODICY
- meaning literally "the justice of God," although a
more appropriate phrase may be "to justify God" or "the
justification of God".
- The term was coined in 1710 by the German
philosopher Gottfried Leibniz in a work entitled Essais de
Thodice sur la bont de Dieu, la libert de l'homme et
l'origine du mal ("Theodicic Essays on the Benevolence of
God, the Free will of man, and the Origin of Evil").

Back to course outline

F. Divisions of Philosophy

AESTHETIC
Aesthetics (also spelled sthetics or esthetics) is
commonly known as the study of sensory or sensoriemotional values, sometimes called judgments of
sentiment and taste.
More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics
as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."
Aesthetics is a sub discipline of axiology, a branch of
philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy of
art. Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of
perceiving the world

Aesthetics is the study of art. It includes what art


consists of, as well as the purpose behind it.
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F. Divisions of Philosophy

SEMANTICS
Semantics is the study of meaning. The word
"semantics" itself denotes a range of ideas, from the
popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary
language to denote a problem of understanding that comes
down to word selection or connotation.
In linguistics, it is the study of interpretation of
signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within
particular circumstances and contexts.

Back to course outline

IDEAS TO PONDER

Philosophy an Introduction

Knowing the the relationship of Science and


Philosophy, Is Philosophy an investigative
science?

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1.

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