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TCB3343 Artificial Intelligence

Exercise 5: Expert Systems


1.

a.

Consider the following information used for diagnosing respiratory system


diseases given patient symptoms:
Influenza: Symptoms include dry cough and feeling of general malaise.
Hayfever: Symptoms include dry cough, fever, runny nose and sneezing. The
patient will show a positive reaction to allergens such as dust or
pollens.
Laryngitis: Symptoms include dry cough, fever and feeling of general malaise.
A positive result of larynscopy test will reveal that the patient has an
Inflamed Larynx.
Asthma:

Symptoms include dry cough, breathlessness and wheezing. If it is


triggered by allergens such as dust or pollens, it is likely to be
Extrinsic Asthma while Intrinsic Asthma tends to be triggered by
exercise, smoke or respiratory infection.

Using the above knowledge of typical symptoms, develop:


i.

A set of independent production rule for each possible disease.

ii.

Based from your answer in part (a)(i), combine those independent rules
into a nested rule.

2.

You are given a set of rules:


RULE 1: IF a person has RM 1000 to invest AND has a college degree
THEN the person should invest in securities
RULE 2: IF a persons annual income >= RM 40000 AND has a college degree
THEN the person should invest in growth stocks
RULE 3: IF a person is younger than 30 AND is investing in securities
THEN the person should invest in growth stocks
RULE 4: IF a person is younger than 30 AND older than 22
THEN the person has a college degree
RULE 5: IF a person wants to invest in growth stock
THEN the stock should be IBM
Assume that an investor has RM 10000 and she is 25 years old. Using forward chaining inference
technique, advice whether she should invest in the IBM stock or not.

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TCB3343 Artificial Intelligence / Sept 2014

3.

Suppose a backward chaining system is using these rules to prove a fire hazard when combustible
gas, electricity and oxygen are present. Show whether the fire hazard is a reachable conclusion?
RULE 1: If fuel AND heat AND oxygen THEN fire
RULE 2: IF solid OR combustible THEN fuel
RULE 3: IF gas AND combustible THEN fuel
RULE 4: IF flame THEN heat
RULE 5: If electricity THEN heat
RULE 6: IF friction THEN heat

4.

The data in FIGURE Q4 are used in a Rule-Based Expert System.

DATABASE
dusty
wiring_failed

KNOWLEDGE BASE
IF smoky AND hot THEN fire
IF coughing THEN smoky
IF aircond_broke THEN hot
IF dusty THEN coughing AND machine_failed
IF wiring_failed AND machine_failed THEN aircond_broke

FIGURE Q4
Show clearly the match-fire procedure and the database update (in each cycle or pass) to
find the goal fire using the following inference techniques:
a.

Forward Chaining

b.

Backward Chaining

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TCB3343 Artificial Intelligence / Sept 2014